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Ques 1. What is the difference between wire and cable?

Ans. The wire and cable are both the transmission medium of electric
waves. The term wires and cables are used pretty much used often, but they
are quite different in fact. One way to differentiate them is to remember
that wires are a component in cables. Also, wires have a much wider scope
of use. A wire is a single strand or a group of strands of an electrically
conductive material, usually aluminum or copper. cable, on the other hand,
consists of two or more insulated conductors and can be either bare or
covered. The easiest way to distinguish between the two is that the wire is
usually visible, whereas a cable is most usually insulated.

Ques 2. What is a standard wire gauge?

Ans. Standard Wire Gauge is a set of wire sizes given by BS 3737:1964 (now
withdrawn), and is generally abbreviated to SWG. It is also known as:
Imperial Wire Gauge or British Standard Gauge. Use of SWG sizes has
fallen greatly in popularity, but is still used as a measure of thickness in
guitar strings and some electrical wire. Cross sectional area in square
millimeters is now the more usual size measurement for wires used in
electrical installation cables. The current British Standard for metallic
materials such as wire and sheet is BS 6722:1986, which is a solely metric
standard.

Ques 3. Why are cables stranded?


Ans. Stranded cable consists of multiple strands of wires wrapped around
each other in each conductor. Stranded cable is much more flexible and
consequently suited to applications which demand flexibility and reshaping.
Due to higher attenuation, stranded cable is better used over shorter
distances. Stranded cable has a higher attenuation and is not suitable for
long runs, although with a high specification cable eg Cat6a / Cat7 we have
been able to produce very long stranded cables that still meet specifications
during testing.

Stranded Conductor are widely used over solid conductors. Although


these seems to be more expensive than solid conductor but they offer many
advantages too ,over the solid conductor. Stranded conductor are mainly
used for following reasons

Stranded conductor offer much surface area for flow of current that results
in reduced diameter of conductor for same current carrying capacity.

As Stranded conductor offer much surface area so overall resistance of the


conductor is lesser than the same size solid conductor.

Stranded Conductor offer much flexibility hence have longer life than solid
conductor in a case when conductor needs repeated stretch.

Stranded conductor are very suitable to external environment and reduce


the risk of loose connection.

Ques 4. Write in a brief the necessity of soldering?

Ans. Soldering is a process in which two or more items (usually metal) are
joined together by melting and putting a filler metal (solder) into the joint,
the filler metal having a lower melting point than the adjoining metal.
Soldering differs from welding in that soldering does not involve melting the
work pieces. In brazing, the filler metal melts at a higher temperature, but
the work piece metal does not melt. In the past, nearly all solders contained
lead, but environmental and health concerns have increasingly dictated use
of lead-free alloys for electronics and plumbing purposes.

Ques 5. What is standard wire?

Ans. A wire is a single, usually cylindrical, flexible strand or rod of metal.


Wires are used to bear mechanical loads or electricity and
telecommunications signals. Wire is commonly formed by drawing the metal
through a hole in a die or draw plate. Wire gauges come in various standard
sizes, as expressed in terms of a gauge number. The term wire is also used
more loosely to refer to a bundle of such strands, as in "multistrand wire",
which is more correctly termed a wire rope in mechanics, or a cable in
electricity.

Ques 6. Write down the different types of wire?

Ans. Triplex Wires : Triplex


wires are usually used in single-
phase service drop conductors,
between the power pole and
weather heads. They are
composed of two insulated
aluminum wires wrapped with
a third bare wire which is used
as a common neutral. The
neutral is usually of a smaller
gauge and grounded at both
the electric meter and the
transformer.

Main Feeder Wires : Main power feeder wires are the wires that connect
the service weather head to the house. They’re made with stranded or solid
THHN wire and the cable installed is 25% more than the load required.

Panel Feed Wires : Panel feed cables are generally black insulated THHN
wire. These are used to power the main junction box and the circuit breaker
panels. Just like main power feeder wires, the cables should be rated for
25% more than the actual load.

Non-Metallic Sheathed Wires : Non-metallic sheath wire, or Romex, is used


in most homes and has 2-3 conductors, each with plastic insulation, and a
bare ground wire. The individual wires are covered with another layer of
non-metallic sheathing. Since it’s relatively cheaper and available in ratings
for 15, 20 and 20 amps, this type is preferred for in-house wiring.

Single Strand Wires : Single strand wire also uses THHN wire, though there
are other variants. Each wire is separate and multiple wires can be drawn
together through a pipe easily. Single strand wires are the most popular
choice for layouts that use pipes to contain wires.
Ques 7. What are the different types of conduit used?

Ans.

Conduits: Galvanized
Rigid Conduit.

Conduits: Electrical
Metallic Tubing (EMT)

Electrical Nonmetallic
Tubing.

Flexible Metallic Conduit


(MC)

Liquid-tight Flexible
Metal Conduit (LFMC)

Rigid Metallic Conduit.

Liquid-tight Flexible Nonmetallic Conduit.

Aluminum
Conduits

Ques 8. How is the conduit cut and threaded?

Ans. To successfully cut conduit:

Using the tape measure and pencil, mark the conduit at the required length.
Make sure you mark the conduit all the way around the circumference of
the tube.

Place your collets around the conduit to protect it from abrasion. Ensure
enough conduit is left exposed to allow for safe cutting and threading.

Place the pipe/collets in the vice; tighten so the conduit cannot turn.

Put on your Eye Protection & Gloves.

Using your hacksaw, cut through the conduit at the marked length.
Remember, let the saw work for you. Do not force it. For best results use
copious amounts of cutting fluid and long slow strokes to cut through the
conduit. Continue until you have almost cut through the section.

Support the free section of conduit taking care when making the final cuts.

To thread your conduit using a ratchet & handle:

Place the collets around the conduit to protect it from abrasion.

Place the pipe/collets in the vice, tighten so the conduit cannot turn.

Inspect the dies to make sure they are sharp and free of damage.

Attach the die head to the conduit. Using the heel of your hand, apply a
little force to secure the connection.

Put on your Eye Protection & Gloves.

Apply cutting lubricant to the conduit to help maintain a clean cut and
reduce friction.

Using your ratchet & handle, turn the dies 3-4 short strokes in the
clockwise direction.

Take one anticlockwise reverse stroke to ensure a clean thread.

Repeat steps 5 and 6 until you achieve the correct length of thread.

Remove the ratchet, handle and die head.

Ques 9. How is the flexible conduit fixed to the conduit box?

Ans. A flexible electrical conduit can be very useful and easy to work with.
There are a variety of situations in which it is prudent to use a flexible
electrical conduit instead of a rigid electrical conduit. With flexible conduits,
you trade off the better protection of the rigid conduit for ease of use and
the ability to fit into tight places that a rigid conduit does not offer. These
flexible conduit systems can come in a variety of materials, from plastic
hosing to a braided metal tube. Their main aspect is that they are both
flexible and strong and can protect wiring around tough bends and in hard
to reach places. There are a variety of fast, reliable connectors on the
market today for connecting a flexible electrical conduit into electrical
boxes.

Step 1 - Check Your Conduit Size

Step 2 - Check the Knockout Hole Size

Step 3 - Attach Connector into Conduit

Step 4 - Snap Connector into Knockout Hole

Ques 10. What is the difference between a conduit box and a conduit fitting?

Ans. An electrical conduit is a tube used to protect and route electrical


wiring in a building or structure. Electrical conduit may be made of metal,
plastic, fiber, or fired clay. Most conduit is rigid, but flexible conduit is used
for some purposes.

Electrical metallic tubing (EMT), sometimes called thin-wall, is commonly


used instead of galvanized rigid conduit (GRC), as it is less costly and
lighter than GRC. EMT itself is not threaded, but can be used with threaded
fittings that clamp to it.

Conduit box: an electric outlet box to which a rigid or flexible conduit runs.

Ques 11. What is Earthing?

Ans. Earthing, also known as grounding, is based on research that


demonstrate that connecting to Earth’s electrical energy promotes physical
wellbeing. The act of Earthing refers to a physical connection between the
electrical frequencies of the human body with that of Earth’s (think barefoot
in the grass, or at the beach). Just like the sun constantly provides us with
energy and vitamins, the earth too is a source of subtle energy that
contributes to optimum health.

Earthing can be achieved in a number of ways: standing, sitting, lying or


walking with direct skin contact with the ground is the easiest but
conducting and grounding products like bed sheets provide a convenient
method of connecting with Earth when it’s otherwise impractical.

Ques 12. What is tree system?


Ans. In the tree system, the L and N wires from the cable are connected to two
bus bars in the distribution box.

A fuse is used for domestic lighting. The bulbs and the plug point for the fan
or table lamp are connected in this circuit, each in parallel across L and N,
and operated by a separate switch on the livewire side.

The fuse is connected to two or more three-pin power plug points which can
be used for irons, toaster, hot plates, etc. The third wire is the earth wire
connected to the metal body of the appliance which is earthed.

As branches to different sections of the house from the distribution box, the
method is referred to as the tree system.

The tree system has some disadvantages. If a fuse blows off, two or more
appliances have to be checked. Too many wires of different ratings crowd
into the distribution box from different sections of the house. If extra points
are required at a later stage there may not be place in the distribution box
for extra wires. This system is rapidly being replaced by the ring system.

Ques 13. Explain in brief the distribution system of power supply?

Ans. Electric power distribution is the final stage in the delivery of electric
power; it carries electricity from the transmission system to individual
consumers. Distribution substations connect to the transmission system and
lower the transmission voltage to medium voltage ranging between 2 kV
and 35 kV with the use of transformers. Primary distribution lines carry this
medium voltage power to distribution transformers located near the
customer's premises. Distribution transformers again lower the voltage to
the utilization voltage used by lighting, industrial equipment or household
appliances. Often several customers are supplied from one transformer
through secondary distribution lines. Commercial and residential customers
are connected to the secondary distribution lines through service drops.
Customers demanding a much larger amount of power may be connected
directly to the primary distribution level or the sub transmission level.

Ques 14. What are the various lighting accessories? Illustrate two types of
switches in use.

Ans.

Lamp shades, Candle Cup. Light Ballast, Light Diffusers, Light Dimmer,
Light Starter, Switches
Transformers,

Types of switches are:

6 amp. And 16 amp.

Ques 15. Differentiate between M.C.B and Fuses?

Ans.

BASIS FUSE CIRCUIT BREAKER

Working Fuse works on the Circuit breaker works on the


Principle electrical and thermal Electromagnetism and
properties of the switching principle.
conducting materials.

Reusability Fuses can be used only Circuit breakers can be used a


once. number of times.

Status It does not give any It gives an indication of the


indication indication. status

Auxiliary No auxiliary contact is They are available with


contact required. auxiliary contact.

Switching Fuse cannot be used as as The Circuit breaker is used as


Action an ON/OFF switch. an ON/OFF switches.

Temperatur They are independent of Circuit breaker Depends on


e ambient temperature ambient temperature

Characteris The Characteristic curve The characteristic curve does


tic Curve shifts because of the ageing not shift.
effect.
BASIS FUSE CIRCUIT BREAKER

Protection The Fuse provides Circuit breaker provides


protection against only protection against power
power overloads overloads and short circuits.

Function It provides both detection Circuit breaker performs only


and interruption process. interruption. Faults are
detected by relay system.

Breaking Breaking capacity of the Breaking capacity is high.


capacity fuse is low as compared to
the circuit breaker.

Operating Operating time of fuse is Operating time is


time very less (0.002 seconds) comparatively more than that
of the fuse. (0.02 – 0.05
seconds)

Version Only single pole version is Single and multiple version


available. are available.

Mode of Completely automatically. Manually as well as


operation automatically operated.

Cost Cost of fuse is low. Cost of circuit breaker is high.

Ques 16. What is function of MCB’s?

An MCB or miniature circuit breaker is an electromagnetic device that


embodies complete enclosure in a molded insulating material. The main
function of an MCB is to switch the circuit, i.e., to open the circuit (which
has been connected to it) automatically when the current passing through it
(MCB) exceeds the value for which it is set. It can be manually switched ON
and OFF as similar to normal switch if necessary.
MCBs are of time delay tripping devices, to which the magnitude of
overcurrent controls the operating time. This means, these get operated
whenever overload exist long enough to create a danger to the circuit being
protected. Therefore, MCBs doesn’t respond to transient loads such as
switches surges and motor starting currents. Generally, these are designed
to operate at less than 2.5 milliseconds during short circuit faults and 2
seconds to 2 minutes in case of overloads (depending on the level of
current).

Ques 17. What is a standard wire gauge? Why is it used? Explain in brief.

Ans. British Standard Wire Gauge is a set of wire sizes given by BS


3737:1964 (now withdrawn), and is generally abbreviated to SWG. It is also
known as: Imperial Wire Gauge or British Standard Gauge. Use of SWG
sizes has fallen greatly in popularity, but is still used as a measure of
thickness in guitar strings and some electrical wire. Cross sectional area in
square millimetres is now the more usual size measurement for wires used
in electrical installation cables. The current British Standard for metallic
materials such as wire and sheet is BS 6722:1986, which is a solely metric
standard.

SWG was fixed by Order of Council August 23, 1883. It was constructed by
improving the Birmingham Wire Gauge. It was made a legal standard on
March 1, 1884 by the British Board of Trade. SWG is not to be confused
with American Wire Gauge which has a similar but not quite
interchangeable numbering scheme.

The basis of the system is the thou (or mil in US English), or 0.001 in. No.
7/0, the largest size, is 0.50 in. (500 thou or 12.7 mm) in diameter, and the
smallest, No. 50, is 0.001 in. (1 thou or about 25 µm) in diameter. The wire
diameter diminishes with increasing gauge size. Between each gauge, the
weight per unit length diminishes by approximately 20%. Because the
weight per unit length is related to the area, and therefore the square of the
diameter, the diameter diminishes by approximately 10.6%:

Ques 18. Describe the use of following types of wires: vulcanized insulation
rubber cables, nichrome wire, and aluminum conductor.

Ans. Natural rubber is the coagulated latex of certain species of tress.


Vulcanized rubber is posse's high insulating qualities, but the material
absorbs moisture and deteriorates by rapidly oxidizing into a resinous
substance. Therefore 3 to 5 % amount of sulphur is incorporated with the
rubber; as a result, it becomes a imprevious to water, flexible and of high
resistivity.
This whole process is known s vulcanization and the product which is
obtained is known as vulcanization rubber. This process is performed at 149
degree c and which is above the melting point of sulphur. It has a good
mechanical strength, dependent upon its degree of vulcanization. When we
use this type of cable in which place, where the heat and day light are not
present, and the vulcanized rubber retains its physical properties for a long
period.
It is found that, it has a high specific insulation resistance and elastic, which
is not present as high as that of pure rubber.

ichrome, also known as nickel chrome, is an alloy produced by mixing


nickel, chromium and, occasionally, iron. Best known for its heat resistance,
as well as its resistance to both corrosion and oxidation, the alloy is
incredibly useful for a number of applications. From industrial
manufacturing to hobby work, nichrome in the form of wire is present in a
range of commercial products, crafts and tools. It also finds applications in
specialized settings.

Aluminium conductor steel-reinforced cable (ACSR) is a type of high-


capacity, high-strength stranded conductor typically used in overhead
power lines. The outer strands are high-purity aluminium, chosen for its
good conductivity, low weight and low cost. The center strand is steel for
additional strength to help support the weight of the conductor. Steel is
higher strength than aluminium which allows for increased mechanical
tension to be applied on the conductor. Steel also has lower elastic and
inelastic deformation (permanent elongation) due to mechanical loading
(e.g. wind and ice) as well as a lower coefficient of thermal expansion under
current loading. These properties allow ACSR to sag significantly less than
all-aluminium conductors.

Ques 19. Write the difference between conductor and insulation?

Basis For
Compariso Conductor Insulator
n

Definition Material which permits Restrict the electric current or


the electric current or heat to pass through it.
Basis For
Compariso Conductor Insulator
n

heat to pass through it.

Electric Exist on the surface but Do not exist on insulator.


Field remain zero inside the
conductor.

Magnetic Store energy Do not store energy


Field

Potential Remain same at all the Remain zero.


point on conductor.

Thermal High Low


Conductivity

Covalent Weak Strong


bond

Conductivity Very high Low

Resistance Low High

Electrons Freely move Do not move freely

Resistivity Vary from high to low High

Temperature Positive temperature Negative temperature


coefficient coefficient of resistance coefficient of resistance

Conduction Full of electrons Remain empty


band
Basis For
Compariso Conductor Insulator
n

Valence Remains Empty Full of electrons


Band

Forbidden No forbidden gap Large forbidden gap


gap

Examples Irons, aluminum, silver, Rubber, wood, Paper, etc.


copper, etc.

Application For making electrical As a insulation in electrical


wires and conductor cables or conductor, for
supporting electrical
equipment etc.

Ques 20. Explain any five insulating substances that are extensively used in
electrical industry.

Ans. Plastics - PVC, Cresyl Pthalate, DEHP and other plastics replaced
rubber as an insulator for wires and other parts. PVC and nylon are now
standard in most types of wire.

Glass (silica, soda ash and limestone) - This material worked fine for
telegraph and other low voltage apparatus. It is still used today to some
degree.

Paper/Cardboard - paper and cardboard are used as insulators in certain


circumstances as these materials are cheap and can work in situations
without high heat or high voltages.

Mica - This is a good stable material even when exposed to the elements. It
is a good thermal conductor while being an insulator. Sheet mica is easily
stamped and shaped for electrical components. Mica is very important for
the most common types of capacitors.
Teflon (PTFE) - (polytetrafluoroethylene) - Slippery, durable and resistant to
corrosion this Dupont made material is used in cable jackets. Other forms
besides PTFE include FEP and ETFE.

PFA (Perfluoroalkoxy) - This substance is resistant to chemical attack,


transparent and better than PTFE when it comes to flexibility. The weakness
is that the number of times it can be folded is less than PTFE. It is good for
applications near the ocean as it is resistant to salt spray. The dielectric
strength of PFA is up to 4 times higher than PTFE.

Rubber - Rubber in its natural and synthetic forms was used as an insulator
from before the 1870s until the 1950s. Plastics (especially PVC) replaced
rubber.

Ques 21. Describe in detail the necessity of stranding cables?

Ans. Stranding is an important aspect of cable construction to consider.


Some cables are available in both solid and stranded forms, but, generally,
smaller cables are solid while larger cables (usually larger than 6 AWG)
tend to be stranded. For those occasions when you have the option to
choose or in the case that you just want to understand the construction of
your cable a little better, these are the differences between solid and
stranded conductors:

Solid - Solid conductors consist of just one strand of metal. They are easier
to terminate than stranded conductors. They are also mechanically tough
and inexpensive. The major disadvantage of solid conductors is their lack of
flexibility.

Stranded - Stranded conductors are composed of multiple metal strands


bunched together in any number of configurations (discussed below in
“Types of Stranding”). They are much more flexible than solid conductors,
and the higher the strand count, the more flexible they are. While this can
add some cost, it is essential for any wire or cable that will need to
withstand any kind of movement or flexing.

Ques 22. Why should electric equipment be earthed?

Ans. Here are some advantages of the Earthing system:

1. Safety for Human Life, Electrical Devices and Buildings

It saves the human life from the danger of electrical shock which can cause
death, by blowing a fuse. It protects your electric equipment or devices.
It provides a safe path for lighting and short circuit currents and saves the
building from structural damage.

2. Voltage Stabilization

Electricity comes from many sources, every transformer can be considered


as a separate source. If there is no point which will act as a common point,
then it is impossible to make a calculation between these sources.

In an electrical distribution system, Earth is the omnipresent conductive


surface, which makes it a universal standard for all-electric systems.

3. Over Voltage Protection

Earthing System provides an alternative path in the electrical system to


minimize the dangerous effect in the electrical system which happens at the
time of lighting and unintentional contact with high voltage lines.

Now that you have got an idea of the Earthing system, it is time to know
how to set up an Earthing or Grounding system at your home, office or
shop.

Ques 23. What are the different systems of power supply? Explain in brief.

Ans. Primary Distribution

It is that part of an AC distribution system which operates at somewhat


higher voltages than general residential consumer utilization. Commonly
used primary distribution voltages in most countries are 11 kV, 6.6 kV and
3.3 kV. Primary distribution handles large consumers such as factories and
industries. It also feeds small substation from where secondary distribution
is carried out. Primary distribution is carried out by 3-phase, 3-wire system.

Secondary Distribution

This part directly supplies to the residential end consumers. Domestic


consumers are fed with single phase supply at 230 volts (120 volts in USA
and some other countries). Three phase supply may also be provided at 400
volts for big properties, commercial buildings, small factories etc.
Secondary transmission in most countries is carried out by 3-phase, 4-wire
system.

Ques 24. Write down the advantages and disadvantages of Tree system and
Distribution system of power supply?
Ans. Advantages of the tree distribution system

• Simplest as fed at only one end.

• The initial cost is low.

• It is useful when the generating is at low voltage.

• Preferred when the station is located at the center of the load.

• More economical for some areas which have a low load requirement

• Require less amount of cables

• It has a low maintenance

Disadvantages of the tree distribution system

• The end of distributor near to the substation gets heavily loaded.

• When load on the distributor changes, the clients at the distant end of the
distributor face serious voltage fluctuations.

• As users are dependent on single feeder and distributor, a fault on any of


these two causes interruption in supply to all the users connected to that
distributor

Advantages of the distribution system

• In ring power is supplied from both ends as compared to radial

• In case of a fault in the radial circuit the entire system goes off unlike in
ring where by incase one end gets a fault the other end still keeps on
supplying power

• Compared to the radial system, the voltage drop is less along the
distribution line

• More subscribers can be installed to the system than the radial system

• Less voltage fluctuations can be seen at client’s terminals. Voltage


fluctuations in high loaded areas can be reduced using a tie line

Disadvantages of the distribution system


• Ring is very expensive n requires more materials than radial

• Radial circuit is more economical

• High maintenance cost

• It is not usable when the client is located at the center of the load

Ques 25. Write down the selection criteria of wires?

Ans. Conductor Material

Conductor Stranding

Conductor Size

conductor diameter

weight per unit length

conductivity of material(s)

crossectional area(s)

modulus of elasticity

rated breaking strength

coefficient(s) of thermal expansion

cost of material(s)

maximum unloaded design tension

resistance to vibration and/or galloping

surface shape/drag coefficient

fatigue resistance

Ques 26. What are the different systems of wiring? Explain in brief.

Cleat Wiring

This system of wiring comprise of ordinary VIR or PVC insulated wires


(occasionally, sheathed and weather proof cable) braided and compounded
held on walls or ceilings by means of porcelain cleats, Plastic or wood.
Cleat wiring system is a temporary wiring system therefore it is not suitable
for domestic premises. The use of cleat wiring system is over nowadays.

Casing and Capping wiring

Casing and Capping wiring system was famous wiring system in the past
but, it is considered obsolete this days because of Conduit and sheathed
wiring system. The cables used in this kind of wiring were either VIR or
PVC or any other approved insulated cables.

The cables were carried through the wooden casing enclosures. The casing
is made up of a strip of wood with parallel grooves cut length wise so as to
accommodate VIR cables. The grooves were made to separate opposite
polarity. the capping (also made of wood) used to cover the wires and cables
installed and fitted in the casing.

Batten Wiring (CTS or TRS)

Single core or double core or three core TRS cables with a circular oval
shape cables are used in this kind of wiring. Mostly, single core cables are
preferred. TRS cables are chemical proof, water proof, steam proof, but are
slightly affected by lubricating oil. The TRS cables are run on well seasoned
and straight teak wood batten with at least a thickness of 10mm.

The cables are held on the wooden batten by means of tinned brass link
clips (buckle clip) already fixed on the batten with brass pins and spaced at
an interval of 10cm for horizontal runs and 15cm for vertical runs.

Lead Sheathed Wiring

The type of wiring employs conductors that are insulated with VIR and
covered with an outer sheath of lead aluminium alloy containing about 95%
of lead. The metal sheath given protection to cables from mechanical
damage, moisture and atmospheric corrosion.

The whole lead covering is made electrically continuous and is connected to


earth at the point of entry to protect against electrolytic action due to
leaking current and to provide safety in case the sheath becomes alive. The
cables are run on wooden batten and fixed by means of link clips just as in
TRS wiring.

Conduit Wiring
There are two additional types of conduit wiring according to pipe
installation

1. Surface Conduit Wiring

2. Concealed Conduit Wiring

5.1 Surface Conduit Wiring

If conduits installed on roof or wall, It is known as surface conduit wiring. in


this wiring method, they make holes on the surface of wall on equal
distances and conduit is installed then with the help of rawal plugs.

Concealed Conduit wiring

If the conduits is hidden inside the wall slots with the help of plastering, it is
called concealed conduit wiring. In other words, the electrical wiring
system inside wall, roof or floor with the help of plastic or metallic piping is
called concealed conduit wiring. Obliviously, It is the most popular,
beautiful, stronger and common electrical wiring system nowadays.

Ques 27. What is the term used for comparing the insulation properties of
insulating substances? Give the name of six insulating materials that are
used in electrical machines. Put them in the order of good to bad.

Ans. Thermal insulation

A.b.s.

Acetate

Acrylic

Beryllium oxide

Ceramic

Delrin

Ques 28. What are the conducting materials used in cables for internal
house wiring? Briefly explain any type of conductors in the order of their
conductivity.

Ans. Copper

Gold
Aluminum

Tungsten

Carbon

Nichrome or Brightray - B

Nichrome - Vor Brightray - C

Manganin

Ques 29. What are the different systems of wiring used for domestic
installation? What are the test to be performed under the Indian electricity
rules before energizing a domestic installation?

Ans. Cleat Wiring

This system of wiring comprise of ordinary VIR or PVC insulated wires


(occasionally, sheathed and weather proof cable) braided and compounded
held on walls or ceilings by means of porcelain cleats, Plastic or wood.

Casing and Capping wiring

Casing and Capping wiring system was famous wiring system in the past
but, it is considered obsolete this days because of Conduit and sheathed
wiring system. The cables used in this kind of wiring were either VIR or
PVC or any other approved insulated cables.

Batten Wiring (CTS or TRS)

Single core or double core or three core TRS cables with a circular oval
shape cables are used in this kind of wiring. Mostly, single core cables are
preferred. TRS cables are chemical proof, water proof, steam proof, but are
slightly affected by lubricating oil. The TRS cables are run on well seasoned
and straight teak wood batten with at least a thickness of 10mm.

Lead Sheathed Wiring

The type of wiring employs conductors that are insulated with VIR and
covered with an outer sheath of lead aluminum alloy containing about 95%
of lead. The metal sheath given protection to cables from mechanical
damage, moisture and atmospheric corrosion.

Conduit Wiring
There are two additional types of conduit wiring according to pipe
installation

1. Surface Conduit Wiring

2. Concealed Conduit Wiring

5.1 Surface Conduit Wiring

Concealed Conduit wiring

If the conduits is hidden inside the wall slots with the help of plastering, it is
called concealed conduit wiring. In other words, the electrical wiring
system inside wall, roof or floor with the help of plastic or metallic piping is
called concealed conduit wiring. Obliviously, It is the most popular,
beautiful, stronger and common electrical wiring system nowadays

Ques 30. Describe with a neat sketch how a domestic installation is


connected with the service line of the supplier. Show clearly the position of
the meter board and other apparatus and fixtures.
Ques 31. Describe the procedure for laying concealed conduit wiring in a
building. Explain why a conduit earthed.

Ans. Step-1: Laying Of Electrical Conduits in Slab

Step-2: Laying Of Electrical Conduits in Wall

Step-3: Installation of Switch Boards Back Boxes

Step-4: Installation of Distribution Boards

Ques 32. What is the necessity of earthing? Sketch a simple earth-pit


complete as per I.E. Rules.

Ans. The primary purpose of earthing is to avoid or minimize the danger of


electrocution, fire due to earth leakage of current through undesired path
and to ensure that the potential of a current carrying conductor does not
rise with respect to the earth than its designed insulation.

When the metallic part of electrical appliances (parts that can conduct or
allow passage of electric current) comes in contact with a live wire, maybe
due to failure of installations or failure in cable insulation, the metal
become charged and static charge accumulates on it. If a person touches
such a charged metal, the result is a severe shock.

To avoid such instances, the power supply systems and parts of appliances
have to be earthed so as to transfer the charge directly to the earth.
Ques 33. Describe in brief the physiological principles and the reaction of
human body to the thermal environment? Also explain the principles of
psychometric with the help of psychometric chart.

Ans. Psychrometric charts are graphic representations of the psychrometric


properties of air. By using psychrometric charts HVAC engineers can
graphically analyze different types of psychrometric processes and find
solution to many practical problems without having to carry out long and
tedious mathematical calculations.

The psychrometric chart looks complicated with vast numbers of lines and
curves in it, but is very easy to understand if you know the basic properties
of air. You will also understand its worth when you actually use it
considering the fact that you won’t have to use any formulae to find the
properties of air in different conditions, all you will have to know is two
parameters of air and the rest are easily found on the chart.

Ques 34. Explain the basic principles of electrical circuit? Explain the
distribution system of electrical supply.

Ans. The flow of electrical charge is referred to as electric current. There


are two types of current, direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC).
DC is current that flows in one direction with a constant voltage polarity
while AC is current that changes direction periodically along with its
voltage polarity. Thomas Edison and Alessandro Volta were pioneers in DC
current and wrote much of electricity’s history. But as societies grew the
use of DC over long transmission distances became too inefficient. Nikola
Tesla changed all that with the invention of alternating current electrical
systems. With AC it is possible to produce the high voltages needed for long
transmissions. Therefore today, most portable devices use DC power while
power plants produce AC.

Ques 35. What is the importance of protective devices in an electrical


circuit? What are the main features of good protective devices and explain
about them?

Ans. A device used to protect equipment, machinery, components and


devices, in electrical and electronic circuit, against short circuit, over
current and earth fault, is called as protective devices.

Necessity of Protective Devices


Protective devices are necessary to protect electrical appliance or
equipment against

A)Short Circuit

b) Abnormal variations in the supply voltage

c) Overloading of equipment

d) To protect operator against accidental contact with the faulty equipment,


falling which the operator may get a severe shock.

Types of Protective Device

Different types of the protective device that are commonly used in electrical
and electronic circuit

1.Fuse Wire or Fuse

2.MCB – Miniature circuit breaker

3.ELCB – Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker

4.ELCB & MCB

5.Earthing or Grounding