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Theory and Analysis of Bridge Deck (RCC)

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Support

Type of Deck Plan Profile

Method Condition

of Analysis T- Box

Slab Straight Skew Curve Simple Contin.

Beam Girder

Effective Width

√ √ √ √

Method

Courbon’s Method √ √ √ √

Hendry Jaeger

Method

√ √ √ √ √

Method of Elastic √ √ √ √ √

Support

Distribution

Coefficient Method √ √ √ √ √

AASHTO Method

√ √ √ √ √

Grillage Analogy √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

Finite Element

Method √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √

Effective Width Method of Lateral Load Distribution

• Load on the slab is borne by the strip parallel to the

supporting edges on the either side of the load. The

strip is called effective width of slab.

is calculated by the following equation.

bef = a (1-a/l) + b1

Where,

bef - Effective width of slab on which the loads acts

l - Effective span in case of simply supported slab and clear span in

case of continuous slab

a - Distance of center of gravity of load from nearer support

b1 - Width of concentration area of load (b1 = W + 2h )

- Constant depending upon the ratio l'/l (see table for

value of )

l' - Width of slab

h - Thickness of wearing course

W- Contact width of wheel/track parallel to the width of

bridge

Effective Width of Slab • Effective should not exceed

the actual width of the

slab.

bef = a (1-a/l) + b1 close to the unsupported

edge of a slab, the

effective width shall not

Abutment Load

exceed the above value or

a half of the above value

plus the distance of the

River l load from the unsupported

edge.

two adjacent loads

overlap, in such cases the

resultant effective width

l΄ will be equal to the sum of

individual widths minus the

overlap.

For cantilever slab, effective width is measured

parallel to the supported edge and is calculated by

the following equation.

bef = 1.2a + b1

Where

bef - Effective width of slab on which the loads acts

a - Distance of center of gravity of load from the

face of the cantilever support

b1 - Breadth of concentration area of load (W+2h)

h - Thickness of wearing coat

W- Contact width of wheel/track parallel to support

of slab

Effective Width of

Cantilever Slab

• Effective width of cantilever

slab should less or equal to

one third length of cantilever

a slab

the two extreme ends of the

slab , the effective width

Support should not exceed the above

value nor should it exceed

half the above value plus the

Load

distance of the concentrated

load from the nearer

extreme end.

Example on Effective Width Method

Find live load on slab bridge for its unit width at mid span for the following

data

• Effective span of bridge = 8 m

• Width of kerb = 0.6 m

• Carriage Way = 7.5 m Track of 0.85 m width

• Live load = Class AA

• Thickness of wearing coat = 60 mm

• Depth of slab = 650 mm

a=4m

B =7.5 + 2× 0.6 m

4.28 m

Since the effective widths of tracks overlap, 2.05 m

find the modified width for two tracks. 1.625 m

LL per unit width of slab = 700/7.37 = 88.61 KN/m Positioning of track load

COURBON'S METHOD OF

LATERAL LOAD DISTRIBUTION

load distribution applicable to simple T-beam and

Composite bridges.

In Courbon’s method, it is assumed that the transverse

profile of the bridge deck under loading remains straight.

Central load case P

∆

Transverse profile of bridge

1 2 3 4

deck after the application of

central load and central I1 I2 I3 I4

moment

Central moment case

M

1 2 3 4

I1 I2 I3 I4

In Courbon’s method, load shared by each girder in

central region of bridge deck is found by

R1 = P I1 / ∑I ± M I1 h1 / ∑Ih2

R2 = P I2 / ∑I ± M I2 h2 / ∑Ih2

R3 = P I3 / ∑I ± M I3 h3 / ∑Ih2

R4 = P I4 / ∑I ± M I4 h4 / ∑Ih2

In end region i.e., 5.5m from the support, simple beam method is

employed for lateral load distribution.

Courbon’s method.

• No. of transverse beams interconnecting

longitudinal beams should be at least 5 .

• Depth of transverse beam should be at least

0.75 times the depth of main beam.

Example on Courbon’s Method

Find load on girder 1, 2 and 3 from the following For Point Load

loading conditions. R1 = P I1 / ∑I + M I1 h1 / ∑Ih2

= 200/3 + 200/2 = 500/3 KN

= 200/3 + O = 200/3 KN

1 2 3 R3 = P I3 / ∑I - M I3 h3 / ∑Ih2

I I I Cross Section of Bridge = 200/3 - 200/2 = - 100/3 KN

1m 1m

R1 = P I1 / ∑I + M I1 h1 / ∑Ih2

P = 200 KN = 10/3 + 0 = 10/3 KN for central region

=0 for end region

20 m Plan of Bridge

R2 = P I2 / ∑I + M I2 h2 / ∑Ih2

= 10/3 + 0 = 10/3 KN for central region

= 10 KN for end region

R3 = P I3 / ∑I + M I3 h3 / ∑Ih2

1 2 3

= 10/3 + 0 = 10/3 KN for central region

=0 for end region

to 5.5 m from support

SIMPLIFIED METHOD OF LATERAL

LOAD DISTRIBUTION

the concept of characterizing parameter.

• Characterizing parameters give relationship of the

structural properties of grillages, orthotropic plate, semi

continuum plate in order that they may have the same

pattern of deflection when subjected to same pattern of

loads.

• These characterizing parameters are used as axes of

suitable design charts or tables. Having calculated the

values of the characterizing parameters involved, the value

of structural response concerned can be found without

performing any rigorous analysis.

Hendry-Jaeger Method of

Lateral Load Distribution

• One of the simplified methods for lateral load

distribution, which is based on the semi continum plate

theory. The method is applicable to n-girders bridges,

skew bridges and torsionally stiff bridges.

• In this method the actual structure is replaced by semi

continum plate and load is replaced by equivalent loads

lying on the girders

P H1 H2 H3

1 2 3 1 2 3

Equivalent Loads

• Load on each girder = ∑Distribution coefficient × Equivalent Loads

R1 = p11H1 + p12H2 + p13H3

R2 = p21H1 + p22H2 + p23H3

R3 = p31H1 + p32H2 + p33H3

bridge deck.

= 2/2 (h/L) CJ/ EIT

Where,

- Measure of flexural rigidity of bridge deck

- Measure of the torsional rigidity of bridge deck. For T-beam bridge with a nos. of cross beams, it is

usually permissible to employ the distribution coefficient for =

L - Span of bridge

h - Girder spacing

EI - Flexural rigidity of one longitudinal girder

EIT - Total flexural rigidity of transverse medium

For n number of cross beam EIT = nEIT

CJ - Torsional rigidity of longitudinal girder

n - Nos. of cross beam

• Distribution coefficients are found from Design graphs. Design

graphs are drawn against and p for torsionally weak = 0

and torsionally strong bridge =

distribution coefficients are found by interpolation

• Properties of distribution coefficients

pij = pji

pij = 1

different responses of bridge.

Example on Hendry-Jaeger Method

1. Convert bridge deck into semi

continum plate and loads into

Find load on girder 1, 2 and 3 for the equivalent loads on main girders

following bridge.

H1 = 1.586W H2 = 1.878W H3 = 0.536W

No of cross beams = 7

I main girder = 0.4567 m4

I cross girder = 0.1738 m4

1 2 3

W W W W = 12/4 (L/h) 3 EIT / EI = 113

Where, L = 21 m, h = 3 m, EIT = E × 7 × 0.1738

0.4 m 1.8 m 1.7 m 1.8 m

EI = E × 0.4567

= 2/2 ( h/L) CJ/EIT Take = ∞

1 2 3

3. Find load on each girder

0.75 m 3m 3m 0.75 m = ∑Distribution coefficient × Eq. Loads

R1 = p11H1 + p12H2 + p13H3 = 1.355 W

R2 = p21H1 + p22H2 + p23H3 = 1.347 W

R3 = p31H1 + p32H2 + p33H3 = 1.298 W

Where ,

p11 = 0.365, p12 = 0.325, p13 = 0.310

p21 = 0.325, p22 = 0.350, p23 = 0.325

P31 = 0.310, p32 = 0.325, p33 = 0.365

Distribution Coefficient Method

• Distribution coefficient method is a simplified method of

bridge deck analysis based on orthotropic plate theory

• In this method distribution coefficients are used to

distribute the load and determine responses of bridge deck.

• Distribution coefficient depends on flexural and torsional

characterizing parameters of bridge deck.

IT – Flexural moment of inertia of a cross girder

J – Torsional moment of inertia of a main girder

JT – Torsional moment of inertia of a cross girder

S – Spacing of main girders

P - Spacing of cross girders

• For accuracy of distribution coefficient, bridge deck is

converted into a plate with eight segments/ nine

reference stations and distribution coefficient

coefficients are found for these reference stations.

Actual Bridge Deck Orthotropic Plate

B

1 S 2 3

2b=(n-2 )S + Iex./Iint. S

P

2a

L

• To determine distribution coefficients graphs drawn

against flexural characterizing parameter (θ) and load

positions are used. Such graphs have been drawn for

torsionally weak ( =0) and torsionally strong ( =1)

bridge deck.

For intermediate value of ‘ ’ interpolation is made to

determine the distribution coefficients.

K = K0+(K1-K0)

are calculated as follows

M x = 1.1 K' M x,mean

Where,

M x,mean - Mean or average longitudinal moment found by considering the load to

be equally divided in all the beam

K' - Moment distribution coefficient; K' = ∑KW/∑W

W - Load transferred at standard position

Example on Distribution Coefficient Method

Find the maximum bending moment due to class A live load at mid span for the following bridge.

Span of bridge – 21 m, Carriage way – 7.5 m

No. of longitudinal girders – 3 Girder spacing – 3 m

Width of bridge – 9 m No. of cross beams – 7

Spacing of cross beams – 3.5 m Moment of inertia of a m. girder – 0.457 m4

Moment of inertia of a cr. beam – 0.174 m4 Tor. moment of inertia of a m. girder – 0.0272 m4

Tor. moment of inertia of a cr. beam – 0.0178 m4

1.125 × 8 m

2b = 9 m

2a =21 m

3. Find distribution coefficient for required value of ‘α’

Position -b -3/4b -b/2 -b/4 0 b/4 b/2 3/4b b

-b 3.54 2.94 2.22 1.57 0.89 0.33 -0.28 -0.80 -1.34

0.667b -3/4b 2.94 2.45 1.92 1.44 0.95 0.49 0.03 -0.37 -0.80

-b/2 2.22 1.92 1.61 1.29 0.98 0.70 0.36 0.03 -0.28

-b/4 1.57 1.44 1.29 1.18 1.05 0.89 0.70 0.49 0.33

0 0.89 0.95 0.98 1.05 1.09 1.05 0.98 0.95 0.89

b/4 0.33 0.49 0.70 0.89 1.05 1.18 1.29 1.44 1.57

0.667b b/2 -0.28 0.03 0.36 0.70 0.98 1.29 1.61 1.92 2.22

3/4b -0.80 -0.37 0.03 0.49 0.95 1.44 1.92 2.45 2.94

b -1.34 -0.80 -0.28 0.33 0.89 1.57 2.22 2.94 3.54

4. Calculate mean value of distribution coefficient and find

BM

W W W W

1.125 × 8 m

K' = ∑KW/∑W

= 1.25 for girder 1

= 1.02 for girder 2

= 0.73 for girder 3

BM due to class A load at mid of girder 2 = 1.1 × 1.02 × 3820/3 KN-m

Transverse Bending Moment by

Distribution Coefficient Method

• Maximum transverse bending moment occurs at the mid span at the

center of transverse section when the eccentricity of load in

transverse section of bridge is least and the load acts at the mid

span of bridge.

• In distribution coefficient method, transverse bending moment is

found by Massonnet formula .

• As per Massonnet formula, transverse BM per unit width is equal to

My = ∑n rn b sin(u/2a) sin(nx/2a)

Where

n - Distribution coefficient similar to K

rn – load factor

rn = P/a sin nπu/2a for wheeled load

rn = 4p0/nπ sin nπu/2a sin nπc/2a for tracked load

x - Distance from support to the section, where 'My' is required

P - Wheeled load acting at distance 'u' from support

p0 - Intensity of tracked load

2c - Length of tracked load

n - number of term of series

u - distance of load from the left support

• Transverse bending moment per unit width, when x = a and

taking first three terms of Massonet Formula, My is equal to

My = Pb/a × [1 sinu/2a -3 sin3u/2a +5 sin5u/2a ]

My = 4p0b/ × [ 1 sinc/2a +1/3 3 sin3c/2a + 1/5 5 sin5c/2a ]

against flexural characterizing parameter (θ) and load

positions are used. Such graphs have been drawn for

torsionally weak ( =0) and torsionally strong ( =1)

bridge deck.

For intermediate value of ‘ ’ interpolation is made to

determine the distribution coefficients.

= 0+( 1- 0)

Approximate distribution of TBM along transverse and

longitudinal direction of bridge

100%

80% 80%

Transverse Section

100%

75% 75%

Longitudinal Section

Example on Transverse BM by 1. Convert bridge deck into orthotropic plate

and place live load with minimum eccentricity

Distribution Coefficient Method W W

0 0.471b

1.09 m × 8

Find maximum transverse BM due live load

in cross beam at mid span of bridge for the

following data. -b -3b/4 –b/2 –b/4 0 b/4 b/2 3b/4 b

• Width of bridge = 8.7 m

• Live load = Class AA track load My = 4p0b/ × [ 1 sinc/2a +1/3 3 sin3c/2a + 1/5 5 sin5c/2a ]

• Spacing of cross beams = 4m = 71 KN-m/m

• Flexural Ch. Parameter ‘ϴ’ = 0.3 Total TBM = 71 × spacing of cr. beam = 284 KN-m

• Torsional Ch. Parameter ‘α’ = 0.026

Where,

p0 = 350/3.6 KN/m, c = 3.6/2 m , 2a = 16 m, b = 8.7/2 m

W W

Load position at

2.05 m

for ‘0’ ∑

ref. st. 0 b/4 b/2 0.471b

1

2.5 m

2 3 1 0.2674

1.85 m 2.5 m 1.85m

3 0.1006

5 0.0500

Lateral Load Distribution in Through Truss Bridge ILD of reaction

For Track Loading

Lever Arm Method of a truss

p

1

• Construct ILD of reaction of a truss.

track load [maintaining clear cover] in p – intensity of track load

such a way so that product of the A– area of influence line diagram

intensity of track load and area of ILD under track load

occupied by track load (p × A) is

maximum.

For wheeled Loading

• In the case of wheeled load, place the

wheel loads [maintaining clear cover] W W W W

in such a way so that summation of

the product of loads and respective 1

ordinates of ILD (∑Wy) is maximum.

L

W- magnitude of wheel load

y- ordinate of ILD under load

Method of Elastic Supports

A very simple, and powerful method to analyze girder for live load in simply supported T-

beam bridges when Courbon’s Method is not effective. Significant transverse deformation of

bridge deck occurs when span/width ratio of bridge becomes less than 2 and nos of cross

beams becomes less than 5. In this situation it is right to analyze bridge deck considering

slab as a continuous beam on elastic support.

B

0 1 2

d

line diagram of reaction of girder using table made for Method of Elastic Supports.

Ordinate of Influence diagram depends on the parameter α = d3/6EIT ∆P

Usually α = 0.005 to 1.5

• Bridge with many cross beams α = 0.005

• Bridge with few or no cross beams α > 1

• Modern highway bridges α < 0.05

EIT = Flexural rigidity of transverse medium (slab and cr. beam) per unit length

∆P = Deflection of main girder from 1KN/m at the section of bridge, where lateral load

distribution is required

To use the Table of Method of Elastic Supports , value of ‘α’ for the considering

section of bridge is required. There are two tables. First table is to determine

ordinate of ILD of reaction of girder due to unit load and second table is to

determine ordinate of ILD of reaction of girder due to moment.

Table gives the reaction of girder due to unit load of its different position. For

the unit load lying on cantilever, load is converted into equivalent moment and

unit load applied on exterior girder . For reaction of girder due to equivalent

moment second table of Method of Elastic Supports is used.

First Table

Support

span 0.005 0.01 0.02 0.05 0.1 0.5 1 1.5

n RPir

Second Table

Support

span 0.005 0.01 0.02 0.05 0.1 0.5 1 1.5

n dRMi0

Draw ILD for reaction of girder ‘0’

Example on Method of Elastic Supports

P P

1.95 m 2.05 m

Find load on girder ‘0’ and ‘1’ from class AA

0.689

tracked load for the given bridge

0.3 59

0.59

Take, Span of bridge = 12 m, EIg = 1.02 × EIcr

0.1 91

P P

0.3 m

Y2

Y1

1.65 m 2.05 m

-0.0001

-0.1 92

-0.2 86

0 1 2 3 4 Draw ILD for reaction of girder ‘1’

1m 2m 2m 2m 2m 1m P P

B = 10 m 1.95 m 2.05 m

0.43 8

0.3 95

0.3 04

0.2 04

Select method of lateral load distribution.

0.1 01

Since l/B = 12/10 = 1.2 > 2, Courbon’s Method is not applicable.

So apply Method of Elastic Supports to find loads on girders.

Y4

Y3

-0.0 0 01

-0.0 52

Find characterizing parameter α = d3/6EIT ∆P = 0.005

Where, d = 2 m, ∆P at mid span = 5/384 × wl4/ EI = 5/384 × 1 × 124/ 1.02 EIT

Find IL ordinate of reaction for girder ‘o’ Find load on girder ‘0’ and ‘1’

RP00 = 0.59, RP01 = 0.395, RP02 = 0.191, RP03 = - 0.0001, RP04 = - 0.192 R0 = P(Y1+Y2)

RP0l = RP00 + RM00 = RP00 + dRM00 × dk/d = 0.59 + 0.216 × ½ = 0.698 R1 = P(Y3+Y4)

RP0r= RP04 + RM04 = RP04 + dRM40 × dk/d = - 0.192 - 0.188 × ½ = - 0.286

RP10 = 0.395, RP11 = 0.304, RP12 = 0.204, RP13 = 0.101, RP14 = - 0.0001

RP1l = RP10 + RM10 = RP10 + dRM10 × dk/d = 0.395+ 0.087 × ½ = 0.438

RP1r= RP14 + RM14 = RP14 + dRM30 × dk/d = - 0.0001 - 0.104 × ½ = - 0.052

AASHTO Method of Bridge Deck Analysis

Principal factors, which affect the transverse distribution of bridge deck are

• Longitudinal and transverse torsional rigidities of the bridge

• Aspect ratio of plan form

• Type of design loading (e.g., udl, knife-edge, or truck load)

• Width of the load with respect to the bridge width

• Number of design loadings in the transverse direction

• Vehicle-edge distance

The AASHTO method groups all the above factors into a single D

value, which is usually developed by idealizing a bridge as an

orthotropic plate

AASHTO method is effective when the bridge

deck satisfy the following conditions

• The support conditions are closely equivalent to line supports

• The skew angle does not exceed 200

• In the case of curved in plan bridges, L2/bR is smaller than 1

• A solid or voided slab bridge is of uniform depth across the

cross section

• The total flexural rigidity of the transverse cross section

remains the same for at least the central 50% of each span

• For slab on girder bridges there are at least four girders,

equally spaced and of equal flexural rigidity

• For slab on girder bridges having an overhanging deck slab, the

overhang does not exceed 60% of the spacing between girders

and also is not more than 1.8m

Live-load Longitudinal Bending Moment

• Obtain an initial D value from table according to the bridge type and number of

design lanes in the bridge.

• Calculate the initial load fraction S/D where S= the actual girder spacing in the case

of slab on girder bridges or the spacing of webs in the case of voided slab or 1m in

case of solid slabs.

• Treating the bridge as a one-dimensional beam, obtain bending moment due to the

design loading.

• Multiply the moment obtained in step 3 by (S/D)(1+I) to obtain the initial live load

moments. The reduction factor for multilane loading is implicit in the D values and

should not be applied again.

• Calculate α and θ (Modified D type method)

• Calculate μ from one of the following expression

μ = (We -11)/2 ≤ 1 where, We - Design lane

• Corresponding to the values of α and θ, obtain values of D separately for external

and internal portions along with the value of Cf from the relevant charts.

• Obtain the final value of D, separately for external and internal portions by

= D (1+ μ Cf/ /100)

• For each of the external and internal portions, obtain the final live load design

moments by multiplying the live load moments due to one line of wheels or half

lane loads as obtained in step 3 by (S/D)(1+I) .

Longitudinal Shear Force

• Select the D value accordance with the type of bridge and the

number of design lanes in the bridge.

• Calculate the load fraction S/D, where S= the actual girder spacing

in the case of slab on girder bridges or the spacing of webs in the

case of voided slabs and cellular structures or 1m in the cased of

solid slabs.

• Treating the bridge as a one dimensional beam , obtain shear

force due to one line of wheels of the truck or one half of the lane

loading .

• Multiply the shears obtained in step 3 by (S/D)(1+I)

Analysis of Multispan and

Variable Section Bridges

Steel plate girder bridges have markedly varying moments of inertia at

different parts along the span because of changes in the dimensions of

flanges and web plates.

Similarly in continuous RCC Girder Bridge haunches are provided to check

the shear and negative moment.

local increases in flexural rigidity, which make to reconsider lateral load

distribution and further analysis of bridge deck.

• The line of contraflexure remains reasonably straight and parallel to

the support when all the lanes are loaded.

• When fewer lanes are loaded, the line curls toward the intermediate

support but only in the regions where the intensity of longitudinal

moments is expected to be small.

• For the bridge loaded for max negative moment over a support, the

line of contraflexure curls away from the intermediate supports as

the no. of loaded lanes is reduced. It is found that the straight

portions of the line of contraflexure are at substantially the same

places as the point of contraflexure in beams of constant cross

section.

• Lateral load distribution in multispan/variable section bridge deck is

carried out by replacing bridge into conceptual bridge with

equivalent spans.

assumed to be replaced by a straight simple support parallel to the

actual support or span between the real support and the

contraflexure line.

• It is noted that the equivalent spans are to be used only for obtaining

the transverse distribution effects. The equivalent span basically

affects only the characterizing parameter.

In Hendry Jaeger Method

• If one replaces the negative moment region of a multispan bridge by a

conceptual bridge, the result will be a higher than actual estimate.

For the positive moment, results of conceptual bridge is a closer

representation of the actual.

under udl rather than under vehicle loading.

It was found that in most cases the equivalent spans under vehicle

loads were smaller than those under the udl. Nevertheless, the

variation was found to be small being always less than 8%

Error in estimating the equivalent span by udl diminishes as the

length of the span increases.

0.2(l1+l2) 0.2(l3+l2)

0.8l1 0.8l2 0.8l3

l1 l2 l3

• In lateral load distribution, for positive moment region it is sufficiently accurate

to assume a mean and uniform value of the longitudinal flexural rigidity in

variable section.

constant longitudinal flexural rigidity by applying the condition as shown in fig.

Contraflexure line

deflection at tip is same as in

the real section

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