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NETWORK ANALYSIS OF FIRE STATION SERVICES USING GIS SYSTEM: A CASE


OF BISHKEK CITY

Article · February 2018

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Akylbek Chymyrov Adilet Bekturov


Kyrgyz State University of Construction, Transport and Architecture (KSUCTA) Kyrgyz State University of Construction, Transport and Architecture
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__ ISCIENCE.IN.UA «Актуальные научные исследования в современном мире» ___
Выпуск 1(33) ISSN 2524-0986

СЕКЦИЯ: НАУКИ О ЗЕМЛЕ

УДК 004. 716


Chymyrov Akylbek Urkalyievich, Adilet Kydykbekovich Bekturov,
Ulukbek Muktarbekovich Raiymbekov
N. Isanov named after Kyrgyz State University
of Construction, Transport and Architecture
(Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic)

NETWORK ANALYSIS OF FIRE STATION SERVICES USING GIS SYSTEM: A


CASE OF BISHKEK CITY

Аннотация: Миссия пожарной службы каждого государства-защита


жизни, имущества и природных ресурсов от пожаров и других чрезвычайных
ситуаций. С увеличением требований, пожарная служба должна
использовать лучшие инструменты и методы обучения, чтобы
соответствовать общественным ожиданиям. Управление рисками,
готовность и смягчение последствий приобрели новое значение с
проблемами, стоящими сегодня перед пожарными подразделениями. Одним
из новых инструментов, помогающих пожарной службе оптимизировать
оказание экстренных служб, является технология геоинформационных
систем (ГИС). В развитых странах ГИС помогает пожарным службам
снизить риски, повысить эффективность и улучшить результаты. В
настоящее время, руководители пожарных служб и ГИС специалисты
открывают новые и творческие пути приложить эту доказанную
технологию для того чтобы разрешить все больше и больше требования
для пожарной безопасности. [1]. Эта статья показывает ключевые
характеристики географических информационных систем и описывает их
возможности при применении к анализу пожарной безопасности в городе
Бишкеке, и дает рекомендации по наиболее важным аспектам успешной
реализации сетевого анализа.
Ключевые слова: ГИС, сетевой анализ, пространственный анализ,
пожарные станции

Abstract: The mission of fire service is to protect life, property, and natural
resources from fire and other emergencies. With increasing demands, the fire
service must utilize the best tools, techniques, and training methods to meet public
expectations. Risk management, preparedness, and mitigation have taken on new
importance with challenges facing fire departments today. One emerging tool that is
helping the fire service optimize emergency services delivery is geographic
information system (GIS) technology. In developed countries GIS has helped fire
services reduce risk, increase efficiency, and improve outcomes. Now, more than
ever before, fire service executives and information technology professionals are
discovering new and creative ways to apply this proven technology to solve ever-
increasing fire service demands. [1]. This scientific work explains key characteristics
of GIS, describes how GIS applies to the fire service in Bishkek city, and provides
guidance on the most important aspects of a successful GIS implementation.

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Keywords: GIS, network analyses, spatial analysis, fire station

Introduction
During the last thirty years the population of Bishkek has grown over than
three times, but territory of Bishkek city has grown nearly two times. According
national statistic committee, since 1989, 260 thousand people (4.4%) were living in
villages and administrative cities moved to capital and become live there. In 2006
the government of Kyrgyzstan taken an important initiative to strengthen municipal
governance. The traditional role of Municipal governance had been one of providing
basic utilities of civilian for their happy social life. Service includes water supply,
sanitation, roads, streetlights, health service and maintenance of public places. In
addition, they performed certain regulatory functions relating construction of
buildings, public areas and commercial places for public wellbeing, Fire stations,
Ambulance, School and Colleges, Hospitals, Police station and shopping malls,
Entertainment locations establishments in a proper place in city. In addition,
as each element plays its own role in the formation of urban structure, every city
possesses a unique structure with its own momentum, presenting entities that are
regarded as too diverse for a single topical study. Nevertheless, ―geography is not
about the precise analysis of particular service areas. it is more concerned with the
ways in which these relationships are reflected in the functional and physical
structure of the town‖
Study Area
As a case study, the capital of Kyrgyz Republic, Bishkek, is considered and
used throughout the paper for exemplifying the different components of the scheme.
Bishkek is located just north of the Kyrgyz Ala Too mountain range bordering the
Chu basin. The city covers 169.6 square kilometers, is administered separately, and
not part of any region. Bishkek is divided into 4 districts: Birinchi May, Lenin,
Oktyabr and Sverdlov. Chong-Aryk and Orto-Say are part of Lenin District [3].

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Fig. 1. Location Map of Bishkek City

As with many cities in Post-Soviet states, building in Bishkek has undergone


extensive changes since the collapse of the Soviet Union. While building was
formerly distributed to citizens in the Soviet-era, building in Bishkek has since
become privatized. Because of high price of housing within Bishkek, especially
internal migrants from rural villages and small provincial towns often have to resort
to informal settlements on the outskirts of the city. These settlements are estimated
to house 400,000 people or about 30 percent of Bishkek‘s population. Statistics
show that due to the expansion of the city, the number of serving facilities
(kindergartens, schools, hospitals, etc.) also increased. But to the surprise the
number of fire stations in recent years has remained unchanged. There are 9 fire
departments in Bishkek.
Methodology
The main objective of this study is to suggest a model that supports decision
makers in decision-making to determine the optimal sites for fire stations. In this
context, these steps are followed:
1) definition of the problem/objective (site selection for fire stations);
2) considering the main technical tools for analyzing the service area and
optimal path of fire stations;
3) data collection, preparation and transferring to GIS software;
4) making of spatial analysis;
5) calculation of network analysis;
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6) obtaining the result raster map for potential fire stations by means of
weighted overlay technique for all raster datasets;
7) offering a system that supports decision makers in determining the
optimal locations of fire stations [4]

Fig. 2. The conception flow chart of the methodology

The most important criteria are the distances between fire stations, number
of schools and the level of risk in the city coverage area. Since Bishkek is a capital
city and it has quite high population densities. Road accessibility is another
important criterion for fire response activities and this criterion is considered.
Bishkek is also a very old city and it has a lot of old school buildings, they are also
have added to the analysis.
Choosing of the technical tools
ArcGIS is a software tool that enabled staff to overlay various themes of data
on to a map of the Bishkek city. Software help to can overlay location of facilities,
roadways including attributes such as one-way streets and speed limits, schools
and number of students, etc.
Actually, this tool allows to plot densities – number of students and buildings,
years of builds, and other features, which illustrated proposed risk levels for specific
areas of the City. As well, there is able to designate attributes to road types, which
later allow to propose travel speeds based on types of roads. With the modeling, we
can add or remove potential fire stations and then run different scenarios to
determine how far resources could travel in time.
Data collection and preparation
Within the project ―Measuring Seismic Risk in the Kyrgyz Republic‖, funded
by the World Bank and the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery
(GFDRR) has measured the level of the seismic risk across the country, to
systematically study the potential fiscal impacts and to develop a robust seismic risk
management strategy. In this project, the seismic exposure model has been
developed on the basis of the following components: population, residential
buildings, schools, critical structures (hospitals and fire stations), and transport
infrastructure (roads and bridges). With the support of local authorities, available
data were collected and harmonized using standard formats. These data were
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integrated with information directly collected in the field and derived from satellite
imagery, collaborative (crowd-sourced) platforms and saved in the ―GEONODE‖
open web platform, which used as main data source for our research [2].
To determine the availability of fire stations in the city of Bishkek, the
following data were selected:

Object Data Coordinate system Source


format
Fire stations in
EPSG:32643: WGS 84
the Kyrgyz Shapefile www.geonode.mes.kg
/ UTM zone 43N
Republic
Schools in the EPSG:32643: WGS 84
Shapefile www.geonode.mes.kg
Kyrgyz Republic / UTM zone 43N
Territory of EPSG:32643: WGS 84
Shapefile www.geonode.mes.kg
Bishkek city / UTM zone 43N
Bishkek streets Shapefile EPSG:4326: WGS 84 www.openstreetmap.com
Table 1. Main data used for network analysis

All datasets were derived and assembled in ArcMap 10.4. The Network
analysis database was designed in Arc Catalog 10.4. This data included school,
street and fire station number. In the getting data have number of spatial data for
the all territory of Kyrgyz Republic. However, for the purpose of this study only the
area inside the Bishkek city limits will be studied.

a) b)
Fig. 3. a) Map of schools and fire stations locations, b) Map of school’s
location density

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There are 196 schools of different types in Bishkek with more than 128000
students. In the collection of data considered such state and private schools as: day
cares, preprimary schools, primary schools, secondary schools, gymnasiums,
lyceums, schools for special students etc.
The study also determined the years of their construction: 35 schools were
built before the 60s, 132 schools were built before the 2000s and 19 new schools
were built after 2000s till now. At 10 schools were not identified years of
construction [3].
Calculation of values (Spatial Analysis)
Analysis of the school‘s location showed that the largest number of the
schools distributed in the southern, southeastern areas of the city. The density of
population in these areas is large because in the 20th century residential micro
districts were built exactly in the southern part of the city [5].

a) b)
Fig. 4. a) Map of school’s distribution in the city, b) Map of student’s
distribution in the city

Calculation of values (Network Analysis)


GIS based Network Analyst is a powerful extension that provides network-
based spatial analysis including routing, travel directions, closest facility, and
service area analysis. Using a sophisticated network data model, users can easily
build networks from their geographic information system (GIS) data. ArcGIS
Network Analyst enables users to dynamically model realistic network conditions,
including turn restrictions, speed limits, height restrictions, and traffic conditions, at
different times of the day. When so many parameters are to be connected with
Transportation network like travel time, speed, road resistance, turning movements,
etc. For such a big network GIS proves itself as an efficient tool for solving such a
network problem quickly and with a great precision [5].
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Figures 3 (a, b) clearly show the location of schools with the largest number
of students. The most students attend schools in the central part of the city. This is
because of the special science high schools for the convenience located in there.
Access to a fire incident and making an intervention in the shortest time has
great importance for extinguishing a fire. In Bishkek nine fire station found.

a) b)
Fig. 5. a) Service area of fire stations by time, b) Service area of fire stations
by distance

Here calculate the service area of fire stations with using ArcGIS – Network
Analyst. Service area divided in to four categories (0-500, 500-1000, 1000-2000,
2000-2500 & 2500-3000 meter) and calculate total area and time distance. Nearly,
12,74427 sq. km. area cover in 0-1000-meter service area zone, 13,69529 sq. km.
area cover in 1000-1500-meter service area zone. 13,55712 sq. km. area cover in
1500-2000-meter service area zone, 12,2479 sq. km. area cover in 2000-2500-
meter service area zone and 11,14562 sq km. area cover in 2500-3000-meter
service area zone.

Total Number of schools out of Number of schools into the covered fire
Number the covered fire service area service area
0-1000 m 1000- 1500- 2000- 2500-
1500 2000 2500 3000
m m m m
196 59 41 27 30 33 6
Table 2. Number of schools into the covered and uncovered fire service
area by distance

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Here calculate the service area of fire stations with breakage 0-1, 1-3, 3-6, 6-
9, 9-12 and 12-15 minute time traveling. As well, as calculate the time in meter for
cover this particular area. For 1000-meter area travelling wants two-minute time. In
Bishkek city want 12 to 15 minute‘s time for provide fire brigade service to outer
side of city. Then 6 to 9 minute‘s time want for middle area of city.

Total Number of schools Number of schools into the covered fire service
Number out of the covered area
fire service area 0-1 1-3 3-6 6-9 9-12 12-15 min
min min min min min
196 116 2 12 13 15 21 17
Table 3. Number of schools into the covered and uncovered fire service
area by time

Utilizing a fire station layer and a street layer, response time analysis can be
performed. A street layer is often represented in GIS as a series of lines that
intersect on the map, creating a GIS street network. Each street line segment
between intersections contains attribute information such as road type, distance,
and travel speeds (kilometers per hour). This allows users to identify a station
location, specify a travel time, and run a network analysis.
For the analysis have taken nine existing fire stations and marked by letter
as A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H and I. Here draw optimal path from fire station to potential
fire source in the center. The distance between fire station C to fire source is very
optimal or short compare to other that is 1,7 kilometer distance and want 0.890593-
minute time for cover this distance. All other results have showed on the table 4.

a) b)
Fig. 6. a) Optimal path of fire service, b) Results of optimal path from fire
station
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№ Optimal path to potential fire source Number of Distance (km)
from fire station routes
1 Fire Station (A) – Fire source 9 3,2
2 Fire Station (B) – Fire source 6 3,1
3 Fire Station (C) – Fire source 7 1,7
4 Fire Station (D) – Fire source 13 2,4
5 Fire Station (F) – Fire source 9 3,6
6 Fire Station (E) – Fire source 10 3,2
7 Fire Station (G) – Fire source 11 3,4
8 Fire Station (H) – Fire source 10 3,8
9 Fire Station (I) – Fire source 19 5,0
Table 4. Results of network analysis for optimal path

Potential fire station location. Recommendation


In recommendation, this research identified areas that might not have
emergency services within a 6-9 minutes‘ response time by existing fire stations
within the city limits of the Bishkek. see Figure 7.

Fig.8 Recommended locations for new fire stations and their service area.

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This research made assumptions and set analysis parameters based on
research and the scope of realizing that more criteria must be examined before the
actual results should be used. If the potential properties are to be considered for
use, they should be carefully looked at to see if they are buildable sites considering
development standards. Bishkek is a rapidly growing city and with future growth
goes the need for city services and emergency services to grow along with it.
Conclusion
The network analysis tool is most reliable to measure the efficiency of fire
services in terms of time and distance. In the study, optimal service area of services
such as fire station were defined based on the time and distance. So this study tries
to analyze the potential use of GIS tools for network analysis. In fact, by using
network analysis tools number of things can analyze which are more relevant for
different type of network analysis especially for transport planning we can create
this type of analysis for different purposes like shortest path analysis, closest facility
analysis, service area determined analysis and also for the best recourses
allocation and for the creating of emergency route services, so this type of analysis
is very crucial especially for the transport based planning.

LITERATURE
1. GIS for Fire Station Locations and Response Protocol. An ESRI white paper.
Redlands, CA. 2007.
2. Measuring Seismic Risk in the Kyrgyz Republic. Developing the Seismic
Exposure Model. Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic. 2017.
3. ―2009 population census of the Kyrgyz Republic: Bishkek City‖. Bishkek. 2012.
4. Fire Brigade Site Selection Based on Geographic Information Systems and
Analytic Hierarchy Process: Case Study of Istanbul, Ph.D. dissertation, ITU
Institute of Science and Technology, Istanbul, Turkey, 2009.
5. http://webhelp.esri.com/arcgisdesktop/9.2/pdf/Network_Analyst_Tutorial.pdf

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