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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila

College of Engineering and Technology


Department of Chemical Engineering

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Wine is an alcoholic beverage usually made from the process of


fermentation of grapes. It involves certain ingredients like the fruit itself; yeast,
which is a necessity for fermentation, it converts the sugar into ethanol and
carbon dioxide.

There are several variances of wine: Red wine, which is made from dark-
colored grapes, it is the most common wine used. Other wines like: white wine,
rosé wine, mead (honey wine), starch-based wine, and fruit wines are also
present. Also, classifications of wine are also present depending on the amount
of alcoholic content. These includes natural (7 to 14% alcohol), fortified (14 to
30% alcohol), sweet, dry or sparkling. Fortified wines include addition of alcohol
and brandy added, while sweet wines contain unfermented sugars.

In this study, Fermentation of Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) for


the Production of Wine, the group aims to produce a fruit wine which has an
alcoholic content which will make it identified as wine.

In the Philippines, strawberry fruit is an abundant fruit being produced.


Northern Luzon produces the largest plantation with 740 hectares of land.
(Greenfields, 2017). This will be an acceptable study in terms of the source of
strawberry fruits for the production of strawberry wine. Since the main raw
material for wine-making is primarily grapes, this study aims to make strawberry
as a main alternative to grapes as a raw material for wine-making. Strawberry
contains Calcium 2% 16 mg, Iron 3% 0.41 mg, Magnesium 4% 13 mg ,
Manganese 18% 0.386 mg, Phosphorus 3% 24 mg, Potassium 3% 154 mg,
Sodium 0% 1 mg, Zinc 1% 0.14 mg . Choosing this as a substitute for
wine will be feasible due to its chemical constituents.

Fermentation of Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) for the Production of Wine 1|Page


Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The production of wine typically uses grapes as its main raw material.
However, growing grapes in the Philippines is less successful compared to
strawberry which is highly suitable when grown in the Philippine lands. This is
the reason why grapes are imported from other countries. Every year, 6% of the
major fruit commodities imported are grapes. (Food and Fertilizer Technology
Center, 2017). That is measured to be 12,888 metric tons in the year 2013.
Strawberries produce in the Philippines reaches up to 613 metric tons in 2012,
it went up to 672 metric tons in 2013. In 2014, it further increased to 781 metric
tons. Production averaged 689 metric tons. (Philippine Statistics Authority),
having the proper utilization of strawberries, the Philippines will be able to have
an alternative raw material of processing wine instead of grapes.

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

OBJECTIVES

General Objective:

The general objective of this study is to produce a wine from the extraction
of juice from the strawberry fruit which will contain an alcoholic content and pH
conforming with the standards of wine.

Specific Objectives:

 To manufacture a wine through the process of fermentation using


optimum parameter and proper execution of processes
 To produce a wine which will conform to the standards in terms of
properties.

Table 1: Standard Properties of Wine


PROPERTY STANDARD VALUE

Wine: 11.6%
Alcoholic Content (v/v%)

3.0 to 4.0
pH Level

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study, Fermentation of Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) for the


Production of Wine, provides its significance to the following sector of society:

To the Students and Researchers

This study will serve as an additional reference for students and


researchers who are developing alternative ingredients and processes of
producing wines from strawberries. This study can provide an overview of the
applications of theories, principles, and knowledge learned in basic chemistry
courses and chemical engineering undergraduate program. Also, this study
will motivate students and researchers to consider utilizing wastes as
resources in producing valuable products.

To the Chemical Engineering profession

Chemical engineering is a profession concerned in converting


chemicals and other raw materials into useful products. This study will
motivate professionals to conduct more studies on utilizing wastes as their
raw materials to produce valuable products.

To the Public and Community

This study will give its benefits mostly to the public as this study was
made to lessen the production cost of wines used by the public, and to
increase the quality level of the said product. This study was made to make
the wine industry better for the sake of the people who are dependent on
them.

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

SCOPE AND LIMITATION

Scope

The study covers the manufacturing of wine from the fermentation of strawberry fruits.
The manufacturing includes the materials and processes which have equivalent unit
operations and processes in the industry.

The raw material strawberry were acquired purchasing in SM supermarket and


the remaining minor materials needed also in SM Supermarket.

The processes and manufacturing were done only by third year Chemical
Engineering students in Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila, Chemical Engineering
Laboratory, 2nd floor Gusaling Villegas. The equipment used were only basic laboratory
tools and some were found at home.

Limitation

The processes and procedures have an equivalent unit operation in the industry.
They were done in a laboratory scale.

The materials and tools, also, have equivalent equipment in the industrial scale
operations. The processes and materials used were compared to the ones in the
industry.

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

A. Raw Material

The selection of raw material is based on the availability and


abundance of the raw material in the Philippines. Table 2 shows the
number of strawberry fruit produce in the country in the year 2012 to
2015.

Table 2: Production of Strawberry in the Philippines 2012-2014

Source: Philippines Statistics Authority

In the Philippines, the largest plantation of strawberry The La Trinidad


Strawberry Farm is a farm in the town of La Trinidad, Benguet, Philippines
primarily used for the cultivation of strawberries.

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

B. Comparison between Grapes and Guyabano

Grapes, knowing that is the main raw material for wine-making, is


mostly imported from other countries than produced here in the
Philippines. In 2016, the Philippines have purchased $49.8 million which
is about 2 Billion when converted to Philippine Peso.

Comparing this to strawberry, strawberry will easily be supplied in


wine-making companies as it is naturally produced in the Philippines as
shown on the tables above.

Grapes and guyabano are compared in the following table to show


the chemical constituents of each fruit compared to the another.

Table 4: Chemical Constituents Present in Grapes and Guyabano


GRAPES STRAWBERRY
Sugar Content 16% 4.9%
Vitamin C 6% 34%
Dietary Fibers 3% 13%

Tannins Greater than 400 53.96 mg/100 g


mg/100 g

The characteristics of ideal grapes and guyabano and the utilization


of these raw materials are shown in the following table.

REQUIREMENT GRAPES STRAWBERRY


Fruit Content 23% Pulp 94% Pulp
10-15% Sugar Content 4.9% Sugar Content

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Weight of Fruit 100 lbs. to produce 6-8 -


gallons
Minimum Aging 60 days 90 days
Time

C. Process

Manufacturing wine undergoes several processes in order to obtain a


desired product. In the industry, the processes included are shown in the
following figure.

Figure 1: Wine Making Process

In the first part, raw materials are being screened to obtain the fruits which
has good quality. Some qualities being evaluated are: the maturity of the fruit,
its freshness, its size and color, taste. These are tested if it conforms with the
standards. When these are screened, they are then stored for the production of
wine. The raw materials are then crushed or pressed using industrial equipment

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

– crusher. Then the extracted juice from the last process will then undergo the
process of fermentation. In the fermentation process, temperature and the
amount of added ingredients like sugar, water and the yeast are measured
accurately and regulated. After which, the mixture is blended with other
ingredients to improve the qualities of wine and is stabilized. Aging method is
then followed, which is a necessary step in order to improve the wine’s taste.
Filtration will come after the aging method to remove impurities gathered from
the other processes. The filtered mixture will then be refined, packaged and
distributed for human consumption.

In this study, the three main processes adapted in the industrial operation
of manufacturing wine were the following:

 Extraction of Juice from the Raw Material


 Fermentation Process
 Aging Method

These processes will be further explained in the Methodology part and will
present the materials and apparatus used in each method, with proper
description and parameters involved.

Fermentation of Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) for the Production of Wine 9|Page


Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

METHODS OF RESEARCH

The methods of research used in this study are descriptive and


experimental method.

A. Descriptive Method

The data collected were information gathered from the Philippines


Statistics Authority and the properties of the produced wine were tested
using the sensory test. These were done to support the qualities and the
sources, uses and production of wine using the raw material, strawberry.

B. Experimental Method

The main process used in this study is the process of fermentation.


The raw material used in the process is the extracted juice from the
strawberry fruit. Yeast, sugar and distilled water were added in the
process. The parameter used for this process is the amount of yeast added
per set-up.

Another process that was implemented is the process of filtration


wherein the samples’ alcoholic content was determined.

Once these processes are finished, the produced wine which


conforms with the standard properties will be refined and packaged.

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

PREPARATION OF
STRAWBERRY

RAW
MATERSTRIAL

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

CONDITIONING OF THE RAW


MATERIAL

HEART OF THE PROCESS

FILTRATON

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

This process involves the conversion of the raw material, guyabano fruit,
into the desired product, which is the strawberry wine. This is done on a
laboratory scale experimentation which will serve as a basis for industrial
operations.

Strawberry
Fruit

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Extraction Fermentation Filtration

STRAWBERRY
WINE

The experimentation is divided into three major parts: the extraction of the
strawberry juice, which will go through the process of fermentation and after,
the process of filtration for the determination of the alcohol content of the three
trials.

Data and results were gathered in each process, together with the
variations done for each.

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

The experimental study is based on a laboratory scale set-up in which


the following processes were done:

 Extraction of Strawberry Juice


 Fermentation of the Strawberry Juice

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

 Distillation of the filtration Juice

OBJECTIVES OF THE EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

General:

The general objective of this experimental study is to produce a wine


using the optimum parameter, the amount of yeast, with respect to the
set-up made for each trial. This aims to produce a wine conforming or
rising above the standards.

Specific:

 Determine the amount of yeast that will produce the maximum


ethanol content of the produced wine for each set-up.

PREPARATION OF RAW MATERIAL AND REAGENTS

A. RAW MATERIAL

The raw materials, strawberry fruits, were gathered and


purchased in in the commercial supermarkets. The total used
strawberry flesh for this study is 1 from which the group has
extracted 750.00 mL for the three set-ups.

B. REAGENTS

Table 6 shows the following reagents used in the process.

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering
REAGENTS PICTURE DESCRIPTION

Sucrose Formula: C12H22O11


Molar mass:
342.2965 g/mol

Yeast
Fungi

Table 6: Reagents and their properties

C. LABORATORY APPARATUS

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Table 7 shows the following laboratory apparatus used in the


process.
LABORATORY PICTURE DESCRIPTION
APPARATUS

Beaker Used for measuring and


mixing

Volumetric Flask Used for storage of


liquid and measuring

Analytical Balance Used for weighing

Funnel Used for transferring of


liquids

Filter Paper and Used for filtration

Cheesecloth
Table 7: Laboratory Apparatus

EXPERIMENTATION

CONDITIONING OF THE RAW MATERIAL


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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

I. EXTRACTION OF RAW MATERIAL

Extraction of fruits are done in order to obtain the juice from the
fruit to be able to use it for several purposes. Common extraction processes
for the extraction of juice are present. Two of these are by blending method
and pressing method.

In this study, strawberry fruits were extracted by both methods.


First is through the blending method, wherein strawberry fruits were
blended and mixed with a small portion of water, and after the pressing
method of the remaining flesh from the strawberry.

MATERIALS AND APPARATUS:

Beaker Strawberry Fruits


Cheesecloth Distilled Water
Blender
Analytical Balance

EXPERIMENTAL FLOW DIAGRAM:

PEELING BLENDING PRESSING

PROCEDURE:

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

1. Peel 5 guyabano fruits and weigh its flesh individually.


2. Extract the juice from all the fruits using a blender together with 160.00
mL of distilled water.
3. Use a cheesecloth to extract juices from the remaining pulps of the
guyabano in order to maximize.
4. Separate three 250.00 mL of extracted juice to be diluted in 250.00 mL of
distilled water.

FERMENTATION OF STRAWBERRY JUICE

II. FERMENTATION
Fermentation is a process that converts sugars to acids, gases or
alcohols with the use of yeasts or bacteria. It converts sugars present to
alcohol, specifically ethanol to produce drinks like wine, beer and cider.
The purpose of fermentation in this study is to manufacture wine from the
extracted strawberry juice and sugar as the fermentation aid.

The sugar used in this study, is the table sugar and is mixed with
distilled water. The yeast is a commercial yeast. This reaction will then
produce ethanol and carbon dioxide, which is visible through the
appearance of bubbles after the process of fermentation. This means that
the liquid produced is the wine containing the specific alcohol, ethanol.

MATERIALS AND APPARATUS:

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Volumetric Flask Yeast


Beaker Extracted Guyabano Juice
Analytical Balance Sugar
Plastic Bottles Distilled Water
Stirring Rod

EXPERIMENTAL FLOW DIAGRAM:

MEASURING
ADDITION OF GUYABANO
ADDITION OF
TO THE FLASK
YEAST TO THE
FLASK

FERMENTATION PROCESS
OCCURS

B.1 Determination of the Amount of Yeast for the Fermentation Process

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

1. Objective for Variation


This variation is used in order to determine if the amount of
yeast will have a significant effect on the alcoholic content of the
produced wine. The independent variables for this process are: the
concentration of guyabano extract, temperature of fermentation and
the amount of sugar added and mixed in the solution.

2. Hypothesis
The 4.5% w/v amount of yeast, will produce an alcohol
content compared to the other two trials.

3. Procedure
a) Weigh 15 grams of sugar per trial and the following amounts
of yeast per trial:
i. 17.5 grams (3.5% w/v)
ii. 22.5 grams (4.5% w/v)
iii. 27.5 grams (5.5% w/v)
b) Mix the 15 grams of sugar to each of 250.00 mL of the
extracted juice and mix each parameter of yeast to 250.00 mL
distilled water.
c) In a volumetric flask, pour the mixed sugar-extract solution
and the yeast-distilled water solution. Place a balloon on the
top of the flask to see the occurrence of the process of
fermentation.
d) Ferment the three trials for 3 days. Filter after the
fermentation process to be prepared for the distillation
process.

4. Computations Involved
Total volume of Fermentation Mixture: 500.00 milliliters

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Concentration of Guyabano Extract: 50% - 250.00 milliliters


Amount of distilled water for dilution: 50% - 250.00 milliliters

Constant: 15 grams of sugar per trial, mixed with each 250.00 mL of


guyabano extract.

Amount of Yeast Involved in Each Trial:


𝑤
Trial 1: 3.5% = 0.035(500.00 mL) = 17.5 grams of yeast
𝑣

𝑤
Trial 2: 4.5% = 0.045(500.00 mL) = 22.5 grams of yeast
𝑣

𝑤
Trial 3: 5.5% = 0.055(500.00 mL) = 27.5 grams of yeast
𝑣

DISTILLATION OF FERMENTED MIXTURES

III. DISTILLATION

Distillation is the process of heating a liquid to the boiling point,


condensing the heated vapor by cooling it and returning only a portion or
none of the condensed vapors to the distillation flask. Distillation
techniques often can be used for separating two or more components on
the basis of their differences in vapor pressure.

In this study, the components tested are the conversion of sucrose


to glucose and fructose producing the ethanol and carbon dioxide which
indicates that fermentation happens. This process is done to determine
the alcoholic content of the produced wine per trial through the key
component: boiling point of ethanol.

MATERIALS AND APPARATUS

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Glass Tubing Hot Plate Filtered Fermented Mixture


Thermometer Erlenmeyer Flask Beaker
EXPERIMENTAL DIAGRAM

B.2 Determination of Alcoholic Content of Each Trial


5. Procedure
a. After the filtration of the fermented mixture, transfer 150.00 mL of
the filtrate into an Erlenmeyer Flask.
b. Cover the flask with a cork with a hole on top to be connected to a
glass tubing. Place the flask on a water bath and a beaker on the
other end of the glass tubing.
c. Heat the flask in a water bath and maintain a cool temperature
surrounding the glass tubing for condensation to happen. Start
collecting distillates at 74-76°C, 77-79°C and 80-82°C. Obtain the
volumes of the distillates.
d. Calculate percentage of ethanol in the mixture.
e. Repeat for other trials.

6. Data and Results

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

Table 8: Percent Ethanol in Each Set-Up

Analysis:
Table 8, shows the percent ethanol obtained from each set-
up. Set-up 1 yielded 6.27% ethanol, which yielded the lowest yield of
ethanol. Set-up 2 has a percent ethanol of 11.93% and Set-up 3 got a
10.73% ethanol. Both conforms with the standard alcoholic content
needed for a wine.

CONCLUSION

A. UNIT OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES WITH ITS EQUIVALENT


EQUIPMENT

Table 9: Unit Operations and Processes


UNIT OPERATION LABORATORY SCALE INDUSTRIAL
EQUIPMENT SCALE
EQUIPMENT
MIXING Stirring Rod, Beaker Mixing Tank
SET-UP AMOUNT OF ETHANOL PERCENT
FILTRATION Cheesecloth Filtration Tank
OBTAINED
ETHANOL
(in milliliters)
UNIT PROCESS LABORATORY SCALE INDUSTRIAL
1 9.40 6.27%
SCALE
2 17.90 11.93%
FERMENTATION Container Fermenter
3 16.10 10.73%

B. RESULT OF THE USED PARAMETER

The used parameter which is the amount of yeast affected the


amount of alcohol content in the fermentation process. In trial 1, which
has 3.5% w/v, the alcohol content produced is 6.27%. Trial 2 obtained
11.93% with a 4.5% w/v and trial 3, having 5.5% w/v contained 10.73%
Fermentation of Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) for the Production of Wine 24 | P a g e
Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

ethanol content. All of the other variables: amount of substrate, amount


of sugar and room temperature are held constant.

C. PROPERTIES OF THE PRODUCED WINE

Table 10: Properties of the Produced Wine


PROPERTIES STANDARD PRODUCED
Alcoholic Content 7 to14% - Natural 11.93%
14 to 30% - Fortified
pH 3.0 to 4.0 4.0

The study, Fermentation of Strawberry fruit (Fragaria ×


ananassa) for the Production of Wine is feasible due to the produced
product from the experiments made by the group, conformed with the
standards of wine.

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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Chemical Engineering

RECOMMENDATION

The research Fermentation of Strawberry fruit (Fragaria × ananassa)


for the Production of Wine is another reference for other researchers who could
conduct experiments regarding wine-making so the researchers thought of some
recommendations:

 Variation of Temperature
 Amount and type of sugar used
 Concentration of substrate
 Length of fermentation

These are some of the parameters recommended by the researchers to


obtain a more desirable result with respect to the different parameters used.

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