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MAD 10

I[A1110 Editor





MAY 17 -20

»r.._: :


U. S. and

"Madame X" was the code name, during research and development,
for an entirely new system of recorded music ...
perfected by RCA.

7f-ie reinare .6c74-ouriq/ oi2 'ÍNodonse Jr"

Now the identity of "Madame X," desired length of playing time. From playing time -and can be attached to
the unknown in a long search for these came the mathematical answer to almost any radio, phonograph, or tele-
tone perfection, has been revealed. the record's speed-45 turns a minute - vision combination.
From this quest emerges a complete- and to the record's size, only 6'/s inches Not only records are free of surface noise
in diameter.
ly integrated record -playing system and distortion -the record player elimi-
- records and automatic player -the With this speed and size, engineers
could guarantee 51/4% minutes of distortion -
nates faulty operation, noise, and cumber-
first to be entirely free of distortion some size. Records are changed quickly,
to the trained musical ear .. .
free performance, and the finest quality rec-
ord in RCA Victor history!
quietly ... RCA Victor will continue to
supply 78 rpm instruments and records.
The research began 11 years ago at The record itself is non- breakable
RCA Laboratories. First, basic factors vinyl plastic, wafer -thin. Yet it plays as This far- reaching advance is one of
were determined- minimum diameters, long as a conventional 12 -inch record. hundreds which have grown from RCA
at different speeds, of the groove spiral The new RCA Victor automatic record research. Such leadership adds value
in the record beyond which distortion changer accommodates up to 10 of the beyond price to any product or service
would occur; size of stylus to be used; new records -1 hour and 40 minutes of of RCA and RCA Victor.


World Leader in Radio - First 7 /evision

. -
As part of my Course I send you the speaker, tubes, chssi,
transformer, loop antenna, etc., to build this modern,
Radio Receiver! In addition, I send you pars to build many

e» ,-
other real Radio circuits, like the Signal Generator, Radio Teeter
and Superheterodyne Receiver pictured below. You use this
material to get practical
Radio experience and to
make EXTRA money fixing
neighbors' Radios in spare
time. Mail coupon below
for complete information :


You Build and Experiment
Want a good -pay job In the fast - Ing or Public Address wk. Anti think of
growing RADIO -TELEVISION In- getting In on the ground floor of the boom-
dustry? Want a money-making ing Television Industry. Trained men are
Radio-Television shop of your own? already In demand . . . new stations are
Here's your opportunity. I've trained going on the air, manufaturers are building
oser 100.000 sets month. more and more
hundreds of men to be Radio Techni- homes are getting sets. The man who pre-
cians . MEN WITH NO PREVI- pares now will reap rich rewards.
OUS EXPERIENCE. My tested and See What N.
proved train-at -home method makes R. I.
learning easy. You learn Radio-Tele- Can Do For You
vision principles from illustrated
J. t. aMttyl- a.aM InslaW lessons. You get practical experience
Act noel Send for my DOUBLE FREE
OFFER. Coupon entitles you to actual
building. testing. experimenting with lesson, "GETTING ACQUAINTED WITH
MANY KITS OF PARTS I send. All RECEIVER SERVICING,' absolutely free.
I TRAINED THESE MEN equipment yours to keep. Oser 80 pictures and diagrams) You also
get my 64 -page book. "11OW TO ItE A
Vu S Ils bas Spare Time ELECTRONICS." Tells more about YOUR
I am Radio opportunities. details of my Course, how
enroll, quickly. easily you can
Serviceman CIAL BOOKLETS .vsh w.veynunhoi. to get started. Send coupon
for The make EXTRA MONEY fixing neighbors'
Radios in spare time. From here
in envelope or paste on
Adams Ap- It's penny postaL J. E.
pliance Co. short step to your own SMITH. President.
shop, or a good -pay Radio -T,l- Dept. VEX
Am now get- lI.vtnn servicing lob. Or get Into -

ting $60 a l'oltre. AJetion. Main. Ited:n, National Radio Insti-

week, plus bonus and over -
time."-W. A. ANGE ;L,
.,ontl.A.ti ng. Ilat 9tenoirn -our. tute. Pioneer Home
Study Radio School.
Plashing/on s, T. C
IYytheaville. Arkansas.
Ewa tab
"I knew
about Radio
when I en-
You can get
Good 0rBoth- FREE
rolled. I am MR. J. E. SMITH, President, Dept 9EX
doing spare
time work. I
have more than paid for
this training National Radio Institute, Washington 9, D. C.
Mail me FREE Sample Lesson and 64 -page book. (No
my Course and about
f200 worth of equip-
without cost salesman will call. Please write plainly.)
ment." RAYMOND Age
Vandalia. under G. I. Bill. Name
City Zone State
Hugo Gernsback, Editor -in -Chief
RADIO Fred Shunaman, Managing Editor
M. Harvey Gernsback, Consulting Editor

111:1:T ROSIC` Robert F. Scott, W2PWG, Technical Editor

R. H. Dorf, W2QMI, Associate Editor
I. Queen, W2OUX, Editorial Associate
formerly RADIO -CRAFT Angie Pascale, Production Manager
Incorporating Elmer Fuller, Shortwave Editor
RADIO & TELEVISION Tech. Illustration Director
Trademark reg,atrr,,I l'. s. Patent IItt10e G. Aliquo, Circulation Manager
Charles K. Brett,
177,000 COPIES Notional Advertising Director
OF T II I S I S S U E John J. Lamson,
New York Advertising Director
Alfred Stern, Promotion Manager

Contents May, 1949

Editorial (Page 19)
The Rodio Technician by Hugo Gernsbock 19

Television (Pages 20.31) 20

Eight -Tube Televises
Television Trends by Dr. Lee de Forest 23

All- Channel TV Tuner by Ernest J. Schultz 24

by Steve Lamoreux 26
Students Build TV Transmitter 27
Experimental TV Relay (Cover Feature)
Antennas for Television, Part V by Edward M. Noll and Matt Mandl 30

Electronics (Pages 32 -37)

Electret Behavior by Edward D. Padgett 32
by Eugene J. Thompson 35
Electronics in Medicine
Construction (Pages 38.41)
Build a Transistor
Photoflash Unit for Your Camera
by Rufus P. Turner. K6A1.
by W. C. Brown
Broadcasting and Communications (Page 42)
Telephone Lines in Broadcasting, Part II. by Leigh L. Kimball 42 PERFORMANCE
Test Instruments (Pages 43-47)
Coupling Capacitors Can be Troublesome
on T. Bailey
byY John Bile 43 Jim I.atlxing Signature
by Rufus P. Turner and Robert F. Scott 44 Speakers will provide an
Survey of Multitesters 47
by H. B. Conant almost unbelievable real-
Novel Bridge Rectifier Circuit
ism. The experience gained
Servicing (Pages 48.54) 48
Radio Set and Service Review (Air King A725 Wire Recorder) through a quarter of a
W G. Eslick
Service Notes on Philco Sets
by 49 century of leadership ill
Part IV by W. . Frye
John 49 the sound reproduction
Fundamentals of Servicing,
Television and FM Alignment byY Douglas
9 Carpenter
P 52 field has gone into their
development and design.
Radio Science (Pages 55 -58)
Y C. W. Palmer
by 55 For maximum dynamic
Microwaves, Part II
range and frequency re-
Audio (Pages 60 -61) by Walther Richter 60
Audio Impedance Matching sponse compare Jim Lan-
sing Signature Speakers
FM (Pages 68 -69)
by Max Alth 68 before you buy.
FM Set Installed in Car MODEL 0.130
Foreign News (Pages 70-72)
European Report by Major Ralph W. Hallows 70
72 Designed especially for
French Rodio Components
music systems and
Amateur (Page 79) 79 public address use.
Getting Started on 160
Iras exceptionally high
Departments efficiency. Recom-
mended for operation
The Radio Month 10 World -Wide Station List and frequencies front
16 by Elmer R. Fuller 82
Rodio Business 86 60 to 6500 C.P.S. with
New Devices 62 People
88 a maximum usable
New Patents 66 Technotes
89 range of 40 to 1.5000
The Question Box 74 Miscellany
76 Communications 92
Rodio- Electronic Circuits 97
Try This One 80 Book Reviews

Dick Hughes and

ON THE COVER: Experimental Television Relay Station W3XBR;
R. Barrett in front of the shock. Kodochrome by
Avery Slack. See MODEL D -1002
article on page 27.
Designed especially for
XX, INo. S. Published Publication Omre'In Ertem Ave.. FNI 71 onitoring and high
RADIO. ELECTRONICS, May, 1949, Volume Eructed second class September quality home sound re-
F to t; week. Philadelphia 9t. l'a. March
s +
1979. SUBSCRIPTION RATES: In C. S. and Panade. to U. S. production. Housed in a
'hlladelphia, l'a.. under the Artcentral of 3.
Ana'rian countries. $3.50; $6.00 seats. for two years; $8.00 for three years:
ssI0n.. Mt' ieo. $0t11í and for three years. Allow one beautiful console type cab-
ilgle copies :tell All other When foreign MOM r les $4.:,0 a year, $8.110 for lao stencil$11.1111 from a recent wrapper. inet.
iloptit for change of addtest. ordering a change please furnish an addressGem,back,IrpresidenVice- Pres.: G. Allot *. Sec'y.
Pres.; M. Harvey
RADCRAFT PUBLICATIONS. INC. Ilium Gernsback. Inc. Text and illustrations must not be reproduced without Write for Descriptive Catalog
',intents Copyright. 1949. by Raderait Publications. containing romple11 speeigee-
Isslnn f cl pyrIgltl BRANCH
25 West Broadway. New York 7, N. Y. Tel. RErmr e -9090. Ralph W. tions.
308 W. Washington Street. Telephone R.tndolfh 6- 7:163. SI.LosTel. Garfield 1- 9181.
ADVERTISING OFFICES: Chicago: Francisco: Ralph W. Barker, 5$2 Market SEE YOUR JOBBER OR
talkir. South Hill SI. Tel. Tucker 179:t. San
Fleet St.. Lon-
1'1111111hWg and Distributing Co.. Lid., 18 Bride Zane,
FOREIGN AGENTS: Great Britain: Atlas Ellaahelh Street. Melbourne. France: Brentano s. 37 Avenue de l'opera.
don E.('.4 Australia: McGill's Agency. 1711 124 Ilerunlede. Greece: International Ronk h News Agency.
Holland: Tri lerrndl, Il rrnulrrd -cite. Ihrer
News Agency. Lid.. Car. Itl s -1k h Commissioner SIS Johannesburg:
\nor rikis Strerl. Athens. So. Africa: Central

Capetown; 301 :smith Street, Durban. Natal. I Rook Agency. 70 Harrison Street..lohannes-
112 Lung Street, iDiatrihutorsi
. Middle East: Stcimatrky iddle Fast Agency. staffa (toad. Jer11salcm. India: $11g1 l Gupta
Atmtta Bazar Patrika Lt., 14 Anemia Chatterlee lane. Calcutta. Mount Broadway News Centre. Post Rae II 5557. Patter.
(toad, Madras 2. Pakistan: Paradise Bonk
tomboy 514. K. L. Kannaopa Modeller. 30 General Patters Road,
Stall. ODD. Regal Cinema. Preedy St.. Karachi 3. SOUND INC.
Editorial and Executive Offices: MEMBER
25 West Broadway, New York 7, N. Y.

The Success Story of Bill Smith... OR YOU!

Mails coupon to National Schools in
Los Angeles. and receives Free Lesson
Enrolls ... studies in spare time.
Finds Builds actual units part of Course.
personal attention from instructors, in- Earns money doing spare time repair
and book of Information about Radio, teresting material and practical equip- and installation work.
Television and Electronics training. ment, all increase his Interest.

Completes Course and receives Diploma

is now a qualified Radio, Television
Applies for-and GETS -a good
full time job in industry. Finds that
pay. Or he opens own profitable Service
Shop, with valuable counsel and aid
and Electronics Technician. employers know National Schools and from National Schools. Now for real
like to hire their graduates. happiness and success!




Never in history has such rapid prog- plifier systems, transmitters, televi-
ress been made as in the great Radio. sion, aviation radio, electronics. You
Television and Electronics Industry get complete instruction material, in-
today! This exciting, fast- moving de- cluding shop manual, tube manual, job
velopment means new and greater op- sheets, radio dictionary, special labo-
portunities for the trained, skilled man ratory experiment lessons, experimen-
-for you -in Television and Radio tal equipment. You receive complete,
Broadcasting. Installing. Servicing; in modern television lesson texts.
Frequency Modulation; in Applied Your Home Study is supervised by
Electronics in many industries;. in a our staff of highly trained Instructors
You Build This Superheterodyne business o/ your own! who daily teach our resident students
Receiver With Parts We Send National Home Training is Practical here. Let the Free
You receive complete standard equip- Books shown be-
Your National Schools Course fully low tell you more APPROVED
ment, including latest type High -Mu covers basic, advanced and specialized about National
Tubes, for building various experi- instruction in all phases, including FOR
mental and test units. You progress Home Training.
basic radio principles, receivers, am- Use coupon today! VETERANS
step by step until you build a com-
plete Superheterodyne Receiver. It is
yours to use and keep. NATIONAL SCHOOLS
Professional Multitester LOS ANGELES 37. CALIF. EST. 1905
This portable instrument, (see
right) enables you to perform National Schools, Dept. 5-11Ett (Mail in envelope
many practical tests, make del- 4000 South Figueroa Street or paste on
icate adjustments and do serv- Los Angeles 37, California postcard)
ice work. Complete with test
leads. Mail me FREE the book, "Your Future in Radio,"
You receive a series of special laboratory and a sample lesson of your course.
experiment lessons to guide your practical ex-
ercises with your equipment. These lessons have
been prepared with a special technique of illus-
trating radio principles by numerous easy -to- ADDRESS. I
understand examples.
Both Resident and Home Study Courses Offered CITY ZONE...___ STATE I

MAY, 1949

D Check here if veteran of World War II
.,1 , ,,. - .h lily ndlnx. 15 95
It ha. a
5500.0 i,r,'keï. ruai '121íy ,., ém.l - Il,e,, y PM for the , .1
low range and a Ily rub -n, 3- Alnico V tweeter. The high pass filter is concealed
under the pot cover. Just hook to any 8 ohm output8 transformer

twill hook in place of

any hume radio speaker. as moat speakers have an ohm voice coil). Only 2 wires to
connect, will handle 18 watts peak. Frequency response. O tu speaker. 17,000 CPS. This co- "IT WOOFS AS IT TWEETS"
axial speaker should sell for $35.00. Why buy an ordinary when we offer
you he speaker of the future: for only $10.957 The King Coax. A 21.5 os 15 Inch Alnico V PM
Stock No. CN 12X. Weight 8 lbs. 510.95. 2 for $20.95 speaker with
with a hunt -In hi h frequency tweeter.
land to from 30 to 12,000 cycles.
Will respond This is
built speaker with cury Ienier one
DELUXE 12 INCH COAXIAL MODEL CR -13X $12.95 piece molded cone. high pass eflter. Just
nook to any 8 ohm output. Built by the maker of
A regula $37.50 list speaker. The same lo:slc design as the model CN -12X. described o r popular 12 Vinci model 4 -12X. Thla
above, lout furnished with 6.8 os. magnet In the 12 fer. Frequency response, 40 to speaker has a retail list ,f over $60.00. We offer
17.000 CPS. Haft more mellow tone than CN -12X. Weight 9 lbs. S12.95. 2 15 Incha coax for only 924.95.
Model C'R -I3% 524.95 (r our
Weight 22 11íX
20- 20.000 C.P.S.

Kit Model 6 -AC. A complete flu

Why' Tray $20.00 or $30.00 for an output -
Supreme Duality and high fidelity
transfoer. Designed to match
plates 2 -01.0. 2 -6\'6, or 2-6A S) class

tubes anti ready punched chasam,.no,abaiet:, cat Ia,t purchase. from :i nu fir one budder of fine PM
ildWaa ilia 6 -M1ube AC transformer .peakers', t) hies us to offer this regular $35.00 list 15 speaker AB. to and 500 ohm; w N 10eh
to Il piece well
printed diagram and photo. Cuisine ice lax
for 1y SÚ.95. New one
n piece molded with 8 ohm voice

oll.n12 us. Alnico V magnet, will take 18 watts average audio

feedback windingg. loused in compound
flood note; 37°x41. s'3. Actual net weight.
Doff If you want the hest quality from your
/1x7. 6 -Inch lighted slide nalle dial. Re- and 25 watts peak. If you want a speaker to woof out the low audio system, order this transformer. Re-
ceives broadcast and foreign short way, to notes. buy this model. Tila is without doubt the most .speaker

Mr the money that is available today. Include postage for 11 sponse essentially flat from 20 to 20,000
to 18 MC) 3 KanK tuning condenser, pre- Il,x- Stock No. IS -KA. Net price $9.99. We nave tried several high fidelity
selection on both hands. 6V6 Output. This h(puts in our lab and find this to be the
like a est value. Even though your amplifier only
Made'fron, partsmintended foreuse by rDetrnla. KINGJUKE SO-WATT 15 -INCH P.M. SPEAKER SCOOP PRICE 516.95 iputs out 10 or 15 watts, this 34 watt Job
Priced complete with tubes. Include postage Model 15.L5 -The KING of all Juke box SI' -. um
s what u should have. Connecting Metroc.
for 10 lbs. Model 6 -AC. Net 515.95. cycles. take 'O watts peak audio and .i nstselfl-
ease. The
ently designed built today. 5 watts Inyyy r

al give 'ice the air lions are furnished. Stock No. A.403, drip -
Chassis and coils for 6 -AC described above. pine weight B Iles. Net price $6.95
receiverhave MNectir nail parts
ffer you
of aan rdinary speaker. Has 4 l e
cur ved cone. Designed to retail for $50,00, ncluae

(,:il molded one piece
for I81tbs, Stock No. la-LS.
Net price 516.95, 2 for 532.95. I THEATRE
the punched chassis, dial assWebly.
denser gang. IF coils, Ose. and RF
band switch. diagram and photo. This is
Model A-50 -12. 50 watt super heavy duty perolamn colter. Has I I,ye 8 ohm
without a doubt the best value ill the D,s.

Ice c II and one piece molded cone. Henn) aehined pot, with bolt
today. Include postage for 9 lbs. Model treated
secured 21 a Alnico V magnet. Frame is of heavy with tal pot cover. AMPLIFIER
11.14. Net 55.9 1' Mashed in silver -grey enamel. This speaker Is the local , toe 1 sx ible today. Milne.,
Kit CD-5. A complete Kit on chasms
8 Tube AC -DC circuit two to three times that of ordinary speakers. Especial!, eco n ended for all public KIT
as 0 -AC. buttais
wvlth push -pull 251.8 Output tubes. Other
.A . Include postage fnr
na 50 watts
able to offer
re audio
for short lengths of time retail
t lue11is $50.00. But. by
to you for only $14.95. Do not
fuse this speaker
S75.00 Value
s Net s1
.0 011011 m rchandise. This is the latest production, Model A -50- Weight 15 lbs.
.nn $14.95, 2 f29.0o.
BARGAIN Rat , w_
kji $246°5
$29.95 OUR $995 SPECIAL
$695 Pon ylele IS watt rue audio -fideliampli-
fie r kt. Response e sse tially flat from 20
LEADER V 17.000 cycles. Inputs for crystal mike
4 tube AC -DC. TRF radio kit- Ideal for stu. and any phono pick p, crys, magnetic
8" SLIDE RULEDIAL Made trim Detrola Components tor General electric variable reluctance. 3
REC. BROADCAST AND 19 TO 49 A lull 'ie :et
ulerhet radio kit housed
cabinet with full plastic
dents and beginners. Every part furnished to
build this kt. Including tubes. diagram and
one ntrols and fader control. Merit high
in a 13 -inoh fidelity w impregnated output. matches
i ,:tri. A real 15
see a ItpIúnér with Lase Ispoxl tone


andard 2 gang perfet circuit. Loop

punched chassis, etc. This is
Every part Is furnished including 35W4.
another one of our line production radiotubes.
rule dial. Incorporate.
Photos. Has Alnico V PM speaker and tubes.
with airplanes dial. Receives
S50 to Ì60O KC. Tbie Is the easiest
Kit Model TF -4.
Plastic 4, 8. l6. 250 and 500 ohm line. Complete
with 7 miniature tubes. II.? 6A Q5 In ut.
Diagram. photo
ME 15R net 524,95.
Chassis bKit model
ytalso I dynamic Lab. wired and tested
iuntel. Ready pstagef
for dal of
crystal liai' I2HA0. 12p0pE6, EATS. R5 and
r. W eight O lhs -°Net $6,95, 534.95. Speakers ded. Alta..- S-
lox extra gain
anti al 2 loam' 00'18. Net $63.00.
-It m

mikes. On the sen chasI is aruntish eluded. 5. dynamic speaker.Receeives

1 1 1

sndarcb Taal" ím,051.

and tubes. OSN7. IXK7, .51 17.
all partsä
his 551) to 1650 te. Weight R Ills.
Kit Model TF -6C. Net $9.95. ruidinitwatt alll
late production insulated type: assorted front
tous'. ME511.90,
Ou put t
ME-1511, except

i 4
make 57'.1, ISNs. nNu cuti chat. l This tais w sires Ido rar watts lI Aml0. Wely111 21111,.. Net 534.95.
rad an ideal et for cell
as well as
15 watt PA
ó watt soldering
100 w.1-0 5395 ,Betdon

al home recordingana CAPITOL LEATHERETTE CASE 12.P TT A.C.

t with 12 isles.
íh 12 inch PM AMP KIT 510.95
PRKker. hosto 1P Deluxe portable electronic
a .15. l !'O Ibs,m $29.95. iecord player kt in deluxe $250.00 MAGNETIC TAPE 1 1I
5. Exactly the same kit as the rocou Includes Il Wat
x P[ furnished
except a 12 inch 8 Ills.:- to wine ma.

RECORDER $149.50 3. Nit Model 12

r mamma
Weight 2tl Ills.-
coaxial l'SI speaker. 5 rad easycomplete with leather the porta de A regular $250.00 list Nation-
Amplifier el Ideal Mr high
Player well an public address o record.
, ryinll
case If-startine ally known Magnetic laps Mg amplifier.
n Matched Parts.
Ready Matched chassis One control
pickup. 5- PM rder. Makes half hour fades from to t micmicro Gain
GAROD Personal :,Iter)laal.
all lo timid 70
necessary standanl enough .fir or dynamic or
of M for rcrystal
In pap attrac- I. po ti, Pricer. for lie w'Ith
Portable RADIO 'ieht 14 it.. live leatherette portable case. W Cycle operation.
d, n . ,Plea with
n write orll deteriptiver more
furnished complete
ircular. Wes', s
Itla¢rKit and M) Net
1Uts 7 rectifier.
wired II Kit TM -12. Net $10.95.
FINEST PERSONAL la ly IAmlfliferVispoeady
..1 testeA.l Amplifier has four lunch.. 12$07. 6-VOLT POWER SUPPLY B WATT AC AMPLIFIER KIT Sß.95
KIT IN AMERICA 51)1.6. All parts a WITH PUSH PULL 6AQ5

tone and
or ery pincluded.
control. Deluxe capitol
SCOOP $2.95
lt/x VolYSO Volt Vibrator
Power$upply -Makes I I¡a Volt
A complete Kit of pans to build a R Watt
Power transformer
Volt peatonnputs for mike and
heavy wooden case Is covered h brown
LOOP ANT. GOLD FRONT leatherette and has chrome fittings and
radios work on 6 volt phono pickup either crystal or
n dr n
sportable battery. Has 4 prong l c
complete kit of parts to I,ulll a genuine speaker grill. Stock No. CC'S. Net price pack plug. Worth $10.00. Oh
dio. Only 01
1II 31,4 x 4 M. Weight
lbs. A real tiny personal battery
Model LP-COI-Same as altoVe only Dual Sale price $2.95. Stock Nu. Read) punched
to del TM -12 shown above.
Chassssimn 'speaker.

eeal with 2 pickups. $19.95. X -VT. Weight O lbs.
.,dio. Everything furnished Including lat- speed aap earIncludes
e easy to follow dl 73.0
:erles arid bly instnactiuns. A full tunes. 2 -6A This
-nperhet broadcast circuit with miniature CHILDREN'S PLAYER KIT $7.95 amplifier will
eke a tine7audio system. Re-

tonne. Metal ca with plastic lid that turns New, hildnnt'n electronic player. Offered member this it not any ordinary AC -DC
'11dio on when opened. 4 tules- 1115, IT4. in kit farm. Includes all material necessary. Amp. hut an AC with 75 Mill Power
)155 and 3X4. T
louild up into aro
personal portahle will
commercial radio. Diagram
Vand photos furnished. Stock No.X45: weight
7up. g
Attractive red plywood mot pictured) cabinet,
inlR ,hono motor anti crystal pick-
speaker and parts to build
ONLY 56.95
$4.95 extra. 12
Mike L Deskglsyná
Inch Alnico V MI Speaker
lbs. with 67a9 volt B and 11,3 volt A. oL7 amplifier. included. Stock No. 1 Ai itroadcaMs SOO to 1500 $4.95 estes.
Net 514.95. 1.1.1. Net Price $7.95. !ruin Ither
KC phono
pica -up crystal S-WATT AMPLIFIER KIT
r dynamic mike. Makes
úraph $6.95
any radio receiver P.A.
rd player or recording amplifier.
system. mp tWe
at t ipaArmte
HALLICRAFTERS fGives broadcast quality. Has fader control
rom mike to simulating regular
adeast station. This is a powerful model:
fier, for
110 Volt AC -DC
andrany phono ppIckup e

u sing 2-35133 d 35W4 tubas.

with tulles
and iring instructions. or able reluctance. Output transf000er
uses to Ohn, voice cou. Has tone and
s110oo VALUE
desk° stand $4.95 extra. ModelgIDE -6X
de -luxe mike-phono mutilator. readydupned
chcsis has
diagram. Everything
easy too (follow
2- 5ÓB5. plus Se-
2 12AXI.
lenium Rectifier. Offered at the usual price
single output type Am Kit Model
TM.... weight 8 lbs. Net 56,96. Crystal
'na $4.96 extra. 12 Inch

11-712119 FM Ada
5.71.19 FM 'AM
MODEL 5- 59..539.95
CHASSIS $5.95 MMike 5 and dr kts
Model 8.58 'calliara'sn high fidelity, I t tube AM -FM Radio receiver chassis for enstou, SCOOP!
installations. Receives stan,loOt iloadcast 540 to 1700 KC and 88 to 108 MC. Automatic 20 -WATT AMP KIT
frequency control on FM. holds thewith receiver in perfect tune. Pnono connection osystem. Farnsworth Television Ch:,v- (..model GVZ60
ofeChassis.rFull range tone ronirol hase boost. Push- 11 BKO Tube. In audio tety
partially built up Chassis ."a 12x17. Has $15.95
14.000 CPS. Wide vision scr
Frequency response essentially fla. from 50 to
calibrated slide fis
ia. with preselection two on broadcast band. Output transformer
for AM and two for FM. This is the
Tube sockets
Res tor a rmiCndenvserno
or Transformers or tuning nit. Sweep and
s) coils cls PUSH -PULL 6L6
r lete Kit of parts
matches 5110 ohm Doe. Antenna termlouls: all partially wired build a nigh quality
finest type home sotto that know of today. Better get your order In early. Designed sync. 20 Watt Audio Amplifier
ln he used to commercial radios selling In the $400.00 to $600.00 class. The regular Ths T.V. Chassis Is theca
with full 135 Mill Po
dealer's net on this chassis is 8110.00. However. lucky purchase, enables us to offer and cxerimenter. Learn T.V. b1yy building AC operation.
these brand new. factory carloned 8 llallieraftere Chassa. complete with tubes and your Transformer for 110 Volt crystal win-
less speaker. Speaker matching Transformer t. Furnished with ah1048 regularu $3.00 Inputs; for mike d either
Il tion in tructiion. at
)' $2.50l éM 50.n 25
Model 5.59, Mallicrafters, high fidelity. 8 tube F-hl -AM radio chassis for custom installa-
Supreme Publications Television
of this
Mole reluctance pick ups. Tone andr fader
controls. Has heavy duty Univertml Output
í21s " x 71íJ X 9. An excellently engineered hasstto for radio s of the ft well ecemate
t pages Transformer to match y speaker.
Ready punched
tions. Siselass. Receives broadcast 540 to 1700 kr and FM88 108 mc. Accurately formation, 16-250 and 500 Ohms.
5300.011 control. Frequency response 60 to 14.00'1 CPS. If you ant to play with Television here chassis. Easy m follow diagram. Furnished
calibrated elide
dick le dial. Variante tone
500 ohm line. A terrific value get started. with Tubes. 2-816, 2 -1N7. 724. Kit
Push -pull audio system. Output transformer matches Is a
built Model TM -20, weight 20 lbs. Net $15.95.
at only $30.05. Priced complete with tubes. but less speaker. Brand new factory car - Farnsworth
urremel ell for $5.95. Crystal
toned. Weight 18 Ili. Net $39.95.
Include postage for 14 Ihs. l',VZOO Clu,5515 raker rerommenÌe.Ì 5í.5e1 C$4.95 SX $12.99
Line to voir roll matching transformer 82.511, eCira.
only $2.95.
from This Ad. Panas F.0,0. N.C. SEND 25 °o DEPOSIT- BALANCE C.O.D.
McGEE RADIO COMPANY de Postage. Foreign ut,nea Wel

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If you have had professional or amateur radio ex-

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prove to you we have the training you need to quali- CAPITOL RADIO ENGINEERING INSTITUTE
fy for a better radio jab. To help us answer intelli- 16th & Park Road. N. W.. Dept. 145 -A. Washington 10, D. C.
gently your inquiry -Please state briefly your bark.
grow ud of experience, v duration and present position. Gentlemen: Please send your free booklet. "Your Future in the
New World of Electronics." together with full details of your home -
study training. I am attaching a brief resume of my experience.
education and present position.

Capitol Radio Check field of greatest interest:

] Practical Radio Engineering

Broadcast Radio Engineering D Television, FM & Advanced AM

Engineering Institute ] (AM. FM. TV)

Aeronautical Radio Engineering
Practical Television Engineering
]] Servicing
Advanced Electronic Communications
Radia- Electronics in Industry

An Accredited Technical Institute- Founded in 1927 STREET
Dept. I 45-A, 16th and Park Road, N. W., Washington 10, D.C. CITY ZONE STATE
Branch Offices: New York (7) 170 Broadway . San Francisco (2) 760 Market St

MAY, 1949
BUFFALO RADIO SUPPLY, 219 -221 Genesee St., Dept.RE- 3, BUFFALO 3, N. Y.

. do the job minutes a BUFRAD
in Hole es
ELECTRONIC ALTIMETER INSTANTLY, ANYWHERE!! Cut clean a rate holes for sockets, plugs.
/ \ Portable Alr Compre.
and storage tank. Rug-
gedly built of best ma-
,, connectors.
hot knife with
Cutting holes in radio
chassis is imple as cutting butter with
V. turn
ordinary w nch. In minute or less you
TUNING TUR- terials using lifetimelu- can o plete a job which often takes
BANDSWITCHING brlcated ball -bearing on r with the Id "drllin reaming and
RET made by Western Electric. Covers connecting rod and oil Ming" method. With BUFRAD punches you
ibands above 100 MC. A11 coils wound Impregnated main bear- ke 13 different ises of openings
lib =14 silver- plated wire. Complete re from too 2tí diameter.
with tuning condensera and powerful
electric driving motor. Diagram in-
® -E ® o
ing on shaft. Unusual de-
sign forever eliminates rake
trouble. the most common
1 I ye
I IB "t U,. ,
" Size
15/32 ". l3 /IB"
This famous ISxtIx7 CAA approved unit. f(
whirl Ms. without plugs or
ighs only 25 fault in air compressors. 0.0
Ry" Illy,
AUDIO AMPLIFIER Brand new. - cables. light enough for the smallest plane.
cost the govt $2000. and includes a trans'
Rter. receiver. all tubes, altitude Indio.-
PATENTED unique air in-
take system increases effi-

Push -Pull stage triode amplifiers having tor, altitude limit switch, d two easily In- ciency tremendously over 200 hm. 25 watt Claroatat heavy duty
2 of the valuable and acaree ouncer type stalled Is Working the other compressors so that air cutout i, much rheostat. The perfect ize for tube testers.
le he "receiver the solute also useful In merles with 110 volt line for
audio transformers that sell for over greater than that from larger roinpreSSora w

altitude from 3 to 4000 feet with precision trolling such units s electro-plating or
$10.00 each. Neat aluminum lase. fully

enough for blind landings. In addition the powered by heavier motors. Will deliver appr. model train power xuppnes, battery
batte chargers.
enclosed (largest dimension 0 Inches). altitude limit switch gives an alarm if the 3500 cu. in air per min. at maintained for varying the speed
numerable other uses.
p ,d of tors. In-
Regular price $5.20.
Perfect for intercom system, phono am- lane's height varie. more than 10 feet from pressure of 30 lbs., or will inflate 90 lb. cost 90e.

pllfier. mike amplifier or signal tracer any adjusted value. This unit might also truck tire in less than 1 min. Complete with
amplifier for testing radio sets. A sen- d us ed warn boats of any obstacle that Is
on Heir course. 12V. 575.00. 28 volt model 100 Ib. gauge, fingertip adjustment allows "P.M. SPEAKERS"
sational bargain at only... 53.40 each
DUAL METER -One 50 uA and one
200uA movement In the same case. This
45.00. setting of output pressure at any value.
which will automatically he maintained.
Works from any HP. motor. I'setui for
Latest tpe PM Speaker In
full .enclosed finished metal
, .Q
AT LAST spraying paints or lacquers. disinfectants, march communication
meter is ideally spited for use es You CAN Insecticides, annealing or brazing with natu- eivere, and to addition
e c=:1O
combination modulation percentage and make perfect intercom re-
carrier shift Indicator. If desired the AFFORD A ral gas, inflating tires, etc. Price $14.50
postage prepaid anywhere in U.S. Efficient
mote stations. Our
45O. Including
movements may he removed from the LABORA- adjustable syphon type spay gun complete °. $4.95
se and used separately for voltmeters. TORY with 12 ft. of 100 lb. tested hose for only These PM sleakr s ar the One t
ohmmeters. meters, etc. All meters are STAND- $7.75 with pint container, also prepaid. that are available. All have heavy oversize
In perfect operating condition, but a Alnico V magnets
few have cracked glasses. This
iffy $1.15... 66 or 16.60
value costs only 51 e5 4 $1.15.. or $6.60
11.10....106 or

VOLTER 1949 MODEL s. 19.50

6.54. Oval
or .70
r $10.50
6 (Car Radié Side) $4.50.... 6 for $21.50
10 oz... $3.95.... 6 for 120.50

21 0 .14.95.... 6 for 126.50
21 os ..55.50.... 6 for $30.00
78E st.m.rd Signal loner.- 12 21 0....17.95.... 6 15, 542.00
tor. 50 to 70
H OME WORKSHOP AT BARGAIN PRICE. d with 40cycle $52.95
No possibility of Rood
AUTO- TRANSFORMER -Steps up 110V. or
AccuraW and precise 2 speed steps down 220v to 110v-11.95.
FO B.nn.
hobby lathe, the essential hine for tubes reading "Bad' 6.3v. 3 Amps. -51.35: Unl-
the home w kshop. Sturdy enough for
fern., standby N. fur $310.00 net),
J.BOO. is available in per- bad tubes reading
conductance Output Tna. n 8 Watt -69e: 18 Watt -
production work feet condition for 25 to 00 cycles. 115V AC testers or other nary 51.219; 30 Watt-$1.69. AUDIO
MightIce. Supplied with 30- of belting for
connecting to anyy available
otor or power
Also included
lab Uequipment
buyers have only Vainly hoped would
be re-
tdrrttifit emission testers. Attractive
Panel and case equal to
o P.P. Grid 196; Heavy Duty Class
io this unbelievable offer h ac- leased at bargain price. Worth ol every anyy o n the market in p- Ali or
for AC -DC sets-411e; TRRANSFORMER
cessories /atooldrillsteel
chuck with ape -
jaws. acturer
the manufacturer ks. but a ilable Fled

. Large 41,5°
tad as for T -17 Shure microphone. similar to UTC
clally hardened Ál4. Buffalo while our limited supply lasts for ell `as a BadC scale Front r typteRrr 52.ÓO. Stanco, SR or DB mike
electric furnace high speed grinding only $79.95. . Individual sockets for all tubebase or
cotton bui nR heel with
large eup`,lyy of bumlhh compound. and a Such companies
Meek, Inc., have ordered from us and re- é
Admiral Corp. and John fuse
types-voltages from volts to 117 volts
and complete switching flexibility allow all
110V. 00 ey. Centertapped HV winding.
4 reel scratch brush. Your cost
pport agent. Distributor
peated present future tubes to be testes either 2.5 or 6.3V filament when
ytheirr labs land production ne -
$6.00. Sole baseless of elements on tube Specify R.
inquiries invited. testing. gas content and detects ftarin
or 4 -5 tube ta -650V, 4011A. SV
ONAL. FASCINATING, MY5- Uses 1.0002. -7Y4, 1íR 150 -30, 1.707.
shorts or opens on each Individual section or
TESI . Brand new Set. and 1.7C5 tubes. continuously vari- lottal. octal and miniature tunes in- Fors 5 -It 3ssets-650V. 5MÁ. ST 31.4B
node by G. E Company. Two
connected work perfectly
able ront O 000 tMicroovolts oall
cluding cold cathode, magi< eye and voltas
regulator as For B-7 tube3s is-675V, SOMA. SV
Any rotation of the shaft
11O V "AAC. And sistors. Marne f the l nationallyll known A 2.5 or 0.3V 1.90
ofof Selcyn and all others ,nested VACUUM TUBE withheld because of special For 7.8 tube sets-700V. 7OMA. ST
to it will nitrite exactly as many degrees ce offer.
pamanufacturer 6.3 or two 2.5V
in the same direction- following uner- VOLT -OHM- CAPACITY METER Model W.-Sloping front counter For 7 -8 tube sets -700V, 7OMA. ST
if $12.91 0 0.3 125 Cycles) 3.50
This true
shaftingtsinstead `of "wred
whether you the shaft
There are more into this
re features engineered
all11 purposeinstrument Man any other Model "P
Handsome hand -rubbed
For 8 -9 tube la -700V 90MA. SV-
3A. 2.5V -3.SA. 2..5-10.5A ........2.55
this masternyllrevolutions. revo- on the market regardless of price. cell chart. with it her of For 9 -11 tube aets-700V, 5V A 6.3V-
lution Useful for It designed not only to meet present above 5.00 extra. 2.E1
Indicating direction of weather vanes. conditions but lapis reader da tame to
prl For U -I5 tube sets-8001'. . i' t. -1

rotating directional antennas. con- future needs. At th ply I A 0.:1V 2.55

trolling Innumerable operations °from a
trolling of this precision instrument no school, plant
dl stance. Com- or need
Mete with dia- thee kshopn AC -DC POCKET TESTER
Here a few of the many` features of this
sructi,ans Per outstanding meter:
s Inch easy to read meter. This analyzer. featuring a sensitive repulsion ANTENNA
Matched Pair 6 DC voltage ra an from O to me0ohm 1000 V type meter housed in a bakelite case. repre-
14.55. tans high as 1 sents the culmination of 15 years achieve-
yy(Inpu1eK ment in the Instrument field by a large
STROMBERG CARLSON sr AC voltage ranges from O to 1000 V company specializing in electronic test
dry disc rectifier to age
Power Switching Relay Box. Neat .No destroy
and acy th equipment.
31x4x51,1J" Steel case with tight of thi
VACUUMTUSE Specifications of the AC -DC Model
Volt -Ohmm Il l iammet er:
fitting cover finished in Strom- Resistance AC Volts
berg's usual beautiful chocolate r toe 1000 25, 50, 125, 250
DC Volts -0 -25, 50. 125. 250

color crackle finish $1.00

.000025 to 20 " FD Mr5m MHHiMaperes AC to 50 -0
DC Milliamperes
%hero center oto50
discriminators. Ohms Full Seale-
Isolating resistor built into
s probe. 100,000
'May be used at ay voltage Sturdy natural finish hard
Ohms Center Scale
lower than rating) wood u of 2400
allows lie pparallelled for leadngoutstanding tocero fete Rh equipment Capacity
battery Ihs FInK) costs only $39.50 VI anpl,te .i 6.l1 leads, .05 to 15 MM.
25 MA O Volt S .45 as illustrated. Total Price. prenald
75 MA 120 Volt .70 anywhere In the USA
Ibn MA 120 Volt .75
t50 MA 120 Volt .50 -$7.00. Similar DC
1.05 Meter. lacking the AC
200 MA 1211 Volt
$TL05TAKES BARGAIN"C" operated ranges of
A wave, Mayy te helms)(All three items above. $5.50 prepaid.
used for replacement. or In construction 18x8x7 that
"s all types of test equipment- $1.21. ALUMINUM
fns two powerful electric motors
Half Wave-90c. asd two matched gear trains. 62 gears
CERAMIC INSULATED VARIABLE to all varying in size from .a to 4 This unit is readily
inches in ,Ìiemet.r.
AIR CONDENSERS a ted to mode In bean, antenna
350 mmfd, anyother OUR PE -109 DIRECT CURRENT
tb mml535a10fifor 12.90
loo for $23.00
$2] 00
for 52.90
$2'90for Thia
v familiarly known bysen
Bell. and
luable unit. made by the D. S.
aed In
This looser nl:u,l Co
Wine that a Is pled to
of a gasoline e,.
2000 watt 32 volt
DC generator. This unit Is Ideal for use in 1R1 BRS 1R3 BR4 BRS
made of
100 for 123.00 Army designation case Wes locations that are not serviced by commercial All of our dio uc
f 5.40 -10 for $3.40 highly polished aluminum of power or to any of the surplus items triple plated Admiralty Brass Tubing. Com-
I00 for $26.00
l 5.45-10 for $3.70
100mfoe $30.00
51 §x21. Ç. and romains
denser opacity,
stators. and terminal stripof only .$1.95-
"rice f
Mat require 24 -32vDC for operation. The
this power plant tested and n good
non is only $79.95 F.O.B. condition
plete with low lost shielded antenna leads
high quality fittings.
COWL -BR -1. 3 sections extend to 00.
75 $4.40 era, at the giveaway price can condition Your price-single units -51.60; In lots of
100od 1.553á10ó for for $5.85 F.O.H. New York City. slat. 12 -5135 ea.
ter are exactly SKYSCRAPER -BR -2 has heavy duty are-
100 mini 1.55 -10 for
100 for $39.00
140 mmf 5.50 -10 for $7.40
100 for $64.00
containing° Y potent)
ometers. triple pole switch.
t't her received.
strapped govt
lions thas extend OS. This super-aerial
must be seen to be full apprecia
price- single units -52.60: in Iota of 12-
f -10 for $1.50 casew, we 12.23
100 for51.00
160 ante to TILT ANGLE -HR -3, may be adjusted to all
570.00 4 knobs. phone jack. gear
2 Gang 145 t 51.60 -10 for $13.50
100 far $100.00
Butterfly condensers. rotor has double
mechanism and revolution
counter. Including $ prong
JAN connector to fit box - tl ,jl) deterrapin if the
Individual units
them dition is
body contours. 3 sections extend to 60.
1.50 ea.
unit price -$1.75; 12 lot price
single hole fender or too
ball hearings and a a shaft.
1S mml. per section 1.50- 10 for $4.50
100 for $40.00
1 1
._ ie u d. while
the $79.95 are
cowl mounting nt y be adjusted to conform
all body contours. 4 sections tend to
0 -. Single unit price -$3.00; 12 Blot price
30 mml. per section 5.60 -10 for $5.50 fat pwith
100 for 150.00 SWITCHES that we have brought to Buffalo for testing -$2.75 ea.
50 mint. per section $.70 -10 for $1.10 TOGGLE and repair if necessary. We do not THE MONARCH -8R.5. single hole top cowl
100 $60.00 Order Number mend gambling on the 'a5 Is" condition. mounting. 3 sections extend to 59. Single
M anufoelurerx am distributors write 350 except for quantity purchasers. We an also unit price-13.00; 12 lot Ice -91.71
SW.11- Single Pole. Single Throw
converter that will supply 110v AFTER SEEING OUR ANTENNAS AND

for pelees on larger quantities. SW-12-Single Pole. Double Thron' .. 450 DIY
WE HAVE OVER usosion VARIABLE SW.13- Double Pole. Single Throw 57c AC from the above


1 NI ENSF'RS IN STOCK. _5W.14- Double role, 'Motile Throw 69c DC source for $12.95.



we my éefpj'oa
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When you complete your training, our YOU BUILD and KEEP'
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most effective faster, easier IDeforest's 1
use of today's important fundamentals
dvanhage ter, march,
on the
2533 N. Ashland Ave., Dept. RC -F5
la help you
atinan to see electrons march, I Chicago 14, Illinois 1

®j What
W °chore'- °
at home.
and other
Ihal speeds your
progress. I Without obligation, send me complete facts showing how I may make my 1
home training start in Television -Radio -Electronic,.
1 1
Name Aga 1

Affiliated with the DeVry Corporation, Builders of Electronic and Moyle Equipment
1 City Zone State 1
MAY, 1949
o I
The Radio Month
According to State Police Commis -
,ioner Donald S. Leonard, the sets are
IFF models BC-64'7-A and BC- 966 -A.
Some of them have tubes six inches
lung and three -quarters of an inch in
diameter, containing a detonator cap
and a quantity of TNT, the purpose of
which was to destroy the set should the
enemy attempt to open captured equip-
ment to seek information about its con-
How the sets got into the surplus
market with their detonators in place is
not known. There have been sporadic
reports of single sets discovered with
detonators intact, and Australian ama-
teurs were warned a few months ago
that a quantity of IFF transmitter -
receivers already in their hands were
dangerous and would blow up if any
attempt were made to open them. The
explosive charge is small, but quite suf-
ficent to injure any would -be investi-
gator very seriously.


moved from apartment house roofs if
JOHN H. POTTS. engineer, editor, they were not authorized by the land-
author, and publisher, died March 16, lord, an all- tenant jury ruled in New
at the age of 56. A heart ailment was York last month.
the cause of death. Mrs. Estelle Sherer refused to pay
Mr. Potts was a graduate of the Uni- her rent for two months because the
versity of Chicago, in which city he was landlord took down her TV antenna.
born. He came to New York in 1918 and The landlord tried to evict and Mrs.
worked as engineer with RCA, General Sherer counter-sued for three times the
Electric, Westinghouse, and Sperry be- value of her receiver, saying that the
fore entering the publishing field. removal of the antenna was a "partial
He was best known to engineers as eviction. The superintendent had given
editor and publisher of Audio Engi- his permission for the installation, she
neering and editor of its predecessor, testified, but last December an official
Radio. To amateurs he was equally well of the owner corporation removed it
known as the founder and publisher of from the roof.
the amateur magazine CQ. In charging the jury, the judge stated
that the superintendent could not per-
mit an antenna installation because he
DANGEROUS SURPLUS equipment was not an officer of the corporation.
reported from Michigan, where the Furthermore, he said, referring to Mrs.
State Police have broadcast a warning Sherer's claim of partial eviction, the
that more than 1,000 war -surplus radio roof was not a part of her rented prem-
sets have been sold with detonators at- ises, and therefore she could not be
tached to them. "evicted" from it.
RANGES at 20,000 ohms per volt DC,
1000 ohms per volt AC VOLTS:
AC & DC -2.5, 10, 50, 250, 1,000, 5,000
10, 100, 500, MA -10 AMP -100 MICRO AMP
0-2,000 (12 center), 0. 200,000 (1200 center),
0 -20 MEGOHMS (120,000 ohms center)
(5 ranges)-10 to +52 DB

5200.5218 W. KINZIE ST.. CHICAGO 44, ILL.

Leff- Examining a detonator token from o surplus set. Right -A closeup of the detonator.
The Radio Month
EDWIN H. COLPITTS, 77, retired not be a problem, said Wayne Coy,
vice -president of Bell Telephone Lab- chairman of the Federal Communica-
oratories and inventor of the Colpitts tions Commission last month. The state-
oscillator circuit, died on March 6. Dr. ment was believed to be a reply to the
Colpitts held 24 patents and was noted many rumors that present television
for his work with magnetic coils, his receivers would be useless in the near
efforts in adapting electron tubes for future if u.h.f. channels are adopted.
"The Commission would not be taking
the time to revise the standards for the
presently available service," said Mr.
Coy, "if it had in mind eliminating in
the near future the use of these chan-
nels for television service.
"I think this question of obsolescence
of television receivers is something of
a tempest in a teapot. I do not think
that anyone buying a television set to-
day has had a fraud perpetrated on
them. I can assure them that wherever
a television signal is available from a is,l ATP Booth 82
v.h.f. transmitter, their sets will render Ra.1,o Parts Snow
ay 16 to 20- CI,,cago
them fine service for many years and EEAff
can be converted to render fine service BATTERY
for them if ultra -high frequencies are
utilized. ..


in existence, it appears. Last month's
National Antiques Show at Madison

long -distance telephone circuits, and his

Square Garden in New York featured
American items of every description -
pre- revolutionary pottery, Pennsylvania
studies of capacity unbalance between Dutch cupboards, 19th century ball
adjacent telephone -line pairs. gowns, to mention a few items.
Dr. Colpitts' telephone work began in Right in the middle of the show, oc-
1899 when he joined the American Bell cupying its own small spot, was a 1938
Telephone Company. He worked with RCA television receiver, one of the first
the Armed Forces in both World Wars. commercial models made. Without radio
or phonograph and able to tune only
A. ATWATER KENT, at one time five channels, the 1938 set sold 11 years
world's largest manufacturer of radio ago for $850, almost twice what a mod-
receivers, died in California March 4, at ern combination instrument would cost
the age of 75. Atwater Kent's original on today's market.
radios were perhaps the only broadcast
receivers ever to use "breadboard" WINDOW TV ANTENNAS may be-
mounting. Beautifully finished com- twe more widespread in New York
ponents were mounted above the board, City as the result of a ruling in Bronx
and the wiring was carried in grooves Supreme Court last month. Joseph Ein- TESTING AUTO RADIOS
on its underside. Turning to more con- son, a tenant in an apartment house, New Models ... Designed for testing
ventional sets, he stepped his production was in court with landlord D. Green- D. C. Electrical Apparatus on Regular .

up to a peak of 6,000 receivers a day, stein, Inc., to determine whether Mr. A. C. Lines. Equipped with Full -Wave
selling $60,000,000 worth of sets in Einson's window antenna -objected to Dry Disc Type Rectifier. Assuring Noise- 7
1929. by the landlord -should remain. Justice less. Interference -Free Operation and


tired director of the Westinghouse ex-
perimental laboratory at Bloomfield,
Eugene L. Brisach ruled that it might
remain, provided the tenant obtained
liability insurance ranging from $10,-
000 to $20,000 to protect the landlord
Extreme Long Life and Reliability.

4.'ZfZ.'Z 4-Z#-Z# Zf
N. J., died March 23 at his home in in case of any accident attributable to
East Orange, N. J. the antenna.
. Dr. Rentschler had carried on ex-
perimental work with lamps and elec- WWVH is the call of the new Bureau
tronic tubes since 1917, when he joined of Standards station recently estab-
the Westinghouse staff. Before that he lished on the Hawaiian island of Maui.
had been a professor of physics at the Time and frequency standards are be-
University of Missouri for nine years. ing broadcast experimentally on 5, 10,
He was the author of numerous con- and 15 mc. As with WWV, the Bureau's
tributions to scientific publications, main station in Beltsville, Md., WWVH AUTO RADIO VIBRATORS
chiefly on electronic tubes and electric is modulated with a standard 440 - A Complete Line of Vibrators ...
lamps, and was the holder of more cycle A, as well as audio pulses at ac- Designed for Use in Standard VibratorOper-
than 100 patents, most of them in those curate 1- second intervals. The audio ated Auto Radio Receivers. Built with Pre -
two fields. tone starts at the hour and continues cision Construction. festering Ceramic Stack
Spacers for Longer Lasting Life.
Possibly Dr. Rentschler's best -known for 4 minutes, followed by 1 minute of
invention is the Sterilamp, the ultra- silence; this sequence is repeated V NEW DESIGNS
violet light that destroys bacteria in throughout the hour. Greenwich Mean
the air. Less well known, but even more
spectacular, was his feat of refining the
Time is given in code every 5 minutes.
All transmissions are interrupted for
Q A' Bete, Elrn m.,o,. DC-AC tn.,nm,

Su won f, f
Auto R.di Vlb.lws
as await
first uranium used in the development about 4 minutes on the hour and half- AMERICAN TELEVISION 8 RADIO CO
of the atomic bomb. hour and for about 30 minutes at 0700 f;lunkty rP'má.rtPJ S<.«< /,;_-7,/
and 1900 GMT. PAir,rJ( '

MAY. 1949


Instant switching to plates or amplifier
from front panel.
Sweep generator supplying variable
sweep 15 cycles to 30,000 cycles.
All controls on front panel.
Cased electrostaticly shielded 110 V.

1 éanddtr
60 cycle power transformer.
AC test voltage on front panel.
External synchronization post on front
)e4wencY Deflection sensitivity .65 V. per inch
AndYaer. full gain.
putotion Frequency response ± 20% from 50
Hratbkit enÑeatbki tii?aY;Wr` cycles to 50 Kc.
°aGe"ernto Input impedance 1 Megohm and 50 MMF.
tor"e" The Heathkit 5" Oscilloscope fulfills every
servicing need. The husky cased power trans-
former supplies 1100 Volts negative and
1949 MODEL 350 Volts positive. Tubes supplied are two
6$J7 amplifiers, 884 sweep generator, two
'eatllei" VACUUM TUBE 5Y3 rectifiers, and 5BP1 CR tube. Grey
crackle aluminum cabinet and beautiful grey
and maroon panel. Chassis especially de-

VOLTMETER KIT signed for easy assembly.

An oscilloscope provides endless sources
of experimentation in radio, electronics, 3950
medicine and scientific research.
eatcuced Detailed instructions make assembly fun
and instructive. Shipping Wt., 24 lbs.
Express only. ELSE TO BUY
New 200 ua Meter.
24 Ranges.
New Accessory M.V. Probe makes
Heathkit a kilovoltmeter. (Extra) ?tecv'eatickit SIGNAL TRACER AND
New Accessory RF Probe extends range
to 100 megacycles. (Extra) UNIVERSAL TEST SPEAKER KIT
A new Model V -2 Heathkit VTVM with The popular HeathLit signal tracer has now

ditional ranges -
new 200 microampere meter, four ad-
full scale linear ranges
on both AC and DC of 0.3 V., 10 V.,
been combined
at no increase
with a universal test speaker

- - -
in price. The same high
quality tracer follows signal from antenna
locates intermittents

30 V.. 100 V., 300 V. and 1,000 V. to speaker de-
Accessory probe listed elsewhere in ad
extends voltage range to 3.000 and 10.000
fective parts quicker
ice time
saves valuable serv-
gives greater income per service

volts D.C. New model has greater sen. hoar. Works equally well on broadcast
sitivity, stability and accuracy still the FM or TV receivers. The test speaker has

- - --
highest quality features shatterproof assortment of switching ranges to match
push pull or single output impedance. Also
plastic full view meter face
meter protection, push pull electronic
voltmeter circuit, linear scales
- $1q5° -
tests microphones, pickups
comes complete cabinet
PA systems
110 V. 60

scale ohmmeter measures 1/10 ohm cycle power transformer tubes, test probe,
all parts and derailed instructions for as-

to 1 billion ohms with internal battery ELSE TO BUY
isolated DC test prod for dynamic meas. sembly and use. Shipping Wt., 8 lbs.
urements 11 megohm input resistance
on DC AC uses electronic rectification
wits 6H6 tube. All these features and 'Wea.t&eie ELECTRONIC SWITCH KIT
Comes complete with cabinet - - panel three tubes -
still the amazing price of only 524.50.
new Mallory
switches -test prods and leads, 1% ceramic divider resistors and all
An electronic switch used with any
other parts. Complete instruction manual for assembly and use. Better oscilloscope provides two separately
start your laboratory with this precision instrument. Ship. Wt.. 8 lbs. controllable traces on the screen. Each
trace is controlled independently and
the position of the traces may be
varied. The input and output traces
of an amplifier may be observed one
beside the other or one directly over

the other illustrating perfectly any
change occurring in the amplifier. Dis-
tortion phase shift and other de-
RF SIGNAL feas show up instantly, 110 Volt 60
cycle transformer operated. Uses 5
tubes (1 6X5, 2 6SN7's, 2 6SJ7's).
GENERATOR KIT Has individual gain controls, position-
ing control, and coarse and fine sweep-
ing rate controls. The cabinet and

$1950 panel match all other Heathkits. Every

part supplied including detailed in-
structions for assembly and use. Ship-
ping Wt.. 11 lbs.



Every shop needs a good signal generator. The Heathkit fulfills every An ideal way to learn radio. This kit is complete
servicing need, fundamentals from 150 Kc. to 30 megacycles with ready to assemble, with tubes and all other parts.
strong harmonics over 100 megacycles covering the new television Operates from 110 V. AC. Simple, clear detailed
and FM bands. 110 V. 60 cycle transformer operated power supply. instructions make this a good radio training course.
400 cycle audio available for modulation or audio testing. Uses Covers regular broadcasts and short wave bands.
6SN7 as RF oscillator and audio amplifier. Complete kit has every Plug -in coils. Regenerative circuit. Operates loud
part necessary and detailed blueprints and instructions enable the speaker. Shipping Wt., 3 lbs.
builder to assemble it in a few hours. Large easy to read calibration. HS30 Headphones per sea 1.00
Convenient size 9" x 6" x 4!a ". Shipping Wt., 4t/2 lbs. 2t/z" Permanent Magnet Loudspeaker
Mahogany Cabinet



EQUIPMENT must be good!

rorr,nhMrrch irrets rdidrmi.g

i Coem,

nd yarfdieg

}{etbkit g;Ge


mau qCadair»
Everything you want in a television alignment generator. A wide band sweep generator
alignment -
covering all FM and TV frequencies marker indicator
variable calibrated sweep width 0 -30 Mc.
AM modulation for RF
mechanical driven inductive
sweep. Husky 110 V. 60 cycle power transformer operated
with 10,000 to 1 range -high output on all ranges - step type output attenuator

band switching for each range
verner driven main calibrated dial with over 45 inches of calibrations vernier driven
calibrated indicator marker tuning. Large grey crackle cabinet 16-1/8" x 10.5/8" x 7-3/16".

Phase control for single trace adjustment. Uses four high frequency triodes plus 5Y3 rectifier
split stator tuning condensers for greater efficiency and accuracy at high frequencies -
every part - -
cabinet calibrated panel --
this Heathkit is complete and adequate for every alignment need and is supplied with
all coils and condensers wound, calibrated
and adjusted. Tubes, transformer, test leads

assembly and use. Actually three instruments in one
TV sweep generator TV AM generator and TV marker
every part with instruction manual for

indirstor. Also covers FM band. Deliveries start ea ly in
Mars s. Order early.


ideal way to convert
tk t*


AUDIO GENERATOR KIT military sets. 110 V. GO

cy. transformer operated.
Supplies 24 volts for
filament no wiring
s345ó changes inside radio.
Also supplies 250 V.
D.C. plate voltage at
50 -60 MA. Connections %loi k:01
direct to dynamotor in-
put. Complete with all ELSE TO BUY
ELSE TO BUY $5.95 parts and detailed in-
structions. Ship. Wt.,
6 pounds.
Experimenters and servicemen working with a Bridge type circuit Power factor scale
square wave for the first time invariably wonder 110 V. A.C. TRANSMITTER Magic eye indicator Measures resistants
why it was nor introduced before. The charac-
teristics of an amplifier can be determined in POWER SUPPLY KIT 110 V transformer
Measures leakage
Checks paper.mfca-
seconds compared to several hours of tedious For BC -645, 223, All scales on panel I.ctrelytics
plotting using older methods. Stage by stage. 522. 274N's, etc.
amplifier testing is as easy as signal tracing. Ideal for powering Checks all types of condensers, paper -mica-
The low distortion (less than try) and linear military transmitters. electrolytic -ceramic over a range of .00001 MED
output ( ± one db.) make this Heathkit equal Supplies 500 to 600 to 1000 MFD. All on readable scales that are
or superior to factory built equipment selling for volts at 150 to 200 read direct from the panel. NO CHARTS OR
three or four times its price. The circuit is the MA plate, 6.3 C.T. at MULTIPLIERS NECESSARY. A condenser
popular RC tuning circuit using a four gang 4 Amps., 6.3 at 4 checker anyone can read without a college
variable condenser. Three ranges 20 -200. 200- Amps.. and 12 V. at education. A leakage test and polarizing voltage
for 20 to 500 volts provided. Measures power
2.000, 2,000 -20.000 cycles are provided by
selector switch. Either sine or square waves
4 Amps. Can be com-
bined to supply 3.6- $14.50 factor of electrolytics between 0% and 50 %.
instantly available at slide switch. All com- 9.12 or 24 volts at 4 amperes. kit sup- 110 V. 60 cycle transformer operated complete
with rectifier and magic eye tubes, cabinet, cali-
ponents are of highest quality, cased 110 V.
60 cycle power transformer, Mallory F.P. filter
plied complete with husky 110 V. 60
cycle power transformer, 5U4
oil filled condensers, cased choke, punched
red brated panel, test leads and all other parts.
Clear detailed instructions for assembly and
condensers, 5 tubes, calibrated 2 color panel,
grey crackle aluminum cabinet. The detailed
instructions make assembly an interesting and
instructive few hours. Shipping \Vt., 13 lbs.
chassis, and all other parts, including
detailed instructions. Complete
else to buy. Shipping Wt., 22 lbs.
use. Why guess at the quality and capacity of
a condenser when you can know for less than a
twenty dollar bill. Shipping Wt., 7 lbs.


MAY. 1949


NO. 257. Plug in transmitter
tuning unit from army Walkie
Talkie. Contains antenna and
tank coils, tuning condenser,
NO. 226. Primary 117V. 60 cycle. I transmitting and receiving crys-
Secondaries supply 746 V.CT at 220 tals. Ideal transmitter founda-
MA, 6.3V. at 4.5 A., and SV. at 4A. tion. Shipping Wgt.

- - - - --
Will handle 13 tube radio receivers. 1 lb. Each
Supply is limited, order early. Ship. (Same as above except trans-
PE101C BC645 POWER SUPPLY ping Weight 11 lbs. each. mitter crystal in 80 meter ama-
NO. 273. Complete power supply teur band $2.50 each)
for BC 645. 0 from 12 or $3.95 . . 3 for $9.95
410_ MIMEO

24 Volts. Supplies both AC and DC T30 THROAT MICROPHONE
required. Shipping NO. 258. Makes excellent contact
Wgt. 13 lbs. Each $3.95 T32 TABLE MICROPHONE per
microphone for musical instil:-
DM 35 12 VOLT DYNAMOTOR ment or vibration pick -up. Ship-
NO. 210. One of the Army's best. ping Wgt. I lb.
NO. 274. New input 12 Volt at 18.7 Built by Kellogg, ideal for factory $1.00 each
Amperes. Supplies 675V at 275 MA Extension cord with switch for
call system, public address, amateur above
-ME- Eta
S .50 each
or 1/2 above voltage from 6 volts. Ex. use. Brand new In original cartons.
cellent for auto use. Ship. Add postage for 5 lbs.

--- -- -- =,
NO. 211. Tiny Delco motor only 1" x with Weston Model 476 AC Voltmeter
1 HOME WORKSHOP GRINDER KIT I4á "x2" 10,000 RPM. Operates from 6 I NO. 208. Excellent buy in motor control
to 24 V. Excellent for mod- box. Site 8 "xl0 "x56= ".Contains Wes-
NO. 230. Easily assembled 110V
AC or DC ball bearing fully en. els. Add postage for 1 Ib. $2.95 ton 0.150V. AC 31'2" voltmeter, motor
closed motor from Army surplus starting switch, 28 fuses all 30 Amp
dynamotor. Purchaser to make OUTPUT TRANSFORMER , 110V. and 8 fuse holders. Fuses and
simple changes and shaft exten- holders alone worth the price. I
sions, detailed instructions and oll
ports supplied. Motor approxi-
NO. 227. Push pull 6V6's to 6 - 8 ohm
voice coil excellent c
I Shipping Weight 18 lbs.P 7 $7.95

marely 5,000 R.P.M. Ideal for characteristics, 3 $1.95
tool -post grinder, flexible shaft I METER SPECIAL
$3.95 NO. 737. Brand new Dolor Model

tool, model drill press, sow. Ship.

NO. 246. New RCA No. CKV30531 AC 312 0.800 M.A. D.C. Square 3" 0 -10
ping Weight 6 lbs. current 750 MA DC current 2 Amperes.

I M.A. basic meter with built in i
Rated 1.75 hen ries. Ship- shunt. Probably the best buy
ping wgt. 4 Ib s. Each $1.00 offered in a surplus meter.t
Shipping Weight 1 Ib. X2.95
NO. 278. Brand new controls used NO. 247. New cased 110 V 60 Ry,
on the ART /13, 100 Watt, Trans. Power Transformer. Supplies 440V ar.
'tter. Types 7, 8, 10, and 11 avail- at 60 MA, 6.3V at 2A. and 12.6 V tI HEARING AID HEADPHONES
able. Get a spare while available
as new cost is over $22.00 each.
tri 1 Amp. Excellent for military s eb.
Shipping Wght.
NO. 216. The Army's best -
eliminate flat
ears and outside noise. Complete with
Shipping Wgt. 3 lbs. Price any type
(mention when
6 lbs. Each. $1.95 transformer for conversion from low to
ordering). Each $4.50 RCA INPUT TRANSFORMER
high impedance. With cord and plug
NO. 248. Heavy duty RCA No CKV.
30529. Input has primaries 600 to 200
Add postage for 1 lb. $1.00
NO. 209. Rated 300 MA at 36 and 25 ohms secondary 250,000 ohms
Volts, complete with mounting C.T. Shipping Wgt. BC 451 CONTROL BOX
brackets. Shipping 2 lbs. Each $1.00 NO. 236. Control box for 274N
transmitters. Contains proper cw-
Wgt. 1 Ib. 3 FOR $1.00
FEDERAL POWER TRANSFORMER voice switch, 4 channel switch,
NO. 252. New cased 110V 60 cy. power switch, mike jack and tele-
1N90 FEED THROUGH INSULATOR Power Transformer. Supplies 480V CT graph key.
NO. 276. Heavy duty feed at 50 MA and 6.3 V at 2.1 Amps. A Add postage for 2 lbs.
through, 2" diameter 4' long, $1.95
beautiful transformer. Shi
complete with brass hard-
ware and gasket. Shipping
ping Wgt. 4 lbs. Each 4. 1.50 100 MA FILTER CHOKE
No. 641. Heavy 1.5 henry choke in
2 FOR drown steel case, 50 ohm resist-
NO. 229. Convert yourY military re. I ance, conservatively rated at 100
ceivers without rewiring the filament. MA. Shipping Wt. 1lb. 504
1N86 STRAIN INSULATOR "A" type supplies 500 VCT at 50 MA,
NO. 277. Husky ermy type 11/4" SV. at 2A. and 24V. at V2 A. "B" FILAMENT TRANSFORMER
diameter, Sts" long. Brown type supplies S00 VCT at 50 MA, 5V. No. 922. 220V. 60 cy. primary sup-
porcelain. Shipping at 2A. and 12V. at 1 Amp. State plies 12.6V. at 3.5 Amps, 15.6V at
Wgt. 4 lbs. 4 FOR $1 .00 Nether A or B type desired. $t
Shipping Weight 4 lbs. f 2.95 1 Amp. Supplies 6.3 at 3.5 Amps
and 7.8V. at 1. Amp from 110V.
TUNING UNIT No. 744. Carbon microphone input
transformer and output to head. PANEL METER
NO. Burlington 0.300 VAC Meter

- - - - - -- -,
231. Matches any aerial to 150 phone transformer, all in one case,
Watt transmitter, used on I
BC 375. Brand excellent for building your own. No. 290. Model 32XA 312" round
new. Add postage AC Voltmeter 0 -300 VAC full scale.
Shipping Wt. lb. 4 for $1.00
for 20 lbs. $2.95 LOW PASS FILTER UNIT
Scale also calibrated 0 -600V. Bakelite
cose A beautiful meter in original
No. 637. 3000 cycle cutoff consists carton. Shipping Wt. 53.95
C. E. 1,000 VOLT 750 MA of 3 inductances and 4 capacitors
in network, 500 ohms in and out. DRIVER TRANSFORMER

NO. 213. An ideal dynamotor for
o p e r a t i o n in taxicabs, police
cars, sound systems and amateur stn-
Rions. Supplies above voltage from
`---------- -/
Excellent for clipping all frequen.
I Gies above 3000 cycles. Drawn steel
ose, shipping Wt. 5 lbs.


No. 651. Couples 3000 ohm plate
to push pull parallel grids hermeti-
cally sealed. Ship. Wt. lb. $1.00


---m --
1 12
Volts or 500V. 350 MA f 6 No. 745. Companion transformer
NO. 224. Brand new ten push but -
I$5.95 and sfus
w/ starting relay,
fuses. New. Our Dynamotor A. ran tuning assembly from Army FM
receiver. Contains 4 an 100 MMF
to above driver. A push pull output,
3000 ohms to 3.2 ohm voice coil, or
Shipping Weight 72 lbs. to 1250 ohms at 80 MA. A high
I silver plated tuning sonden-
quality cased unit. Shipping Wt.
ser. Add postage for 10 lbs. $2.50 rece 2 pounds. $1.00
. .
2.00...WE WILL SHIP C.O.D.


IZeuf eatlfleit

wound, all alignment completed -
A truly fine FM Tuner with the coils ready
all that
- uses super regenerative
60 cycle transformer operated --
is necessary is wiring and re's ready to play
circuit 110 V.
two gang 1. Measures each

tuning condenser
two tubes
slide rule calibrated
complete instructions
including pictorial enable even beginners
2. Has gear
3. Cu
range of
for speed.
as lever switchingfilament voltages.
to build successfully.Shipping Wt. 4 pounds. 5. Checks every tube lever switches.
Beautiful mahogany cabinet for FM 6. Uses latest typeshatterproof full meter.
Tuner (shown above) extra $3.75 7. Uses beautiful"xl4 "x4" complete. view
8. Luge size 11

- -
has want.

- g--
Check the features and beauty you will realize
obsolescence. The high quality
Lister- measures each ainstif f Bad-Good high
typed cycle power
meter of testerr st oversize 110 V. 60
quality wen complete
meter of best P e
switches Centralab controls spare for future types fast action Fer
finest Mallory
all type
ses bes including, blanklocate and set upp any type -tube. Simplified
roller chi time. Short
set of soof
gears to quickly and saves valuable service
tsar brass gees Heathkit
driven roller chart
switching cuis necessary
open element check.
time to minimum
matter what arrangement
handles u. Order
your Heathkit Tube
flexible switching
this tube
arrangement easily

checker will pay

Heath again
today. See for yourself thatfor
saves you
itself in a few weeks
l imtructiom -
all 1>parts
anof dyour retains
all the quality

better build it r Shut
t r b
cabinet roller -

Complete with detail

to wire up and operate.

AC s eatlfflie
ttew Wear/die


Now a bench 6 Volt power supply kit The famous Heathkit VTVM now in
for all auto radio testing. Supplies 5 -
7t/a Volts at 10 Amperes continuous or - - - -
battery operated type. Use it anywhere
carry it out for Work on auto
aircraft boats any
15 Amperes intermittent. A well filtered
rugged power supply uses heavy duty
selenium rectifier, choke input filter
place where 110 V. house current is
not available instant warmup
turn the switch and it's ready to
with 4,000 MFD of electrolytic filter. operate. Same quality features. six
linear D.C. ranges 0.3V.-10V.-30V.-
0.15 Volt meter indicates output. Out- 100V.- 300V.- 1000V. High voltage
put variable in eight steps. Excellent for extended to 10,000 Volts with probe

servicing -
demonstrating auto radios. Ideal for
can be lowered to find
listed below. Large 200 microampere
meter with shatterproof plastic face.
Ohmmeter measures from 1/10 ohm
sticky vibrators or stepped up to equiva- to one billion ohms with internal
battery. 11 megohm input resistance

$34 :°
lent of generator overload easily con-
on DC. AC is copper oxide rectifier
structed in less than two hours. Com- type with ranges as above except no
plete in every respect. 3 Volt range. Complete with all parts,
SHIPPING WT. 12 LBS. cabinet, 2 color panel. tubes. batteries,
test prods and detailed instruction
Itodist.9 ELSE TO BUY manual.
_Parcel Post
ilaw ñeeaeaket TOOL KIT
Now a complete tool _Freight
kit to assemble your HEATH COMPANY
Heathkit. Consists of BENTON HARBOR, __Best Way
Krauter diagonal cut- MICHIGAN Total
ters and pointed nose
assembly pliers, Xce- DESCRIPTION
lite screwdriver. 60
Watt 110 V. solder-
ing iron and supply
of solder. Shipping
Wt., 2 lbs. Complete
kit. 35.95
111 Crystal Test Pr&M Mt
Na 309. Kit
to assem
probe extends
bye. RF
VTVM range to 100
MC. Complete with
1N34 crystal. Shipping
weight. I lb. $S.SO

Iwo Y N.Y. Test Prole Kit

Ne. 310. Extends
range of any 11 meg-
ohm VTVM to 3,000
and 10,000 Volt ranges.
A necessity for tele-
vision. Ship. wt., 1 lb.
Enclosed Find D Check ... O Money Order fo


MAY, 1949
Radio Business
Radio Manufacturers Association has months ended January 31, President
submitted to the Federal Communica- C. RUSSELL FELDMANN compared them

FOUNDI tions Commission a formal set of recom-

mendations for an expanded television
service for present owners of television
with net profit of $1,710,083 for the full
year ended October 31, 1948, and with a
net profit of $236,624 for the compara-
the "MISSING LINK" to receivers, with future supplemental ble quarter a year ago. The quarterly
high- frequency broadcasting for addi- net profit equals 84 cents per share
tional areas. The 12 v.h.f. broadcasting against $1.40 for all of the previous
GOOD TV ANTENNA channels now in use would be utilized year.
and expanded as far as possible under Quarterly sales were $20,496,904 com-
INSTALLATIONS the RMA program and future (u.h.f.) pared to $69,314,489 for all of 1948 and
service and stations would have a mini- $18,312,613 for the comparable quarter
mum of overlap of v.h.f. areas, the RMA of 1948.
" F
committee said.
Emerson Radio & Phonograph Corpora-
The RMA recommendations are: tion of New York reported net sales for
1. Where practical without undue in- the fiscal year ended October 31, 1948,
terference, utilize the 12 v.h.f. chan- of $30,926,842, as compared with
nels in those areas where stations $32,658,122 for the fiscal year of 1947.
are now operating or are under con- The income of the company and its
struction, and extend the use of these wholly owned subsidiaries for the fiscal
channels to other areas as soon as year, before provision for federal in-
possible. come taxes, amounted to $3,825,369 as
2. Utilize sufficient u.h.f. channels for compared with $3,772,638 for 1947.
monochrome television so that the
cities capable of supporting televi- The Board of Governors of The Rep-
sion and not having any or adequate resentatives, in preparation for the 1949
v.h.f. channels can have competitive Radio Parts Manufacturers, Inc., trade
service. In general, this would re- show, held a special two-day meeting
quire a minimum of four stations per at the Stevens Hotel, Chicago, under the
service area. chairmanship of Irvin I. Aaron of Mil-
,. Arrange the assignments so that v.h.f. waukee. Other Board members present
MAST CLAMP and u.h.f. coverage will have a mini- at the meeting were Samuel K. Mac-
mum of overlap. donald of Philadelphia, Dan R. Bittan
LEAD -IN SUPPORTS 4. Release promptly a plan of alloca- of New York City, and R. W. Farris of
tion for the v.h.f. and allow this plan Kansas City, Missouri. National secre-
Made with POLYETHYLENE to be put into effect at once to permit
(the ultra -low loss insulation material)
tary- treasurer, L. C. McCarthy, was
the establishment of further v.h.f. also on hand to give his preliminary
Now you can make any old or new TV stations even though the final alloca- report to the Board.
installation last longer, look neater, per- tion details for the u.h.f. assignment The Board unanimously approved a
form better with the unique JFD Mast- may not be complete at that time. suggestion from the Industry Relations
Clamp Lead -In Supports. These new The propagation data, including the
Screw Eye Insulators are JFD- engineered
Committee that a Creed of Ethics be
fo anchor lead -ins firmly in place and
advantages of synchronization, now prepared and submitted for adoption
assure better TV /FM reception. available for the v.h.f. is adequate by the entire organization at its annual
for preparation of such a v.h.f. allo- delegates' meeting in Chicago, May 16.
I" Clamp with 31/7" Screw
cation plan. The Creed will establish national stand-
Eye for Twln Lead. Rre 5. Provide that monochrome television ards of practice and procedure for the
in the u.h.f. channels shall use the first time in the history of The Repre-
List same standards as those employed in sentatives. It will also incorporate a
the v.h.f. channels. summary of the principles and beliefs
I" Clamp with 31/2" Screw of members, all of whom are experi-
Eye for Coaxial enced sales representatives in the radio,
Radio Corporation of America an-
5l: nounced a net profit of $24,022,047 in electronic, and allied industries.

9,04 DTL100-350
I" Clamp with 31/2" Screw
1948. This is equal to $1.50 per common
share, compared with a net profit of
$18,769,557, equal to $1.12 per common
Stewart-Warner Electric of Chicago will
introduce a 10-inch television set operat-
Eye for two Twin Leads.
35c List share, in 1947, both after preferred ing on d.c. only, in the New York mar-
dividends. The announcement was made ket, thus eliminating use of an a.c. con-
in his annual report to stockholders by verter and also giving greater image
31/2" Screw Eye with wood - GENERAL DAVID SARNOFF, chairman of stability. This was announced by E. L.
screw thread, for two Twin the board. Gross revenues in 1948 were TAYLOR, general sales manager.
Leeds. 28c List
$357,617,231 against $314,023,572 in
1947. Sonora Radio and Television Corp. of
Mast Clamps are made in all sizes for all Chicago has filed a voluntary plan of
applications, individually designed to fit reorganization in the U. S. District
Oxford Electric Corporation of Chicago,
masts from 1/2" to 2" O.D. Screw Eyes
maker of loudspeakers, announces that Court in Chicago. It is stated that the
range from 31/2' fo 12" in length.
it has acquired a 50% interest in the net worth of the company is $300,000
Visit JFD Booth 117 0l while the claims of creditors are $250,-
Chicago Trade Show in May Television Tube Research Laboratories
of Clifton, N. J. 000.

6103 16th Avenue Rauland -Borg Corp. of Chicago has pur-

Brooklyn 4, New York International Detrola Corporation re- chased the sound division of the Rau -
WRITE TODAY ported to its shareholders a net profit land Corp. also of Chicago, now a whol-
for Valuable 4 -page Bulletin #DBR of $1,000,858 for the first quarter of ly-owned subsidiary of Zenith Radio
Copyright 1949 by JFD Mfg. Co. Inc. 1949. Stockholders, at their annual Corp.
meeting, voted to change the corporate The complete line of sound and ampli-
FIRST In Television Antennas and Accessories name to Newport Steel Corporation. In fier products formerly manufactured by
All rights reserved. No part of above work announcing the net earnings of the Rauland will be manufactured and sold
may be reproduced in any form except by
written permission of the manufacturer. company and subsidiaries for the three by the new corporation.

Buy Surplus & Standard Equipment

with money -back guarantee at


$2.50 each, FOB, Kingman, INTER-
Ariz., or Arlington, Vo.
Types in stock: TU 5-1-8-9-10-26. COM
Typical components: 2 vernier dials; ear.

cap., 20 -135 mmf.: I var. cap., 20.156

mmf.; I var. cap., 8-26 mmf.--neutral-
izing: .00003 -2000V cap., CO -Mica;
Close -Out!
3 .00009 -3000V cap., CO -Mica: 2 .0004-
50000 cap., CO -mica: 3 .0001 -3000V
cap.. CD -Mica: 2 4- position ceramic Brand New and Priced
band switches; 2 RF chokes: 1 tank coil
-ceramic form with tapped ant. coupling
for Quick Clearance!
coil; I tank coil- ceramic form; I para-
sitic suppressor: 2 ceramic Rea, cou- limited
plings: plus banana jacks, stand-off
Quantity $14-95
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Price includes master station, one
remote, and 50' of wire. Rig it up
as a "baby- sitter" with pick -up at
baby's crib. Useful in office, or for
instant contact with basement. ga-
rage, attic. kitchen. Simple to install
-just plug it in to 110 v. AC or DC

Buy it for conversion! Buy it to cannibalize! -274 -N to
l'or converting
Volts AC.
SC IL 115

Buy it to get on the air! It's the war -proved, versatile No. 1 Power Transformer. Pri -l15v
40 cycle; sec -500 CT .06 Amp. 24v
Complete with I_ amp.
APN -4 RCVR -'SCOPE tuning unit (TU -6) BC-3 75-E l'rice only _. 83.90
POWER SUPPLY antenna loading unit Quantity Limited No. 2 Filament Transformer. Pri
switch- selected screw - driver 115v 00 cycle; Sec. 1- 14v 71,:, amp.:
4 dynamotor sec. 2 14v 71_ amp. Series 28v 7',ÿ
tuned RF channels; IF freq. 1050
kc, band -width 45 -60 kc; 01F'
freq. 16 2000 kc. Tubes: (21
'Y2, (31 6B4, (4) 6SK7, 111 ea.
1J4, 6SU7, 6SA7, 6H6, VR15u.
Makes fixed tuner for med. freq
set of plugs
all tubes
wiring diagram and
conversion data free
amp. Parallel l4v 15 amp.
Price only ...84.50

No. 3 Filament XMFR. Pri -115v

0;0 cycle- Sec. 24v 2 amps.
Price only $2.25

police calls or PA system. Has

Power supply for 5" scope, with Complete conversion diagram included. Xmtr. designed to
100 cycle trans. Electronic -con- operate from 200 kc to 12 me (less BC band). Equipped with
antenna tuning unit IOC -306- A-
variometer and tap switch.
Speakers-Brand New
trolled low v. supply; delivers 2fu Permanent Magnet
vdc. 150 mils reg. to .01' Pow.
Dynamotor (PE -73 -C) complete with relay, fuses and filter. s 1.60
rpply alone worth
$8.95 1.85
more than price _" Jensen in Metal Case 14.50
di.nwint, p nehase of 2 or more

Heavy Duty
Transmitting Chokes
3 HY- -,nn MA 511110 V INS.
Price each $8.95

Condensers -Fixed
15 Mfd. 130 Volts _..._.. .60
16 x 16 450 Volts ._. 1.20
20 250 Volts .69
40 150 Volts _ ......... ..... .75
10 1511 Volta .69

RECEPTION $9.95 Gasoline Generator (HRU -28)
8 x S Can. Electrolytic 1.50

The littlest BIG BUY ever of- DUAL POWER SUPPLY Tubes (New. in Original Cartons).
fered! A BC -12,16 Setchell Carl-
son receiver will take the place
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28 - 32
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For. the SCR -274 -N Command Set &
12A6 69c ODA- VF150 75e
think it's even better. Here's ONLY 12S117 69c 12SA7 69c
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weighs only 3 lb. 14 os. Less Single cylinder, 2 -cycle gasoline Use our dual dynamotors by wir- 12SKI .69c 74 59c
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tional superhet circuit is em- rent, 70 amps. Has unlimited 59e 12J5-CT _...69e
ployed and is arranged so that use around a [arm; useful as High voltage output 600 volts at 1626
AVC will prevent overloading en field day power supply. More 48 watts. l.ow voltage 300 volts 1629
strong signals. literature upon request. at 24 watts.

R 2701
SAVE C.O.D. CHARGES and speed your order by remitting
full or 25% deposit.

prices supersede
Please don't send money for
postage, we ship "transportation charges collect."
previous prices.
Write every month for

MAY, 1949
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Student No. 2355N12

I City Zone State

Desk RC -5, 4900 Euclid Building Cleveland 3, Ohio
Approved for Troininp under "G.1. Bill of Rights'
L Veterans check for enrollment information under G. I. Bill.
=we mimi

The Radio Technician

... Good days are ahead for the radio servicing trade .. .


INCE 1929-for just 20 years-this maga- between 12 and 15 million televisers in the public's
zine has conscientiously endeavored to hands.
serve the radio service technician. It will Unless there is a steady influx of new radio
continue to do so in the future. technicians, who is going to service all of these
But as radio continued to change, so did receivers?
the radio technician. In 1925 the man with a
screwdriver and a pair of pliers had no particular What is needed at the present time -needed
difficulty in servicing radio sets. But as radio re- desperately -are trained -really trained -radio
ceivers became more complex every month, the technicians who know television from A to Z. Look
service technician had to change as well. Servicing into any newspaper in the country where televi-
instruments cane into wide vogue in the 30's, and sion programs are now being broadcast and note
their complexity increased to keep pace with the the help- wanted advertisements. These advertise-
ever-changing radio picture. ments show that there is, even now, a scarcity of
Today-with television booming beyond our good radio technicians who know their business.
fondest expectation -the oldtime "serviceman" no This situation is certain to become more acute as
longer can cope with the complexity of these new time goes on.
televisers. The radio and television set manufacturers are
Besides being a radio man he now also must be fully aware of this situation and are now taking
a television man, and if he has not had experience active steps to promote service meetings for radio
with television it means that he must learn the technicians all over the country. They, however,
subject from the ground up. deplore the fact that they are meeting with re-
For this reason and many others, it has been sistance and indifference from many radio tech-
decided by RADIOELECTRONICS that beginning with nicians who do not attend these meetings in force.
Regardless of who the manufacturer is, the serv-
this issue the old term "serviceman" be discon- ice technician can gain a tremendous amount of
tinued entirely. using in its place the more modern knowledge by attending these meetings as they
and appropriate term "radio technician." take place. No matter how busy he is, he should
RADIO- ELECTRONICS did not originate this tern. find time to attend these meetings which are now
It has been used in the radio manufacturing trade increasing rapidly in number all over the land.
consistently for some time. We feel certain that Service technicians must follow certain routines
the new -and better-term will enhance the in servicing televisers. These routines save a great
standing of the present -day service technician a deal of time. In other words, it is the old "know
good deal in his community. how." All these points are discussed in great detail
To borrow a very apt expression of Max F. Bal- at these service meetings, and any radio technician
corn, President of the Radio Manufacturers Asso- -no matter how good his knowledge-can en-
ciation, in a recent talk: hance his standing by attending them. They cost
"It means that the radio technician will be him nothing except his time.
working on a much more costly product (tele- Another important matter that should be men-
visers) than he has been in the radio field.... It is tioned here is the following:
like turning from repairing bicycles to servicing According to a countrywide survey made by the
automobiles." The italics are ours. Broadcast Measurement Bureau, there were early
With television now firmly established it would this year 5,177,100 radios in the U. S. not in oper-
seem that great and profitable days are ahead for ating condition. That is a lot of receivers.
the servicing trade. Indeed it will be a small What have the radio technicians done to obtain
miracle if there can possibly be enough radio tech- this lucrative business now lying dormant? Ap-
nicians to service all the new televisers by 1952. parently nothing.
Here is the reason we see it that way. Several radio manufacturers have investigated
There are now approximately 75,000 established this condition and are ready to give the radio
radio technicians in this country. In many locali- service technician not only hints, but also adver-
ties they have difficulty in servicing the 67 million tising suggestions that can be used locally to in-
radio sets now in use, plus the over two million duce the owners of these old receivers to have
television sets already installed. By the end of this them repaired and put into use again.
year there will be at least three million television There is little question in our mind that there
receivers in use. By the beginning of 1952, it is not will be an extended radio servicing boom in the
only possible but very probable that there will be very near future. Are you ready for it?
MAY, 1949
.20 Television

(-3) $104) PRIZE CONTEST

TELEVISION receivers can be mode sim- The cathode -ray tube and rectifier tubes RADIO- ELECTRONICS, which will publish a
pler. The number of tubes used in a mod- (or selenium rectifiers) will not be considered descriptive article on the set at regular space
ern televiser is reminiscent of the number tubes for the purpose of this count, but any rotes. The set itself will remain the property
of controls on broadcast receivers in the crystal diode used in detector, limiter, and of the builder.
other circuits where a tube is commonly em- 5. If two or more televisers are judged
early '20's, when some of the best sets had
close to a dozen knobs and dials. ployed will be counted as half a tube. worthy of a prize, identical 1100 awards will
The problems of simplification are complex, 2. Only photographs and description of the be made for all accepted entries.
televiser are to be sent to RADIO -ELEC- 6. As it is the purpose of this contest to
and well worth the attention of the most ad-
vanced exper menters in the art. To stimulate TRONICS. If the editors wish to inspect the stimulate actual building of a special tele-
set, they will request it. Express charges both viser, mere ideas and proposals, special cir-
interest in this project, RADIO -ELECTRONICS
is publishing below a description of a success- ways will then be paid by RADIO -ELEC- cuit diagrams, patents, etc., are excluded
ful French televiser which uses only eight TRONICS. from this contest.
tubes besides the cathode -ray tube. 3. To make construction simpler, and to 7. Excluded from this contest are all em-
focus attention on the main problem of sim- ployees of RADIO -ELECTRONICS and their
RADIO -ELECTRONICS now of- plification, it is not necessary that the tele- relatives.
fers a cash prize of $100 for the viser cover both television bands. A set which 8. This contest closes at noon, Septembs I,
1949 (Eastern Standard Time), at which ..:me
best simple American televiser to covers one band only will be judged against
all entries must have been submitted to
be constructed under the follow- its competitors on the some band.
However, since the American tradition (un- RADIO -ELECTRONICS.
ing rules: 9. The judges of this contest wII be tle
like the European) has been to have the
I. No fixed number of tubes is prescribed; sound and vision receivers in one unit, all Editors of RADIO- ELECTRONICS and their
but because the prize contest stresses sim- receivers submitted must be capable of receiv- findings will be final.
plicity, the receiver which uses the fewest ing both television sight and sound. Loud- 10. Announcement of the prize awards will

number of tubes to accomplish given results speaker results are not necessary; headphone be made in the January, 1953, issue of
will be rated highest. Televisers with more output may be used. RADIO -ELECTRONICS. The prize or prizes
than 12 tubes (excluding rectifiers) will not be 4. All descriptions and photographs of the will be paid on the publication date of the
considered in this contest. winning receiver will become the property of January issue of RADIO -ELECTRONICS.

Eight -Tube Televiser frame sweep using the other

TIIE construction of a television re- tween American and French television G. A
ceiver is said to require time, a problems, notably the positive transmis- half of the 6N7 as a blocking oscil-
calibrated signal generator, and sion and the fact that there is only one lator synchronized by the 50 -cycle
plenty of money, declares a writer French station on the air, the Editors line;
in a recent French radio magazine. But of RAmo- ELECTRONICS feel that there 7. A low -voltage supply (300 volts)
he believes-and has constructed a tele- is much worthy of study in this simpli- with a 5Y3 -GB;
viser to prove his belief -that a set that fied television circuit, and it is there- 8. A high -voltage supply (1,000
does not cost an unreasonable sum can fore reproduced below. volts) using a 6H6 as a voltage
be built, and that its construction is not doubler;
especially difficult. 9. A 7.5- centimeter (3 -inch) cathode -
French television receiver ray tube.
The total number of tubes in the set,
built by Pierre Roques -the French en- The televiser has eight tubes (plus
gineer who set out to prove that tele- the cathode -ray tube) which have the The r.f. amplifier
vision sets can be simple -is eight! following functions: The hookup of this section is very
With this small number of tubes, the 1. A radio-frequency amplifier using standard. The input circuit is designed
quality of pictorial reception is excel- two high -transconductance tubes, to match a 72 -ohm co -axial cable. The
lent, stability is satisfactory, and the type EF51; gain (contrast) control is the 5,000 -
sensitivity such as to receive transmis- 2. A detector using half of a 6H6; ohm, wire -wound potentiometer Pl,
sions from the Paris station in all parts 3. A video frequency stage using an which varies the bias of the first r.f.
of that city with an ordinary dipole an- EF51; tube.
tenna. The sole drawback, according to 4. A sync separator stage using the
the constructor of this unique televiser, other half of the 6H6; Detection
is the small image size. The tube is the 5. A line sweep comprising a triode -
equivalent of the American 3 -inch size. pentode ECF1 as multivibrator The winding L4 inputs to the cathode
The set does not have a sound channel. and half a 6N7 as a sweep am- of the 6H6, and the detected video sig-
While there are many differences be- plifier; nal appears between its plate and

Schematic of the French experimental television receiver which obtains excellent results with eight tubes (plus cathode -ray tube).

Television I21
ground. This is applied to the video - sweep amplifier (one-half of a 6N7). feeding its plates. The center point is
frequency stage through a resistance of The high grid resistance of this tube returned to the chassis through a re-
500 ohms, which, with the input ca- permits automatic biasing by inserting sistance of 300 ohms, thus supplying a
pacitance of the video tube, forms a resistance in the cathode. The gain of voltage of -20 for the brightness con-
filter which removes any residual radio the amplifier is controlled by adjusting trol.
frequency. the plate resistor (20,000 ohms) to a
suitable value (see "Putting into Op- High -tension supply (1.000 volts)
Video -frequency amplifier eration"). The transformer has an output of
Again we have a standard schematic. The cathode- ray-tube deflection plate 450 volts which is supplied to the 6H6,
A high- frequency compensation coil is D1 is connected to the plate of the tri- connected as voltage doubler. The rec-
not used; with the small picture tube it ode section of the ECF1 through a ca- tified voltage of 900 is connected in
is not necessary to amplify a wide band pacitor of .005 µf. The plate D2 is also series with the medium voltage supply
of frequencies. connected to the 6N7 plate through a of 300 volts, providing 1,200 volts. After
The amplified video -frequency signal capacitor of the same value. filtering through the 100,000 -ohm re-
is then applied to the cathode- ray-tube sistor, about 1,000 volts remains. The
control grid through a 0.1 -4 capacitor Frame sweep multivibrator and blocking oscillators
of very high quality (1,500 -volt test at The second half of the 6N7 is hooked are also supplied with this voltage.
least) and through another capacitor of up as a blocking oscillator. The trans-
r the same quality to the sync separator former has the following characteris- Cathode -ray tube
half of the 6H6. tics: A Philips tube of 7.5-cm diameter
Secondary: 1,000 turns No. 30 enamel (DG 7) with green phosphor, its char-
Sync separation Primary: 500 turns No. 30 enamel acteristics are:
The signal on the cathode of the 6H6 Core: 2 x 4 centimeters square Filament: 4 volts, 1 ampere
is such that the sync pulses go nega- (small filter choke or loudspeaker Second anode: 600 volts
tive and the video -frequency signals transformer) . First anode: 150-200 volts, variable
go positive. Thus no current passes The frequency is controlled by the 1- (focusing)
through the diode except during syn- megohm potentiometer P3. Synchron- Control grid: variable, never posi-
chronization. We find, then, at the ization is effected by bringing the trans- tive (brightness).
plate negative pips which are sent on former to chassis through the inter- The second anode voltage is obtained
to the multivibrator. mediary of a resistance bridge connect- with a voltage divider which serves the
To improve the output of this separa- ed between the filament (6.3 volts) and vertical and horizontal hold -control sys-
tor stage, the 6H6 plate is given a slight chassis. It is put into phase by varying tem at the same time (P6 and P7 are
positive polarization. the frequency potentiometer slightly, two 2-megohm potentiometers). The fo-
once it has been adjusted to 50 cycles cusing control is the potentiometer 134
Line sweep per second. (100,000 ohms) and the brightness con-
The ECF1 is hooked up as a cathode - The sweep amplitude is regulated by trol is P5 (100,000 ohms with switch),
coupled multivibrator. The frequency is changing the value of the resistor the switch being the on-off switch of the
controlled by the 500,000 -ohm potenti- (shown as 1 megohm) in the 6N7 plate. set.
ometer P2. The amplitude can be con - The sawtooth waves obtained are ap-
trolled by changing the resistance of plied to the deflection plate D2 through Puffing into operation
a .01 -4 mica condenser.
the resistor shown as 100,000 ohms in Putting the r.f. section into opera-
the plate lead of the triode section. tion is a quick process. All that is need-
A capacitance -type voltage divider Medium -tension supply ed, after checking the wiring and the
(.0005 and .01 µf) permits obtaining An indirect heater tube 5Y3 -GB is voltages, is to attach the antenna.
the necessary voltage to apply to the used, with a 300 -0- 300 -volt transformer If the windings are correct, images

EFSI E F51 6H6




5Y3 -GB

.0001 1,.005 16 16I


300 IW
,-.0005 DI

IOK D3 04 II
.0i 50/S0V 300V
P6 P 7

.005 2
A2 g

+300V I
Al 1
05 616 - 6.3V ON P5
100K Iw 8H8
P3{IMEG M..002 MICA 1



MAY, 1949
should be received immediately (check be used in this circuit (with a 300 -volt tor, and .001 -µf coupling capacitor may
with an oscilloscope connected to the B-supply) if a dropping resistor is used have to be juggled to provide proper
control grid, for preference). Then ad- to limit the screen voltage to 150 when separation of the horizontal sync pulses
just the cores of the r.f. coils for maxi- the plate is drawing 10 ma at 300 volts. so they can control the horizontal multi -
mum reception, with potentiometer Pl in This resistor will be in the order of vibrator. Remember that the resistor in
the position of maximum gain (shorted). 60,000 ohms. The cathode biasing re- the differentiator circuit is also the grid
Flashes may then be seen in all di- sistor should be about 160 ohms, and leak of one section of the multivibrator.
rections on the tube screen. Working the suppressor should be grounded di- The design data for the blocking
with the potentiometers P2 and P3 rectly to avoid instability and feedback. transformer may prove suitable for con-
brings out the image and stabilizes it. (For high-band use, a 6AK5 might give structing a unit to work at 60- cycles.
The dimensions are regulated as fol- more gain than a 6AC7.) Coils Ll -L4 However, it will probably be best to use
lows: for low band may be air -wound with a commercial vertical blocking trans-
1. Vertically (frame) : Change the about 3 turns of No. 14 wire with an in- former since they are available for less
1- megohm resistor in the 6N7 plate side diameter of Ufa inch. The spacing than $2.50.
circuit. between turns should be adjusted so the The high -voltage power supply will
2. Horizontally (line) : Disconnect coils cover the desired range when depend on the C -R tube used. Such
the capacitor in the D2 circuit and tuned with 5 -50 -µµf, miniature air tubes as the 2AP1, 3BP1, 3EP1, 3KP4,
bring the sweep to half the desired di- trimmers. The location of the antenna etc., can be used. It is doubtful that the
mension by changing the 1- megohm re- tap on L1 should be found by experi- average builder will find a power trans-
sistor in the ECF1 triode circuit. Re- ment. Commercial permeability-tuned former like the one shown in the dia-
connect the capacitor and adjust the coils such as the National AR -2 and gram, but it is possible to connect the
20,000-ohm resistor in the 6N7 plate AR -5 may be used. voltage doubler to one of the plates of
circuit until the normal size is obtained. The video detector V1, one half of the the low -voltage rectifier rather than to
The antenna recommended is a 6H6, develops a positive-phase output a tap on the winding. A number of sur-
doublet with unbalanced lead-in. The signal. This signal is reversed 180 de- plus radar and oscilloscope transform-
co -ax should have an impedance of grees in its passage through the EF51 ers are available and the experimenter
about 75 ohms. video amplifier. If this signal is applied will be able to find one of these to suit
Here, to conclude, are the power to the grid of the C -R tube, the image his needs. A small replacement power
transformer specifications: will look like a photographic negative transformer may be used. One side of
Primary: 110 volts, 0.5 ampere (the dark areas will be light and the its high -voltage secondary may be
Sec. 1: 5 volts, 2 amperes light ones dark). This can be avoided grounded and the other end connected
Sec. 2: 300-300 -450 volts (100 ma) by using two video amplifiers in cascade to the plate of a rectifier tube. The posi-
Sec. 3: 6.3 volts, 0.3 ampere (for instead of a single stage. The same re- tive high voltage may be taken off its
6H6 doubler) sults can be obtained by reversing the filament or cathode.
Sec. 4: 6.3 volts, tapped at 4 volts, connections to the video detector plate It may be necessary to bypass the
3 amperes (filaments, including and cathode, though the first method r.f. amplifier filaments to ground with
DG7). has the advantage of providing extra .0005 -µµf mica or ceramic capacitors
amplification. The picture phase at the and to insert small u.h.f. chokes in the
Changes for U. S. standards input of the sync clipper should be op- hot leads. These chokes may consist of
A few modifications may permit this posite to that at the input to the grid 20 -25 turns of No. 22 enamel wire
circuit to be used as the basis for an ex- of the C -R tube, so the connections to wound on a 1- megohm, 1 -watt resistor
perimental video receiver for use in this the plate and cathode of V2 will also or other suitable form.
country. The first step is to revise the have to be reversed. The 5Y3 -GB is a Mazda tube directly
t.r.f. circuit. The EF51 is a variable-mu The ECF1 is a variable-mu pentode replaceable, in this circuit, by a 5Y3-G
pentode designed for high -frequency and triode similar to the 6F7 or 6P7. or 5Y3 -GT. Any rectifier tube having
service. This tube has a transconduc- The pentode section of this tube is op- similar characteristics can be used.
tance of 9,500 micromhos. No American erated as a triode; therefore any num- This article, up to "Changes for U.S.
tube can be used as a direct replace- ber of dual triodes may be made to work Standards," was based on a translation
ment, but the circuit can be modified to equally well. The constants of the differ- of an article in the December 1948 issue
fit a number of our tubes. A 6AC7 can entiating circuit, 10,000 -ohm grid resis- of T.S.F. pour Tous (Paris).


The answer to better video images "Several inherent properties of tele- ments with visual acuity and with con-
is not to be found in merely increasing vision make it difficult either to increase trast recognition have shown that both
the brightness of the image, it was the brightness or view the picture from reach their optimum for a given bright-
indicated by a paper presented at the a closer range. The most basic limita- ness when the surrounding illumination
Winter General Meeting of the Ameri- tion is that television's pictures are is about the same as the locally illumi-
can Institute of Electrical Engineers made up at approximately 500 hori- nated area.
in New York, by Dr. P. C. Goldmark of zontal scanning lines. Each line can "Many present day receivers," said
the Columbia Broadcasting System. show no detail along its height, but can Dr. Goldmark, "should not be viewed
Reporting on research into brightness show variations along its length. No in rooms where the surrounding illumi-
and contrast in television, Dr. Gold - matter how closely one looks at a tele- nation is much in excess of 1 foot -
mark said, "Contrast range is more vision screen, or how bright it is, no lambert, otherwise the picture will suf-
important than mere brilliance, and detail smaller than a square area whose fer from inadequate contrast range. It
contrast at moderate brightness is far height is roughly that of a line can be is conceivable that commercially com-
more important to the eye than bright- perceived. petitive direct -view receivers will some
ness applied indiscriminately. Increased "One of the proposed solutions for day be capable of furnishing a high-
brightness is of use to the eye only if producing adequate contrast range in light brightness of 450 foot -lamberts.
it brings with it increased contrast. television pictures suggested increas- It is doubtful, however, that this would
"It is this increased contrast which ing the picture highlight brightness to be a satisfactory solution, since view-
assists the eye to see fine detail. If one a value many times above that of the ing such a bright image without a cor-
wishes to see greater detail in a pic- surrounding brightness. This solution respondingly bright surrounding would
ture, one may increase the contrast, if does not solve the problem because be uncomfortable. Assuming that the
possible, or move closer to it for a more local illumination which is much higher presently used field repetition rate of
detailed examination. The limit is set than the general ambient illumination 60 per second were employed, such a
by the maximum possible picture bright- produces a sensation of glare, and glare picture would also display objection-
ness and the eye's resolving power. reduces visual effectiveness. Experi- able flicker."

THE first question I meet every-

where is: Do present tendencies
indicate a material and permanent
drop in receiver prices?
No marked falling off in the general
price level need be expected so long as
the present demand continues. As each
new TV transmitter goes into operation,
a new audience arises, of a size pro-
portionate to that of the city or district
involved. Until every town in the nation
of 50,000 or more has its transmitter,
any approach to saturation, with a re-
sultant falling off of receiver demand,
is most unlikely. Such considerations
seem to postpone any very great price
reduction for a long time to come.
Naturally the 7 -inch and 3 -inch sets
will be even cheaper than they are to-
day, because the relative merits of the
12 -inch and 16 -inch tubes are so con-
vincing that the demand for the smaller
sets, even with prices reduced, will
diminish. And until the projection set
has been materially improved, the bril-
liant, direct -view, large -tube set will
continue in top demand.
We need not apprehend any changes
from present RMA TV standards for a
long time to come, such as may be re-
quired for the yet ill-explored u.h.f.
bands. The industry today is too firmly
founded, the television audiences al- TV set is focal point of many present-day living rooms, will appear in most in the future.
ready too vast and ever growing to per-
mit the FCC to recommend or impose from 1,900 to 30,000 megacycles. Here, RCA, has demonstrated that, given suf-
confusions of that nature. surely, is abundant opportunity for ficiently high- frequency carriers and
This argues against expecting any endless experimentation, with micro- adequately wide video bands, good
radical changes in circuits. Simplified waves from 19 to 3 centimeters -not to natural -color subjects can be trans-
printed-circuit elements may be ex- mention the intracity possibilities of mitted. The appeal of such pictures in
pected, and will somewhat reduce labor infra -red or ultra- violet light trans- comparison to black and white is as
costs and speed up production. Multi- missions without consent of the FCC. compelling, as exciting, as that wit-
unit chassis will simplify service. It is clear that theater television in nessed today in every cinema when a
I think we shall see, ere long, rec- general will have no rosy path of prog- technicolor film is shown.
tangular, metal, pyramidal tube struc- ress, beset as it will be by unsolved Unquestionably, therefore, we shall
tures, involving, incidentally, a flatter problems of desirable tele programs, have color television. How soon is any-
glass screen surface. Without doubt, split-second time schedules, as well as one's guess. Certainly not in two years,
tube makers will solve the (apparently) mighty tough engineering. One basic perhaps five. Whether this will be by
difficult problem of the glass -metal change will be requisite: to double at so- called mechanical methods or "all -
rounded-corner seals which today are least the present number of picture electronic" is still debatable. My own
unsure against crack- strains. Such a lines. A 525 -line picture when blown up current experiments along these lines,
tube, of 16 X 12 -inch dimensions, giv- even to 18 X 12 feet resembles too un- while as yet not sufficiently far ad-
ing us approximately 190 square inches pleasantly a peepshow through a Vene- vanced to be definitely conclusive, give
of brilliant picture, and avoiding all tian blind. encouragment to the prospect of three -
huddling, should prove ideal. And after all, save for outstanding color- transmission using our present
For theater television, the FCC has athletic events or a presidential inaugu- black -and -white frequencies. As of to-
found no specific place in the spectrum, ration (which we can all see in our day, therefore, I see no necessity for
but will give co- operative consideration
to applications for experimental re-
search involving intracity transmissions
homes), why should television attempt
to compete with photographic projec-
tions which will always be inherently
restricting color to the u.h.f. ranges,
with all the uncertainties involved
short transmission range, multiplied
on frequencies between 480 and 920 mc, far superior? This talk of supplement- ghosts, obstructions, signal inaccessi-
an allocation however, which can "be ing theater film reels by broadcast tele- bilities, and so on.
discontinued when needed for broad- vision pictures is the veriest twaddle, a Certain it is that the future, im-
casting!" In addition, experimentation fatuous dream. mediate and remote, of television is
with intra- and intercity relay of thea- In closing, a word regarding color. unlimited, eventful beyond our present
ter television programs may be author- Elaborate and exceedingly costly ex- imagination-and glorious, if we care
ized on six hyper -high bands, extending perimentation, notably by CBS and to build it so.
MAY, 1949
21 Television

All Channel TV Tuner

A TV front end can be constructed
without any of the usual specially
made coil or bandswitch assemblies By E. J. SCHULTZ

LTHOUGH there are a number can be made to work into almost any settings for other channels. A 2 -plate
of good television receiver kits existing video i.f. circuit. It will work midget and a 10-µµf capacitor are in
and components available on nicely with the video i.f. amplfier de- series across the oscillator coil for fine
the market, there are numer- scribed on page 110 of the March, 1949, tuning.
ous constructors who, like the author, issue.
take pride in constructing their equip- The circuit consists of a 6J6 broad- Construction
ment without using manufactured as- band, grounded -grid amplifier with a The channel -selector switch should
semblies. The average constructor will cathode coil that is broadly resonant be well constructed with good high -
find that design and construction data over the entire TV band. Its input cir- frequency insulation and good, clean,
on video i.f. amplifiers, detectors, sweep cuit has an impedance of approximately low- resistance contacts. A 7- position
circuits, and video amplifiers have been 300 ohms on all TV channels. The plate switch was selected for channel-switch-
published in a number of technical mag- circuit of the 6J6 is tuned and capaci- ing since this is the maximum number
azines and papers. Unfortunately, for tance- coupled to the grid of the 6AG5 of channels that will be assigned in any
us, little or no material is available on mixer. The oscillator is a 6C4 with its one area. If a builder is midway be-
constructing or designing a TV front grid circuit tuned above the signal fre- tween the primary service areas of sta-
end for all channels. A number of com- quency and its cathode circuit loaded tions in two cities, a switch with more
mercial tuners have been described, but with an inductance. The plate is at positions can be used. The position of
all these rely on special switches, tur- ground potential for r.f. The oscillator the components is shown in the photo-
rets, or other components not readily and mixer grids are coupled to each graphs. The oscillator grid and 6J6
available to the ordinary radio con- other through stray capacitance and in- plate circuits should be as close to the
structor. ductance. switch as components permit. In cases
Tuners usually present two problems: The channels are selected with a 2- where leads must be long, make them
one is to make the oscillator work over circuit, wafer -type rotary switch. One out of heavy wire, as is usual in v.h.f.
the entire range, and the other is to wafer switches small preset trimmer work.
track the mixer and antenna stages once capacitors across the coil in the plate The under -chassis photograph shows
the oscillator is working properly. The circuit of the 6J6, and the other shunts placement of the parts in the tuner
tuner described here was developed the oscillator coil with preset trimmers circuit. The oscillator socket is hidden
after weeks of experimenting with all or small inductors. The capacitors low- by components mounted on its terminals.
types of circuits. Simple, it can be du- er the resonant frequency of L4 and the It is mounted just back of the 2 -plate
plicated by almost anyone experienced inductors raise it. Switch- tuning is ad- midget capacitor used for fine tuning.
with high -frequency circuits. It uses a vantageous in that it permits each chan- The oscillator grid coil, L4, is the large
channel --witching tuning system that nel to be aligned without disturbing the one between L8 and L9. The shunt in-
ductors L5, L6, and L7 are mounted
directly on the channel -selector switch.
6AG5 SOCKET L3, the tuned coil between the amplifier
plate and mixer grid, is the heavy wind -
ing close to the antenna coil. Circuit
operation may possibly be improved by
locating this coil at the socket of the
Ll has 6 turns interwound with L2,
which has 12 turns on a sib -inch form.
Both coils are closewound with No. 32
s.s.e. wire. L3 has 39z turns of No. 14

of /
enamel wound with an inside diameter
inch and spaced to 1 inch long.
The oscillator coil L4 consists of 2%
turns of No. 14 enamel wire spaced to
1/4 inch with a 1/4-inch inside diameter.

MIXER L5, L6, and L7, the shunting inductors,

TRIMMERS are for channels 7, 11, and 13, respect-
ively. They are self-supporting coils
wound with No. 20 enamel wire to a 1/4-
inch inside diameter. L5 has 5 turns
spaced to 1 inch, L6 has 3 turns spaced
to 3iá inch, and L7 has 2 turns spaced
FINE TUNING L6 L9 to / inch. L8 is a self- supporting coil
made from 25 turns of No. 20 enamel
The parts are assembled in a compact mass under the chassis to eliminate long -lead trouble. wire close-wound on a 1/4-inch form. L9
Televiaios 125
is 30 turns of No. 30 enamel wire close - 6J6 6AGS
wound on a 3/18-inch form. The specifi- 1

cations for L5, L6, and L7 are approxi- Lo NI 100 TO PLATE COIL OF
mate. The exact number of turns and L3 0 o a 22k

spacing will have to be determined for rl

each individual layout. Coils can be 01-K 's 7 2 -S00 ..s00

wound for other channels by using cut - ISOK

162 82 B+I60-225V
and -try procedure based on the data 7 -35 CERA IC TRIMMERS 1.5-7TRIMMERS o
which has been given for channels near ART
them. o

-.- -
Aligning the tuner
The tuner should be completed and 2s
connected to the i.f. system of a re- MATERIALS FOR TV TUNER -_
ceiver before beginning the alignment Resistors: I- 150,000, 2-22,000, I-2,400, 2- 1,000, 1-
2-82 ohms, 1/2 watt.
Ls.-qrs-. HI IO

procedure. Cut -and -try adjustments can Capacitors: 2 -10 -, I -25 -,

2- .001
I- -ppf ceramic 4-
be minimized by calculating the lowest 0005, -Mfceramic; 2 -NPO 1.5 to 7. 6-7 -to 14
35 -mai ceramic trimmers; 1-2-plate midget variable.
oscillator frequency and adjusting L4 Tubes: -616, I -6AGS, I-6C.4
1 1.7.-rl(r-o 2 PLATES
to approximately this frequency with Miscall : I -low -loss, 2- circuit, 7- position,
wafer -type rotary switch; 3-7 -pin low -loss miniature e
an absorption frequency meter. The os- sockets; assorted hardware.
cillator operates above the signal fre-
quency, so its frequency can be found by
adding the sound i.f. to the sound car-
rier frequency or by adding the video The tuner precedes a 3 -stage video Island, approximately 15 miles from the
i.f. to the video carrier frequency. i.f. amplifier followed by a detector and stations.
The tuner can be aligned on a tele- video amplifier driving a 7 -inch picture Although not the ultimate in design,
vision signal or with an accurate signal tube. The set receives all New York this tuner gives good results and will
generator. Set the channel -selector City channels with satisfactory signal serve as a foundation for those con-
switch to the channel to be tuned in. strength and picture quality when using structors who design and build their
Adjust the appropriate oscillator trim- an indoor antenna at Bayside, Long own television receivers.
mer so the sound and picture come in
together. Adjust the mixer trimmer for
the best compromise between picture
quality and maximum volume. If a high- TELEVISION NOTES OF THE MONTH
band channel is being aligned, resonate
the oscillator by varying the spacing Channels for TV may
between the turns of the shunt induct- number 50 to and brilliance. Either an unsteady im-
70 if a u.h.f. band is adopted, FCC age or too much light will result in
ors. A tuning wand is useful in this chairman Wayne Coy told a group of
operation because it indicates whether visual discomfort.
radio and advertising executives re- 3. Avoid both intense darkness and
the turns should be squeezed together cently. "I hold the need [for additional
or spread apart. The vernier tuning bright light in the room in which tele-
channels] to be self- evident," Mr. Coy vision is viewed. If the room is totally
control should be set at its mid-point said in a speech in Boston. "How many dark there will be too much contrast
when aligning each channel. channels it takes to satisfy that need I
If it is impossible to peak the mixer between the bright screen and its sur-
do not know. My present thinking is roundings. If there are bright lights
coil on the highest channel, its trimmer that 50 to 70 channels may be required."
may be replaced by a parallel inductor they will distract you from the screen.
Adding his own predictions to those Mild, indirect light in the room is pref-
similar to the ones in the oscillator cir- current recently about the fight for erable.
cuit. audiences between radio and television, 4. Sun glasses should not be worn for
Mr. Coy said, "As I see it, broadcasters televiewing because they adapt vision
6J6 IF AMP. who own television stations will gradu- to unnatural conditions.
ally dispose of their radio stations and 5. Avoid excessively long periods of
concentrate on television." This, he close concentration on the television
added, will be because advertisers do screen.
not like to spend their money with an 6. In case of discomfort, have your
organization which operates another vision examined by a competent vision
simultaneous service competing for the specialist and follow his advice. Many
same audience. He foresees, however, older persons who wear bifocal glasses
that aural broadcasting will remain im- may find neither segment suited to tele-
portant for specialized programs and vision viewing. They may be helped by
that networks will soon be sending one special lenses prescribed for the proper
type of program schedule to areas distance.
served by television and a different
service to those where there are no tele-
vision stations. Color television's usefulness in teach-
ing medicine and surgery will be
demonstrated at the annual meeting of
Six rules for visual comfort in view- the American Medical Association in
ing television were issued recently by Atlantic City in June, under a plan of
the American Optometric Association. Smith, Kline and French, Philadelphia
They are: pharmaceutical firm, and the University
1. Make sure that your set is prop- of Pennsylvania. Pickups will be made
erly installed, with particular attention by CBS in cooperation with Zenith and
to the antenna, for clearest possible Webster- Chicago. For four days, sur-
reception. gery and other procedures at the At-
2. In tuning, adjust audio tone setting lantic City Hospital will be scanned and
6C4 CHANNEL SWITCH KNOB before turning the picture up to de- transmitted in color to 20 receivers in
sired brilliance. Strike a comfortable Convention Hall. The system used will
Top -chassis photo shows how tubes are placed. balance between steadiness of image be the CBS color -disc.
MAY, 949
26 Television

Students Build TV Transmitter


IDAHO STATE COLLEGE, by solv- was produced in April, 1948. Trained

ing the TV parts bottleneck, is also technicians, scarce anywhere and espe-
solving that other television stickler cially in the West, are the school's prod-
-lack of trained men. And in so do- uct. About 20 per year are being turned
ing they have demonstrated that TV is out.
still in the amateur's domain. Some major components, such as the
Plans drawn by a former civilian image orthicon tube, were bought com-
Navy electronics specialist, William mercially. The all- important tube was
Shiflett, have resulted in what would received in November, 1947, and the
ordinarily be a million -dollar TV broad- first experimental picture was produced
casting setup. It is now being completed a month later.
at the college for about $25,000 actual Shiflett's three -year course covers ra-
cost, including studio construction. dio, electronics, and TV construction.
War -surplus radar parts, rebuilt by Radio mathematics through calculus
students to TV specifications, have been covers most of the book work.
used for the college's 2P23 image orthi- In the third year, actual construction
con cameras and estimated- 100 -watt- is undertaken. The experimental cam-
output transmitter. Completion is sched- era and transmitter are used for this
uled for June, 1949. purpose.
TV broadcasts are not the goal, al- The gamble taken in attempting high -
though an experimental wired -TV show fidelity construction out of surplus ma-
Full operation is expected late in the year. terials has panned out. In April, 1948,
the experimental camera produced a
picture deemed the equal of that pro-
duced by most commercial stations now
operating on the West Coast. Immedi-
ate construction of the operating sta-
tion resulted. A thousand TV- hungry
Westerners saw the one experimental
The camera and assorted circuits
the sync board, shapers, and control am-
plifiers -were the first units built. A
piece of cavity tuner was used as a win-
dow to hold the lens of the tube. Mount-
ing and tripods for the cameras came
out of radar sets. All camera -tube sock-
ets and about 120 potentiometers were
surplus. About 80% of tubes used were
surplus, including high -gain 6AC7's and
Resistors, capacitors, co-axial lines,
and other shielded couplings all came
from two carloads of "junk" received
in 1945 and 1946 for no more money
William Shiflett, designer of the station, runs tests on the three -unit monitoring table. than freight cost.
Timers, furnishing the six major
pulses for control of all equipment, are
completely GI, except for the chassis.
Coils for broadband amplifiers were
wound from what was at one time
radar gear.
The shaper cost nothing except hours
of hard work. Pulses do not vary over
six parts in a million in width, or over
six-millionth of a second in timing. Spe-
cial oscillograph circuits were built to
check pulses.
Rebuilt oscillator sections of the BC-
688-A receiver, BC -689 -A transmitter
and other 500-mc gear form a good part
of the video and sound transmitters.
Although present students are all vet-
erans, the course will be open in 1949
to others. Shiflett thinks his successful
experiment in salvage, science, and hu-
man ,relations shows that the war
Graduating electronics students at Idaho State College shown with the equipment they built. wasn't a complete loss.
Cover Feature Television

Experimental TV Relay
Enthusiasts organize
to help televiewers

ANCASTER, Pennsylvania, is only

65 miles from Philadelphia. But
it is in a valley with a range of
hills (the Welsh Mountains) be-
tween it and the city. What would be a
"fringe area" is thus almost a "null
area" because of these hills, and the
few experimenters who purchased tele-
visers and erected tall antennas re-
ported the situation to be absolutely
But the television experimenters re-
fused to give up and sit quietly wait-
ing for television to come to Lancaster.
They went out and got it. Reception
from Philadelphia is excellent on the
Welsh Mountains. Television enthusi-
asts began to wonder about bending the
rays from Philadelphia's television sta-
tions over the mountains and down into
Lancaster has plenty of television
enthusiasts. One of the large plants of
Radio Corporation of America is lo-
cated there, and the town has a very
high percentage of radio engineers and
technicians in its population. A group
of them met in April, 1945, to "find
ways and means to bring television to
the homes of Lancaster." They decided
that a relay station on the Welsh
Mountains, 15 miles away might be the R. E. Barrett of the Conestoga Television Association at the W3XBR controls.
best answer.
Inquiries showed that Philadelphia has a very definite meaning in the radio Oscillator and amplifier are identical
television stations would grant permis- world, and that they are not hams, nor with the exception of the oscillator feed-
sion to relay their programs. The group is their station licensed for operation back stubs, which extend from the
of enthusiasts organized the Conestoga on an amateur frequency. W3XBR is cathode toward the grid of each oscil-
Television Association in September, an experimental station, and the mem- lator tube through the copper chassis,
1945, and have worked steadily ever bers who operate it have commercial which acts as a shield. Fig. 2 is a plan
since "to bring television to the homes licenses. of the oscillator and Fig. 3 one of the
of Lancaster." amplifier. Thus the stubs appear in Fig.
Result of the effort is experimental Transmitting equipment 2 only.
television station W3XBR, shown on The video transmitter operating on A number of modulation systems were
our cover this month. During the winter 600 me uses four 2C43 10-watt light- tried. The transmitter was first grid-
of 1948 -49 it made programs available house triodes, two in the oscillator and modulated with a low-power, 4 -tube
on a more or less regular basis four two in the final amplifier. The output is modulator which used receiving-type
nights a week. Quality of picture is about 7 watts. The tubes are connected tubes and which connected to point B
usually equal to that in the best receiv- in a tuned -line circuit as shown in Figs. in Fig. 1. Modulation was about 50%.
ing locations, stability is excellent and 1, 2, and 3. The lines are resonated by To approach 100% modulation, a much
there is little or no trouble from "snow" the shorting bars which slide along the more ambitious circuit had to be de-
or man -made noise. plate and cathode lines. In addition, signed. The present modulator has 5
All work has been done on a strictly small split-stator capacitors, consisting stages feeding a power stage which
amateur basis. Members of the Associa- of plates mounted on a shaft so they consists of six 4E27/8001's in parallel.
tion take turns in operating the station. may be moved toward or away from the Their output goes to point A in Fig. 1.
But the Conestoga group do not use the plate lines, act as vernier tuners on The circuits of the modulation ampli-
word "amateur" in describing their ac- both the oscillator and the amplifier fier appear in Fig. 4, and one of the six
tivities. They point out that the word stages. identical parallel sections of the modu.
MAY, 1949
2111 Television
OA lator final amplifier is shown in Fig. 5. BANANA SOCKET
50yp1 SO ,e300Á LINE
The sound transmitter is identical to rj- -- -

the video transmitter illustrated in E; TO PLATE SUPPLY


SHORTING BAR / Fig. 1, having been originally con- I


structed as the standby unit. In the 13" lrSHIELD CAN

~MATCHING STUB earlier experimental stages, AM was I FOR VERNIER TUNING
used, but the modulation now follows
340 APPROX standard television practice-frequency !' I PLATE LINES

modulation with the sound r.f. at the Ill I GRID MOD LEAD

standard frequency separation from the 2C43 1

video signal. The sound transmitter is
CAPACITANCE TO CHASSIS completely independent and has its own 1


SHORTING BAR antenna. 1

2C43 +425V CATH

Receiver converters
300A UNE
But getting the signals into Lancaster
- 300nLINE

was only half the story. The 600 -mc HEATER 10 VB'APPROA

frequency for which the station was 12"

licensed had to be converted to one that

could be picked up by a standard tele-

vision receiver. This problem was solved Fig. 3 -A side elevation of the final stage.
with the experimenter's standby, sur- own way, both of the systems men-
plus equipment. The former Navy radar tioned in addition to a few variations
receiver ASB -6 was adapted for the are in use.
job. This versatile unit can be made into
a converter that will either work from Antenna system
. the u.h.f. band down to Channel 2, or
600MC OSC The mast which decorates this month's
will produce video signals directly with cover is a 65-foot tower originally built
SHORTING BAR `HANDLE its own detector. for experimental work by a windmill
First stage of the converter (Fig. 6) company. Receiving antennas increase
Fig. -Video transmitter uses four 2C43's. is a 2C40 lighthouse tube. It feeds into the height another 13 feet, making 78
4-- 10
I/BAPPROx an oscillator -mixer stage consisting of a feet overall. Each receiving array is a
pair of 955's, which brings the signal to pair of stacked Taco dipoles, one being
54 mc for the first i.f. section. This con-
sists of two stages, and the 54 -mc signal 4E27/
e 001

1 'o -1 r Ei 3/8" from it can be coupled into the antenna
circuit of a standard TV receiver, whose


Channel 2 circuits may have to be re-
tuned slightly for best possible per-
'I formance.
111311 PLATE 7 SLIDINGCONTACTS 1 Better results can be obtained by
I SHORTING BAR I heterodyning again and amplifying IC IC
- 1 -I-\4- __J through another two i.f. stages at 16 4-5V/60A-4. ^
3/4 STUBS ARE FOR FEEDBACK mc, which in the ASB -6 is followed by a TO CATH OF 6N8 DC RESTORER Ell IL CURRENT METER
I/8" DIA
4-,EACH3 /18 "DIA- 3/4" APART detector and one video stage. Since the ON VIDEO LINE AMPL
converter problem has been solved by T. 750V SUPPLY

Fig. 2-Drawing shows oscillator construction. each member of the Association in his Fig. 5- Modulator has six parallel 8001 tubes.

6AC7 Q I 80714)


25 5.616 5.6K

100 6ÁG7 __ .25

\ 40T

16 J\


510K 100 z
20 -3.OKEACH 20 S5.6
/ 1W


-IH 6AC7,6AG',6L6F.LS 607 FILS




Fig. 4 -A simple modulation circuit was tried at first but it was fo und that a more elaborate lob was needed. This is the line amplifier.
Television 29
B+ 8+ IMEG
8+ 500k

ANT 4K 8+ 2K
54MC C
6AC7 6AC7 6J5
31 IK 3 T IF 4K MI%
--X =:* 75N .: ÁT


~ I.SN I

20 C C


- 2.SK
SK 571(





1.5K 10K



6AC7 6AC7 6E16 6AC7 6AC7
Fig. 6-A surplus ASB -6 radar receiver is used by most viewers to convert the 600 -mc signal of W3XBR
to one suitable for the TV receiver.

used for reception from WPTZ and one organization, doing such duties as his have been accustomed to receiving two
for WCAU. The two corner reflectors qualifications permit. The encourage- stations be content with the single
immediately below were originally for ment of outside organizations, notably home -town program? And will the oper-
the sound and vision transmitting an- the television stations in Philadelphia ators who have been spending their
tennas. Now the video channel is trans- who permitted their programs to be evenings on Welsh Mountain feel it
mitted from the large parabola below relayed, and RCA in Lancaster, who worth while to continue to do so if tele-
the reflectors, while four stacked verti- loaned the new station much necessary vision programs are otherwise avail-
cal dipoles in one of the reflectors trans- material which might have been too able? Will W3XBR continue, cease, or
mit the audio channel. costly to buy, also played an important change its form of operation? No one
The television situation in Lancaster part. knows the answers, but all members of
is a triumph of organized effort. Though Lancaster expects a local commercial the Conestoga Television Association
any person who desires to receive the television station whose programs will agree that the work up to the present
signals could do so simply by construct- probably start in June. How the long- has already paid off in satisfaction over
ing a converter, without taking on the distance relay will be affected is not a job well done, and in television train-
burdens of membership in the Associa- known, but Association members are ing that could not have been so well
tion, there are no "pirates" and every looking forward to the changed situa- obtained in any other, less practical
televiewer is an active worker in the tion with interest. Will members who way.


TV RECEIVER SALES may bring as
much income to radio manufacturers
as sales of sound sets in 1949, according RADIO AND TELEVISION RETAIL DOLLAR SALES
to a report released last month by the ll10M1 Of 00LLAI1f
U. S. Department of Commerce. Writ-
ten by James B. Forman and Charles
P. Redick of the Department and en-
titled "Trends and Prospects in Radio rear 1N1 solos 1 sale* TfUI solos
and Television Receivers," the report I014... Nr,N1.000
relates that TV retail dollar volume MI... 11.r/1.014
IfaO... 701.\14.000
1,000 14o... 1.110,4111.860
amounted to less than 7% of total in- 1f14... 001.014,000
dustry sales in 1947, but jumped to
30% in 1948. If the industry's objective
of producing two million TV receivers
in 1949 is realized, say the authors, the
decline of radio sales and the growth of
the television market may well cause a 500
meeting or even crossing of the radio
and TV lines on the sales chart shown.
Aggregate sales of radio and TV re-
ceivers in 1949 is expected to approach
the $1.2 billion reached in 1948, despite
the approach to saturation in table- o
model radio receivers and the slump in

1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1946 1947 1948
radio-phonograph combinations caused
by confusion over phonograph records.
The increase in the number of TV set Dept. of Commerce Chart. Source: Electrical Merchandising
makers is very marked. Before the war televiewers; forty were in the business and 76 in mid -1948, all but 18 of whom
only one company was manufacturing (or preparing to enter) in mid -1946 are also active in radio.
MAY, 1949
:301 Television

Antennas For Television*

Part V- Higher gain and more directive By
patterns may be obtained by using para- and
sitic arrays and stacking the elements MATT MANDLt

THE presence of additional antenna each other. These so- called stacked ele- additional energy is transferred back
elements increases the gain of sim- ments determine the vertical directivity to the driven element in the correct
ple and folded dipoles. Not only of the antenna system. Vertical and phase to reinforce the initial signal.
can the antenna system be made horizontal directivity patterns are The director is shorter by 4% than
more sensitive in the direction of the shown in Fig. 1. the driven element and is a certain dis-
station but also less sensitive in other The vertical directivity of TV receiv- tance in front of it, that is, between the
directions, reducing the effects of noise ing- antenna systems should be prac- station and the antenna proper. The ar-
and multipath signals. The poor sensi- tically parallel to the earth because riving wavefront strikes the director
tivity to waves arriving at odd angles television and FM waves are propa- first. Again the combination of the ar-
improves the signal -to -noise and signal - gated as nearly parallel to earth as pos- riving wavefront plus the re- radiation
to- interference ratios. It is important to sible. The stacked system reduces the from the director produces an increased
realize, however, that the benefit of a sensitivity of the antenna to noises signal at the transmission line.
higher-gain antenna can be realized which arrive from beneath the antenna.
only if antenna is properly matched to Thus the stacked antenna is, not only a Element spacing
transmission line, transmission line bit more sensitive in the direction of The spacing of the director and re-
matched to receiver (and of proper the station, but assists in the rejection flector from the driven element deter-
over -all length), and antenna positioned of high -angle radiation from below. mines the gain and impedance of the
in the maximum field intensity of a antenna. For maximum gain it is cus-
Parasitic elements tomary to space a reflector 0.15 wave-
REFLECTOR A properly matched dipole or folded length in back of the antenna and a
dipole intercepts a specific section of the director 0.1 wavelength in front of it
propagated wavefront and therefore re- (see Fig. 2). With this close spacing
ceives a definite amount of energy. If the antenna resistance is lowered sub-
the antenna has a resistive termination stantially. When it is necessary to keep
equal to its own radiation resistance, the antenna impedance relatively high,
maximum energy will be transferred it is possible to space each parasitic ele-
from it to the receiver. When the an- ment 1/4 wavelength from the dipole.
tenna is ideally matched, half of the The gain is brought down somewhat.
total power intercepted is transferred but reduction of impedance is not great.
Spacing 0.25À 0.15A. 0.1.\
to the load while the second half is re-
radiated from the antenna. Reflector 82% 34% 19%
Another antenna element is often in- Director '71% 30% 19%
troduced to intercept this re- radiated Both 41% 28% 7%
I ; energy. This parasitic element, if These figures show the resistance of a
spaced properly with respect to the parasitic array as a percentage of the
driven element, transfers additional impedance of the dipole alone, for three
energy to the driven element in proper different element spacings.
VERTICAL phase to reinforce the initial power in- It is very important that the driven
PATTERNS tercepted. Under ideal conditions the element be matched exactly to the trans-
presence of a driven element plus either mission line if the full benefits of a
Fig. I- Vertical and horizontal directivity.
a director or reflector increases signal directive antenna are to be obtained.
intensity from 50% to 100%. The addi- Obviously, if multi -element arrays are
space loop (see Part III, March issue). tional gain depends on the length of the to be used, a folded dipole is preferred
Two factors which determine the gain parasitic element and a correct impe- over a straight dipole because of the
and effectiveness of a directional an- dance match between the transmission much higher final resistance in the
tenna are horizontal and vertical direc- line and the driven antenna, consider- presence of parasitic elements, permit-
tivity. Additional antenna elements, re- ing the effect of the parasitic element ting the antenna to be matched more
flectors and directors, behind and in on the resistance of the driven antenna. readily to a 300- or 75 -ohm line. The
front of the dipole cause improved sen- A reflector is 5% longer than the resistance of a plain dipole drops to an
sitivity in a given direction. There is driven element and is placed a certain exceedingly low value, which increases
less sensitivity to signals which arrive distance in back of it. Arriving waves losses and complicates the matching
from other angles. strike the driven element which accepts problem. Furthermore, because of the
Limited improvement can also be ob- part of the energy. A portion of the inherently larger bandpass of a folded
tained with elements positioned above energy is re- radiated and moves on to dipole, the array retains a substantial
From a forthcoming book: Reference Guide For
the reflector. At the reflector there is bandwidth despite the narrowing effects
Telerision .4 »tenons. almost complete re- radiation because of the parasitic elements.
tTelevision Instructors- Technical Institute, the reflector is not terminated in a load; When a folded dipole is used, the
Temple University.
Television 31
parasitic elements may still be simple, ANTENNA DESIGN TABLE
straight rods. They need not have the
folded form. Element length is critical.
In checks made by the authors it was Chan- Center Di- Re- reo- Folded
Free -Space Dimensions of Waves

found that with reflector or director nel he- pole hector for dipole ele- Channel
quency length length length >`2 a/4
correctly cut (reflector 5% longer and ment X 0.1a 0.16>. 3X 10X limits
director 4% shorter than driven ele- 1 57 97.1 101 93.3 407 79.7 101 101 50.5 10.1 30.3' 51.9 173 54 -60
ment) some increase in signal strength 3
91.3 84.4 181 66.7 181.8 91.4 45.7 18.3 17.4 46.8 156 60-66
84.3 77 166 60.9 166.8 83.4 41.7 16.7 15 41.9 60-71
was apparent when the parasitic ele- 5 79 70 73.6 67.3 145 53.1 145.6 71.8 90.4 14.6 41.8 37.4
114 76-81
ment was spaced a quarter -wave, with- 6 85 65.4 68.1 61.5 134 49.4 135.6 67.8 33.9 13.6 10.3 34.8 116 81 -88
7 177 31.1 31.8 30 64.7 13.7 04.8 31.4 16.1 6.48 9.71 16.7 55.6 174 -180
out giving consideration to impedance 8 183 30.1 31.8 19 61.6 11.9 61.8 31.4 15.7 6.18 9.41 10.1 53.7 180 -186
match. However, for the utmost im- 9
30.4 15.1 6.08 9.11 15.6 51 186 -191
19.4 14.7 5.88 8.81 15.1 50.4 191 -198
provement, the impedance match of an- 11 401 27.6 19 16.4 57 10.9 57.1 18.6 14.3 5.71 8.58 14.7 49 198 -104
tenna to transmission line was every 14
17.8 13.9 5.56 8.34 14.3 47.5 104 -110
17 13.5 5.4 8.1 13.9 46.1 110 -1111
IÀ I. nv
Il and 71 78 81.9 '4.9 161 59.1 166.3 89.1 41.6 16.1 14.1 41.7 138
Band 195 18.4 49.8 17.1 58.7 41.5 58.8 19.4 14.7 5.88 8.81 13.1 50.4

41I frequencies in megacycles; all dimensions in inches except 3), and OX, which are in feet

to waves traveling parallel to the earth ture upon which it is mounted), the
is increased. Stacking two dipoles one- greater the ratio between signal con-
half wavelength apart increases voltage tributed by the top element and that of
delivered to the transmission line by the lower one.
40%, provided the system is properly A very simple system for approxi-
matched. If the terminals of two driven mately matching two stacked folded di-
Fig. 2- Standard parasitic element spacing. elements are paralleled, net antenna re- poles is the transposed- feeder method
sistance is halved. (Fig. 3 -a). In a typical case, 300-ohm
bit as important as the presence of the Stacked antennas connected in phase line was run to the lower element, con-
reflector or director. have maximum sensitivity broadside, nected, given a half -twist, and continued
Complete utilization of the gain added just as a single dipole. However, phase on to the top element. Spacing between
by the parasitic elements can be relation is affected by the feed system. the stacked elements should be 85 to
realized if a quarter -wave matching The two basic methods of feed are 90% of a half-wave because of the ve-
stub is used, as shown in Fig. 2. In this shown in Fig. 3. With the method of locity constant of the line. This system
system an open quarter-wave stub is a, the signals picked up by the two delivered a bit higher signal level than
attached to the antenna and the trans- dipoles are in phase, but the upper - a center -feed system. Various element
mission -line connections are moved up dipole signal is reversed after it passes spacings -half -wave, quarter -wave, and
and down the stub until the peak signal through the half -wave section of line. eighth -wave-were tried with no appar-
point is obtained. If this method is used, To correct this, the feeders must be ent improvement.
a 300 -ohm line can be matched to a transposed as shown. At b, signals from Best results with a center -feed sys-
dipole or folded dipole having one, two, both dipoles travel the same distance tem (Fig. 3 -b) were obtained when the
or more parasitic elements. The system, before they meet and no correction is
of course, should be matched best for necessary.
the weakest-signal frequency. A good A most important characteristic of
match will then exist at the third -har- the stacked antenna is its ability to re-
monic frequency. ject noises arriving at other angles than TRANSPOSED
In summary, the full effectiveness of broadside. For example, a signal arriv- FEEDER
the parasitic elements is obtained only ing from beneath the antenna (street
with correct spacing, careful cutting of noises, etc.) would induce out-of-phase
elements to correct lengths, and, above signals into the two elements (longer A

all, proper matching of the driven ele- path to top antenna element) and sig-
ment to the transmission line, consid- nals would cancel at the point where
ering the change in antenna resistance the transmission line is attached. Thus
caused by the parasitic elements. the stacked antenna is particularly n b
-01 To assist in finding the correct dimen- helpful in noisy locations.
sions for the elements, and the spacings The stacked array, in addition to con- Fig. 3 -Two way of joining stacked elements.
between them, a table has been com- tributing more gain, remains bidirec-
piled. It gives information for each tional, an advantage when reception section of line between driven elements
channel as well as for compromise sys- from opposite directions is desired. Re- had a surge impedance which approxi-
tems for high and low bands. Dimen- flectors and directors can be used for mately matched the antenna to the cen-
sions given for folded dipoles indicate each element of the stacked system, ter point of feed. For example, if two
the total length between one terminal however, to make it unidirectional, with stacked folded dipoles are used, each
and the other. Free-space dimensions still higher gain in the chosen direction. has a 300 -ohm resistance which should
for various parts of a wavelength are Again proper impedance matching is be transformed to 600 ohms at the point
also given for use in obtaining proper essential, a matching stub doing won- where the 300 -ohm transmission line is
stub lengths and spacings between ele- ders for any one stubborn station. Ac- attached. If the section between each
ments. All of these dimensions are based tually, because of the very limited addi- antenna and the center feed point has
on an air dielectric. When other than tional gain acquired by stacking (only a surge impedance of x'300 x 600 or
air is used (as in transmission through 40% for two stacked elements ideally about 420 ohms, it will act as a quarter -
sections of line) the dimension given matched), the rejection of noise should wave matching section. Element spac-
should be corrected by multiplying it by be the only reason for doing it. It was ing did not appear critical from the
the velocity constant of whatever di- noticed that with a number of stacked signal -strength standpoint, although
electric is used (see manufacturer's systems, due to mismatch and nearness half-wave spacing gives the best noise
specifications). of the antenna to ground, signal cancellation.
strength increased when one driven ele- In the next article of this series spe-
Stacked arrays ment was removed. The effects of cial antenna types will be discussed and
If driven antenna elements are ground are evident when we consider comparisons made with conventional
stacked vertically, antenna gain is that the nearer the stacked antenna is dipoles. An unusual high- directivity,
somewhat increased because sensitivity to ground (or to the grounded struc- high -gain antenna will be shown.
MAY, I949
32 I

Electret Behavior
It is possible to
evaluate electret
behavior in spite
of the dearth of
theoretical knowl-
edge prevailing


T. develop new industrial uses for

the electret, the electronic techni-
cian should become acquainted with
the properties of and the com-
pounds that form electrets. As first
shown by Mototaro Eguchi of the
Higher Naval College of Tokyo, an elec-
tret is formed when certain dielectric Edward Padgett, the author, shown experimenting with one of his electrets.
materials solidify in a strong, external-
ly applied electric field. The electric
field causes the molecules of the dielec-
tric to become oriented or polarized in the dielectric mixtures. Among the tests wax was in a molten or plastic condi-
the direction of the field. As the mix- and analyses are potential-distribution tion (for wax temperatures down to
ture solidifies, the polarized molecules curves inside the electret, x -ray diffrac- 70 degrees C).
are frozen into a fixed position. Events tion patterns, cooling curves, and am- Professor Gemant hinted that this ex-
that occur inside the polarized dielec- meter tests. The experimental results planation might hold when the polar-
tric cause the free charges that char- suggest the interesting hypothesis that ized dielectric was cooled to room tem-
acterize an electret. At room tempera- the free charges on the surfaces of wax perature; for the solid wax he found a
ture one electret surface has a positive electrets are the result of ionization of POTENTIAL (ARBITRARY UNITS(
electric charge and the other surface is some of the constituents in the wax. (VV

charged negatively. Covering the elec- However, until new information about
tret with a metal -foil keeper preserves oriented polar compounds is available
the charges indefinitely. to support the experimental evidence, A
This electric charge property is re-
lated to the polar groups ( -OH,
-COOH) that occur in certain high -
melting -point compounds. (Polar groups
are groups of atoms with positive and
negative electrical poles.) Mixtures of
this hypothesis must not be regarded as
a theory of electret behavior.
Andrew Gemant, one of the early elec-
tret workers, was the first (1935) to
propose an ionization explanation. He
inserted probes in the cooling Carnauba
wax as an electret was being made.
50 Ef
Carnauba wax and hydrogenated rosin
(Hercules Staybelite resin) have polar
groups and form electrets. Paraffin
waxes have no polar groups and, in
From the data he prepared curves of
potential distribution inside the wax
versus electrode distance (Fig. 1). He
+ I 0

themselves, do not form electrets. How- found that potential distribution was
ever, paraffin waxes in mixture with nonsymmetrical with respect to the two
Carnauba will form electrets because electrodes. The graph shows that the 0 2 50 75 100
the Carnauba has polar groups. nonsymmetry becomes more pronounced
Despite a lack of basic knowledge as the wax temperature decreases. Ge- .. ..
about the behavior of oriented polar mant said this was due to different ion c. .. ,. .,
compounds, practical information about mobilities inside the wax; cation (posi-
electrets can be obtained from a num- tive ion) mobility was greater than
ber of experiments that can be made on anion (negative ion) mobility when the Fig. I-
Curves show potential distribution.
positive space charge at the cathode. field, Carnauba wax becomes polarized. order, a crystal acts on X -rays as a
Independent tests indicate that his ex- In other words, the wax acquires an diffraction grating acts on light. Diffrac-
planation will hold when the wax is at internal electric field of its own during tion of X -rays is governed by the well-
room temperature. An X -ray analysis the polarization process. When the wax known Bragg equation, nL = (2d) (sin
proves that when it is allowed to solidi- is hard enough (cooled to room tempera- B). If a substance has a definite, repeat-
fy in an externally applied electric ture), this internal field is retained in- ing crystalline structure, X -rays will be
definitely and can manifest itself long diffracted in certain directions only,
after the electret is removed from the resulting in an X -ray pattern on a pho-
making electrodes. If large enough, the tographic film that is characteristic of
internal field can ionize (or excite) cer- the structure or substance. Organic
tain contituents in the wax. The ions compounds like Carnauba wax yield
can migrate toward the polarized sur- diffraction patterns that are clearly de-
faces and form the free surface charges fined, smooth rings (Fig. 2). If the
on the electret because of the internal crystallites of a substance are very
field and a certain amount of ion mo- small and distributed in a random, non -
bility tends to manifest itself inside repeating manner, the X -rays will be
the wax. scattered in all directions, resulting in
The electret is the electrical analog diffraction patterns that are broad, dif-
of the so- called permanent magnet. A fuse halos. Compounds like glass and
keeper on a magnet maintains the direc- hydrogenated rosin yield these broad
tion of the internal magnetic field in- halos. Fig. 3 shows a halo from hydro-
side the iron, and the magnet keeps its genated rosin. Note how it conforms to
pole strength indefinitely. The keeper the description.
on an electret maintains the direction Any substance can be identified or
of the internal electric field inside the "fingerprinted" by X -rays because it
polarized dielectric, and the electret has its own characteristic diffraction
keeps its free surface charges indefi- pattern. If two substances are mixed
nitely. The precise mechanism of what together and there is a chemical reac-
happens inside the electret involves con- tion, an X-ray diffraction pattern will
2- Diffraction troversial and theoretical questions that show new rings or lines because of the
Fig. pattern of Carnauba wax. will be answered when more informa- new compound formed by the reaction.
tion is obtained on the various phe- Unpolarized mixtures of Carnauba wax
nomena involved. and hydrogenated rosin show no new
If the keeper is removed from the
electret, there is a reversal of the in-
ternal electric field. Experimental evi-
dence indicates that this reversal is not
instantaneous, but occurs instead in a
series of jumps. This means that the
decrease in the magnitude of free sur-
face charge occurs in a series of jumps.
The type of decrease indicates that
there is either a rotation of the mole-
cules, or changes in the distance be-
tween molecules or ions inside the elec-
tret. This is not a piezoelectric effect in
the strict sense of the word -waxes are
too soft, relatively, to show appreciable
piezoelectric effects. Rather, it is an
internal effect caused by oriented polar
compounds. Additional knowledge about
polar groups, concepts of quantum
theory, and the number of degrees of
freedom of atoms and molecules must
Fig. 3 -Halo pattern from hydrogenated rosin. be used to explain these jump effects
more fully.

X -ray analysis
An externally applied electric field of Fig. 5- Diffraction pattern of an electret.
between 5,000 and 10,000 volts per cen-
timeter must be applied to the molten rings, hence, no chemical change is
dielectric to produce satisfactory elec- caused by mixing these two substances
trets. X -ray diffraction patterns prove together. X -rays prove that mixtures of
the dielectric is polarized by this strong Carnauba wax and hydrogenated rosin
field. The patterns shown in this article
were made with the k -alpha doublet

ating for 20 minutes at 40 kv peak and

20 ma. The spot in the center of the pic-
tures is due to the blocking out of the
primary X -ray beam. These pin -hole
patterns were taken by the writer in ED ED ED

the X -ray laboratory of the University

of Illinois.
The distance d between layers of a ED ED
crystal is of the order of Angstrom
units (1 A.U. = 108 cm). Since the CRYSTALLITES MOLECULES

Fig. 4- Composite pattern of Figs. 2 and 3. wavelength L of X -rays is of the same Fig. 6-Schematic illustration of fibering.
MAY, 1949
341 Electronics
COOLING TIME IN MINUTES at an angle with respect to the vertical. lines drawn by the potentiometer pen,
242 In the tipping over process heat energy passes into the melting -point and crys-
is lost by the molecules. The energy loss tal- transition regions. A test tube con-
is detected by the thermocouple and taining a thermocouple, brass elec-
189 causes slight dips or bulges in the cool- trodes, and Carnauba wax cracked by
ing curves. Thus point B in Figs. 7 and the application of the intense electric
N °I YELLOW CARNAUBA WAX 8 is the center of a region of crystal field during these tricky tests is shown
transition. To see the bulges clearly, in a photograph.
hold the paper parallel to the eye and When Hercules hydrogenated rosin
114 sight along the curve. Irregular points (Staybelite resin) is added to the Car-
like C on the graphs are due to the ad- nauba wax, the melting point of the
justment of the recording potentiometer. mixture is lower. Also, the center of the
67 When No. 1 yellow Carnauba wax crystal transition region (point B in the
52 cools in an oven, the curve of Fig. 7 is graphs) is at a lower temperature. This
81.8C obtained. As the wax cools, it goes from is shown in the cooling curve of a mix-
a molten state (above 81.8 degrees C) ture of equal parts of Carnauba wax
through a vertical inflection point at and hydrogenated rosin (Fig. 8).
22 44 65 85.5 105.5 124.9 144 163 81.8 degrees (point A on the graph) Ammeter tests on wax electrets
into plastic and solid states (below 81.8 give useful information. Interestingly
degrees C). In other words, from E to enough, pure hydrocarbons are essen-
Fig. 7- Cooling characteristic of Carnauba.
A on the cooling curve the wax is tially nonconductors of electricity in
molten. At point A the wax cools the molten state. A microammeter in
are physical 7ni.rlrnes, not a new chemi- through its melting point and begins to the high -voltage circuit, when making
cal compound. The diffraction pattern an electret, shows currents of surpris-
of the mixture merely shows a super - ingly large magnitude (approximately
positioning of the individual patterns 400 microamperes or greater when the
of the two substances. If Fig. 3 were wax is at 90 degrees C). The specific
added to Fig. 2, the resulting pattern resistance of Carnauba wax (consid-
would be identical to the diffraction ered as a mixture of hydrocarbon de-
pattern of the mixture (Fig. 4). In this rivatives) is approximately 60 X 1013
photograph note the uniform photo- ohm -centimeters at 30 degrees C. Ac-
graphic density of the closely spaced cording to Ohm's law, currents meas-
rings and the broad inner halo. urable in micromicroamperes should
Fig. 5 is a diffraction pattern of an flow through the dielectric. In practice,
electret. Note the nonuniform photo- microamperes are observed. The large
graphic density of the rings and the currents are due either to strong polar
broad inner halo. Such diffraction rings properties or to ionization of some of
are characteristic of materials that the wax components. These components
show "preferred orientation" or fiber - are mixtures of esters of higher alco-
ing. In this instance the fibering is due hols and acids, and impurities, such as
to the polarization or orientation of the inorganic salts, that are inherent in the
dielectric caused by the previously ap- wax. Undoubtedly, the ion currents
plied electric field from the power sup- contribute to the magnitude of the free
ply. Fibering means that an electret has surface charges on wax electrets.
a higher degree of orientation or or- In summation, then, a series of inde-
ganization than the unpolarized dielec- pendent tests indicates that the electric
tric. Fig. 6 is a schematic illustration of charges on wax electrets are associated
fibering. with the orientation of polar groups
that occur in certain compounds. Un-
Other electret tests polarized mixtures of Carnauba wax
In addition to the knowledge from This test tube wos cracked when Carnauba and hydrogenated rosin are physical
the X -ray analysis, further information wax was cooled in intense electric field. mixtures. X -ray diffraction patterns
about electrets can be obtained from prove that wax electrets consist of cer-
cooling carves of the dielectric mixtures. solidify. At A' most of the wax is in a tain polarized dielectric materials.
A copper -constantin thermocouple is in- soft, plastic state. From A' to D the MINUTES
serted in the molten dielectric in a test wax cools to solidification. [94
tube. The thermocouple is connected to a When Carnauba wax cools in an elec-
recording potentiometer. The pen of this tric field, the curve is similar to that of
instrument draws cooling curves which Fig. 7 except for one important differ- M
show the time versus temperature rela- ence. This difference is that there is a 198

tionships as the dielectric cools. (Dis- slight lowering of the melting point of 50% YELLOW CARNAUBA WAX

cussions of the equipment used in test- the wax. The electric field causes either 50% HERCULES HYDROGENATED

ing electrets and photographs of the preferred orientation of the wax or t


Leeds and Northrup recording poten- ionization of some of the constituents in

tiometer appeared in the April issue.) the wax or both. In either case the wax 147
Carnauba wax is crystalline in struc- takes energy from the applied electric t 4e

ture and is a unique solid solution of a field. Energy is taken gradually and in
homologous series of esters. Esters can the melting point and crystal transition 102

have one or more crystal transition regions. This latter effect shows on a
states. This means that at a certain cooling curve only when the applied 76

temperature all the wax molecules are voltage is slightly greater than the A
lined up in a certain direction and at a breakdown strength of the dielectric. 75 °C

certain angle with respect to the ver- In this event arc -overs occur between 27

tical. In the region of the melting point the parallel-plate electrodes in the test 0 (E
the molecules line up vertically, like the tube. The voltage breakdowns in the 22 44 65 85.5 105.5 124.9 144 163

pile in a rug. A change in crystal tran- wax occur with almost explosive noise DEGREES CENTIGRADE

sition means that at a certain tempera- and violence when the temperature of
ture all the molecules suddenly tip over the cooling wax, as indicated by the Fig. 8 -How a Carnauba -rosin mixture cools.
Electronics 135


Part VII-Devices to
measure the activity
of the muscle fibers
By EUGENE J. THOMPSON The insulated metallic needle is thrust into the arm. The bare tip picks up impulses.

ELECTROMYOGRAPHY is an elec- 1. A high -gain, low-noise -level, wide - has a loss of 3 db per step, making a
tronic method of recording the range, calibrated, balanced, push-pull total of 6 db per step for both stages.
electrical activity of muscles. De- preamplifier, with built -in calibrator The frequency response is flat ±1.5 db
veloped during the last war to (Fig. 2) ; from 10 to 4,000 cycles. The time con-
study nerve injuries, it is now used to 2. A cathode -ray oscilloscope with stant is 0.1 second.
study diseases such as infantile paraly- photographic attachment, incorporating Extraneous electrical intereference is
sis. a nerve and muscle stimulator with va-
The action potentials are picked up riable duration and intensity (Fig. 3) ; 1-
with a fine, metallic needle, thrust 3. A combination mobile loudspeaker
through the skin and into the muscle as cabinet and table including the speaker,
in Fig. 1. The shaft of the needle is in- power amplifier, battery, and battery
sulated, only the extreme tip remaining charger.
bare. This makes it possible to contact The preamplifier (Fig. 2) comprises AMPLIFIER

individual muscle fibers or collections three stages of push-pull, resistance -

of fibers known as a motor unit, which capacitance coupled voltage amplifica- GROUNDED ELECTRODE
are controlled by only one nerve fiber. tion. The advantages of the push -pull
The action potentials are measured circuit in medical electronic equipment REFERENCE

with respect to a reference electrode have been discussed in earlier articles. INSULATED
placed on the skin nearby. A third, It is possible to obtain linear amplifica- SHAFT OF

grounded electrode is attached to a dis- tion of all input voltages between 10 FIBERS

tant, neutral part of the body to reduce microvolts and 100 millivolts by means NON-INSULATED
stray electrical interference. The of the balanced, tandem, 10-step attenu-
needle and reference electrode are con- ators R7, R8, R13, R14. Each attenuator Fig. I -Bore needle tip touches muscle fiber.
nected to the input grids of a push-pull
The action potentials are then ampli-
fied sufficiently to be seen or photo-
graphed with an oscilloscope and camera
attachment and to be heard on a loud-
speaker. The appearance and sound of
the waveforms can be analyzed by an
experienced electromyographer.
Individual muscle fibers emit small
monophasic and diphasic transient dis-
charges lasting 1 to 1.5 milliseconds at
.01 to 0.3 millivolt. They appear in
trains when the nerve supply to a
muscle is destroyed, and have a crack- ul
ling sound when heard on the speaker.
-- -Ì 1

Motor -unit potentials last 5 to 7 mil- R21 R22
liseconds, range between 1 and 10 milli-
volts, and are di- or triphasic. A com- IO 1900

bination of motor units discharging 11.59 METER

simultaneously may produce amplitudes PTw
of 30 to 40 mv. Motor -unit potentials
appear only when the muscle contracts,
with a few exceptions. They sound like
J 240N .5V11 ±1I 45V ~I 4SVI14I45V
machine -gun fire.
The electromyograph recorder is com-
F1LS t o

posed of three major components: Fig. 2 -This high -gain, low- noise, wide -range amplifier magnifies muscle action potentials.
MAY, 1949
36 I
6C5(2) reduced without shielding by the screen -
.05 20K
500K 255 grid- balancing potentiometer R3. Inas-
much as such interference appears prin-
25K yI OUT
cipally as a grid -ground signal, R3 can

2K 8 be varied to make the undesirable sig-

nals of equal amplitude. Since they are
already 180 degrees out of phase, they
255 T10 cancel. Mechanical tube noises are re-
duced by using 1603's (non -microphonic
SOON 25N 6C6's) in the first stage. These are
t- Wy-w2 mounted in rubber-cushioned ceramic
sockets. Precision wire-wound resistors
DPST SW 30H ION in the first stage plus careful shielding
3A /SW
reduce inherent noise still further.
L F COMPENSATION 130 3 10 117V AC The calibrator circuit consists of a
T' 1.5 -volt battery, R21, R22, and a push-
5Y3-G button. When the OP -CAL switch is
thrown to CAL, depressing the CAL but-
PILOT 5.3v Fl LS
ton introduces an 0.8 my square -wave
pulse. The oscilloscope vertical gain
Fig. 4-The power amplifier. Listening to the impulses, the physician's diagnosis is aided. control can then be adjusted to secure
the desired deflection.
The output of the preamplifier is fed
into the vertical deflection amplifier of
the cathode-ray oscilloscope (Fig. 3).
50 Uul This consists of two 6AG7 beam -power
tubes which, because of their high trans -
conductance and high plate current,
deliver a high voltage across a low
plate -load impedance. This produces
linear deflection, because the beam goes
STIMULUS OUTPUT off the face of the 'scope before the
tubes are driven past the linear portion
STIMULUS DURATION of the characteristic curve.
The sweep generator employs an 884
thyratron, 6K7 constant -current pen-
tode, and a 6C5 limiter. Normally, the
6AC71211505 200K
884 thyratron is biased to cutoff, and is
prevented by the 6C5 limiter, connected
in parallel with it, from flashing or
51005/2 250/5 conducting. However, a simple positive
Iw pulse from the multivibrator raises the
grid bias of the thyratron, causing it
to conduct, charging C4. This is then
discharged at a linear rate through the
6K7 constant- current pentode. When
20K 7.55
IW the potential across C4 drops to a low
R21 value, the grid of the 6C5 limiter is
driven positive with respect to the
cathode (since the cathode is made more
6AG7121 negative than the bias impressed on it
by R20 and R21) As a consequence,
1 1 5CP4 the 6C5 conducts heavily, preventing
255 further conduction of the thyratron
until the next positive trigger pulse
arrives from the multivibrator.
The multivibrator consists of two
6AC7 pentodes in which the screen
grids are used as plates for the switch-
ing action. The circuit provides positive
pulses for triggering the sweep gener-

ator and negative pulses to trigger the
muscle and nerve -stimulator circuit.
The frequency is set at '7.5 cycles.
30H -
2W 2W 50015
2W 1005
The square-wave pulse from the ap-
propriate plate of the multivibrator is
20 II3011 passed through a differentiating network

2W -' to produce the sharp, positive trigger

4 3 5
pulse for the sweep generator. The
negative trigger pulse is obtained from
5Y3 6X5 2X2 the grid of the nonconducting tube of

2 e 14 I.51IV
to/ to/ te Fig. 3 -The muscle impulses show up on this
oscilloscope for visual evaluation. The same
4 ®
M unit furnishes potentials for stimulating the
'117V AC nerves and muscles with currents of variable
intensity in pulses of adjustable duration.
Electronics 37
the multivibrator as its voltage sud-
denly swings negative.
The output of the stimulator circuit
is a negative square -wave pulse with a
recurrence frequency of 7.5 cycles. The
duration may be set at 1, 0.5, and 0.2
millisecond, and the amplitude varied
from zero to -90 volts.
The stimulator is composed of a 6N7
one -shot multivibrator triggered by the
negative pulse described above. The out-
put, a negative square wave, is passed
through the 6AG7 cathode follower.
This arrangement minimizes distortion
of the square -wave stimulus.
The 6AG7, which is normally con-
ducting heavily, is made to conduct less
by the negative square -wave input from
the 6N7. The fall in current in R41 re-
sults in a negative square -wave output.
The duration of the stimulus is kept
constant by the 6H6 duration limiter
which stabilizes the grid -voltage excur-
sions of the two triode sections of the
The power amplifier (Fig. 4) is a
two -stage, resistance- capacitance -cou-
pled circuit, with frequency compensa-
tion in the plate of the first stage. The
output is flat from 10 to 10,000 cycles,
but the lows may be accentuated and
the highs attenuated by switching in
the low- frequency booster. The output is
6 watts undistorted. Careful attention
to power -supply design is responsible
for the extremely low hum level of the
With the exception of Fig. i. all illustrations for
titis article are presented by courtesy of
Dr. H. ll. Jasper.


A new electronic scintillation counter
was developed recently by Dr. George
B. Collins, head of the Physics Depart- This is the electromyograph diagrammed and described on the preceding pages.
ment of the University of Rochester,
N. Y.
Scintillation was the first method
used by atomic physicists to count radio- FIRST AMERICAN PORT TO GET RADAR
active particles. Using a microscope, the
scentists counted the tiny flashes of THOUGH England is the world's first to direct any vessel safely through the
light that are made by the particles as nation to have installed a port radar entrance in the breakwater system to
they hit a fluorescent screen. When the system ( "Radar Eyes Bring Safety to any desired berth.
Geiger counter and other detectors were Fog -Bound Liverpool," RADIO-ELEC- The procedure employed during bad
invented, the scintillation method, which TRONICS, December, 1948), the U.S. will weather will be similar to the Ground -
was extremely tedious, was dropped. not be far behind in furnishing radar Controlled Approach method used with
Dr. Collins, however, has made the protection to marine traffic. This coun- aircraft. With the aid of a mobile radar
scintillation counter completely auto- try's initial installation was authorized station, aircraft are "talked down" in
matic. A small block of anthracene (a recently by the Board of Harbor Com- the GCA system -ground observers
coal -tar product) is placed on the end missioners of Long Beach, Calif. Equip- watching the radar 'scope know the
of a quartz or Lucite rod. The flashes of ment for the installation will be fur- plane's position and tell the pilot by
light produced by the anthracene when nished by the Sperry Gyroscope Co. radio every few seconds exactly what
it is bombarded by radioactive particles A radar scanner atop a 120 -foot steel to do to maintain proper approach.
are "piped" through the rod to a multi- derrick at the end of a pier in Long The Long Beach ship radar will op-
plier phototube which produces electri- Beach's Outer Harbor will transmit to erate with approximately the same pro-
cal impulses and passes them along the operator in the pilot house the po- cedure, except that the radar station
through an appropriate amplifier to a sition of every ship in the San Pedro will be fixed. Like GCA, the port radar
counter. Bay area within a distance of 10 miles. will be accurate to within 50 feet. The
According to Dr. Collins, scintillation The radar operator will inform ships of shore operator will be able to act only
counters can count faster than Geiger their exact positions by two -way radio, in an advisory capacity, as all respon-
counters. They are more sensitive to even in the midst of the heavy fog sibility for control and direction of the
hard gamma rays and the choice of banks which roll in from the sea. Har- ship rests with the pilot.
phosphor (anthracene or other) can de- bor pilots will carry portable equip- Because of its novelty, the system will
termine the device's relative sensitivity ment for communication with the radar be operated at first on an experimental
to alpha and beta particles. The light - operator, and pilot boats will have per- basis, but it is expected to prove so
conducting rod allows the phosphor to manent installations. With radar and vital that all major American ports will
reach into tight places. the two -way radios, it will be possible follow Long Beach's pioneer example.
MAY, 1949
381 Construction_

B u ild A -,- era e

that th e
Experiet citr>lct
cajl of
e. p
atpltfter fr°'
tal K6p,1
By aVuS
the two
ho \ds
End plug
SI f' E the sensational announce-
N triode tube. The collector whisker re- The 1N34 consists of two threaded
ment of the crystal triode, or ceives a much larger negative voltage brass end plugs which are screwed into
transistor, several months ago, from a B- battery and is comparable to opposite ends of a small ceramic tube.
radio experimenters have been the plate of a tube. The germanium The tungsten whisker is soldered to one
waiting impatiently for manufactured wafer, commonly referred to as the of these plugs and rests upon the sur-
versions of this device. We have com- crystal, is comparable to the cathode of face of the germanium wafer. The
municated with several manufacturers a tube. In order to obtain transistor wafer is soldered to the end of a brass
known or expected to be planning tran- action (that is, to have the emitter volt- pin passed through a central hole in the
sistor production, but have obtained no age control the collector current in other end plug and held by a setscrew.
commitments as to a date on which much the same fashion as the grid volt- These parts are all shown, ready to go
crystal triodes might be expected to age of a tube controls the plate cur- together, in Fig. 2. After adjustment at
appear on the market. In the meantime, rent), the two whiskers must touch the the factory, the ceramic tube is filled
a few brave souls have made simple germanium surface firmly at points ex- with wax. This wax has been injected
experimental transistors for the prime through a hole in the side of the ceram-
purpose of doing a little advance play- FOR AUDIO FRED
ic tube; this hole served previously for

ing with the gadget; most builders, an access point through which the
however, have complained of electrical LOAD RES AMPL SIG OUT whisker could be moved about to various
instability and lack of mechanical rug - AC SIG RMANSIM FOUND BY EXPERIMENT spots on the germanium surface during
ge(iness. SOURCE DISC
electrical adjustment.
The author has constructed several After obtaining two 1N34's, the first
t ansistors employing various mechani- 1.5V BIAS 45V B BATT step in the construction of the triode is
cal arrangements. Although the elec- carefully to pick out the sealing ma-
trical behavior of some of the models terial which plugs the hole in the cer-
was interesting and quite satisfactory, amic tube of each unit. This may be
-This basic transistor amplifier. done with a needle, being cautious not

:il suffered more or less from mechani- Fig. I is a

c I delicacy. In each case, the germani- tremely close to each other (.002 -inch to dig any deeper into the unit than the
um wafer and the two S- shaped, pointed, separation is the figure that has been thickness of the ceramic wall. The next
tungsten whiskers required were ob- published widely). The job of mounting
tained by disassembling two 1N34 crys- the two whiskers as close together as
tal diodes. One whisker is obtained from this, so that their tips do not touch each
each diode, and one germanium wafer other but still press down upon the
is left over for experimentation. The germanium surface, is the formidable
1N34 undoubtedly has been the source mechanical obstacle which most experi-
of parts for all home -made transistors menters have found.
built up to this time. Recently, Ralph Jacobson, WOYEE,
Without going into the theory of produced a mechanically rugged tran-
transistor operation in this article, we sistor for the author's experiments,
show the basic arrangement of a crystal using 1N34 parts. It is the novel, easily
triode as an amplifier in Fig. 1. An duplicated construction of this unit
oscillator circuit also can be made by in- which is described here.
troducing feedback between the output
and input portions of the triode circuit. Construction
From this drawing, it may be seen that
the transistor is simply a two -whiskered Fig. 2 is an exploded view, showing
crystal unit. The emitter whisker is how the various parts of a 1N34 have
biased with a low positive voltage and been utilized in construction of the crys-
is comparable to the control grid of a tal triode. Five simple tools used in making transistors.

Construction I39
step is slowly to melt out the wax by (or the naked eye if yours is that good), ers if necessary, and repeat the tests.
heating the entire unit. Hold it high look through the tube hole to see whether 4. When approximately correct emit-
over a low flame. Make no attempt to the whiskers are both in contact with ter and collector currents are obtained,
rush this operation. The wax will run the germanium surface and also whether label the emitter and collector terminals
out through the side hole. After the threading in the germanium plug has by marking the whisker end of the cer-
wax has been expelled, the tinned fer- twisted them. If the whiskers are amic tube.
rules which hold the pigtails may be twisted or are touching each other, Check the transconductance of the
peeled off the end of each unit with the separate them with a needle or tooth- triode in this manner:
aid of diagonal cutters. This will expose pick inserted through the hole. If they
the two brass end plugs which then may are spread too far apart, push them EMITTER PIGTAIL ATTGR

be unscrewed. closer together with the needle. If the A B C

After removing the end plugs, un- whisker tips are not in contact with the SPLIT END PLUG
solder the whiskers from their plugs germanium surface, loosen the setscrew
and bathe them in carbon tetrachloride. in the germanium end plug and cau-
The next step requires painstaking tiously push the end of the germanium
care: saw one of the whisker plugs pin inward by means of a pin inserted CERAMIC TUBE

vertically in half, using the thinnest into the center hole of the plug, until D
obtainable jeweler's saw blade, to ob- contact is made. Then retighten the
--. tain the two separated halves shown as setscrew.
parts A and C in Fig. 2. Solder one The final step is to solder a wire pig- BRASS END PLUG
whisker to each half. The tungsten wire tail lead to each half of the split whisker SET SCREW
_is a little tricky to solder and may re- plug (A and C in Fig. 2) and also to
quire acid soldering flux. If the latter the germanium plug F. The soldering Fig. 3- Cross-section of finished transistor.
is used, wash the finished job thorough- operation must be completed quickly in
ly in strong soapy water, give several order not to melt the solder holding the EMITTER TERMINAL COLLECTOR TERMINAL

rinsings in clear water, then dry the whiskers or damage the germanium .
parts and bathe them in carbon tetra- wafer. YIlO 2SDCMA

chloride. Next, using Duco cement, Throughout the construction, take
fasten the two halves of the split end care not to handle the germanium wafer MMTTER CURRENT GERMANIUM
together with an insulating separator or the whiskers with the fingers any INRRÉ
(part B in Fig. 2) made from Lucite more than is absolutely necessary. If 1.5V
or Plexiglas !;u inch thick. Be careful there has been excessive handling, both
to keep the threads of the split plug the whiskers and the germanium wafer
aligned. Then, with a needle, toothpick, should be bathed in carbon tetrachloride Fig. 4-Test circuit reveals characteristics.
or slender tweezers, bend the tips of or lacquer thinner.
the whiskers together until they have Fig. 3 shows how the completed tran- 1. Close switch S2 and record the
the smallest separation without actually sistor assembly appears in cross section. reading of milliammeter M2 as Il.
touching each other. It will help to use Letter symbols are the same as those in 2. Leaving S2 closed, close Si, noting
both a magnifying glass and continuity Fig. 2. The photographs also show con- the new reading of milliammeter M2.
meter in this operation. structional details. Record this second M2 deflection as I2.
Screw the two -whiskered plug back 3. The transconductance in micro -
into one end of the ceramic tube, and Adjustment
the germanium -holding plug F into the
other end. Using a magnifying glass
After the unit has been assembled,
set up the test circuit shown in Fig. 4,
mhos is
1,000 (I_ - IT)

and test the crystal triode according 1.5

to the following procedure. Either half The builder should aim for the high-
THREADED BRASS ENO PLUG SPLIT IN HALF of the split end plug may be chosen as est transconductance he can obtain with
emitter or collector. a given germanium wafer. Magazine
i IrLUCITE 1/4"X 1/111-K I/64-
1. With switch S2 open, close switch articles have reported transconduc-
Si. The emitter current, read with mil - tances as high as 15,000 micromhos. The
liammeter Ml, should not exceed 20 ma author has found that transconduc-
and undoubtedly will be in that neigh- tances of 1,000 to 3,000 (comparable to

borhood at the outset.
(The 20 -ma emitter current is very
such tubes as the 6J5, 6SQ7, 6T7, etc.)
may be obtained readily with little or
much greater than the figures common- no adjustment on a transistor of the
ly published. These range from a frac- type described in this article. Rotating

'!W D
tion of a milliampere to 1 or 2 ma.
Transistors made by different experi-
menters vary widely for reasons still
unknown. The performance of transis-
the germanium wafer to expose better
spots to the two whiskers has yielded
transconductances a little higher than
5,000, but the author has not exceeded
tors made by readers therefore may be that figure.
entirely different from that of the one After all adjustments are completed,
a ADJ. HOLE described here; the difference should be
no cause for discouragement or alarm
the side hole in the ceramic tube should
be closed with a small piece of Scotch
but should, instead, prove to be a strong tape. We do not recommend filling the
incentive for experimentation. -Editor) interior of the unit with any of the
2. Open Si and close S2. The collector waxes ordinarily available to the home
current, read with milliammeter M2, experimenter.
should not exceed 0.5 ma. Some question is apt to arise as to
BRASS PIN 3. If emitter or collector current is capacitance between the two halves of
in excess of the values given, reverse the split whisker plug. The author
the emitter and collector terminals and checked this and found it to be 2.45 µµf
THREADED BRASS END PLUG repeat steps 1 and 2. If the currents in his unit at a test frequency of 1 mc.
still are excessive, unscrew the ger- This is comparable to the grid -plate
SET SCREW manium end plug, loosen the setscrew, capacitance in a corresponding triode
and rotate the germanium pin to expose tube, smaller, in fact, than in such tri-
new surface points to the whiskers. Re- odes as 6J5, 6SL7, 6SN7, etc. It should
Fig. 2- Exploded vi, w shows transistor parts. insert the end plug, respace the whisk- cause no trouble.
MAY, 1949

Photoflash Unit
For Your Camera
A voltage -doubler saves
space and weight in this
useful photographer's aid

vacuum tubes with the necessary two

By W. C. BROWN * filament transformers. There is very
SEVERAL years ago the writer little choice, however, and two tubes
built an electronic flash oufit for (2X2's) and two filament transformers
his own use. While it gave excel- may be used in place of the dry -disc
lent service, it was far bigger and rectifiers used by the writer. It might
heavier than necessary, and as time be added that the thermionic- rectifier
went by the desire for a more conveni- system will cost a little less and weigh
ent unit grew. a little more than the dry-disc type.
No small amount of thinking and in- The schematic is shown. The next prob-
numerable paper sketches finally re- lem was where to obtain the parts. The
sulted in a mental picture of what the advertisements of dealers in surplus
new unit should be like. Remembering materials revealed that almost all of
that electronic components are almost the needed components were listed. The
always rated for continuous duty and writer used two 15 -µf and two 10 -µf
that the duty cycle in electronic flash capacitors wired to give two 25 -µf units
service is very low, a few rough calcu- for the energy-storage capacitors. These
lations showed that components with fit very nicely into the case used. Sub-
very low ratings were ample. This rea- sequently, regular 24 -pf photoflash ca-
soning even applied to capacitors, al- pacitors were found in the surplus
Frequency meter case contains the power sup- market. While these are made for 2,000 -
though not to the same extent as to ply for the flash unit. Three receptacles for
transformers, rectifiers, and resistors. volt photoflash service, they have
flash guns are shown; the author later added stamped on the case "24 MFD -1500
War -surplus components are gener- two more, as the circuit diagram shows. The
VDC Work -3000 VDC Peak." The
ally of excellent quality and attrac- panel is mounted on 3/4 -inch spacers to make
dealers apparently feel that it would
tively priced. But they are heavy. All room for the energy -storage capacitors within.
be unethical to advertise them for 2,000 -
the transformers listed in advertise- volt photoflash service when they are
ments and having the desired secondary peak secondary voltage. Using a 900 -
voltage delivered 100 ma or more. You volt transformer this gives 2(1.414X plainly marked for 1,500 working volts.
900) = 2,545 volts. So they won't be found in the adver-
simply don't carry such a transformer
around in your pocket; and since light Now the foregoing is true only where
weight was a requirement, these trans- there is no loading on the circuit and
formers were ruled out. Further medi- the back- resistance of the rectifier is
tation provided more answers: If a infinite. Neither condition applies in the
light- weight transformer delivering unit described here; and since the back -
2,000 volts d.c. at the rectifier output is resistance of dry-disc rectifiers is rela-
not available, why not voltage -double tively low, the voltage across the capa-
from a light -weight, lower -voltage citors in this unit turns out to be only
transformer? about 2,000. But that is plenty.
A capacitor connected across an un- If thermionic rectifiers are used, the
loaded d.c. circuit will charge to the full output voltage will approach the 2,500 -
peak voltage across the circuit, and an volt figure because of their high back -
unloaded voltage doubler will have ex- resistance. In such a case, for the
actly 2\/2E,m, across its output. In a welfare of the capacitors, it is sug-
photoflash unit previously sketched out, gested that a 700- or, at the most, a
750 -volt transformer be used.
the flashing capacitors also served as Having decided upon a voltage doubler,
part of the voltage doubler so they the next question was the type of rec-
would charge to twice the transformer The trigger circuit installed in the lower
tifier to be used. After considering all front compartment of the case. The 6H6 was
*Signal Corps Engineering Laboratories. Fort
the factors of weight, cost, and life, later replaced with two selenium rectifiers
Monmouth, N. J. dry-disc rectifiers were selected over to give enough capacity for five flash tubes.
Construction I11
tisements as photoflash capacitors, but trigger transformer is mounted directly
they are intended for such service and on the back of each reflector.
will last for a long time. The plate voltage for the 2D21 could
The case used was intended for the be taken from a voltage divider across
BC -221 frequency meter. The canvas the B- supply. This would load the
cover and all internal fittings and hard- doubler still further and lose a few more
ware except three items were removed. volts in the output. With 117 -volt, 50 -ma
The angle brackets in the upper com- selenium rectifiers and electrolytic ca-
partment for mounting the panel were pacitors as cheap as they are, it was
left in, as was the partition separating decided to double the 117 -volt supply
the upper and lower compartments and and provide a separate power supply for
the partition separating the lower com- the trigger circuit. As indicated in the
partment into two parts. The outside of diagram, the trigger circuit will simul-
the case was given a coat of flat black taneously fire as many as five flash Dry -disc rectifiers in lower rear compartment.
lacquer and waxed when dry. The re- tubes. The circuit is, of course, a simple
sult was a neat and attractive unit. voltage doubler; but remember-the output of the unit and never endanger
The power supply was mounted on a selenium stacks are insulated for only anyone coming in contact with the leads.
U- shaped chassis and fitted into the approximately 130 volts, and in this All wire carrying high voltage within
large lower compartment. This chassis circuit voltages as high as 250 appear the unit should be made with hookup
contains the power transformer, the 10- between the rectifier plates and,ground. wire insulated for 5,000 volts.
µf voltage -doubler capacitor, the recti- Be sure to insulate the rectifiers from The photographs show the completed
fier, the 6.3 -volt transformer for all the chassis when mounting them. Small unit in operating condition. Note that
heaters and the pilot light, and a termi- ceramic standoffs are suggested. The the panel is flush with the face of the
nal strip for connection to the other photograph of the trigger circuit com- top compartment. The panel- mounting
chassis. The writer fastened the power ponents shows the 6116 originally used; brackets left in the case will recess the
transformer and the 10 -µf capacitor by the selenium rectifiers were added later panel if it is mounted directly on them.
using a length of flexible No. 14 wire to increase the number of flash tubes With the panel recessed, there is not
with spade bolts on each end. This that could be triggered. enough clearance between it and the
makes a flexible U- clamp, and two of The four units comprising the 25 -pf capacitor bank for the panel- mounted
these for each component will hold it energy- storage capacitors (which are components. Using a 3á -inch aluminum
very firmly to the chassis. The chassis also part of the voltage -doubling cir- panel, 3/4 -inch spacers will bring it
was held in by drilling and tapping cuit) are mounted in the upper com- exactly flush and provide sufficient
8 -32 holes in the lips of the chassis and partment of the case. We do not know clearance for the switch, pilot light,
then drilling matching holes in the side whether two of the regular photoflash receptacles, and so on.
of the case. Flat -head 8 -32 screws were capacitors available as surplus will fit This equipment has been in use for
used to hold the chassis positively in in, but one of them definitely will. If some time, and its performance equals
place. two will not fit, the reader can mount any seen by the writer from commercial
The trigger circuit is also mounted on one or both right on the light standard. units costing $150 to $250. It will handle
a U- shaped chassis with 1 -inch lips. The The diagram shows that while only two five lights giving 12,000,000 peak lu-
2D21 was chosen instead of the 0A5 capacitors are in the circuit, three extra mens each. And the total cost is less
solely because of cost. The 2D21 and its outlets are provided on the panel for than $30.00.
filament transformer are surplus items, remote flash lamps with their own 25 -sf MATERIALS FOR PHOTOFLASH UNIT
and together cost less than the non - capacitors. This procedure eliminates
Resistors: 3- 100.000, I-
200,000, 2- 220000 ohms, 1/,
watt; 1- 750.1,500 ohms, 5 watts.
surplus 0A5. the IR drop of a long lead to the flash Capacitors: 3-8 µt, 450 volts, electrolytic; -10 Isf, 1

kv, oil- filled; 2-25 tsf, 2 kv.

In operation this circuit is simple. tube and avoids the inductance and

Tubes: -2021, -6H6, -GE FT-14.

The grid of the 2D21 is normally biased capacitance effects of a 10- or 15 -foot

Transformers: 1-6.3 -volt, I- ampere;

900 -volt, I-
25 -ma or equivalent.
beyond cutoff ; but when the synchroniz- piece of co -axial cable. Miscellaneous: I-
model -gas-engine ignition coil;
ing contacts on the camera are closed, Remember that all exposed high - 12 -117 -volt, 50 -ma, dry-disc or selenium rectifiers;
miniature 7 -pin tube
I.5 -flash-lamp assemblies;
the grid is made positive. The tube voltage leads should be of flexible co- socket; 1- toggle switch; 3-3- connection fe-
immediately fires and capacitor C dis- axial cable. An insulation breakdown male, polarized panel receptacles, insulated for high
voltage; 1.3 -male plugs to fit; I -6.3 -volt pilot -lamp
charges through the tube and the trigger will result only in a short across the assembly; -case; necessary hardware.

transformer T in the cathode circuit.

This pulse in the trigger- transformer

primary induces a 12 -15 -kc pulse in its i34 RESISTORS

r-i ni
secondary, which is connected to the
flash -tube grid, and causes the flash to
!I L.


C is, of course, essential, and without

25 25
it, the circuit won't work. This is due t+3F
to the high IR drop that would exist 6.3V PILOT
750-1500/51 2 NV 750-1500/5W
across R the instant the 2D21 started
to conduct. This drop would be so high
that the plate voltage on the tube would CO-AX
immediately drop below the firing volt- 220K
age when the tube started conducting. 10 SEL RECTS- II7V- SOMAEA_'
C thus provides a low- impedance power
source for the 2D21 during the short 10

period of time necessary to generate the

trigger pulse. It, of course, recharges 6a
between flashes.
200K F-
The trigger transformers used are
model -gas- engine ignition coils. Several
manufacturers are now building small PWRW
It--- t
8/450V =,],

transformers for this service and they i T


will serve just as well as the small ig- 117V AC

< II
nition coils. Shown alongside the main
unit schematic is a schematic of one
flash -tube unit with its wiring. The Complete schematic diagram of the flash unit. Use high -voltage cable for ignition circuits.
MAY, 1949
4'l Broadcasting and Communications

Telephone Lines in Broadcasting

Part II -
Maintenance, attenuation,
noise, and communication problems

THE first part of this article (April to remain more or less constant along also extremely important if a bridging
issue) explained methods of equal- the line. The result may be a small amplifier is connected across the output
izing telephone lines used for car- signal -to -noise ratio. To combat this of the line amplifier, as line capacitance
rying broadcast programs. The situation, the highest permissible power will probably reduce the high -frequency
broadcast engineer must also be famil- level should always be delivered to the output of the line amplifier even if the
iar with the techniques of measuring line. The maximum levels which have line is perfectly equalized at the far
noise and loss on these lines and with been agreed upon' are: end. The capacitance effect at the send-
maintenance procedures. ing end can be eliminated from the
Program material 8 VU bridging amplifier by isolating the line
Line loss depends on loop makeup Sustained test tones 0 VU
(sizes of wires used), equalization ap- 400- or 500 -cycle tone for program by means of a 600 -ohm pad. A 6 -db pad
plied, and length. It is more easily level setting 8 VU usually gives sufficient isolation to make
measured than calculated. It is also (VU =db above 1 mw.) the amplifier load look like 600 ohms
affected by line terminal impedance, over the audio range, but 8 to 10 db may
which may or may not be equal to the The +8 -VU level for program trans- be desirable when equalizing by method
input and output impedances of the mission has been set as high as possible 1 in Fig. 6 of the April article, in which
loss -measuring equipment. Therefore, a to give the broadcaster the best signal - case the input impedance of the line
definition of line loss which takes opera- to -noise ratio consistent with proper may be several thousand ohms at medi-
tional mismatch into account must be cross -talk protection to other services um audio frequencies. However, exces-
used. It is as follows for 600 -ohm pro- handled through the telephone ex- sive attenuation only increases amplifier
gram equipment: changes. distortion if the correct power level to
Other solutions are available to the the line is maintained.
The difference between the refer- broadcast engineer having trouble with
ence power level which a generator line noises. An audio booster or re- Telephone communication
of 600 ohms internal resistance will peater amplifier may be installed at an
deliver to a 600 -ohnr resi.tise load, intermediate point on the line to re- Communication between the remote
and the Ievel received in a 600 -..lini store the program level before it drops point and the studio is essential for
measuring set at the line output program production. There are several
terminals when the generator is down into the noise. Where the line ways of maintaining it. Telephone com-
connected to the line input termi- length is not excessive, but noise is
nals, is the line loss. giving trouble, it may be necessary to
move the radio -loop pair to another BRIDGING

Note that any impedance mismatches point in the telephone cable (or cables)
are conveniently taken care of by such of which it is a part. The usual prac-
a definition. It is important to eliminate tice is to move it 25 pairs away from ISOLATION PAD
impedance mismatch as a factor in loss the point where it is giving trouble. ....
measurement because line terminal im- PROGRAM
pedances vary widely. The arrangement
used for frequency-response measure-
ment (Fig. 2 in April article) is also
The VI pad
An attenuation pad is not necessary

ideal for loss measurement. The meas- between the amplifier and the line to Fig I- Isolating pad for volume indicator.
ming set may simply be a calibrated maintain frequency response; it would
amplifier used for presetting programs. have absolutely no effect on the over -all munication may be carried on via the
response if the pad were the same as the program loop itself. This is certainly
Noise amplifier's internal impedance. desirable economically, and is often suf-
All telephone lines are subject to a However, the pad is necessary to ficient for small stations. Modern con-
certain amount of induced cross -talk make the volume indicator at the line trol consoles of the type usually em-
interference. Cross talk may come from input read accurately and to provide ployed by small stations have elaborate
several sources-dial systems, teletype the correct meter damping on program provisions for talk -back and cueing to
machines, tone and d.c. telegraph, spe- material. The damping factor is espe- remote points, and these should be used
cial high- frequency ringing systems, cially important when several V.I.'s whenever possible.
and faulty voice circuits, to list a few. in a system must be co- ordinated. An When a greater degree of reliability
Objectionable hum on the line is usually attenuation pad between the amplifier and flexibility is required, a PL (private
an indication of an unbalance or a long, and line as shown in Fig. 1 will reduce line) to the remote point may be hired
unterminated branch somewhere in the V.I. error which could result from con- to parallel the program loop. The PL
circuit. necting the V.I. directly across the line. may be another loop of the same high
Unusually long lines are, of course, This is important because telephone -line quality as the radio circuit, or it may be
especially subject to cross talk. As the terminal impedances vary over a wide (and usually is) a less expensive line
audio signal travels down a long line, range and the standard V.I. is designed designed primarily for telephonic com-
it may be attenuated to a relatively low to have the proper damping and power munication. In the latter case, there
level. However, the induced noise tends calibration when connected across an may be loading coils left in the line,
amplifier and load, both of which have but even so, the PL will put the show on
Chief Engineer, WASH-FM. an impedance of 600 ohms. The pad is the air (which, after all, is the main
Test Instruments
commercial consideration) should the
regular program loop fail.
Several telephone arrangements are
possible for PL work, and the best one
depends upon the individual case.
Coupling Capacitors
Line maintenance
Certain procedures of routine line
maintenance will pay big dividends as
program insurance.
1. An early- morning check of all lines
Can be Troublemakers
which will be used during the day.
a. Resistance and noise check is suf-
ficient on most lines. In this case,
all lines are permanently termi- By JOHN T. BAILEY
nated in 100,000 ohms, used only
for the resistance check.
b. A round -robin check is most satis-
factory when a one-way amplifier
has been installed on the program ANY readers may have won- recommended to limit the undesirable
line at an intermediate exchange dered why the writer felt it accumulated voltages developed by the
because of extreme line length. In necessary to include a 200 - faults just mentioned.
this case, the PL and radio circuits megohm range in the novel Another capacitor which has no plate
must always be connected together ohmmeter described in the April issue voltage across it, but which can cause
by the remote operator after finish- plenty of trouble, is the coupling ca-
ing his program. A standard tone of RADIO -ELECTRONICS. There are many
or program material may then be important reasons why no modern serv- pacitor C in Fig. 2, from the volume -
fed down the PL from the studio ice shop is complete without such a control tap to the grid of a 12SQ7 tube
to return via the program loop. high -range instrument. in a typical diode-detector-a.v.c.-first-
2. A complete check of frequency re- In present -day circuits 10-megohm audio circuit. When this capacitor's re-
sponse, loss, and noise should be made resistors are commonly used as grid re- sistance drops, even if it is no lower
on all lines once a month, especially sistors in low-level audio stages, with
those lines which are seldom used but tubes such as the 12SQ7, 12AT6, and
may be called up on short notice. A
calibrated amplifier or standard many others. The resistors develop bias,
and they cannot be measured without a
transmission set is invaluable in
making these checks. high -range meter. Even higher -value
resistors are used for grid bias in hear-
ing-aid and subminiature -tube circuits.
Probably the most extensive use of a
200 -megohm range is for checking d.c. Fig. I-Capacitor C becomes voltage divider.
leakage resistance of capacitors other than 50 or 75 megohms, the set will
than the electrolytic types. A good pa- overload on strong signals. This is be-
per capacitor will have a resistance cause the volume control will have an
above 300 megohms, though in many ap- a.v.c. potential of possibly -25 volts
plications a lower resistance is immate- d.c. across it on a strong signal. This
rial. However, there are numerous in- 25 volts is shunted by the leaky capaci-
stances where high resistance is re- tor of, say, 50 megohms in series with
quired. the following tube's grid resistor of 10
Coupling between audio stages is one megohms, with the grid connected to the
important instance, as shown by C in common junction. Hence, the grid gets
Fig. 1. This capacitor sometimes gets a negative bias equal to liu of 25 volts
fouled with dust and dirt and develops (10 /10 + 50 = ?¡,) which is sufficient to
a low resistance over its exterior sur- cut off the plate current of a high -mu
face. Extremes of temperature as en- triode.
countered in auto radios cause expan- A word of advice : check all coupling
sion and contraction of the inside foils capacitors with a high -range ohmmeter
and eventually low-resistance paths, be- and replace all which test under 100
sides other defects. Since these coupling megohms. It is amazing how many ca-
capacitors have high d.c. potentials pacitors in midget sets have low re-
across them at all times, they act as
bleeders when low in resistance and
Fig. 2 -Form for telephone line information. divert small currents through the fol-
lowing stage's grid resistor, thus pro-
:3. Loop numbers are very important to ducing a voltage opposite in polarity to
the broadcast engineer. They should that stage's grid bias. Hence, the fol-
always be obtained at the time of line lowing stage's grid bias is reduced and MC
installation, as the loop number des- more plate current flows, causing the
ignates the whole circuit in the rec- tube to operate under incorrect condi-
ords of the telephone company. Should tions. Many a tube has gone soft and
there be trouble on a circuit, the had
Wire Chief in the first exchange on to be replaced because of a leaky
the faulty loop should be called. The capacitor coupling its grid to the plate
Fig. 2- Troubles start when C gets leaky.
first piece of information he will re- of a preceding stage.
quire is the loop number. As some Furthermore, the increased plate cur- sistance values. And how the distortion
lines may pass through several ex- rent causes the tube to operate at a can be cleaned up and the output in-
changes, any information about a higher temperature and this increases creased by replacing them! But don't
line is very helpful in an emergency. the amount of grid current flowing, expect to find these offenders with an
A sample form page for keeping line which also reduces the negative grid ohmmeter range of less than about 200
records is shown in Fig. 2. One such bias. Therefore, when using output megohms because 100 megohms, even
page should be kept for each line; on a 200 -megohm range, is in the crowd-
the result will be a whole notebook tubes such as the 25L6, 50L6, 117P6,
ed portion of the scale.
full of valuable information. and so on, a low -value grid resistor is
MAY, 1949
Test Instruments

Survey of Multitesters



The Hickok Model 435 measures Supreme 644, a deluxe instru-

a. c. at 5,000 ohms per volt. ment with 98 different ranges.

The Model 630 (Triplett) mea-

sures currents as low as 1 pa.

The Precision Series 85 is a Superior's Model 670 is popular

good all-purpose instrument. with radio service technicians.

H)Df, T)11111LUAlowmt
VS, SW,b A.77:34AT t
Popular with hams and service
technicians the Simpson 260.
A low-cost meter is Chicago A common sight on many service
Industrial Instrument's 431. benches is Radio City's 488.

R A D I O - E L E C T R O N I C S f o r
Test Instruments 145
Electrical specifications of popular wultitesters-
still the most valuable radio service instruments
THE nonelectronic volt- ohm -milli- Modern volt- ohm -milliammeters pro- price of thirty current models is $39.
ammeter, commonly called the vide a.c. and d.c. voltage coverage suf- The accompanying table lists infor-
"v.o.m.," long has been considered ficient for all usual receiver and trans- mation on most of the popular models.
the foundation instrument for all mitter measurements. The average re- Technicians can use the data for guid-
radio test benches. This meter is the sistance range is somewhat better than ance in selecting a new meter.
basic test tool which the new radioman in pre-war models. Very nearly all the SYMBOLS
buys first and is apt to use more fre-
quently than any other piece of gear
in the shop. It is versatile and can be
new meters check d.c. amperes, as well
as milliamperes and-in some cases
microamperes. Only a few measure a.c.
- 6-Alternating current ranges
1- Resistance
range can be extended with external
-Same ranges available at 1,000 ohms /volt
used under a variety of work condi- milliamperes and amperes, but this is 3-1.2 -, 30 -, 60-, and 120-ampere external shunts
tions. It is especially long-lived -as not ordinarily necessary in radio serv- available
4-1 -, 5 -, 10-, 25 -, 50., 75-, and 100 -ampere shunts
long as the user does not set it on the icing. available
10-ma range and put 100 volts across The prices range somewhat higher 5-25 -, 50- n.. and 100- ampere shunts available
6 -Meter has output ranges same as the a.c. volts
it! than in earlier models. (The average ranges

Case (in.)
Manufacturer and Model D.c. volts A.c. volts Direct current Resistance Other functions weight Scales Control

Chicago Industrial 0-7.5-15-150- 0- 7.5-15 -150- 0- 7.5 -75 ma 0- 5k -500k H: 5;a toggle
Instrument Company 750 -1,500 750 -1,500 ohms W:3r 3 switch;
Model 4216 1,000 ohms /v 1.000 ohms /v D: 3 2.2 in. jacks
4 lbs

Model 431 0-30-300 - 0-15 -150- 0-150 ma 0- 3k -300k H: 5h 3 rotary

I,500 1,000 ohms /v ohms W:1¡6 1.6 in. switch;
2,000 ohms /v D: 2% jacks
4 lbs

Model 450A 0- 5- I0-50- none 0-1 ma 0- 5k -50k- H:311, 2 rotary

100- 500 -1,000 500k ohms W: 2% 1.7 in. switch;
1,000 ohms /v D: 2% jacks

Model 458 0- 5- 10- 50 -500- 0- 12.5 -25- 0- 1- 10-100 ma; 0 -1k 200k -S to +55 db H: 10% 5 rotary
2,000 125 -250- 0-2.5-25-250 ma ohms; 0-2 W: 6% 3.1 in. switch;
1,000 ohms /v 1.250 megohms D: 5% jacks
1,000 ohms /v 8 lbs

General Electric Company 0- 2.5- I0-50- 0- 2.5- IO-50- 0- I- IO-100 ma; O- Ik-IOOk -I2 to +55 db H: 9 5 rotary
Model UM -3 250- 1,000- 250 -1.000- 0-I -IO amps ohms; 0-I (5 ranges) W: 10 switch;
2.500 2,500 megohms D: 4% jacks
2,000 ohms /v 1,300 ohms /v 9% Ibe

Model YMW -IA6 0- 2.5- I0-50- 0- 2.5- 10-50- 0-50 pa; 0- 2k-200k -4 to +62db H: 10% 5 rotary
250-1.000 250 -1,000 0-0.5-5-50-500 ohms; 0-20 (5 ranges) W: 9% 4 % -in switch;
20,000 ohms/v 1,000 ohms /v ma megohms D: 4 meter jacks
9 lbs

Hickok Electrical 0-2.5- 10-50- 0-2.5- 10-50- 0-50 µa; 0- 10k -IOOk -30 to +55 db H: 6 5 rotary
Instrument Company 250- 1,000- 250- I.000- 0 2.5- I0- 50-250 ma; ohms; 0-1- (5 ranges) W: 8% switch;
Model 4356 5,000 5,000 0-1 amp 10 megohms D: 4% jacks
20,000 ohms/v 5.000 ohms /v 6% lb

Precision Apparatus 0- 3- 12- 60 -300- 0- 3- 12- 60 -300- 0-0.6-6-60- 0- 5k -500k -26 to +70 db H: 6% 4 rotary
Company, Inc. 1.200 -6,000 1,200 -6,000 600 ma ohms: 0-5 (6 ranges) W: 3% 3 -in. switch;
Series 406 1,000 ohms /v 1,000 ohms /v megohms D: 2% ' meter jacks

Series 806 0-6 -12-60 -300- 0- 6- 12 -300- 0-0.6-6-60-300 O-Ik-I00k -20 to +70 db H: 7% 4 rotary
1,200 -6,000 1.200 -6,000 ma:0-I.2-I2 ohms: 0-I- W: 5% 4 % -in. switch:
1,000 ohms /v 1,000 ohms /v amps IO megohms D: 3 meter jacks

Series 856 0-3-12-60-300 - 0-3-12-60-300- 0-120 µa: 0- 6k-600k -26 to +70 db H: 7% 4 rotary
1,200 -6,000 1.200- 6,000 0- 1.2-12 -120 ma; ohms; 0-6- W: 5!- 4N-in switch;
20,000 ohms /v 1,000 ohms /v 0- 1.2 -12 amps 60 megohms D: 3 meter jacks

Series 847-P6 0- 3- 6- 12-60- 0-3-6-12-60- 0 -0.3- 1.2 -3-30- 0- 2k- 20k -200k H: 8% 4 P.B.
300- 600-1,200- 300-000- 1,200- 300 -600 ma; ohms; 0 -2 -20- W: 73/2 4 % -in. switch;
6,000 6,000 0- 1.2 -12 amps 200 megohms D: 3 meter jacks
5,000 ohms/v 1,000 ohms/v

Series 858-P6 0-3 -6-12 0- 3- 6- 12-60- 0- 60-120 ua: 0- 6k -60k- -26 to +70 db H: 9 4 P.B.
300- 600-1.200- 300- 600 -1.200- 0- 1.2- 12 -120- 600k ohms: W: IO 4r+á -in, switch;
6,000 6,000 600 ma; 0-1.2 - 0-60 -600 D: 4' meter jacks
20,000 ohms/v I,000 ohms /v 12 amps megohms

Series 866 A panel- mounting instrument with electrical specifications of Series 847 -P. 9 -inch meter and controls on I9-inch panel.

MAY, 1949
461 Test Instruments

Case (in.)
Manufacturer and Model D.c. volts A.c. volts Dircct current Resistance Other functions Weight Scales Control

Radio City Products 0 -5-50- 250 -500 - 0-10 -100- 500 - 0- I- 10-100 ma; 0-10k ohms: -8 to +55 db H: 534 4 rotary
Model 447M 2.500 1.000 0-1 -10 amps 0-I megohmt W: 8% 3-inch switch:
1,000 ohms /v 1,000 ohms /v D: 334 meter jacks
2% lbs

Model 4496 0 -5-50- 250- 0 -5 -50-250 - 0-0.5- 50-250 ma; 0- 2k-20k -200k -6 to +52 db H: 6 4 jacks
1,000 1,000 0-1 amp ohms; 0-2 W: 3 3 -inch
5,000 ohms /v I,000 ohms /v megohms D: 2y meter
2 lbs

Model 488M 0-3- 12-60- 300 - 0- 3- 12-60- 300 - 0-60 -300 µa; 0- 3k -300k H: II/ 4 rotary
600-1. 200-6.000 600 -1,201- 0-3-20 -120-600 ohms; 0-30 W: 934 4 %2-in. switch:
20.000 ohms /v 6,000 ma; 0-12 amps; megohms D: 6M meter jacks
1,000 ohms /v *0- 3-6-12 amps IO lbs

Simpson Electric Company 0- 2.5- 10-50- 0- 2.5- 10-50- 0-100 µa; 0- 2k-200k -IO to +52 db 11,% lbs rotary
Model 221 250-1.000 -5.000 250- 1,000- 0- 10-100 -500 ma; ohms; 0-20 switch:
(Roto -Ranger) 20.000 ohms /v 5,000 0-10 amps megohms jacks
1.000 ohms /v

Model 240 0- 15-75- 300 - 0-15- 150-750- 0- 15-75- 300 - 0- 3k -300k H: 5% 3 rotary
750 -3.000 3.000 750 ma ohms W: 3 3-inch switch:
1,000 ohms /v 1,000 ohms/v D: 2 meter jacks
23? lbs

Model 260" 0-2.5- 10-50-250 - 0-2.5- 10-50- 0- 100 isa; 0- 2k -200k -10 to +52 db H: 7 5 rotary
1.000 -5.000 250 -1.000- 0- 10-100 -500 ma; ohms; 0-20 (5 ranges) W: 5% 4%2-in. switch:
20.000 ohms /v 5,000 0-10 amps megohms D: 331g meter jacks
1.000 ohms /v 3% lbs
Supreme Instruments Corp. 0-6-50 -I50- 0-6-30-150- 0-0.3- 6- 30-I50 0-2k-20k -200k -6 to +50 db H: 5% 3 slide
Model 542" 300 -1,500 600 ma ohms; 0-2 (4 ranges) W: 3134 3-inch switch.
5.000 ohms /v 5.000 ohms/v megohms D: 2)/g meter jacks
2 lbs

Model 632" 0-5 -25 -100- 250 - 0-5-25 -100- 0-5 -25 -100- 250 - 0-2k-20k -200k -IO to +49 db H: II% 5 rotary
500 -1.000- 250 - 500-1.000- 500 ma; 0-1 amp ohms: (5 ranges); W: 8 switch:
5.000 5.000 0-2 -20 0.1 to 400 µf D: 4 34 jacks
1.000 ohms /v 1.000 ohms/v megohms

Model 640" 0 -5 -25- 100-500- 0-5 -25 -100- 0-100 µa; 0-2k -200k -IO to +49 db H: 7% 4 rotary
1. 000 500 -1.000- 5.000 0- 10-100 -500 ma ohms: 0-20 (4 ranges) W: 5 4-inch switch:
20.000 ohms /v2 1.000 ohms /v mcgohms D: 3 meter jacks

Model 644" ' 0 -5-25- 100 -500 - 0 -5 -25- 250 - 0-5 -25 -100- 500 0-0.5-5-500-- -10 to +69 db H: II 4 P.B.
1. 000 -5,000 500 -1.000 -5.000 ma; 0-1 -10-50 5k -500k ohms; (6 ranges) W: 15 7-inch switch:
20,000 ohms /v2 1.000 ohms/v amps; *0-1 -10-50 0-5 -50 meg- D: 6% meter jacks
amps ohms

Superior Instruments 0- 7.5- 15-75- 0 -15-30 -150- 0- 1.5- 15-150 ma; 0-500 -IOOk -10 to +58 db; H: 7% 7 rotary
Company 150- 750 -1.500- 300 -1,500- 3.000 0-1.5 amps ohms; 0-IO .001 to 4 ;d; W: 5% switch:
Model 670" 7.500 1,000 ohms/v megohms 1.75 to 8.000 D: 3 jacks
1.000 ohms /v henries

Model 770 0- 7.5- 15 -75- 150 - 0 -15-30 -150- 0- 1.5-15 -150 ma; 0-500 ohms; H: 5% 3 rotary
750-1,500 300 -1,500 0-1.5 amps 0-1 megohm W: 3% switch:
1.000 ohms /v 1,000 ohms /v D: 234 jacks

Triplett Electrical 0- 1.25 -5 -25-125- 0-2.5- 5- 10-50- 0-50 µa; 0-2k -200k -30 to +70 db H: 5% 4 rotary
Instrument Company 500 -2.500 250 -1.000- 5.000 0- 1- 10-100 ma; ohms; 0-40 (6 ranges) W: 6 (mirror) switch:
Model 625-NA" 20,000 ohms /v; 10,000 ohms /v 0-I -10 amps (all megohms D: 2% 6 -inch jacks
0-2.5 -10-50-250- ranges at 250 3 lbs meter
1.000 -5,000 mv)'
10,000 ohms/v

Model 6306 0-3- 12 -60-300 - 0- 3- 12 -60-300 - 0-60 isa; 0- 1k -10k -30 to +70 db H:734 5 rotary
1,200 -6,000 1,200-6.000 0- 1.2 -12-120 ma; ohms; 0-1- W: 532 5 %p-in. switch:
20.000 ohms /v 5,000 ohms/v 0-12 amps 100 megohms D: 33, meter jacks
(at 250 mv)s 4 lbs

Model 666-HH 0- 10-50- 250 - 0- 10-50- 250- 0-50 pa; 0-2k -400k H: 5% 3 rotary
1.000 -5,000 1,000-5.000 0- 10-100 -500 ma; ohms W: 33 3 -inch switch:
1,000 ohms /v 1,000 ohms/v 0-10 amps D: 24 meter jacks
(at 250 mv)4 l lb

Model 2405 -A" 0- 10-50- 250- 0- 10- 50-25- 0-50 µa: 0-4k -40k- -IO to +55 db H: 10 4 rotary
500- 1.000 500 -1.000 0 -1 -10- 50-250 ma: ohms; O4- (5 ranges) W: 10 6 -inch switch;
20,000 ohms /v 1,000 ohms/v 0-IO amps 40 megohms D: 534 meter jacks
*0-500 ma: 11 lbs
0- -5-IO amps

Weston Electrical 0-2.5- 10-50- 250 - 0- 2.5- 10-50- 0-0.1 -1- 10-50- 0- 3k -30k -14 to -54 db
Instrument Company 1,000; 250 -1.000 250 ma; 0-1 -IO ohms; 0-3- (5 ranges)
Model 772 20.000 ohms /v2 1,000 ohms /v amps 30 megohms

Test Instruments

Novel Bridge Rectifier Circuit

by H. B. CONANT *

FOR many years, two- section instru- viously much more negative than D. In Two important apparent advantages
ment rectifiers have been used with other words D is still positive with re- are: No inverse current can flow
two resistors in a bridge circuit to spect to B! The difference is 4.67 volts, through the meter (this is not the case
produce full -wave rectification. To meaning that, on this alternation, D
my knowledge, however, no one has will always be 46.7% of the input volt-
ever suspected that a siegle-::ection rec- age more positive than B.
tifier and three resistors could also be The voltage differences between B
made into a full -wave rectifier. and D on the two alternations, as has
Thinking about rectifier circuits in been shown, are not alike -46.7 volts in
general one day, I found myself con- one case and 33.3 volts in the other.
sidering the single -rectifier, three -re- This will, of course, give a distorted
sistor scheme. I drew the diagram rectified d.c., but the interesting point
shown here. is that the d.c. is actually greater when
Because current relationships in current is passing through the rectifier
bridge circuits are complex, I omitted in the inverse direction. The same d.c.
the meter at first and calculated the can be obtained on both alternations if
potential difference developed between the values of the resistors are changed
points B and D during each alternation. appropriately.
According to theory, if a potential dif- After all these calculations were
ference exists and a meter is connected made, an actual circuit was connected This bridge operates with just one rectifier.
between two points, current must flow up and the output of terminals B and D
through the meter. was fed to a 'scope. The full -wave pul-
A value of 1,000 ohms was given to sating d.c. showed up clearly, with al- with a four- rectifier bridge), and the
each resistor. The resistance of the rec- ternate half -waves slightly different in rectifier is so placed that damaging it
tifier was taken as 200 ohms in the height. with voltage overloads is extremely
forward direction and 30.000 ohms in Next a 1 -ma meter was connected unlikely.
the inverse direction. An a.c. voltage is across B and D, as shown by dotted (The only possible objection to this
applied to terminals A and C. For clar- lines in the diagram. A sensitivity of ingenious circuit is that its resistance
ity of explanation, consider this to be 400 ohms per volt was obtained. will undoubtedly be higher than that of
10 volts and terminal A to be the refer- Further calculations showed that for a four- or even two -rectifier arrange-
ence or "ground" point of the circuit optimum results RI should be equal to ment. It is, of course, less sensitive.
throughout the discussion.
Taking the first alternation, during
which terminal A may represent the
1.2 times the rectifier's forward re-
sistance, and R2 and R3 should be five
times the rectifier resistance.
These points may or may not be im-
portant in any particular application.
negative and terminal C the positive
side of the input signal, terminal D has
a potential of +5 volts because R2 and
R3 are equal. Since current is passing
through the rectifier in the forward di-
rection, its resistance is effectively 200
ohms. The voltage at terminal B is then
200 X 10
+ 1.67 volts. Obviously,
1,000 + 20
terminal D (at +5 volts) is more posi-
tive than terminal B with respect to the
reference point, terminal A. The volt -
age difference between terminals B and
D is :3.33 volts. No matter what the a.c.
input voltage, terminal D, on this alter-
nation, will always be 33.3% of the
input voltage more positive than ter-
minal B.
Now let us consider the opposite al-
ternation. This time terminal C is nega-
tive and A is positive. Terminal A is
still the zero reference point to which
all voltages are referred.
Again D is at 5 volts, but this time
it is negative with respect to A. Since
the inverse resistance of the rectifier is
30,000 ohms, the voltage at terminal B
30,000 X 10 -9.67 volts
is now
30,000 + 1,000
with respect to terminal A. With ter-
minal D at -5volts, terminal B is ob-
"My husband is a bug on shortwave listening."
Conant Electrical Laboratories, Lincoln, Nebraska
MAY, 1949
48 I

Radio Set and Service Review

The Air Killy A725
frire recorder lugs
many applications

This 2I1/2-pound recorder is well -balanced and easy to carry.

TAE development and production of is approximately 2 feet per second for tance-coupled to the plate of the 50L6-
low -cost wire recorders has done recording and playback. The rewind GT power amplifier through C9 and
much to popularize the use of these ratio is about 6 to 1. R13. C9, R13, and the low- impedance
devices in business, industry, There are only three controls. They voice coil form a voltage divider with
schools, and homes. Most of the ma- are the combined volume control and the maximum voltage being developed
chines can record for periods up to an on -off switch, the RECORD-PLAY switch, across the voice coil at the higher fre-
hour on a single spool of wire so the and the SELECTOR switch. The recorder is quencies.
number of applications is limited main- equipped with a hand -held crystal In the PLAY position, one section of
ly by the imaginations of the users. microphone with a 10-foot cable that Si grounds C9 through R13 while an-
Invalids, shut -ins, and other persons plugs into the center of the control other section shunts C8 across R13,
who would normally have "pen pals" panel (see front -view photograph). A reducing the high -frequency response.
have begun to use wire recorders as a jack on the left side of the panel is for The level indicator is biased almost
means of communication. They record connecting a radio tuner, phonograph, to the ignition point by a voltage devel-
their messages on spools of wire and or other high -level signal source. A oped across R11 when Si is set to
mail them to the addressee. After play- neon recording -level indicator is on the RECORD. Audio voltage from the power
ing the recording on his machine, the right side of the panel. It operates when amplifier is sufficient to make the lamp
addressee erases the wire and records the machine is recording. The SELECTOR light on modulation peaks when the
his own message before returning the in the upper right -hand corner controls volume control is set to the correct lev-
spool. This method of communication the speed and direction of the wire dur- el. The lamp is shorted by a section of
has become so popular in some circles ing record, playback, and rewind opera- Si on PLAY.
that the word wiresponding has been tions by varying the ratio of the fric-
coined to mean communication by mag- tion -drive drums in the mechanism. The r-
netic wire. SELECTOR is Coupled to two slide switch-
Many shut -ins find wire recordings es; one applies power to the drive mo-
have a much more personal touch and tor in the PLAY, RECORD, and REWIND
are less tiring than writing letters, so positions. The other turns on the bias -
the use of wire recorders has enabled erase oscillator when the selector is in
them to enlarge their circle of friends. the RECORD position. A simple press-to-
There are some shut -ins who, unable to release lock prevents the operator from
leave their homes, have a friend or unintentionally throwing the selector to
member of their family take the wire RECORD while playing a record.
recorder to various parties, banquets, The circuit of the recorder appears
and other festive occasions. The recorder in Fig. 1. It consists of a 1280 (non -
is set up in some out-of- the -way place microphonic 14C7) microphone ampli-
and the microphone placed where it will fier, 6AQ6 voltage amplifier, and two
have the greatest pickup. In this way, 50L6 -GT's as power amplifier and oscil-
the shut -in is able to gather from the lator.
recordings much more of the festive The unit has an interesting compen-
gayety and feeling than he possibly sating circuit that attenuates the bass
could from a verbal report. during recording and attenuates the
The new Air King Model A725 wire highs during playback. This circuit and
recorder, designed for home and semi- that of the level indicator are shown in
professional use, is one of the few com- Fig. 2. The RECORD-PLAY switch Si is a
plete units costing less than $100.00 6-circuit, 2- position unit. Three of its
(slightly more west of the Rockies). sections are used in the circuit of Fig.
It handles standard spools of wire for 2. In RECORD, the voice coil (terminals 2
recording up to 1 hour. The wire speed and 4 on the recording head) is capaci- A view of the chassis and driving mechanism.
Servicing 49
When Si is in the RECORD position,
it also: IN LAMP

I ifirir
1. Disconnects the loudspeaker and I I 1280 RADIO- PIIONO IN 6AQ6 50L6-GT 330K 470K
loads the secondary of the output trans-
2 4w 2505
93V 3 OK I15V
former T1 with a 3.2 -ohm dummy -load 7 02
resistor; } 2.5 .Ìf-{ IMEG

-1.2V AI C9 C8 RII
2. Connects the microphone to the in- L
VC 17V

put of the 1280;

300 S I.IV
- 1.7V TI %ó5 250K

3. Completes the cathode return of 7.7MEG 2 OV 470K 8 o `R13

the 50L6 -GT oscillator through S5 50 r82K

(when the selector is rotated to REC- `--(



4. Grounds one side of the output

winding of the oscillator transformer
T2 to complete the path to the erase

and bias coil (terminals 2 and 3) in the
recording head.
When the recorder is used for play-
back, Si, in addition to the functions
mentioned, also: 3.2
1. Connects the voice coil of the
speaker to the secondary of output 1280 6A06 SOLE 50L6
4.iK a8 s8
transformer T1; SPKR s5 e

2. Connects the voice -coil in the IKE 1 8 3 4 7 2 7 2

recording head to the input of the 1280 osC
voltage amplifier; ON VC 30TI 150 401 50L6-GT
3. Opens the cathode circuit of the ®
50L6 -GT oscillator. 117 VAC 33 33 3.3K T
This recorder is easy to thread and W. W va 1

simple to operate. One of the most an-
noying characteristics of it -and other RESET SW W OTOR

wire recorders -is that the wire tends CLOSED ON PLAY, RECORD,REWIND - GANGED TO SELECTOR

to break at the slightest provocation. Fig. I -The circuit of this recorder is simple when compared to some professional models.
When it does, it is likely to tangle and
kink badly. In such cases, it is difficult ents sometimes find it difficult to get
to gather the loose ends of the wire and children to study their lessons when
tie them without getting more knots study -hours conflict with a favorite 50L6-GT
and kinks into the wire. An automatic broadcast. These parents can record PWR AMPL C9_..05 C8, .O5 OK B+
shut -off S3 stops the motor at the end the programs and permit the children . R13 82K
of the play, record and rewind opera- to play them at a more convenient time. TO SPKR RIO
tions but does not operate when the The A725 uses a transformerless VC
wire breaks. power supply with one side of the line
The quality of reproduction is by no and B -minus connected to the chassis 8+4 b o
means high but is suitable for many through a 0.1 -jtf capacitor. Although TO VC IN

purposes. Amateur radio operators can there is no direct connection between RECORDING HEAD
make records of rare dx contacts and the line and chassis, the chassis is hot RECORD PLAY PART OF SI

play them for skeptical visitors and when the ungrounded side of the line
members of the local radio club. Par- is connected to B- minus. Fig. 2 -A novel tone- compensating network.



Here are some hints for technicians switch. From here C316 (.01 µf) goes gear. If the spring is broken, replace
on repairing and improving several to ground. the whole gear. If not, and if the seg-
frequently encountered models of Philco To prevent oscillator drift on the ment is not binding, bend the little "ear"
receivers. same model when the push- buttons are that stops the trip plate; it probably
Model. 46-1201, 1203, 48-1253, 1260: used, replace C412 (485 -uttf silvered does not come over far enough to lock
Replace the oscillator coil with one not mica capacitor) with a ceramic capaci- the segment. Be sure the little copper
having a capacity winding. Use a 47 -µµf tor of the same value. Replace C413 vane is at about a 40- degree angle when
capacitor between the coil and the 7A8 (285 7LILf) in the same manner. Both are on trip.
oscillator grid. Shunt a 10-µµf negative - across push- button oscillator coils. Sets using 50A5 and 50X6: Replace
temperature- coefficient capacitor across To prevent drift and failure of the the 50A5 if the tone is "mushy." If the
the oscillator tuning capacitor. 7F8 in the 46 -480, remove the 1- megohm 50A5 was shorted, replace the 50X6 as
Models 46 -200, 201, 202, 203, 420, resistor which goes from the 7F8 mixer well. Check both voltage -doubling ca-
421, 250: If the oscillator is not stable cathode to B +. Change R300 (4,700 pacitors in the 50X6 circuit and all by-
at the low frequencies, change the os- ohms, in the 7F8 plate circuit) to 47,000 pass and coupling capacitors.
cillator grid -leak resistor from 47,000 ohms. 1941 models using "beam -of-light"
to 120,000 ohms. Model 46-120: If the set lacks pep, phonograph, 7B5 oscillator, and 7Y4
Model 46-4.80: If there is oscillation the second i.f. transformer may be bad rectifier: Replace the 7B5 with a 7A5
when the set is switched to FM, install due to heat from the tubes. Replace it and the 7Y4 with a 7Z4. This will make
a 240 -µµf capacitor across C316, which with a Philco part No. AD -1024. the beam light brighter and give more
can be found by tracing the wire from Model M8 Record Changer: If the volume. Replace the two .01 -µf coupling
pin 3 of the 6H6 socket, through a 33,- changer keeps cycling, check the spring capacitors in the circuit of the 41 output
000 -ohm resistor, to pin 1 on the band- on the retractable segment of the cam tubes, regardless of test results.
MAY, 1949
501 Servicing

Part IV

EVERY electrical circuit, whether both the intensity and direction of any As more and more electrons left the
it be a 1 -inch length of wire or a electrical current passing through it, is top plate and crowded on the lower
cross-country telegraph line, has inserted in the lead going to the top plate, the charges on the two plates in-
three "built -in" electrical proper- plate of the capacitor. creased in opposite directions until the
ties: resistance, inductance, and capa- To begin, let us say that Si is open difference between them was exactly
citance. The first two of these we have and that we have momentarily closed equal to the difference in potential be-
already encountered in previous chap- S2 and then reopened it. tween the two terminals of the battery.
ters; now we are ready to grapple with Now, suppose we close switch Si. As At this point, the electrons stopped
the third. we do so, the ammeter pointer flips over flowing, because the pushing and pull-
Capacitance is like discarded chew- and then drops back to zero, indicating ing force of the charged plates exactly
ing gum; you may find it almost any- that a momentary current passed balanced the equal and opposing force=
where. Any time you have two electrical through it. Next, let us open S1 so as of the battery terminals.
conductors separated by a nonconduct- to disconnect the battery. What hap- Nothing happened when we opened
ing mediuny you hare a capacitor; and pens? Nothing; the ammeter pointer Sl, for there was no path by which the
a capacitor is to capacitance what a does not budge. But, suppose we now excess of electrons on the lower plate
doghouse is to a dog; it is where you close 2. As we do so, the ammeter needle could reach the electron-hungry upper
normally expect to find it. By the light flicks again, but in the opposite direc- plate. Since this state of unbalance still
of this definition, you can see that your tion, indicating a reverse flow of cur - existed, a voltage equal to that of the
pocket watch and the furnace in the tent. battery still was present between the
basement below form a capacitor; so plates, even though the battery itself
does a clothesline and the antenna Paradox or sense? had been disconnected.
Several questions should be pulsing The instant we closed S2 we provided
through your head at this point: Why the needed connecting path, and the dis-
did current flow in this circuit when we placed electrons rushed through it and
connected the battery? There was no through the ammeter to the upper plate.
ac/"/" complete circuit, for the plates of the Since this time the electrons were flow-
+1 condenser were separated by insulating ing to the upper plate instead of away
jsz air. After the current started flowing, from it-as they were when the battery
why did it stop? Where did the current was first connected -the ammeter point-
come from that caused the meter to flick er moved in the opposite direction. As
when we closed S2? It could not come soon as the electrons were once more
Fig. I -Test setup shows capacitance effects. from the battery, for that had already evenly divided between the two plates,
been disconnected. they ceased to flow; and we were right
stretched above it; so does a moisture - The explanations, as usual, go back back to the point we were before we
bearing cloud and the earth beneath. to electron theory. The momentary clos- started charging and discharging the
In this free or "stray" state, capaci- ing of switch S2 before we connected capacitor.
tance is of little or no value; in fact it the battery allowed any excess of elec- We might have made one other ex-
is often a nuisance. But when it is con- trons on either capacitor plate to flow periment: When we had the battery
trolled and "lumped" in definite units, through the switch and balance the connected to the capacitor (S1 closed),
it is every bit as important to electric- electron distribution. At the instant if we had slid a sheet of glass between
ity as are resistance and inductance. the battery was connected, however, the
In its "cultured" state, capacitance positive terminal put a strong "come
comes in the packaged form of con- hither" on the negative electrons of the DIELECTRIC
densers, the common name for capaci- top plate, and they surged through the
tors. There is a wide variety in the wire and the ammeter to that terminal, PLATES
form and material used in such conden- No.
causing the ammeter to register their o °o00000000e
sers; but before we start studying these passage as they did so. At the same in- Go
practical units, let us see how a simple stant, the pent -up excess of electrons MANY ELECTRONS
basic capacitor operates. Once we grasp on the negative terminal of the battery
how it works, we shall know how all rushed out on to the bottom plate of
capacitance units function. the condenser like school kids spilling Fig. 2-Capacitor plates after being charged.
Take a good look at Fig. 1. Here we out on the playground at recess. The re-
have a capacitor C, consisting of two sult of this simultaneous "push- pull" the plates, we should have noticed that
parallel flat metal plates with an air action was to leave the top plate with the ammeter pointer flicked again, in-
space between them. Switch S2 connects a deficiency of electrons, giving it a dicating that more charge was moving
across these plates. The double-pole strong positive charge, while the lower into the capacitor. When we removed
switch St permits us to connect the plate was strictly "Standing Room the glass, the pointer would have moved
battery directly to the plates. An am- Only" with electrons and so had a nega- in the opposite direction, showing that
meter, an instrument for indicating tive charge. this new additional charge had moved
back out of the capacitor. An explana-
tion of why the material used as the
insulating medium of a capacitor (it
is called the capacitor dielectric) affects
the charge the capacitor will take will
be given a little later.
It is apparent that a capacitor is a
device for storing an electrical charge.
The measure of its ability to do this
storing is its capacitance. The amount
of the charge stored depends upon how
many electrons we can force to leave
the top plate and congregate on the
rt bottom plate. We know that the more
voltage we have in our charging battery,
the more power we have to do this
forcing; so it should not come as a sur-
- prise that the unit used to measure the
capacitance depends both on the number
of electrons stored and the voltage nec-
These capacitors illustrate the many types the technician will encounter in

We could increase the capacitance by

his servicing.

remember that in capacitors power fac-

essary to do the storing. This unit is using a thinner slice of dielectric ma- tors are like living costs -the lower,
called the farad. One farad is the ca- terial, allowing the plates to come closer the better.
pacitance of a capacitor in which a together. This would reduce the total If we keep increasing the voltage
coulomb (6.28 X 1018 electrons) of elec- number of the repelling dielectric elec- across the plates of a capacitor, we
tricity is stored when an e.m.f. of 1 trons and so permit more electrons to eventually reach a point where the cur-
volt is applied. This unit is too large collect on the negative plate of the con- rent will break through the dielectric
for practical use; so the microfarad denser. and destroy it (unless, of course, it i;
(µf), a millionth part of a farad, and It is evident, then, that we can in- air). Increasing the thickness of the
the micromicrofarad (µµf), a millionth crease capacitance in three different dielectric will make this breakdown
part of a microfarad, are always used ways: voltage higher, but it will also reduce
in radio. (1) We can increase the size of the the capacitance. Most capacitors used
active portion of the plates. The active in radio work carry, in addition to
The "why" of capacitance portions of the plates are the portions their capacitance value, a marking in-
We have explained what happens that are directly opposite each other and dicating the maximum voltage with
when a condenser is charged, but we with the dielectric material squarely which they are to be used. These volt-
have not explained why. Truth to tell, between them. Increasing the size of age ratings may vary all the way from
the pundits of electronics tend to take these portions means that we have more a half -dozen volts to several thousand
refuge in such phrases as "it is be- electrons to draw from the positive for various applications.
lieved," "the theory is held," and "we plate and more room on the negative The picture shows the wide variety
may assume" when they go to talking plate to store them. When you remem- of capacitors used in radio work. In the
about this subject; but here is what is ber that the resistance of the electrons next chapter we will take up the actual
generally thought: of the dielectric material is "softened construction of capacitors, the good and
A charged capacitor looks like Fig. 2, up" by the double action of the lower bad points of each type. We will also
in which the ellipses between the plates and upper plates, working as a com- find out why it is necessary to have so
represent, in a greatly exaggerated bined pushing and pulling team, you many different forms of capacitors
form, the out-of -round orbits of the can see why only the portions of the when they all operate on the same basic
electrons of the dielectric atoms in their plates considered active have much ef- principle.
paths about their respective positive fect on the capacitance. If you are impatient to get to this
nuclei. The orbits are out -of-round be- (2) We can reduce the thickness of discussion of the practical aspects of
cause of the attraction of the positively the dielectric material as discussed capacitor construction, just remember
charged upper plate and the repulsion above. that unless you have a good, firm grasp
of the negatively charged lower plate. (3) We can use a dielectric material of the theory of operation, you will
Were the electrons of the dielectric free whose electron orbits are more easily have a hard time understanding any
to move, they would go straight to the distorted. type of construction, whether it be an
positive plate; but since they are tight- The effect that the dielectric has on internal combustion engine or a baby's
ly bound, the best they can do is deviate the capacitance is called the dielectric three-cornered pants!
slightly from their normal circular constant of the material and is ex-
path. pressed by the symbol K. Air is as- AUTOTRANSFORMER
When these orbits are comparatively signed a K of 1, and all other materials While converting a 110 -volt a.c. -d.e.
easy to push out -of- round, their counter - are compared with this. For example, radio to operate on 220 volts a.c., I was
repelling action on the electrons trying replacing the air dielectric of a given unable to get a suitable step -up trans-
to muscle their way on to the negative capacitor with mica will multiply its former or line -cord resistor. I took an
plate will be comparatively weak, just capacitance about 5 to 7 times; so we old power transformer with a burned
as a weak spring puts up a feeble re- say that mica has a K or dielectric con- out primary and connected the 220 -volt
sistance to being compressed; conse- stant, of 5 -7. In the same way glass has line across the ends of the high -voltage
quently a large number of electrons a K of 4.5 -7, and some rutile ceramics secondary. The radio was connected be-
can force their way onto the plate. The have a K of 90 -170. No wonder the little tween the center tap and one side of
capacitance of the capacitor will be cusses can pack so much capacitance in the winding. I have used this method
larger than it would be with a dielectric so small a space! with good results for some time.
material in which the electron orbits An ideal capacitor would be one with D. E. O'N. WADDINGTON.
were harder to distort. In the latter insulation so perfect that absolutely no Natal, South Africa.
case, since the dielectric electrons would current could leak across from one plate (When selecting a transformer for
stubbornly refuse to budge from their to the other; but ideal capacitors are such service, be sure to select one with
orbits, the electrons trying to wedge like ideal picnics -they are never quite a secondary capable of carrying compar-
their way on to the negative plate by realized. We have no perfect insulators, atively heavy current. The same setup
distorting these orbits would be re- and there is always some leakage. A can be used for operating 220 -volt equip-
buffed, and the storage ability would be capacitor with high leakage current is ment from 117 -volt a.c. lines, that is,
lessened. said to have a high power factor; just for stepping voltage up.- Editor)
MAY. 1949
52I lerrici's

Television and FM Alignmen f ;I

How to align television and

FM receivers, using a modern
sweep generator and 'scope
McMurdo Silver Model 911 generator.

THE modern television receiver im- two oscillators are available across P2. frequencies. The second or middle scale,
poses many new service problems The frequency of the fixed oscillator calibrated 60 to 154 mc, is the second
that have no counterparts in the in the McMurdo Silver Model 909 and harmonic of this difference frequency.
more familiar AM practice. Align- 911 sweep generators is set at 114 mc. The sweep width in this instance is
ing TV sets requires specialized appa- The variable- frequency oscillator in double that obtained on the 2 -77 -mc
ratus with which the average service both instances covers the range of 37 to range. The outer scale, calibrated from
technician has had little experience. 112 me. For this discussion the Model 151 to 226 mc, represents the sum fre-
Television, without a doubt, will be 909 may be considered similar to the quency generated by the mixing.
the major broadcasting field within a 911, with the exceptions that the 911 When tau high- frequency oscillators
very few years; the wise technician is contains the crystal marker circuit are mixed to produce a low- frequency
the one who is now preparing to be a (a 12AU7), and the phasing control output, it is extremely difficult to keep
part of this lucrative industry. There (P3), shown in Fig. 1. the lower frequency accurate. Drift in
are only three things that he must The frequency range produced by the either oscillator which is only a small
possess: a thorough knowledge of TV mixing of the variable and fixed oscil- percentage of its fundamental frequency
receivers, modern service equipment, lators is a continuous 2 to 226 mc, may show up as a large error when
and a knowledge of how to use this directly calibrated in three scales on translated to the low- frequency mixed
equipment intelligently. the main vernier tuning dial. The first output. It is for this reason that manu-
Reference to the schematic ( Fig. 1) range of 2 to 77 mc is produced by the facturers advocate the use of marker
indicates the essential circuits of a TV difference between the two oscillator signals accurately to trace out pattern
alignment instrument. Two 12AT7 twin - I2AU7
triodes are used as reactance modulator, I2AT7 FIXED OSC
C9- C9A- 7- 45Nuf'
fixed -frequency oscillator, variable -fre- REACTANCE MOD .0005
quency oscillator, and mixer. The re- 1. 1 150uuf XTAL
actance modulator causes the frequency XTAL
of the "fixed" oscillator to shift around
its center frequency when a modulating o 50puf 47K
voltage is applied to the reactance mod-
ulator grid. The linear variation of the 5101 I4005 33 47K .05

fixed oscillator (the amount that the

carrier may be shifted in either direc-
tion) is controlled by the setting of Pl,

4 3 30K .000s
5.IK 10K 20ppf Ce
33 i or-
the sweep-control potentiometer. We C6
50p0 12AT7
have, therefore, a fixed oscillator whose 210
301( 5.1
frequency may be swept or frequency - Ó K(
modulated some 10 mc at the maximum 2 foul (
setting of Pl. The amount of carrier 270K
swing is shown directly on a scale. P2 25 .02
The output of the fixed oscillator is 3-30puf
taken from across the cathode resistor OUTPUT RF OUTPUT
R2 and fed to the grid of the mixer tube
through the coupling capacitor C8. The HOR SWEEP
output of the variable- frequency oscil- 07VAC L6K /2W SAWTOOTH
lator is also fed to this mixer grid R1 200K I60n. SINE
through the 10 -µµf capacitor. The mixer
tube operates as a cathode follower, its Té á¡ 350v CIO P3 500K
cathode load being the output control .05 S.IK
P2. Both the sum and difference fre- R4C
quencies generated by the mixing of the
',Chief Engineer, McMurdo Silver Co. Fig. 1-Schema c of the 911 The instrument includes marker oscillator and sync outputs.
Servicing I S3
response and to determine TV frequency reactance- modulator sweep voltage. Now, in the second half -cycle of mod-
and bandwidth. Some manufacturers Since the fixed oscillator is swept with a ulation, the generator output is swept
have gone so far as to use dials that 60 -cycle sine wave, the sweep rate is over the same frequency range, but
cannot be read closely enough for align- twice this, or 120 sweeps per second. front high to loto frequency -backward.
ment work, thus forcing the technician If the coarse frequency control of the The 120 -cycle sawtooth, however, again
to use a separate marker system. The 'scope is turned to OFF and the 120 - traverses the screen in the scone direc-
only method of avoiding the use of a cycle sawtooth voltage is used for direct tion as before, toward the right. The
separate marker is to recheck dial cali- control through the horizontal ampli- beam spot is being pushed to the right,
bration against known sources and corn- fier, mirror-image responses will be but its vertical deflection is governed
pile a chart of the most -used points. observed. by the amplifier response curve in re-
Although such a system may be used This means that two response curves verse because the modulator is making
with relatively narrow passbands such will be seen, one the actual response, the frequency decrease rather than in-
as with FM, i.f. and discriminator pat- the other the same curve backward. To crease as it did on the fit-st half -cycle.
terns, it is definitely not applicable to illustrate this, assume a very distinct The result is that the reversed picture
video i.f. work. For this reason the asymmetrical i.f. response as shown in of the amplifier response will appear
marker system and phasing control Fig. 2 -a. (This is never obtained in on the screen. It will be exactly where
have been incorporated in Model 911. practice but it makes a good illustra- the actual response appeared during the
Both Models 909 and 911 may be used tion because the upper- and lower -fre- first half -cycle if the center of the re-
for either FM or TV alignment, but the quency slopes are obviously different.) sponse is at the center frequency of
909 requires a separate external marker The sawtooth voltage sweeps the the FM generator. Since the two are
system to determine the exact frequency cathode beam to the right in r ¡_ second. being traced at a comparatively high
and bandwidth of TV patterns. This The first half -cycle of the 60- cycle- rate of speed, the eye sees both the
marker may be any test oscillator of modulated generator output passes actual and reversed curves simultane-
the correct frequency and necessary through the i.f. amplifier under test in ously. The two are superimposed, re-
accuracy. The Model 911 is an "all -in- Yr. second. Therefore, on the first half versed-or mirror-images of each
one" instrument incorporating a dual of the modulator cycle, the actual am- other as the drawing (Fig. 2 -b) clearly
crystal -marker system as well as a plifier response curve is shown on the indicates.
phasing control used to produce a single oscilloscope screen. (Continued on following page)
image when inspecting asymmetrical
passbands such as video i.f. responses
FM and TV receivers may be aligned
rapidly with either instrument. The ALIGNMENT TABLE
important points with an FM receiver
are the i.f. and discriminator patterns. Generator 'Oscilloscope
The table has been prepared as a quick Alignment control Notes Response
connections connections
reference guide. It assumes that phas- voltage
ing control is used in television align- substitute I
ment. The phasing control circuit in- junction of dis-
volt flashlight
corporated in Model 911 can be copied, FM criminator -
discriminator cell for 3 -8 -1f
converter transformer 120 -cycle
and built externally or into the 909, as (ratio -detector grid tertiary winding sawtooth stabilizing ca- (Fig. 4
the technician prefers. The phasing net- pacitor; receiver
type) and de- empha-
work consists of C6, C10, R10, R4c, oscillator
sis network
and P3. The only connection that has to shorted
be changed in the 909 is the shield braid FM antenna as for i.f.
of the horizontal synchronizing cable. Fig. 3
oscillator post alignment
In manufacture this was connected in-
ternally to ground. It must be discon- FM adjust for maxi-
r.f. mum amplitude Fi-g 3
nected and utilized as the means of ob-
taining the 60 -cycle phased voltage FM i.f.
through C6. It serves as the output (limiter - each i.f. grid 120-cycle short receiver
limiter grid Fig. 3
line for this voltage, and a phone tip discriminator in turn
resistor sawtooth oscillator
may be connected to the output end of type)
the cable braid to allow convenient con- ungrounded
nection to the 'scope binding post. The FM converter
discriminator grid discriminator Fig. 4
phasing network may be built in a few cathode
minutes, and all components are com-
mon in any radio shop. ¡unction of dis-
It will be noted in Fig. 1 that two FM i.f. criminator - 3 -80 stabilizing
(ratio -de- each i.f. grid transformer
separate types of 'scope- control voltages in turn tertiary winding
capacitor; re- Fig. 3
are available from Model 911. These two tector type) ceiver oscillator
and de- empha-
voltages are provided to accomplish shorted
sis network
direct control of the beam through the
horizontal amplifier for two different adjust phasing
conditions. When the sweep generator control for
TV each i.f. grid °cross
video single image;
is used to inspect a symmetrical pass - second-detector
60 -cycle
employ markers Fig.
band, the output connection labeled video i.f. in turn sine
load resistor to establish
SAWTOOTH is connected to the high side correct band-
of the horizontal amplifier. No separate width
ground connection need be provided for
the control voltages in any case, as a set generator to
center of sound
ground is made automatically when the channels; adjust
'scope's vertical amplifier input is con- TV
oscillators antenna posts not used not used trimmers for
nected to the receiver. Symmetrical loudest 120 -
passbands include FM- receiver i.f. and cycle sweep tone
discriminator responses, and sound at speaker
channels of television sets. The control across second- 60 -cycle
voltage provided in this case is a 120 - TV r.f onfenna posts
defector load sine
see test Fig. 6
cycle sawtooth that is in phase with the
MAY, 1949
Suppose now that the amplifier being the sweep generator, connect the 'scope circuits. The 5 -mc oscillator is turned
tested is an FM i.f. Ideally, the curve vertical amplifier to the ungrounded off and the 1 -mc oscillator employed. A
should be symmetrical-the slope on discriminator cathode. Adjust the dis- series of pips 1 mc apart will be ob-
both high- and low- frequency ends criminator trimmers until a symmetri- served across the i.f. response. One of
should be the same. As the correct ad- cal pattern like that of Fig. 4 is ob- these will lie at the same spot as the
justments are made in the set to achieve tained. If the FM receiver employs a 5 -mc pip previously observed. It is then
symmetry, the actual and image slopes ratio detector, simply follow the in- a simple matter to count down or up
on one side will tend to approach each from this reference pip to determine
other, the more slanting one becoming exact bandwidth and frequency.
steeper and the more vertical one be- The trap circuits are next adjusted
coming more gradual. The same will in relation to the 1 -mc pips. The two
occur on the other side. When the upper - marker oscillators should not be used
and lower- frequency slopes are exactly simultaneously, nor need they be. Un-
equal, and the center frequency of the less the two oscillator harmonics are
passband is the same as the center fre- exactly equal, an audio voltage is cre-
quency of the generator, the actual and ated by the difference. The audio volt-
mirror-image curves will coincide and age will show up on the pattern unless
Fig. 3 (left) and Fig. 4 (right)-FM receiver a filter is employed between the gen-
only one curve will be seen. If. and discriminator oscilloscope patterns.
This type of response is desired in erator and the 'scope. This is not harm-
the alignment of FM receivers. If the structions given in the table for this ful in any way. The oscillators may be
output cable labeled 60-cvcLE SINE is case. brought to zero beat by adjustment of
used for direct control through the hori- The next step is to adjust the oscil- C9 and C9a. The oscillators can be re-
zontal amplifier, one image will be ob- lator and r.f. sections. The receiver ferred to W WV at 5 mc.
served when the phasing control is oscillator is restored and the generator All that has been done with these
properly adjusted. It is of little value connected to the antenna binding posts. crystal oscillators may be accomplished
to obtain one image of a symmetrical The 'scope's vertical amplifier is again by the serviceman's own test oscillator,
passband because the advantage of vis- connected across the first -limiter grid if it can be calibrated accurately, and
ual comparison of opposite sides is lost. resistor (in the case of ratio- detector Model 909.
It would also be confusing to have a receivers follow the table). The gen-
mirror -image response of an asymmet- erator dial is set to the appropriate r.f.
rical pass band (such as a video i.f.) alignment frequency, and the oscillator
because opposite sides of the pattern trimmer adjusted to give the superim-
should have different slopes and trap posed i.f. patterns. The r.f. trimmers
responses. For this reason two distinct are next adjusted for maximum ampli-
types of control voltages are made tude.
available to satisfy the two entirely The problems encountered in video i.f.
different conditions. When using Mod- alignment are entirely different. Here
els 909 and 911, the time base of the Fig. 5 (left) and Fig. 6 (right) -Video i.f.
we are dealing with a passband some
'scope is turned off, and no additional and television ri. patterns on 'scope screen.
4 mc wide as well as with adjacent
'scope adjustments are necessary. trap circuits which must be set up prop-
erly. Reference to Fig. 5 reveals that The next job is to set the oscillator
Alignment procedures this pattern is not symmetrical. For and r.f. sections for all channels. The
these reasons it is desirable to observe oscillator is restored to operation and
Here is a typical alignment procedure the generator connected to the antenna
using the 911. Reference to the table only one image on the 'scope screen. The
will simplify the explanations. output cable labeled 60 -cYcLE SINE is posts. The receiver is set to the highest
connected to the high side of the 'scope's channel, and the fine frequency control
horizontal amplifier. The vertical ampli- adjusted half way. The generator is set
fier is connected across the video second - to the center of the sound channel and
detector load resistor. The generator the oscillator adjusted until the 120 -
MARL RESPONSE output clips are connected from the last cycle sweep signal is heard in the re-
video i.f. grid to ground. The phasing ceiver loudspeaker. All channels are set
control is adjusted to obtain a single im- in this manner, working from the high-
age. If this control is not adjusted est to the lowest frequency.
properly, a double image will be ob- R.f. sections usually require little or
served, resembling somewhat the mir- no adjustment. Most modern TV receiv-
ror -image effect described before. ers employ preset coils, and do not rely
1/120 SEC The output of the generator is pro- on capacitive or inductive compensa-
gressively moved, stage by stage, from tion. The turns are set at the factory;
Fig. 2 -An example explains the mirror image.
the last i.f. grid through to the con- and if the set is functioning satisfac-
To align an FM receiver it is first verter. Exact responses specified by the torily, it is better not to attempt adjust-
necessary to short out the receiver os- manufacturer must be duplicated in ment.
cillator. The sweep -generator output each stage. For stagger -tuned systems If the set employs capacitive or in-
clips are connected from the last i.f. this cannot be overemphasized. A varia- ductive (slug) compensation, connect
grid to ground. The 'scope coarse fre- tion in the pattern response of any sin- the generator to the antenna posts. Con-
quency control is turned to oFF. The gle stage could result in a loss of pic- nect the 'scope vertical amplifier across
120 -CYCLE SAWTOOTH cable is connected ture contrast and quality. the second- detector load, and the 60-
to the high side of the 'scope's horizon- The 5 -mc crystal marker is next cycle control voltage to the high side
tal amplifier. Connect the vertical am- turned on. The variable amplitude con- of the horizontal amplifier. Again one
plifier across the first limiter grid re- trol of this oscillator (30k in the sche- image of the video i.f. response will be
sistor. When appropriate sweep is ap- matic of Fig. 1) is adjusted to give a observed when the generator is set to
plied, the mirror -image response of Fig. convenient -sized pip on the pattern. the appropriate r.f. channel. The com-
3 will be obtained. The last i.f. trim- This pip is a harmonic of the 5 -mc pensating trimmer for the r.f. coil is
mers are adjusted so that the two pat- oscillator, and in the case of a standard now adjusted carefully for a slight in-
terns coincide. This procedure is re- i.f. will lie at 25 mc. If the pip appears crease in the height of the image. Start
peated, connecting the generator in at the proper point in the over-all re- at the highest channel and work down.
turn to each preceding i.f. grid and sponse, the initial alignment procedure The table can be used as an alignment
finally to the converter grid. may be considered correct. reference when using either the instru-
Without changing the dial setting of The next step is to adjust the trap ments described or similar apparatus.
Bn11i11 Science JJ

Part II introduction to
standing hares, cavity res-
orators, and representative
examples of u.h.f. plumbing

By C. W. PALMER Photos courtesy

DrMon,su -Budd

For extracting samples

N Part of this series we considered
I of energy traveling in
a number of the practical factors either direction along
governing the use of waveguides for a waveguide, direction-
al couplers are needed.
ultra - high - frequency transmission
and reception.
The use of parallel -wire and co -axial
transmission lines becomes impractical
above approximately 3,000 mc because
of the greatly increased losses as fre- a conductor (in this case the inside wall particular frequency just like a tuned
quency rises. For example, RG /8U co- of a waveguide) is inversely propor- circuit consisting of a coil and capaci-
axial cable, which has a loss of 0.13 db tional to the frequency, it follows that tor. This is because the voltages are re-
per 100 feet at 1 mc and 2.1 db at 100 at frequencies above some critical point flected by the end plates and reinforce
mc, has a loss of 18 db at 3,000 mc; and there will be an increase in loss. Table I the applied voltage at one and only one
AG /58U cable, which has a loss of 0.24 shows the skin penetration and resis- frequency. At this frequency the re-
db per 100 feet at 1 mc, has losses of
4.1 db at 100 me and 34 db at 3,000 mc.
A glance at Fig. 1 shows how loss in-
tance of some commonly used waveguide
electroplating and fabricating metals
the five most commonly used in wave-
- flected voltages combine with the ap-
plied voltage and thus increase the
original voltage at one point in the
creases with frequency for these two guide construction. cavity (where we place the pickup di-
popular cables. pole or loop).
This explains why such a wide inter- Standing waves This subject of standing waves in
est has been displayed by u.h.f. investi- Standing-ware ratio is a term often transmission lines and waveguides is so
411 gators in the development of wave - heard where transmission lines as well important in the practical application
guides. The loss in 1 x /2-inch wave- as waveguides are concerned. If a of microwave plumbing that it is well
guide for frequencies from 6,500 to 12,- length of waveguide 's provided with for us to spend some time on the sub-
500 mc was shown in Part I of this movable ends so that it becomes a ject.
series. It drops from 80 db per 100 feet closed container, it will resonate at a Let us look at Fig. 2 which shows a
at 6,500 mc to 30 db at 12,500 mc. Sim- rope secured to a stationary hook and
ilar values of attenuation are found for so
other sizes of waveguide for their op-
timum frequency ranges. Also, the
waveguide will carry much higher pow-
er than co -axial conductor without arc-
40 IIIIIIIlmaxae Iti
1111111111111 rI1ìï fINI
E 11111


ing over. 1111111=I1111I1I,11R11l= Depth of current penetration is given in

A waveguide can be used at any fre-

quency above its cutoff point, but a cer-
1I11IIIMI11111- R91111
millionths of meter (.001 mm).
100 mc 1000 mc 10,000 me
tain band of frequencies is transmitted
with the least loss. This is due to the w IIIIII/!5111/.IIIIII
Depth Ohms
6.5 .008
Depth Ohms
2.0 .025
"skin" resistance on the inside of the
waveguide, which increases with fre- 20
'3 : 0 500 000 3000 6000 10000

quency. Since the penetration of radio - FR 0, MC PER 500000 Aluminum .0034 8.6 .011 2.7 .034 .86
12.6 .016 40 .05 1.26
frequency currents into the surface of Fig. I -Graph shows losses in co-aria cable. Brass .005

MAY, 1949
Radio Science
swung back and forth to provide a wave If the load is not matched to the line coils are connected in parallel as at c
motion. If the rope is held at the cor- or is reactive instead of resistive, the and d. It will be remembered that the
rect tension and swung back and forth signal is reflected back from the load. inductance of two coils in parallel is
rhythmically (simulating waves of The standing-wave ratio is high, and less than either coil individually. By
oscillating or alternating voltage), the voltage varies greatly from one adding an infinite number of single -
modes will be formed as shown by the half-wave position to the next. The turn coils in parallel, a closed chamber
cross -over of the solid and dotted lines length of the line is critical, and there or resonant cavity results as shown
where the rope remains stationary while is a loss of power. in e and f.
other parts of the rope move back and All these characteristics of transmis- Strictly speaking, we should not use
sion lines with respect to standing the term inductance in a resonant cav-
waves also apply to waveguides, though ity, as the resonance is a result of re-
/ 1 N the method of determining the stand-
ing -wave ratio and correcting for a mis-
flection of radiated waves in such phase
as to reinforce their potential. However,
match or high standing -wave ratio is this approach does make it easier to un-
FROM HERE different. derstand how a cavity can be tuned to a
PRODUCING A In waveguides, standing-wave ratio given frequency.
is checked by means of a special section A rectangular cavity can be reson-
Fig. 2- Swinging rope forms loops and nodes. of guide having a narrow slot cut paral- ated at several frequencies by changing
forth. This is caused by the wave re- lel to the axis of the guide (located at the mode. You will remember that we
flected by the stationary end of the rope the maximum of the electrostatic field). explained the electrostatic and mag-
producing a standing wave in the mo- A probe with a crystal detector and a netic modes of transfer of energy in
tion of the rope. d.c. microammeter is used to indicate waveguides and that, for each mode,
Now if we have a transmission line the presence of standing waves. The one dimension of the guide controls the
of two infinitely long parallel wires photograph shows a slotted waveguide lowest or cutoff frequency. The choice
connected at one end to a source of r.f. section that can be used to measure of mode was made by the type and lo-
power, as shown in Fig. 3 -a, the r.f. standing -wave ratio, impedance, and cation of the insertion and pickup
frequency. probes. The same conditions occur in
AT METEII cavity resonators as in waveguides, in
i Cavity resonators this respect.
IRF OSC. TRANSMISSION LINE - INFINITELY LONG In waveguides all the old circuit In Fig. 5 dimension a, b, or c may be
quantities, such as inductance, capaci- made to control the resonant frequency
tance, resistance, reactance, etc., have by changing the position or type (dipole
their place and usefulness, though their or loop) of the coupling and pickup de-
forms are different from those found in vices. For any one mode, two side walls
DISTANCE ALONG LINE lower- frequency work. control the frequency, and the other
A piece of waveguide of the correct walls control the Q or merit factor of

the resonator.
.r length, with the ends closed off, can be
In tuned circuits of the coil -and-

+l \
used just as are the more common coil
I I I 1 ` and capacitor for a tank or resonant capacitor variety used at lower frequen-
cies, Q figures up to several hundred
I ;
circuit, displaying all the characteris-

AAlW41Y5ORSTART tics of a coil- and -capacitor combination
without actually containing either coil
are typical. For cavity resonators, Q
factors in the tens of thousands are not
uncommon. In this respect the cavity

A z
or capacitor.
The resonant cavity can perhaps be
better understood by looking at the e

Fig. -3 Standing waves form on shorted line. sketches in Fig. 4. At a is the usual coil -
and-capacitor parallel- resonant circuit.
voltage will travel along the line with As the frequency is increased, the num- b

no reflections and there will be no ber of turns on the coil is decreased 1

standing waves; but if we provide a until eventually only a single turn is Fig. -The critical
5 dimensions of a cavity.
short circuit across the line at some required. This is shown at b. Now to
paint as at b, reflections will occur, with reduce the inductance further, several resonator is different from and much
resulting standing waves, voltage max- more efficient than a low- frequency
ima and minima along the line at tuner.
If a resistance connected across the Types of resonators
transmission line matches the charac- Cavity resonators take a number of
teristic impedance of the line (depend- different shapes and forms other than
ing on the space between the wires and b the simple rectangle shown in Fig. 5.
their size), the outgoing signal from the For example, some vacuum tubes used
source is completely absorbed by the for microwaves-notably reflex Klys-
load and there are no reflections or trons- include a resonant cavity as part
standing waves. This is usually desir- of their build -up. The grids form one
able in connecting a signal source to a boundary of the cavity, and the cylin-
load (as in connecting a transmitter to drical bellows is another of the elements
an antenna) since the maximum amount from which the output is taken. Figure
of power is delivered by the source to 6 shows the cross sections of a number
the load. of different types of cavity resonators,
When the load is resistive and including the basic principles of the re-
matched to the impedance of the line, flex Klystron and Magnetron tubes to
the voltage is essentially the same all be discussed in detail in the next article
along the line; the length of the line is of this series.
not critical. The impedance is uniform The size and shape of the cavity de-
along the line and is equal to its char- termine the frequency of oscillation. If
acteristic impedance. The standing- the cavity is too small or too large, it
wave ratio is extremely low and there cannot resonate at a given frequency;
is, therefore, a maximum transfer of e f but if it has the correct dimensions,
energy. Fig. -The
4 evolution of a cavity resonator. high -amplitude waves are built up be-

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City Zone Stare

MAY, 1949
581 Conlin Science

tween the reflecting walls. As in wave - which is the equivalent of lowering the measuring the amount of reflection in-
guides, cavity resonators have different inductance. troduced by a section of waveguide over
modes of resonance. One pair of oppos- a wide range of frequencies. Here a
ing walls becomes the frequency -con- Samples of waveguide plumbing Klystron oscillator is amplitude -mod-
trolling mechanism, while the others af- We have touched on a number of the ulated by a square-wave oscillator and
fect the impedance and Q of the unit. factors controlling the individual pieces fed into the test circuit, which com-
Cavity resonators may be tuned by of apparatus comprising a microwave prises:
moving the side walls in or out, or tun- waveguide setup, but so far we have not 1. A variable attenuator for control-
ing slugs may be inserted, as shown in pieced them together to form a circuit. ling the power from the Klystron and
Let us look at Figs. 8 and 9. Here we isolating it from the test setup;
have two setups used for testing pur- 2. A tee section of waveguide coupled
poses. They serve as examples of how to a frequency meter;
the pieces of apparatus are linked to- 3. An impedance meter with slotted
gether to propagate waves. wave guide;
Figure 8 shows an oscillator, such as 4. The section of waveguide under
a Klystron or Magnetron, coupled to test;
the following five pieces of apparatus 5. A power termination.
CUBE CYLINDER SPHERE in turn: The impedance meter is used here to
1. An impedance meter which con- measure any reflection that occurs when
ELECTRONS sists of a length of waveguide with a the section of guide under test is in-
longitudinal slot in one wall in which serted, over that measured when the
i I I


a rod or probe connected to a crystal termination is coupled directly to the
detector and a d.c. microammeter can impedance meter. This test is made at
CAVITY- 0 be moved. a series of frequencies.
2. An impedance transformer con- In these two examples of waveguide
sisting of a length of waveguide with plumbing a number of new items have
impedance- adjusting slugs or stubs been described in a rather sketchy man-
which change the amount of power re- ner in order to show the over-all result
flected back toward the source, thus in- of applying apparatus to a circuit for
troducing standing waves of controlla- a specific purpose. Each of these items
ble amounts to change the effective im- will be taken up in turn and described
pedance. in greater detail in succeeding parts of
MAGNETRON 3. A directional coupler which per- this series, so that we can build up a
RESONANT ANODE CAVITIES SPIT ANODE MAGNETRON mits a small sample of the wave to be working knowledge of the devices and
Fig. 6- Resonant cavities take various forms.
taken off through a side path without how to use them.
affecting the propagation of the main One of the greatest stumbling blocks
wave through the guide, except for in- in the path of microwave development
Fig. 7, to increase or decrease the fre- troducing a certain amount of attenu- for many years was the inability of
quency. The tuning slugs consist of ation. This sample wave is fed through ordinary vacuum tubes to either ampli-
metal rods that may be moved into or a waveguide or co -axial line to a fre- fy or oscillate successfully at frequen-
out of the cavity. If the slugs are lo- quency meter where its frequency can cies in th e thousands -of- megacycles
cated in the path of the electrostatic be determined by measuring the dis- region. Several factors were respon-
field (depending on the mode), the fre- tance between the high -voltage or high - Fible. Interelectrode capacitances neg-
quency decreases as the slugs are in- current points. ligible at more amenable frequencies
serted. If they are inserted in the elec- 4. Another directional coupler feeding became prohibitively high at micro-
tromagnetic field, the frequency in- into a power meter or wattmeter per- waves; leads from the elements to the
creases. This is because inserting the mits the power transmitted through the pins made highly effective-and dam-
slugs in the electrostatic field shortens waveguide to be measured. This power aging- inductances; insulation losses
meter may be a bolometer or tempera- and grid emission made u.h.f. oscilla-
ture- sensitive resistance element, a tion impossible. And perhaps most im-
power bridge, a water load, or other
power indicators (which we will take
portant, the time required for electrons
to reach the plate from the cathode -


up in a succeeding article)
5. Last in the circuit is the termina-
tion or power -absorbing device, which
is used to dissipate the power from the
transit time -became comparable to the
period of a single cycle. As a result, the
upper oscillation limit of ordinary
tubes was between 150 and 175 mc.
oscillator without radiating it and with-
out introducing reflections that would
affect the operation of the measuring
How entirely new principles were
conceived and developed to achieve am-
plification and oscillation at frequencies
devices by introducing a high standing - considered impossible of attainment a
wave ratio in the line. few years ago will be discussed in Part
This circuit is used to measure the III of this series. For the technician
Fig. 7 -This cavity may be tuned with a slug. effect of a changing load impedance on and experimenter unfamiliar with mi-
the amount of useful power propagated crowaves, the descriptions of the Mega -
this field, which is similar to increasing through a waveguide, as, for instance, tron, the orbital beam tube, the Klys-
the capacitance of a tuned circuit. Con- in changing the antenna of a microwave tron, and the Magnetron will open new
versely, inserting the slugs in the elec- transmitter. and exciting fields for thought and
tromagnetic field decreases that field, Fig. 9 shows another test setup for experimentation.



fl m ` m 1111114

Fig. 8 (left) and Fig. 9 fright) -Two representative circuits using waveguide plumbing illustrate how various components may be combined.




with Sylvania's New 10 -Lot

Cartons of fastest -moving radio tubes!

HERE'S the new, handy 10 -lot package, de- up unnecessary space! Now your shelves will
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ing plenty of fast- moving tube types on hand. tubes the 10-Lot Carton way simplifies your
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This new package is easy to handle, easy to for any further details! Sylvania Electric Prod-
stock -no more loose tubes and cartons to take ucts Inc., Radio Division, Emporium, Pa.

MAY, 949
601 Audio

Audio Impedance Matching

Part 111 -How
to calculate loads
and construct output transformers
of this article will, of course, be more satisfactory. gives 35,000 lines as the maximum flux
IN the preceding part which should be permitted to pulsate
(March issue) we laid down the The number of turns required de-
specifications for matching trans- pends on the cross -sectional area of the through the core. But, since at 30 cycles
formers, as far as the impedance core, the maximum flux density decided it takes a flux of 750,000 lines to pro-
on, and the lowest frequency at which duce 1 volt in 1 turn, a flux of 35,000
transformation is concerned. We shall lines will produce 35,000/750,000 =
now see how these transformers can be the transformer must operate. The
formula on which all turns calculations .0465 volt. This is consequently the volt-
constructed or picked out from a num- age per turn; the primary winding,
ber of available units. We shall take are based is
which is to operate with 21.9 volts, must
two examples, a transformer to make a
20-ohm voice coil look like 53.4 ohms,
E =4.44X4 XnXfX10-8volts,
where -
therefore have 21.9/.0465 470 turns,
sIs is the maximum amplitude of the
while the secondary side will have to
and a multitap matching unit. have 290 turns.
The impedance transformation ratio alternating flux pulsating through
is equal to the square of the turns ra- the coil, in maxwells or magnetic It remains to be checked whether this
lines; amount of copper can be accommodated
tio. The turns ratio required for an within the window. If not, the stack
impedance transformation is therefore n is the number of turns;
f is the lowest desired frequency. height must be increased, which in-
equal to the square root of the im- creases the maximum flux the core can
pedance ratio. To make 20 ohms look If we wish to find the number of mag-
like 53.4 ohms requires an impedance netic lines necessary to induce 1 volt in carry and consequently increases the
a single turn, we simply solve this volts per turn, with a corresponding re-
transformation ratio of 2.67. The duction in the number of turns re-
square root of this is 1.63. This is the formula for 4, substituting 1 for E, 60
cycles for f, and 1 for n. The result is quired; or the next larger size of lam-
20 n 375,000 lines. This is one of the handiest ination may be used.
21.9V 470TURNS figures to keep in mind, because all The amount of copper and the space
290 TURNS 13.4V
transformer calculations become easy required for it can be considerably re-
ll duced if an autotransformer is con-
Fig. I- Specifications, standard transformer. with the aid of it.
The relation may be stated in words structed. In addition, since 100% coup-
turns ratio of the required transformer. as follows: If we wish to apply or in- ling exists at least between parts of the
But the turns ratio does not com- duce in a single turn 1 volt at a fre- primary and secondary of an autotrans-
pletely describe a transformer. We also quency of 60 cycles, a magnetic flux former, it has better high- frequency re-
must know how much voltage will be must pulse through it with a peak value sponse and better regulation than a
applied across the primary terminals, of 375,000 lines. For any other fre- two -winding transformer. The fact that
its frequency, and how much current quency, this value of 375,000 lines must in an autotransformer there is no isola-
will flow in the windings. The voltage be increased or decreased in the inverse tion between the primary and secondary
across the 16-ohm winding of the out- ratio of the desired frequency to 60 is of no consequence in the case of a
put transformer, with the 30 -watt am- cycles. Thus, if we wish to go down to matching transformer of the type dis-
plifier operating at full power and 30 cycles per second, a magnetic flux cussed here.
properly loaded, was calculated at 21.9 with a peak value of 750,000 lines is re- .470 TURNS OVERALI
volts (see March article). This voltage quired through one turn to induce 1 0.412A SPAR
applied to 53.4 ohms results in a cur- volt. 0.67A 20n
rent of 0.412 ampere. The voltage on 21.9V 4

the 53.4-ohm secondary will be 13.4 A practical problem 0.258A

volts (using the turns ratio of 1.63)
and the current will be 0.67 ampere. Let us assume now that we have +- 0.412A
Fig. 1 shows the specifications of the available a core with E- shaped lamina- Fig. 2 -An autotransformer may save space.
transformer. tions, with a center leg 7/s inch square
While space does not permit a de- With the laminations built up in a The two-winding transformer shown
tailed discussion of transformer design, square stack, the cross -sectional area of in Fig. 1 can be converted to an auto -
we can give enough information to per- the core will be 0.765 square inch. Be- transformer simply by making the sec-
mit the sound man to make such a cause of the insulating varnish, only ondary winding part of the primary
transformer on short notice. about 95% of this area, or 0.7 square winding, so to speak. The transformer
As far as wire size is concerned, it is inch, is actually iron. will then consist of the single winding
common practice in the design of small The maximum magnetic flux which of 470 turns, tapped at 290 turns (Fig.
power transformers to allow approxi- this core can carry is equal to the maxi- 2). The current which will flow in that
mately one circular mil per milliam- mum permissible density in lines per part of the coil which is common to the
pere; in audio work this is more than square inch times the cross-sectional primary and secondary circuits will be
ample, since most of the time trans- area of the iron. In power -transformer the algebraic sum of the two currents
formers run considerably below full design, even for small ones, densities of shown in Fig. 1. Since the direction of
output. A standard wire table shows 60,000 to 75,000 lines per square inch the current flowing in the secondary
that No. 24 wire will be satisfactory for are not uncommon. Such high values winding of a transformer is opposite to
the primary and No. 22 wire for the require fairly large magnetizing cur- that of the current flowing in the pri-
secondary. Larger wire for one or both rents, however, which should be avoided mary winding, the algebraic sum will
windings (provided there is sufficient in audio transformers. The density be only 0.258 ampere in the part of the
space for the required number of turns) should preferably be kept at a lower winding common to both the primary
value, perhaps 50,000 lines per square and secondary. This permits the reduc-
Engineering and Development Dept. Allis-
inch. This multiplied by the area of 0.7 tion of the wire size of this part of the
Chalmers Mfg. Co.
Audio 161
winding; in this case No. 26 wire would
be large enough. The arrangement will 1.057A I.142A
result in a considerable reduction in the 24n
space requirement for the windings, .118A .67 FIA
.671A + ,763

compared to the two -winding trans-

former shown in Fig. 1. The superior- 500n o
ity of the autotransformer is quite im-
portant when the turns ratio is between
500n r- I 20n fl
2 to 1 and 1 to 1. For higher turns ra-
tios, such as 10 to 1, the saving in space 2.07:1 9.14:1 6.66:1
is not very significant.
Fig. 3 -This separate -transformer hookup con be matched back to tubes or line transformer.

Matching six speakers inations is sufficiently large to accom- is not 500 ohms any more. But as point-
As the second design example a single modate one continuous winding of the ed out in past articles, the notion that
transformer matching all the speakers largest wire required. The specifications the amplifier will then furnish distorted
shown in the March article to the 500 - for the complete matching transformer, output is unfounded, provided we see to
ohm line will be discussed. It was cal- based on a 1% x 1% -inch stack, are it that it does not have to furnish more
culated that the 500 -ohm speaker tak- shown in Fig. 4. The reader should have voltage or current than the rated val-
ing 7 watts, the 20 -ohm speaker taking no difficulty convincing himself that ues. The removal of part of the load
9 watts, and the four series 6 -ohm
this is simply the result of superimpos- will cause a rise of voltage; and if the
speakers taking 3.5 watts each had to ing upon each other all the windings amplifier happened to be operating at
appear to the 500 -ohm tap on the out- shown in Fig. 3. The currents in the full -rated voltage before, it will now
various sections of the transformer, operate with a voltage beyond its rat-
put transformer as 2,140, 1,670, and also indicated in Fig. 4, are found by
1,070 ohms, respectively. These are im- ing. The input signal must therefore be
superimposing the current values shown reduced, so that the total output voltage
pedance ratios of 2140/500 = 4.28, 1670 in Fig. 3.
/20 = 83.5, and 1070/24 = 44.6. The will not exceed 122.5 volts. If this pre-
The calculations can be checked for caution is taken, there is no objection
square roots of these figures give us the accuracy. The total ampere turns in a
turns ratios 2.07, 9.14, and 6.68, respec- to removal of part of the load.
transformer- assuming zero d.c. mag- The necessity of readjusting the in-
A common matching transformer
supplying power to all the speakers is
again best designed by considering it as
the composite of three individual trans-
formers. In Fig. 3 are shown the three
individual transformers with the ratios 4176141E
just calculated. The current in the sec- II
ondary windings will be the primary
current divided by the turns ratios.
The primary windings of all three
transformers are in parallel with the 500n
same voltage across them. If the trans-
formers were constructed with cores of
identical size, the number of primary o-1.552A 0.661A -0.116A
turns would all be the same. The three
windings can just as well be placed on Fig. 4 -How the several speakers of Fig. 3 can be fed from a single output transformer.
a single core, making one winding out
of them, and increasing the wire size. netizing current, as we have done in put signal can be avoided by replacing
The combined primary current is 0.245 this example -must come out as zero. the speaker which is to be taken out of
ampere, for which No. 26 wire will be Multiply the current in each section by service by a dummy load resistance
satisfactory. the number of turns in this section, equal to the voice -coil impedance which
Since the finished transformer must adding those in a downward direction was removed. This will of course re-
handle 30 watts, we will need a fairly and subtracting those in the opposite quire a double-throw switch.
large core, especially if the frequency direction. A correct design will result The designers of negative- feedback
response is to be good down to 30 cycles. in zero, within the limits of the accuracy amplifiers often demonstrate with pride
Suppose we can lay our hands on some of the calculations. the fact that they can connect an 8 -ohm
E-shaped laminations with the center If the 11.; -inch laminations happen to speaker to either the 4 -ohm, 6 -ohm, or
leg 11% inches wide. Following the pro- be of one popular (the "strapless ") 20 -ohm tap without noticeable change
cedure outlined in the preceding exam- type, the window for the coil will be in volume. If the feedback voltage hap-
ple and assuming a square stack, the found to have dimensions of % x 17/s pens to be taken from the output ter-
voltage which a single turn can pro- inches. This will be ample to accommo- minals, such a performance is not at
duce at 30 cycles, with the density in date the windings without having to cut all surprising, since the feedback is es-
the iron not exceeding 50,000 lines per each size wire down to the exact re- sentially a device to keep the output
square inch, will be .099, or roughly 0.1 quirement given by the current flowing voltage constant regardless of any
volt. This will require 1,225 turns for in it. The 183 turns carrying the heavy changes which may have taken place
the primary winding for the 122.5 volts currents may be wound of No. 19 wire in the amplifier; and a change of the
which will appear across the 500-ohm and can be accommodated in five layers. output tap can of course be considered
primary at 30 watts. The remaining 1,042 turns can be ac- as a change in the over -all amplifica-
Instead of providing three separate commodated in 11 layers of No. 26 tion from the input terminals to the
secondary windings, as shown in Fig. enameled wire. If wound reasonably output terminals. Such a demonstration
3, we can use the autotransformer, sim- tight, the finished winding will fit nicely is quite misleading, because it usually
ply providing one continuous winding, into the available space. is not made under maximum output con-
tapped at places corresponding to the ditions. If it is, it will become quickly
turns ratios given in Fig. 3. Since the Changing the load apparent that, feedback or no feedback,
various parts of this continuous wind- Will it be permissible to disconnect distortion will set in earlier if the load
ing carry different amounts of current, any one of the speakers with an on -off does not have the value recommended
they may be wound with different sizes switch? Naturally, that will mean that by the manufacturer for the particular
of wire, unless the window in the lam - the total load presented to the amplifier type of tube used in the output stage.
MAY. 1949
New I evices
Precision Apparatus Co., Sound Apparatus Co., Chicago Transformer Division United Transformer Corp.,
Elmhurst, N. Y. Stirling, N. J. Essex Wire Corp., New York 13, N. Y.
Series E -400 offers wide- and narrow - Model FRA is a fully automatic re- A new transformer designed to match
band sweep selection for FM and tele- corder which plots a curve of any chang- Chicago, Ill. o low- impedance (50.500ohm) micro-
vision alignment. Frequency coverage ing quantity that can be converted A new hr.. of tro-s`or, -,,rs for tele- phone or pickup to n grid is equipped
is continuous from 2 to 240 me in five into on a.c. or d.c. voltage. Measuring vision receivers is now available from with built -in phone plue' and jock, The
ranges may be selected and recorded stock for manufacturers and techni- transfomer is plugged into the micro-
on either a logarithmic or linear scale. cians. Included are power, vertical
Typical applications ore in sound. strain blocking-oscillator and vertical scan -
or pressure, and r.f. field -strength meo- n,nq transfo roe's ^ ^d o hori-
su rements.
The instrument is available in 56
double chart speed combinations from
45 inches per minute to 1/2 inch per SERVICING MIRROR
hour and for frequencies from 2 to 200, Federal Engineering Co.,
000 cycles. It is supplied with a stand- New York, N. Y.
ard 101/2inch relay -rack panel, by Many television service technicians
which it may be mounted in any stand feel that only a giraffe is built for the
ord relay rock. ¡ob of adjusting the rear -panel controls
of a receiver for the best picture. Neck
craning is eliminated by the Picture.
Vu, a portable mirror and its collaps-
ible metal stand. The stand is unfolded
bonds. Sweep ranges are 0.1 and 0 -10 and set on the floor in front of the re-
mc. A direct -reading dial has two - ceiver. The unbreakable 14 x 10 -inch
color scales: a verniet reads to part I
mirror is removed from its cloth bog
in 1500. and hooked to the stand. The techni- phone or phono jack on the amplifier,
cian makes his adjustments in comfort, and the cable from the mike or pickup
watching the reflection in the mirror.
TAPE RECORDER is plugged into the tronsformer. Fre-
quency range of the tronsformer is 50-
Crestwood Recorder Corp., 10,000 cycles, and hum picup is Ir,w.
Chicago. III.
The MogicTape recorder has a two - MICROPHONE STAND
channel feature which allows recording KILOVOLTMETER
of a full hour's materiol on a standard Bradshaw Instruments Co., Electro- Voice, Inc.,
half -hour tape. Frequency range is from Buchanan, Mich.
Brooklyn, N. Y.
Model 4,000 is designed to measure Model 432 micro-
television and X -ray voltages up to phone stand. built
50,000 d.c. It has a 20 go meter and an in three sections.
input impedance of 1,250 megohms. con be used as a
Basic sensitivity of the instrument is
50.000 ohms per volt. For safety. all banquet stand, set
voltages are dissipated in the poly- at chair height, or
styrene probe, test leads are shielded. extended to full
and the shields are connected together. height for standing
A NORMAL-REVERSE key is provided so speakers. The unit is
that the probe may be used regardless easily portable. but
of the polarity of the voltage being stable. It has the
measured. "red button" height
control, which al-
Quam- Nichols Co., height without ne-
Chicago. Ill. cessity for twisting
Model 69A2 Adjusta -Cone speaker is WHEATSTONE BRIDGE lock-fittings.
designed for replacement in automo- Leeds & Northrup Co.,
bile receivers. Because of its shallow Philadelphia. Pa.
The Enclosed Switch Wheatstone
50 to 8.000 cycles. Rewind time is less bridge, offered previously in a ma- Amplifier Corp. of America.
thon 11/2 minutes for a half -hour reel. hogany case, is now housed in a gray, New York, N. Y.
The unit is portable, weighing 25 baked -enamel, metal cose. Other in- The E -Z -Cue tape and wire indexer
pounds, including microphone and an struments mode by this company will
extra reel of tope. is a counter actuated by rotary motion.
change from wood to metal boxes as A flexible shaft extension is placed over
soon os engineering is completed. the spindle of either the supply or the
NEON PILOT LIGHT take -up reel of almost any wire or tope
Industrial Devices, Inc., recorder. The counter registers the
number of revolutions so that any sec-
Edgewater, N. J. tion of the wire or tope may be identi-
The Tiny -Glow, a rugged and depend- fied and located. Average accuracy is
able pilot light consisting of a neon within about I second on standard
lamp encased in a chrome -plated hous- spools.
ing, may be used over a range of 75 to
construction, it will fit most auto re
ceivers, regardless of make, so that the
technician need stock only the one type RECORD PLAYER
for most cars.
Scott Radio Laboratories, Inc.
Newcomb Audio Products Co.,
Hollywood, Calif.
The three records now available -
Model E -10 -M rugged low -cost
is a
amplifier usable on either 6 -volt d.c.
45- r.p.m.,
33/3- r.p.m. LP, Victor's

and the 78- r.p.m. standard

may be played an this assembly. Two
or 117 -volt o.c. Power output is 10 pickups are provided, one for the slow -

watts with less thon 5% distortion: ire -

speed and the other for standard din
auency response ranges from 50 to Standards ore played automatica'i,
10000 cycles. Five tubes are used, o the others manually, A brass collar
6SC7, a 6SF5, two 6V6 -GT's, and a which may be slipped over the spindle
6X5 -GT. provides for the 11/2-inch center hole of SHIELDED LINE
A stondby switch is included to Bove the Victor records. The player is on Federal Telephone and Radio
battery power when the amplifier is adaptation of the Thorens changer,
used intermittently. made in Switzerland and widely used in Corp.,
250 volts and is guaranteed for a mini-
mum of 10,000 hours' use. Power con-
Scott radio -phonographs. The turntable Clifton, N. J.
about watt. It is said is governor-controlled.
sumption is 0.1 f " -111r,d shielded

to operate more reliably under vibra. and snow

Sion than springcontact lamp assem- RECORD CHANGER
blies because oll connections ore
firmly so.dered. Farnsworth Television S. Rado
KEYING RELAY Fort Wayne, Ind.
Sigma Instruments, Inc.,
Boston, Moss.
Type 7 JOZ is o sensitive, polarized
The n record changer w
three sizes -12 -, 10., and 7- inch
automatically, with intermixing of i0-
keying relay for measuring high -speed and 12 -inch discs permissible. Two
telegraphy, measuring 1%ßg inches square speeds are provided, 78 and 33 1/3
by 2s/s inches high when seated. Her- r.p.m., each of which is automatically
metically sealed, it fits on octal tube switched in when the correct pickup is
socket. It is serviceable up to 250 inserted. The standard and micro-
w.p.m. groove pickups are easily exchanged.
New Devices
on the television screen due to trans- from 11/16 to 1/16 inches against a

mission line pickup, often eliminating previous single size of 1/16 inches.

the need for more elaborate antennas. Illustration shows new and old types.
The K -III line hos two inner conductors
-crimped at intervals to keep it rigid
with respect to the inner tube of insulat-
ing moteriol -a shield, and on over -all

Chicago Transformer Division,
Essex Wire Corp.,
Chicago, III.
Three new isolation transformers
with 50, 150, and 250 volt -ampere rot.
ings ore availab'e. They are suitable
Clear Alliance Ten-
for Sharp, na-Rotor iUrrs-
traied roitbAns-
PRECISION RESISTORS Reception 005 antenna.
Welwyn Electronic Components, by Rotating
New York, N. Y.
New "cracked carbon" resistors
manufactured in England are being in-
troduced in this country. The resistance
element is a homogeneous film of pure
carbon deposited on a porcelain tube.
The resistors ore unusually stable, ac-
cording to the maker, and may be
expected to adhere to their 1% toler-
ance throughout their service life. Two -
and five- percent tolerances are also
available; all may be had in /4 -, /z -,
1 1
for adjusting line vatage or isolating I -, and 2 -watt sizes.
o.c. -d.c. chassis fron the line for safety.
Secondaries will orovide 105 or 125
volts for testing, as well os the stand- MOBILE CONVERTER
ard 115.
Goriest Co., Where TV broadcasting stations are at wide
Aerovos Corp., Model 3 -30 is a compact converter
angles from point of reception and re-orienta-
New Bedford, Mass which, when used with an automobile tion of the antenna is required to maximize
broadcast receiver, allows reception of
Stud terminals are used in place of signals between 3 and 30 mc. The con-
the usual rivet terminals in the new PRS verter is powered by the supply in the
each station, Amphenol television antennas
midget duol electrolytic capacitors. auto set. A switch on the panel connects provide the greatest gain by virtue of the in-
These allow a reduction of as much os the regular cor antenna to either the
40% in the size of the capacitors. Di- converter or the receiver. A band -
ameters of the new Dual Dandees range spread dial permits logging.
line high and low band folded dipoles which
beam in a clean, narrow directional pattern.
The high front -to -side and front-to -back ratios
not only provide maximum signal pickup in
REVOLUTIONARY the exact desired direction, but also secure
against any interference from an unwanted
LOW PRICE! direction.
L'urable, sturdy, aluminum construction
HI - MEGOHM with ands high wind and ice loading com-
20,000 OHMS PER VOLT METER bined.
Accurate HIGH RANGE OHM- Install Amphenol in single bay or stacked
METER 1000 megs requires NO bat-
and NO tubes. Voltage
Multipliers, Shunts and other close
tolerance resistors are hand -matched
for accuracy within %. All meters I

have an accuracy within 2%-45/8"

meter gives highly desired legibility Illustrated at left is the standard Am-
and calibration accuracy. phenol television antenna shown in
Uses germanium crystal rectifier for stacked array (Model 114 -302) for
For Open Face Model
AC measurements. No errors due to added db gain in fringe areas . . .
frequency within 100 megacycles. No errors due to temperature changes. or each bay may be individually
Substantially constructed, attractive natural finish oak case- panels oriented.
are BONDERIZED for hard service and long wear -attractive ham -
mertone grey background with white lettering- Battery drain is very
low. Instantly replaces in a snap grip holder with snap tight contact.
Portable model includes a pair of deluxe test leads. Open foce 8T/e x
51/2 233/4 inches; weight 3 lbs. Portable model with latch and leather
handle, 83/e x 71/2 x 43/4 inches; weigh+ 41/2 lbs. Model 114-005 at right is the
High Other Meter D. C. A.C. Current
standard Amphenol All -Channel
MODEL De<feel
PRICE TV Antenna with brilliant re-
Range Ranges Ohms Volt Ranges Rangess D.C. MillIamos Ra^ges
ception on all channels in both
450 C 1000 0.5000 0.5.50 0 -10 -100
20.000 125 -600- 250- 0 -0.1 -B is 28.50 bands.
450 CP MEG 5 MEG. 10 - +55 32.50
2500 oB


Write for Bulletin No. 5C



152 WEST 25th ST NEW YORK 1, N. Y.

MAY, 1949

s,Jt't-1 /0#


Here's u'hat you get:
giving the finest television money can buy.


less cabinet
type, with lead -in wire. Either antenna gives ideal
reception on all channels. Landlord's permission
NOT required for indoor type.

You can install assembled kit
nuoor Antenna nhown
ai vaitahle net, yourself in about an hour.
r. 'or r 1.7


15 " picture tube.
the same as
oll other respects
5299 L


200 sq. in. For example, a "Modular Console Cabinet, which con be easily
assembled in about an hour, costs $29.
T Y. I Transvision's "MODULAR" Cabinets come in
knock -down, unpainted units, offering on un-
limited range of combinations incb,,d :na even
o bar. Finish them oft to s - -
H-.s Ds Mont rnputuner
162 PAGE
IMAGE !S EOUAL to that of a
20" tube- .-en sharper and
cleorer- visib e from all angles. with purchase of onv

?rice of the new Tronsvision don't need this course to

12CL electromagnetic kit includes assemble a Tronsvision Kit .

these outstanding features: because the job is easy

I211/" picture tube with speciol enough and our instruction
fitted built -in All -Angle Lens sheet is simple and tear,
and color kit. BUT, if you wont a good in-
Du Mont TV -FM Inputuner. troduction to television
Streamlined Cobinet and Roto fundamentals as a basis for
Table. further study, the Trans.
Corner piece, shown above, hos room for TV, vision Television Horne -
IndutMi Cabinet. Lens. Phono. Record Storage, and open Book Cose.
Table. Indoor or Out- Study Course is ideal. Re-


door Antenna. 60 tt. of
Lead -in Wire.
For other units and prices, write for
"Modular" member, you nov nothing
extra for this course.
M ssissippt.
fair traded; subject to change without notice. Prices Se higher west of the
AH Tronsvision Prices are
601 Broad St. 8572 Santa Monica Blvd.
75 Church St. SYRACUSE, N. Y.
235 North Broad St. 517 Butternut St. TRANSVISION OF CALIF.
BOSTON, MASS. MIAMI, FLA. 3471 California St.
485 Coney Island Ave.
10 Northeast Third Ave.
LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 1306 Boylston St.
700 Commerce St. Toronto, Ontario
Long Island City, N. Y. 409 11th St., N. W.



DuMont TV-FM
The finest TV -FM Tuner on the mar- SWEEP SIGNAL GENERATOR
in Television Installation ket today! Distributed exclusively by C -- -'e frequency coverage from 0 -227 MC with
no band switching. . . . Sweep width from 0 -12 MC

Transvision. completely variable. Accurately calibrated

with the TRANSVISION Covers all 12 channels, entire FM range.
built -in marker generator.


Continuously tunes from 44 to 216 me without a from 0 -227 MC ... (2) Dial calibrated in frequency
FIELD STRENGTH METER break. Requires no bond switching for tuning (3) Sweep width from 0 -12 MC completely
from channel to channel. variable .. (4) Self- contained markers readable
IMPROVES INSTALLATIONS!! directly on the dial to .5% or better, (No external
i Complete wi "' ! -brs ^rd es,_'nu^o^ nenerator required to provide the marker signals)
SAVES 3/2 THE WORK!! Model IT -I Lit+ $59.95 (5) Crystal controlled output makes possible
any crystal control ed frequency from 5 -230 MC ...
Has mcr,,us teat,res and advantages, (6) Plenty of voltage output -permits stage -bu-
including-( I) Measures actual picture sig- TRANSVISION ALL -ANGLE
staae alignment
... (7) Output impedance 5 -125
. (8) Directly calibrated markers, 20 -30
nal strength . . (2) Permits actual pic-
. MC for trap. sound and video IF alignment ... (9)
ture signal measurements without the use LENSES for ALL TV SETS RF for alignment of traps for IF channels when a
of a complete television set ...
(3) An-
tenna orientation can be done exactly .
Give picture sizes up to 150 sq. in Exclusive pot -
ented feature makes image visible from wide
DC voltmeter is used as the indicating medium .
(10) Unmodulated RF signal to provide marker
pips simultaneously with the main variable oscil-

ongle. Lenses come with adapter for installation lator . , (II) Markers con be controlled as to
(4) Measures losses or gain of various on ANY 7" or 10" picture tube, and with color output strength in the pip oscillator , , (12) Power
antenna and lead -in combinations . (5) kits. supply completely shielded and filtered to prevent
Useful for checking receiver re- radiation All -Angle Lens for 7" tubes (gives 75 so. in. leakage ... (13) Ail octive tubes ore the new mod-
(local oscillator) (6) 12 CHANNEL picture). $25.95. All -Angle Lens for 10" tubes (gives ern miniature type . . . (14) Phasing control in

(7) Amplitudes of interfer-

150 so, in. picture). $37.50.
For 12./2" tubes, $49.50
corporated in the genrator
110V, 60 Cycles, AC.
... (15) Operates on
ing signals con be checked ... (8) Weighs Model SG Nef $99.50
only 5 lbs.... (9) Individually calibrated
(10) Housed in attractive metal carry- REMOTE CONTROL UNIT KIT
ing cose . (1 I) Initial cost of this unit OPERATES ANY TELEVISION SET from a
DISTANCE up to 50 feet.
is covered after only 3 or 4 installations
(12) Operates on 110V, 60 Cycles. A.C.
Model FSM -I, with tubes Net $99.50


In a BIG WAY with the
WRITE FOR FOLDER D -I Model TRCU Remote Control Unit Kit
cable 569.00


TELEVISION BOOSTER Please ship the following Transvision Products THROUGH YOUR NEAREST LOCAL OUTLET:-
To assure television reception in weak signal
areas, or areas which are out of ronge of I
certain broadcasting stations, Transvision
engineers have designed this new booster. It
increases signal strength on all television am enclosing 10% DEPOSIT in the amount of S balance C.O.D.

channels. Tunes all television channels con- ( ) I want to get into the Television Business. Send me details of your Dealer Plan.
tinuously. Con be used with any type of tele- I
Name City & Zone
vision receiver. Unusually high gain in upper I (please print)
television channels. Address State
Model B-I List $32.50 I
MAY, 1949
66 New Patents
ever, sufficient current output may be availau.m
MICROWAVE MEASUREMENT to deflect a meter. In this invention the signal
L:1IRGEST Patent No. 2,453,533
Lowell E. Norton, Princeton Junction, N. J.
is used to deflect a sensitive galvanometer and
modulate an r.f. voltage. The r.f. is easily ampli-
SUItPLUS STOCK (assigned to Radio Corp. of America) fied and then detected.
Referring to the diagram. the d.c. signal is
in the COUNTRY When a w-aveguide carries microwave energy,
its opposite faces are oppositely charged. There-
connected to galvanometer G and resistor R in
at the LOWEST PRICES: fore these walls attract each other. If a small sec-
series. The meter pointer moves a metal vane
between coils L. The coils and condenser C are
tion of wall is removed and a fine screen substi- tuned to approximately the same frequency as
DYNAMOTORS & INVERTERS tuted, a relatively large physical displacement
the r.f. voltage applied to the suppressor of the
BD -77 -Dynamotor Colt 14v in, 100v. 350 occurs.
ma out with relay fuse box and fil-
FOB Chicago only
ters. 35.75
PE- 101 -C- Dynamotor unit: 12 or 24, in. out- SCREEN DIAPHRAGM t
put. 800v, 20ma. 400v. 135ma. 9v.
PE -55 -Dynamotor
unit: 12v In. 18 amp.
500v out. 200 ma. FOB Chicago only 3.75
PE -206 -Inverter unit. rotary
converted, 28v
In. 80r at 500VA. 800 Cy. out. FOB
Chicago only 3.95
DM -32A -Each 951. Three for .... _ ... 2.00
1)51.53 -Dynamotor. used with the Bt' -73 :t
24v in, 240v. 68ma out. Nr.... 2.95

SURPRISE PACKAGE The screen should be light and resilient. It may

20 poanas a ,.l io parts. A have about 1,000 conductors per linear inch, and
325.00 value s

fu s
$1.9í5 may be constructed by photodeposition. This
screen portion acta like a diaphragm. Its dis-
OUTPUT TRANSFORMER placement is maximum if the microwave energy
Used its Scott-made Navy receiver. Fully is modulated or keyed at the resonant frequency
potted. l'rl. 51100 ohms. output s ondary 600 ohms of the diaphragm.
Inverse feedback see. 60 ohms CT. The screen carries a tiny mirror which throws
light upon a photocell. Displacement of the dia-
PE -117 UNIVERSAL POWER SUPPLY phragm modulates this beam. Photocell output is DC INPUT

6 or 12v input; out. 145v and 90v, less vibrator. amplified and indicated on a meter. A direct
voltage regulator and rectifier tube; ideal mobile power reading is obtained when the instrument
lasser supply unit excellent tondit loo. FOB Cl, lcago
only. Each ... $2.95 is calibrated.

BC-709 INTERPHONE AMPLIFIER When a weak d.c. signal is applied. the resonant
Ideal for i, CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR frequency of LC is changed because the vane is
etc. FOB I .... 53.49 displaced. The average plate current then in-
Patent No 2,452,951 creases or decreases, as shown by the curve. If
VHF TRANSCEIVER Donald E. Norgaard, Scotia, N. Y. the galvanometer needle is deflected in one direc-
Ideal substitute I,.: 110 -141 me.
tion, for example, the current may rise from
crystal controlled. o section has (assigned fo General Electric Co.)
tau individual BF -es 1, ,1 e,l,og a mon 3 stage Io to It. For a change in the opposite direction.
The series resonant frequency of a crystal gov-

I lime IF amplifier. Isiah BF sections Dray be operated there may be a drop from the normal current to
simultaneously, or either one individually. The receiver erns the oscillations in this circuit. Holder ca- I_ This change may be amplified in further
unit has 13 tubes. The transmitter is of straight pacitance and air gap have negligible effect. Plate
forward design. Transmitter unit has 7 tubes, one stages before detection, although in this schematic.
_932 as final modulated by a pair of 6L8 and push - and filament voltages also have comparatively only one tube is used.
pull. Complete unit in case with tubes, en-stale and little effect.
diagram less dynamotor. The plate current flows through MA. a record-
EXCELLENT CONDITION $14.95 ing or indicating meter, and then through part of
New Phantom Antenna for above unit: 3 lamps
in parallel with sockets, complete for 95c. R. This plate current may be several times greater
than the original signal: but, by adjusting R, it
is made to balance out the original. After each
BC- 453 -EXC. 612.95
112- 454 -EXC. 63.95-NEW 4.95 displacement the vane tends to return to its
11C -455 -EXC_ 7.95 original position until there is another change in
BC- 456 -NEW 2.95 the input.
BC- 457-NEW 6.95
11C- 458 -NEW 7.95 Battery B is used to balance out the static plate
BC- 459-EXC. 9.95 current Ill so that MA indicates zert, with no
BC-896-EXC. 14.95
2 MED, 48o0í, l'yranul 52.95 ea.
9 for . . .. ...310.00 The crystal is connected in series with th coil TONE CONTROL
GEARED TUNING DIAL tap and controls the feedback. Maximum feedback Patent No. 2,444,076
band. vernier. BRAND NEW. Frequency Ranges- occurs with minimum impedance, that is. at the
3.2-4; 8.4 -8; 12.8 -16; 19.2 -24: 25.8 -32. Ideal series resonant frequency of the crystal. Thi re- Pierre Visschers, Antwerp, Belgium
for many applications. An exceptional buy... 51.39 sults in a more stable and precise oscillator than (assigned to Intl Standard Electric Corp.)
APS13 UHF ANTENNA is usually obtained.
This tone control is used with a negative feed-
Suitable for 400 mc citizen hand. Ideal for UHF back circuit.
e perim.nters. With director and reflector
elements mounted. BRAND NEW. 2 tor.. 51.49 SECRET TRANSMISSION C1 and R3 are the high -frequency control com-
RC-651 TRANSMITTER -RECEIVER UNIT ponents. As the movable arm is adjusted toward
Potent No. 2,455,443 the upper end of R3, more high frequencies are
FM transmitter- receiver. crystal controlled, two chan-
nels. freq. range
crystals. NEW
27 -38.9 me. 13 tubes
2[16`.95 David Sarnoff, New York City
(assigned to Radio Corp. of America)
bypassed through Cl to ground. Therefore the
over -all h.f. response of the amplifier becomes
BC -620 TRANSMITTER -RECEIVER UNIT This system preserves the secrecy of messages The negative feedback circuit from the speak-
FM transmitter -receiver. crystal controlled, two chan- by using arbitrary symbols instead of letters, and
nels, freq. range 20-27.9 me. 13 tstbes, dual meter er is composed of RI, R2, and R4. When the
for testing filament and plate circuits. Csed.S9.95 transmitting by facsimile or television. The sym- movable arm of R3 is adjusted toward its lower
good bols are chosen for distinctiveness so that they end, more highs are bypassed from the negative
Mubtle Installation Kit for BC -659 or BC -620 consists can be recognized even if portions are lost due to feedback line through C2 to ground. Then the
of TS -13: S11' -49: 4 section whip antenna,
insulators. 2 maintenance manuals: NEW. $12.95 noise or interference. degenerative effect is greater at low frequencies
The code governing these symbols may be and highs are effectively boosted.
changed as often as necessary to insure secrecy.

range 325 to 6V0 HC: in portable field
At the transmitting end, the teletypewriter may
use a conventional keyboard with ordinary let-
ters. but the corresponding symbols are printed.
At the receiving end the machine prints letters
case: 3 meters plus excellent parts (less tubes) but the keyboard may be marked with the cor-
-An Excellent Buy -URANO NEW -57.95 ea. responding symbols. If desired the receiving ma-
chine may be operated automatically by the
All shipments FOR Chicago or Los Anles u lee incoming signals.
eeiried. Deposit required all orders. Mini -
200e R5.00. California and Mine;
es.dents. please add regular saes tax to your remit


MAIN OFFICE: Patent No. 2,446,390
1712.14 Michigan Ave., Chicago 5, Illinois
S. Karl Rath, New York, N.Y.
NORTH SIDE BRANCH: (assigned to Radio Patents Corp.)
1802 N. Humboldt Blvd., Chicago.
Because of tube noise and other limitations it
1260 S. Alvarado, Los Angeles, Calif. is very difficult to amplify a weak d.c. voltage
>.......... ...............a such as is obtained from a thermocouple. How-
We believe units offered for sale by mail order should be sold
only on a "Money- Back -If -Not- Satisfied" basis. We carefully check the design, calibration and value
of all items advertised by us and unhesitatingly offer all merchandise subject to a return for credit or
refund. You, the customer, are the sole juige as to value of the item or items you have purchased.


Indiapro:r Llr f.n AM, FM, and Tele- VOLTMETER KIT
vision. Horizontal sweep circuit 15 to
30,000 cycles. All controls on front panel. THE MOST USEFUL TOOL ON
Linear sweep with 884 gas triode. Graph THE RADIO BENCH!
screen for measuring peak to peak volt-
age. Frequency response of horizontal D.C. and A.C. ronges U -5, 10, 100,
and vertical amplifiers from 50 cycles to 600 and 1000 volts. Ohm -meter
50 Kc. Input impedance 1 megohm and ranges from .2 ohms to 1,000 meg-
60 mmfd. Etched panel for long life. ohms in steps of Rxl, Rx10, Rx1000,
Tube complement: 2 -6SJ7, 2 -5Y3, 1 -884, Rx10,000 and Rxl megohm. Db scale
1 -5BP1. Provision for external synchro-

nization. test voltage and intensity modu- from -20 to +56 Db in 5 ranges.
lation. Deflection sensitivity: .30 volts Diode A.C. rectifier. Large rugged
per inch full gain. Detailed instructions 4th" meter with all A.C. and D.C.
and pictorial diagrams in- readings on one simple scale. 1%
cluded. Operates from 10543995 accuracy. Complete $2395
130 V.A.C. 50/60 cy. Nothing tubes and test prods. Ys
else to buy Nothing else to buy!

THE NEW MODEL 670 The New Model 770 - An Accurate Pocket -Size


(Sensitivity: 1000 ohms per volt/
SUPER METER. A Combination
VOLT - 011M - MILLIAMM ET ER Features:
plus CAPACITY REACTANCE, Compact -measures 314" x 5h" x 21ÿ ".
INDUCTANCE and DECIBEL Uses latest design 2', accurate 1 Mil.
MEASUREMENTS. D'Arsonval type meter. Same zero ad-
D.C. VOLTS: 0 to 7.5/15/75/150/750 / justment holds for both resistance ranges.
1500/7500. A.C. VOLTS: 0 to 15/30/ It is not necessary to readjust when
150/300/1500/3000 Volts. OUTPUT switching from one resistance range to
VOLTS: 0 to 15/30/150/300/1500 /3000. another. This is an important timesav-
D.C. CURRENT: 0 to 1.5 /15 /150 ma.: ing feature never before included in a
0 to 1.5 Amps. RESISTANCE: 0 to 500/ V.O.M. in this price range. Housed in
100.000 ohms. 0 to 10 Megehms. CA
PACITY: .001 to ." Mid., .1 to 4 Mfd. round -cornered. molded case. Beautiful
(Quality test for lectrolytl t.) REACT. black etched panel. Depressed letters
ANCE: 700 to 27.000 Ohms: 13.000 Ohms filled with permanent white, insures long -
to 3 Megohms. life even with constant use.
INDUCTANCE: 1.75 to 70 Henries: 35 Specifications: 6 A.C. VOLTAGE RANGES:
to 8.000 Henries. 0- 15/30/150/300/1500 /3000 volts.
+39 to +54.
-lo to +18. +10 to +38. 6 D.C. VOLTAGE RANGES:
150/750/1500 volts.
0- 7'4/15/75/
4 D.C. CURRENT RANGES: 0- 154/15/150
The model 670 comes housed in a russed, Ma. 0 -1 Amps.
grackle-finished steel
net complete
leads and operating In-
The Model 770 comes complete
0 -nn0

Ohms. 0 -1

structions. Sire 5!'r" x With steel 77 alned hatteria. .7

7%' a 3 ". NET test leads and all operating
instructions. 390


Tube Tester Specifications:
'Frequency Range: 150 Kilo-
* Tests all tubes including New Miniatures, etc. Also Pilot Lights. cycles to 50 Megacycles. The
* Teats by the well-established emission method for tube quality, R.F. Signal Frequency is kept
directly read on the scale of the meter. * New type line voltage. completely constant at all out-
V.O.M. Specification: put levels. *Modulation is ac-
D.C. VOLTS: (at 20.000 Ohms complished by Grid -blocking ac-
Per Volt). 0 to 7.5/15/75/150/750 / tion which is equally effective
1,500 Volte. for alignment of amplitude and
A.C. VOLTS: (At 10,000 Ohms frequency modulation as well as
Per Volt), 0 to 15/30/150/300/
1.500/3.000 Volte.
for television receivers. R.F. ob-
tainable separately or modu-
D.C. CURRENT: 0 to 1.5/15/ lated by the Audio Frequency.
150 Mx. 0 to 1.5 Amperes.
RESISTANCE: 0 to 5.000/50.-
Signal Tracer Specifications:
000/500.000 Ohms. 0 to 50 Meg
ohms. 'Uses the new Sylvania 1534 Ger-
manium crystal Diode which Corn
volt. SO cycoperatesC. Moud
Moused In bitted with a resistance -rapacity net-
beautiful nand - rubbed cabinet. work provides a fre-
Complete with test st leads, tuber,
narra and talled
opera! ns instrum
"," i` 13^
Th.. Model

'sales complete With all tent leads and

instructions. ONLY
50 Megacyrtel.
tins Lo 85 NET



MAY, 1949
68 RM

Fei Set Installed in Car

An FM installation in your car con
give you better sound, less noise By MAX ALTH

THE shape of FM things to come FM reception in the city is consider- inserted into the tuner's 6X5 socket,
was outlined in miniature by An- ably superior to AM reception, Mr. filament and plate voltages are fur-
drew's Radio Service Company of Taubin reports. Noise is less, sound nished the tuner, as shown below. Dis-
Yonkers, N. Y., when Andy, at the quality is better and -this is, of course, connect the high side of the tuner's fila-
behest of Harry Taubin, of the Bronx, a personal point of view -the FM pro- ment transformer from the filament cir-
installed an FM tuner in the latter's grams are better. cuit. Remove the on -off switch (part of
'47 Buick. The installation consists of a con- the tuner's volume control) from the
While this is by no means the first verted Meissner 8C FM tuner feeding transformer primary and connect it in
FM installation in a car, this is the the audio section of the Buick auto re- the filament circuit, as in the diagram.
first FM broadcast receiver installation ceiver. Disconnect the shielded wire leading to
of which this writer has heard. The Surprisingly enough, the regular AM
forecast is that auto radios of the near antenna already installed in the car is
future will incorporate an FM band, or used. The only change is a reduction in SOCNET

even possibly be designed for FM re- antenna length for FM use. It has been SITVAC 6
ception only. found that maximum FM signal is
The results, Mr. Taubin relates, are picked up with the antenna extended 6.3V
satisfactory. The quality of reception is half way. Since there is sufficient AM 6+
very good in town, and is satisfactory signal strength in the city, the antenna TO FILTER

up to about 35 or 40 miles from the is left half extended all the time the
city, at which distance ignition noise car is in town, for reception of both DISCONNECT FIL WINDING ON-OFF SW
begins to compete with the signal. How- AM and FM.
ever, Mr. Taubin could not drive very TO FILS

much further from town without losing Converting tuner and receiver
considerable AM signal, either. It is The conversion of the FM tuner from
Power cable plugs into original 6X5 socket.
only the fact that there are other AM 117 volts a.c. to 6 volts d.c. is simple.
stations along the way that enables him The 6X5 rectifier tube is removed; the
to receive AM programs over a greater transformer and power wiring are left the grid of the 6C4 output tube from
road distance than FM signals. When in place for future use. the arm of the volume control and sol-
FM stations increase in number, as they An octal plug is wired to the car ra- der it permanently to the high side of
are doing right along, it is conceivable dio. Ground is connected to pin 2, the the control so that volume will always
that FM auto receivers will supplant high side of the 6 -volt battery to pin 7, be maximum.
AM sets entirely. and B -plus to pin 8. When this plug is The tuner is mounted in the car by
means of two home-made metal brack-
ets. These are bolted to the fire wall of
the car and to the sides of the wood
cabinet that houses the tuner. The cab-
inet is strong enough for this purpose.
A hole is drilled in one of the brackets,
and an antenna -change -over toggle
switch is mounted here. A receptacle for
the plug on the end of the antenna lead -
in is mounted next to the switch, and a
length of shielded antenna wire is run
from the switch to the AM -set antenna
A hole is drilled in the side of the
AM set, through which the power leads
to the tuner are brought. The AM de-
tector output is disconnected from the
volume control and connected to one end
contact of a toggle switch. A lead is run
from the other end contact through n
length of shielded wire to a female
bayonet socket. This takes the FM au-
dio output via the plug that comes with
the tuner. The center contact is wired
to the a.f. amplifier of the AM set. The
toggle switch is mounted on the side of
the AM set, permitting the AM audio
amplifier to he connected to either the
FM or the AM signal. The volume con-
trol of the AM set, up on the dash of
The tuner is mounted beneath the regular car radio where the driver can easily adjust if. the car, controls the volume of either.
To operate the AM receiver, the set
is turned on, and the audio and an-
tenna toggle switches are thrown to the
AM side. The on -off switch turns the
tuner filaments off, as they are not used.

~ ,yy
Brackets and antenna switch on tuner's rear. `
To receive FM programs, the fila-
ments are turned on and the two toggles
thrown to FM. The AM receiver must,
of course, be on, as well, as its A.F.
section is used. =s,./
Little difference in signal strength is
found when the antenna is adjusted for
the various frequencies on the 88-108 -
mc FM band.


The tirst use of carrier synchroniza- $12.50
tion for television stations was an-
nounced recently by David Sarnoff,
chairman of the board of RCA and the
National Broadcasting Company. Sta-
tions WNBT and WNBW, New York
and Washington outlets of the network, This lustrous, all -plastic cabinet not only
both operate on channel 4. In some lo- adds a colorful, modern touch to your shop
cations between the two transmitters, but saves you hours of valuable time by
viewers get co- channel interference, due helping you find the resistors you need ...
largely to the slight difference in fre- fast. Factory packed in its five drawers-40
quency of the two carriers. Even though separate compartments -are 125 carefully
crystal -controlled, this slight difference selected Ohmite "Little Devil" Resistors in
is inevitable at television frequencies. LITTLE DEVIL COMPOSITION RESISTORS the 40 values (10 ohms to 10 megohms,
The beat effect usually destroys recep- 12.-watt) most frequently used by servicemen.
tion from both stations. It appears on Guesswork's gone ...
when you
Extremely compact -only 9" x 43/" x 5t/s"
use individually marked Ohmite
the screen as horizontal black and white "Little Devils." These tiny but -this Olunite cabinet protects your resis-
sound bars. rugged resistors arc available its tors, and helps you check inventory at a
The problem of keeping the frequen- standard RMA values, r/Z, 1, and glance. The cabinets are dovetailed top and
cies of the two transmitters precisely 2.watt sizes . 10 ohms to 22 bottom so they can be stacked one on top of
equal is solved by synchronization. Two muegohms. Tol. ± 10% and ± 5 %. another. Order yours today!
sync units are used, one at WNBW in Values to 2.7 ohms available in
1 -watt size, ± 10% tol.
Washington, the other at RCA Labora- SEE YOUR DISTRIBUTOR
tories in Princeton, N..J., between New
York and Washington. ',Ì
Receivers set up in Princeton compare
the frequencies of WNBT and WNBW.
Information about the difference be-
tween the two is translated into varia-
tions in the frequency of a 1,000 -cycle
tone, which is transmitted by telephone
line from Princeton to New York. The
audio frequency variations (-± 300
frequency, keeping it in exact step with A favorite with servicemen, these de- Built to last, this Type AB Potentiom-
that of WNBW. pendable, wire -wound, vitreous -enameled eter has a heat -treated, solid -molded re-
Though synchronization of television resistors are easily mounted by their sistance element-not just a film -and
carriers is a recent development, some tinned wire leads. Tol. ± 10%. In 5, 10, provides unusually quiet operation. It
and 20 -watt sizes. has a 2 -watt rating.
AM stations have been operated on this
basis for many years. Television en- OHMITE MANUFACTURING CO., 4896 FLOURNOY ST., CHICAGO 44
gineers hope that the new technique
will hasten the end of the freeze on TV
station allocations; one of the main
reasons for the stoppage was that a
study had to be made of co- channel
interference to determine future allo-
áße Zia cuítl HMIITh
MAY, 1949
70 1- Foreign News

Complete, practical European Report
data on By Major Ralph W. hallows

RECORDING gineers preferred loud reception. They

do; on the average they prefer all sorts
of programs to come in at a level 13 db
By S. J. Begun above that which best suits the ordinary
Chief Engineer, The listener: engineers +88 db, listeners
Brush Developmenef Co. +75 db. Musicians also like more vol- et-
300 pages, 60, 130 ume than most of us do, but here the
illus., S5.00 difference is smaller -only 80 db against
Here last is the "low
at 75 db. What does surprise me is that
down" on one of the fastest among ordinary listeners, a very large
growing electronic develop-
ments in all of its design. number of whom were tested, men like
engineering and experi- more volume than women and advanc-
mental phases. MAGNETIC
RECORDING acquaints you ing years causes a preference for
with every detail of modern
All about the equipment, brings you the smaller and not greater volume. Taking
theory, types, and latest information on appli- the mean of the combined measurements
makes of record- cations ranging from home for both sexes on symphonic music,
ers, their applica- entertainment to movies,
tions and perform. broadcasting, professional light music, and speech, the 15 -year-
once m ment and amateur radio and spe- olds like +76 db; the 25- year -olds, +75
I. Short History cial uses such as military
of Magnetic speech scrambling. db; the 35-year -olds, +74 db; the 45-
It Pays to Study the OW loud do year -olds, +73.5 db; the 55- year -olds,
2. P
Factors New Developments! you like +73 db; and the 65- year -olds, only
3. Magnetism
4. Theory of
Acoustic and magnetic fac- your radio +70 db.
tors are carefully explained. to be? Most
A -C and D -C biasing "Singing" TV antennas
methods, distortion factors, people, I suppose, would reply something
a Magnetic Re-
reproducing heads, drive like this: "If I'm listening to a program, Though it was unusually mild, the
cording System mechanisms and the various
5. Map -!He
recording media and methods I want music to come through loud past winter was a very windy one in
Recording of recording, reproducing.
and erasing are discussed in
enough to sound real. Speech from the Britain and many folk who installed
Equi pment
7. Appl'cations of detail. Particularly valuable loudspeaker should have about the same TV had considerable annoyance from
Record in
are a complete outline of
recording devices and how
sound level as the voice of a friend the loud and incessant singing noise
8. Instrumenta- they are used; a helpful talkin