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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the Study

Speaking is an oral interaction where participants need to negotiate

meaning in ideas, feeling and information and manage in term of who is to


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what and about what. It is one kind of communication way, it means

communication also needs to negotiate meaning in ideas, feeling and

information. Here, the participants are important part on communication

process. Without participant, communication is impossible.

Communication need participants and participants use it in

interaction. The problem in communication is misunderstanding because of

the poor quality of communication for example, poor selected pattern, poor

pronunciation, poor fluency etc. The participants need to train their

communication, especially in the foreign language communication. In foreign

language learning, the teacher must be active to make habit of speaking in

foreign language.

Foreign language learning is basically a process of mechanical habit

formation. Good habits are formed by giving correct responses rather than by

making mistakes. By memorizing dialogues and performing pattern drills the

chances of producing mistakes are minimized. Language is verbal behaviour

that is the automatic production and comprehension of utterances and can be

1
H Douglas Brown. Teaching the Spoken Language. (New York: Cambrige, 1983)
learned by inducing the students to do likewise. Language skills are learned

more effectively if the items to be learned in the target language are presented

in spoken form before they are seen in written form.2

For many years, language teaching was seen as helping learners

developed linguistic competence that helping students master the sounds,

words, and grammar patterns of English.3 These are parts of language that can

learn together when we learn communication. So, speaking skill and

linguistic competence have correlation when linguistic competence is

explored to develop speaking skill.

Speaking skill is important part in teaching learning process. It

became one packet with other language skills, where speaking and writing as

productive skill, listening and reading as receptive skill.4 Speaking consisted

of producing systematic verbal utterances to convey meaning.

Nowadays, many teachers agree that students should learn to speak

the foreign language by interacting to others. In this case, students should

know several speaking components’, such as: comprehension, pronunciation,

grammar, vocabulary, and fluency.5 As we know, it is not easy to make the

students willing to learn and to use English language. So the teacher needs an

2
Jack C Richard and Theodore S Rodger, Aproach and Method in Language Teaching, (New
York: Cambridge univercity press, 1986), 51.
3
Kathleen M Bailey and David Nunan, Practical English Language Teaching Speaking, (New York:
McGraw-Hill Education (Asia),2005), 3.
4
Kathleen M Bailey and David Nunan, Practical English Language Teaching Speaking, (New York:
McGraw-Hill Education (Asia),2005), 2
5
Jejen Jaenudin, “Teaching Speaking Using Direct Method at the second Grade Students of
SMPN 2 Kutawaluya-Karawang”, (thesis, Bandung: 2012), 2
effective strategies or methods to make the students willing to learn and to

use English language.

There are many methods have been used to teach language. The

researcher need to choosing a method should consider the learners’ needs.

Finally, the researcher chooses Audio-lingual method to teach speaking. This

method has been used over the years to teach language. The researcher

thought that, this method is effective on teaching speaking.

According Nunan, in audiolingualism, speaking is taught by

instruction the students to repeat and recite memorize dialogue from

the textbook. Repetition drills as a hallmark of the Audio-lingual

method are designed to familiarize students with the sound and

structural pattern of the language. And the lessons followed the

sequence of presentation, practice and production.6

From the stated above, we know that Audio-lingual method is appropriate use

in language teaching. This method helps the students to learn the sounds,

words, and grammar patterns of English. So, Audio-lingual method is

effective toward speaking skill.

This method also helps the students to be familiar in using English

with repeat, recite, and memorize the dialogue from the textbook. And the

effect is the students are easy to practice and produce the language. Then, it

increase their speaking skill. Likewise their speaking achievement will be up.
6
Kathleen M Bailey and David Nunan, Practical English Language Teaching Speaking, (New
York: McGraw-Hill Education (Asia),2005), 17
According to Nagaraj the Audio-lingual method can be traced back to
the language teaching programs devised in America during the Second
World War. Its focus was on the learner’s ability to gain the
communicative skills required in everyday discourse, particularly the
skills of listening and speaking in the target language.7
This theory explains that the learner needs to familiarize their communicative

skill by practice was their speaking and listening in everyday discourse. It is

good activities for the learners. It increases their communication skill. The

learners need good examples to creat good communication. Therefore, the

students need to immite their teacher as the model in speaking.

Tim Bowen explains that “Most teachers will at some point require
learners to repeat examples of grammatical structures in context with
number of aims in mind: stress, rhythm, intonation, ‘consolidating the
structure’, enabling learners to use the structure accurately through
repetition, etc. Question and answer in open class or closed pairs to
practise a particular form can also be argued to have its basis in the
Audio-lingual approach, as can, without doubt, any kind of drill.” 8
This quotation shows that the Audio-lingual method has a crucial contribution

for language learning, especially on developing the students’ speaking skill.

As Nunan said on following statement:


Audio-Lingual method “has probably had a greater impact on second
and foreign language teaching than any other method. It was, in fact,

7
Purwita Anggraeni, “Audio Lingual Teaching As An Alternative Method In Teaching Speaking
An Action Research Given To The First Year Students Of Smp Negeri 2 Pemalang In The
Academic Year 2006/2007, (thesis, semarang: 2007), 4
8
Cagri Tugrul Mart, The Audio-Lingual Method: An Easy way of Achieving Speech, (Iraq:
International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences December 2013,
Vol.3)
the first approach which could be said to have developed a
‘technology’ of teaching and based on ‘scientific’ principles9
There are some research that appropriate with the researcher’s title

such as: Purwita Anggraeni “Audio Lingual Teaching as An Alternative

Method In Teaching Speaking An Action Research Given to the First Year

Students of SMP Negeri 2 Pemalang In Academic Year 2006/2007”. The

result of this study revealed that the post-test scores were better than the pre-

test scores. So, the students’ speaking test achieved by taught using Audio-

lingual teaching method is better than not taught Audio-lingual teaching

method.10 An international journal is taken from Cagri Tugrul Mart, The

Audio-Lingual Method: An Easy way of Achieving Speech. He concludes

that the Audio-Lingual Method aims to develop communicative competence

of students using dialogues and drills.11 Siti Rohmah “Teaching Speaking

Using Audio Lingual Method at the First Grade Students of SMPN 2

Karawang Barat” concludes the Audio-lingual teaching method has a

significant effect on the first year students’ speaking skills of Junior High

School at SMP Negeri 2 Karawang Barat due to the significant difference

9
Cagri Tugrul Mart, The Audio-Lingual Method: An Easy way of Achieving Speech, (Iraq:
International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences December 2013, Vol.
3)
10
Purwita Anggraeni, “Audio Lingual Teaching As An Alternative Method In Teaching Speaking
An Action Research Given To The First Year Students Of Smp Negeri 2 Pemalang In The
Academic Year 2006/2007, (thesis, semarang: 2007), 4
11
Cagri Tugrul Mart, The Audio-Lingual Method: An Easy way of Achieving Speech, (Iraq:
International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences December 2013, Vol.
3)
between the pretest and posttest scores of the students’ speaking skills, in

which the posttest’s mean is significantly higher than those of the pretest.12

The researcher is eager to learn whether there is influence of applying

Audio-lingual method on speaking ability. This Method aims to develop the

students’ communicative competence using dialogues and drills. The use of

dialogues and drills are effective in the foreign language teaching as they lead

the students to produce speech. Repetition of the dialogues and the drills will

enable students to respond quickly and accurately in spoken language.13

Audio-lingual method leads the teacher to train the students’ speaking and

listening skill by listening, repeating and practicing the dialogue.

This method can increase not only speaking skill but also listening

skill. The students are easier to use the target language, because the students

always use the target language in teaching learning process, and they also

receive new vocabulary in each meeting. This method also can build up the

students’ attention. So, the teacher is easy to control and deliver the

information to the students

Based on the explanation above, the researcher takes study that is

entiled “Effectiveness of Audio-Lingual Method on Speaking Skill to the

Seventh Grade Students of SMPN 2 Babadan in Academic Year 2013/2014”.

12
Siti Rohmah,”Teaching speaking using audio lingual method at the first grade Students of smpn
2 karawang barat,” edukasi (bandung)
13 Cagri Tugrul Mart, The Audio-Lingual Method: An Easy way of Achieving Speech, (Iraq:

International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences December 2013, Vol.
3)
B. Limitation of Problem

To avoid a far ranging discussion, this study focus on some concerns

identified as follow:

1. This research focus on knowing the differentiate between students’

speaking skill of SMPN 2 Babadan in academic year 2013/2014 who use

Audio-lingual method and not use Audio-lingual method.

2. This research focus to identify, whether Audio-lingual method is effective

in increasing the speaking skill of seventh grade students of SMPN 2

Babadan in academic year 2013/2014?

C. Statement of the Problem

In this study, the problem is formulated in the following sentence:

1. Do the students of SMPN 2 Babadan in academic year 2013/2014 taught

by Audio-lingual method have better speaking skill than those taught

without Audio-lingual method?

2. Is Audio-lingual method effective used in increasing the speaking skill of

seventh grade students of SMPN 2 Babadan in academic year 2013/2014?

D. Objective of the Study

Based on the statement of the problems above, it can be figured out

the purpose of the study as following:

1. To know, Do the students of SMPN 2 Babadan in academic year

2013/2014 taught by Audio-lingual method have better speaking skill

than those taught without Audio-lingual method?


2. To investigate whether Audio-lingual method is effective used in

increasing the speaking skill of the seventh grade students of SMPN 2

Babadan in academic year 2013/2014?

E. Significance of the Study

Basically, there are three kinds of research significance are as

follows: (1) the theoretical significance (2) the practical significance and

(3) the further research and development.14 The significances were as

follows:

1. Theoretical Significance

The significance of this study is to introduce or even to

familiarize Audio lingual teaching method, in this case the overall goal

of Audio-lingual method created communicative competence in

learners.15 So it improves the students’ ability in speaking. The

research findings also enrich the previous theories and research

findings about the English skill, especially speaking skill that teaching

speaking by using Audio-lingual method.

2. Practical Significance

The research findings give some advantages to the English

teachers, the curriculum makers and the effort to develop the learning

and teaching a language in school. Audio-lingual teaching method can

14
Purwita Anggraeni, “Audio Lingual Teaching As An Alternative Method In Teaching Speaking
An Action Research Given To The First Year Students Of Smp Negeri 2 Pemalang In The
Academic Year 2006/2007, (thesis, semarang: 2007), 8
15
Alice Omaggio Hadley, Teaching Language in Context 2nd edition, (USA:Heinle & Heinle
Publisher)
be used as the alternative method because the students can imitate the

native speaker so that the students can practice and produce the

fluency in speaking.16

3. The further research and development

As we know Audio-lingual method is identical by drilling

students to use the foreign language. So, the researcher gives the

suggestion for the future researcher to make a research about the

effectiveness of Drill method on speaking skill. Both of Audio-lingual

method and Drill method have the same goal; familiarize the students

in using English language and they develop the students’ speaking

skill. But the Audio-lingual method has more wide range than Drill

method. Drill method is part of Audio-lingual method. So, the

researcher think that for the future reseacher is better to conduct the

research in the effectiveness of Audio-lingual method focus on Drill

method.

F. Organisation of The Thesis

The organization of this thesis has purpose to make readers easily

understanding this thesis. This thesis is divided in five chapters. Those are

Chapter I is Introduction. It involves the background of study,

identification of the problems, limitation of the problems, statement of

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Ibid 4
problems, objectives of the study, significance of the study, and organization

of the thesis.

Chapter II is reviewing of the literature. It involves the theoretical

analysis, theoretical framework, and hypothesis.

Chapter III is research methodology. It involves research design,

population, sample and respondent, instrument of data collection, technique

of data collection, and technique of data analysis.

Chapter IV is research result. It involves research location, data

description and analysis, and discussion.

Chapter V is conclusion and recommendation. This chapter is

designed to make reader easy who takes subsistence from thesis find some

information and clues related with this skill.