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Solved Assignment

Code 1424
Autumn 2018

Written by Daniyal Iqbal

Present by Studio 9 (AIOU)
Compulsory English – II (1424)

Level: Bachelor

Semester, Autumn,2018

Total Marks: 100

Provided by Youtube Channel Studio 9

Assignment No. 2

(Unit 5-9)

Q.1 Unit 5 of your textbook deals with Comparison and Contrast writing technique. Construct
compare / Contrast Sentences using the words given in the box. Follow the example. (10)

Example: Fruits are sweet and juicy unlike vegetable.

Both Each Neither Nor But

Whereas In contrast to As opposed to Likewise Similarly

1. Both George and Paul have brown eyes and brown hair.

2. Each bird likes to hear himself sing.

3. Neither fish nor flesh

4. Love can neither be bought nor sold.

5. The Nuer lives in the Sudan but the Bakhteri lives in Southern Iran.

6. I read the book whereas Amina went to the park

7. In contrast to Sara, Aliza is much pretty.

8. I am here on business as opposed to a holiday.

9. Kiran is intelligent. Likewise Amina is also intelligent

10. While city life and farm life have few similarities , city life provides the hustle and bustle of
many people, distinct noises, and social opportunities t hat are different from that of farm life.

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Q.2 In Unit 5 of your textbook you have learnt how to describe. Similarities and Differences Look at
the two pictures and list five similarities and five differences between them. Follow the example. (10)

Example: Difference: Car 1 is bigger than car 2.

Similarity: Both car 1 and car 2 are beautiful.


1. Both car 1 and car 2 are attractive

2. Both car 1 and car 2 are 1600 Cc
3. Both car 1 and car 2 are comfortable
4. Both car 1 and car 2 have very good technical capabilities
5. Both car 1 and car 2 speed meter is digital


1. Car 1 is manual while car 2 is automatic

2. Car 1 has more space as compared to Car 2
3. Car 1 consume more petrol whereas Car 2 consume less
4. Car 1 door is automatic while Car 2 is not
5. Car 1 tyres are bigger while Car 2 wheels are small
6. Car 1 maintenance is more expensive as compared to Car 2

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Q3. Unit 6 of your text book taught you how to guess the meanings of unfamiliar words(in bold)from
the context. Guess the meanings of the lighlighted words/phrases in the following passages. Follow the
example. (10)

Example: The surface of Africa consists mainly of plateaus or large flat areas.

Definition: large flat areas

i. When Sara was hiking, she accidentally walked through a patch of brambles, which are
prickly vines and shrubs.
ii. Ahmed tripped over the ottoman in the living room. He then mumbled, “I wish people would
not leave the footstool right in the middle of the room.”
iii. My new puppy named Rex is very frolicsome. Rex’s mother however is very serious and
never seems to want to play.
iv. The supermarket manager complained, “why do we have such a plethora of boxes of cereals
on the shelves? In contrast, we hardly have any pancakes.”
v. It was a sultry day. The day was very hot and humid. If you moved at all, you would break
out in a sweat.

Words Meanings
Brambles A prickly scrambling shrub
Ottoman Silk cloth
Frolicsome Playful
Plethora Large or excessive amount of something.
Sultry Hot and humid.
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Q4. In Unit 6 of your text book, you have read about using prediction techniques. Look at the picture
and Guess/Predict what is going to happen next. The first one has been done for you. (10)

Example: The bear is going to eat the sweets.


1. The bear is going to dance

2. The bear is going to water the plants
3. The bear is going to put cream on cake
4. The bear is going to clean his face with napkin
5. The bear is going to decorate cake

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Q5. In Unit 7 of your text book, you have learnt about Implied Meaning and Making Inferences. Read
the following sentences. What do you think is implied in each? What can you infer? Follow the
example. (10)

Example: Although he has a car, he walks to his office every day and is healthier than his

Implied Meaning: He walks to his office to keep fit.

i. He got a job right after his first interview.

Ans. He was passed in interview
ii. After dining in that restaurant I got an upset stomach.
Ans. His stomach was upset after having dinner
iii. I had to clean my room twice yesterday.
Ans. He has to clean his room accurately

iv. He went to the dentist for treatment.

Ans. He has pain in his teeth
v. After listening to his complaint the neighbor apologized.
Ans. He had a complaint with his neighbour

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Q6. In Unit 7 and Unit 8 of your text book you have learnt about Connotative and Denotative
meanings. Read the lists of words given below. Each word has a different connotation but has the
same denotation. Write two connotative meanings for each of the following words. Follow the
example. (10)

Example: Dog: Faithful, Dangerous

soldier needle revolutionary intelligent sharp

clever chubby unusual rare flower

Connotation meanings
Soldier Brave, Smart
Needle Pointed, Sharp
Revolutionary Modernizing, Unique
Intelligent Smart, Active
Sharp Intelligent, Brilliant
Clever Bright, Wonderful
Chubby Cute, Lovely
Unusual Rare, Unique
Rare Common, Unusual
Flower Beautiful, Pretty
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Q.7 Read the essay given below carefully and then answer the questions given below (in your own
words). (10)

Although not the longest river in America, the Rio Grande is one of the most
important. But, unlike other significant rivers, it is not used for shipping. In fact,
oceangoing ships cannot navigate the waters. No, what makes the Rio Grande
so important is its location. Since 1846, it has been the official border of Texas
and Mexico.

The Rio Grande is either the fourth or fifth longest river system in North
America. It all depends on how it is measured. Because the river twists so much,
it occasionally changes course. And these course shifts can cause it to be longer
or shorter. At its last official measure, the Rio Grande clocked in at 1,896 miles.
The river starts in Colorado and extends downward to the Gulf of Mexico.
Downward is the best way of describing it too. Not only does the river extend
south, but it also starts in the mountains and gets lower and lower in elevation
as it extends to the Gulf. Its name is Spanish for the “Big River,” but the Rio
Grande is actually known as Rio Bravo in Mexico. “Bravo” translates as
“furious,” so the name makes sense. Because of its twists and turns, it certainly
does seem to be angrier than most rivers!

The Rio Grande today is mostly used as a source of drinking water. Sadly, much
of the water has been drained from the river. Parts of the river are almost dry!
This is because people use more water from the river than the river can get
back from rain and other sources. Experts are working to correct this, though,
with hopes of restoring the river to its past strength. Today, the river is
important as a source of water for Texans and Mexicans. More important, it is a
symbol of cooperation between two nations. Though borders like the Rio
Grande separate nations, they are also shared spaces. The Rio Grande is
therefore a symbol of friendship and peace between two peoples.

i. How long is the river Grande?

Ans. River Grande is 1,896miles long.

ii. According to the passage, why is the Rio Grande so important?

Ans. Rio Grande so important because it is used as a sou rce of drinking water.

iii. Based on its use in paragraph 4, the word furious most means?

Ans. The word furious most means bravo.

iv. According to the passage, where are the Rio Grande endpoints?

Ans. Rio Grande endpoints are to the Gul of Mexico

v. How is the river Grande used today?

Ans. River Grande is used today as a source of water for Texans and Mexicans

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Q.8 What type of local events announcements or information we can find in a newspaper? Select five
such events or announcements form the newspapers of December 2017 and paste them in your
assignment. Read Unit 9 for guidance. (10)

A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events.

Newspapers can cover wide variety of fields such as politics, business, sport and art and often includ e
materials such as opinion columns, weather forecast s, reviews of local services, obituaries, birth
notices, crosswords, editorial cartoons, comic stri ps, and advice columns.

Most newspapers are businesses, and they pay their expenses with a mixture of
subscription revenue, newsstand sales, and adver tising revenue. The journalism organizations that
publish newspapers are themselves often metonymical ly called newspapers.

Newspapers have traditionally been published in print (usually on cheap, low- grade paper
called newsprint). However, today most newspapers are also published on websites as online
newspapers, and some have even abandoned their prin t versions entirely.
Newspapers developed in the 17th century, as inform ation sheets for businessmen. By the early
19th century, many cities in Europe, as well as North an d South America, published newspapers. Some
newspapers with high editorial independence, h igh journalism quality, and large circulation are
viewed as newspapers of record.

Newspapers are typically published daily or weekly. News magazines are also weekly, but they
have a magazine format.General-interest newspapers typic ally publish news articles and feature
articles on national and international news as well as local ne ws. The news includes political
events and personalities, business and finance, crime, weather , and natural disasters; health and
medicine, scien ce, and computers and technology; sports; and entertain ment, society, food and
cooking, clothing and home fashion, and the arts.

Usually the paper is divided into sections for each of those major groupings (labeled A, B, C, and so on,
with pagination prefixes yielding page numbers A1-A 20, B1-B20, C1-C20, and so on). Most
traditional papers also feature an editorial page containing ed itorials written by an editor (or by the
paper's ed itorial board) and expressing an opinion on a public issue, opinion articles called "op-eds"
written by guest writers (which are typically in the same section as the edi torial), and columnsthat
express the personal opini ons of columnists, usually offering analysis and synthe sis that attempts to
translate the raw data of the news into information telling the reader "what it all me ans" and
persuading them to concur. Papers also inc lude articles which have no byline; these articles are w
ritten by staff writers.

A wide variety of material has been published in ne wspapers. Besides the aforementioned news,
information and opinions, they include weather fore casts; criticism and reviews of the arts
(including literature, film, television, theater, f ine arts, and architecture) and of local services s uch
as restaurants; obituaries, birth notices and graduati on announcements; entertainment features
such as crosswords, horoscopes, editorial cartoons, gag car toons, and comic strips; advice columns,
food, and other columns; and radio and television listings (p rogram schedules). As of 2017,
newspapers may also provide information about new movies and TV shows a vailable on streaming
video services like Netflix. Newspapers have classified ad sections where people and businesses can
buy small advertisements to sel l goods or services; as of 2013, the huge increase in Internet
websites for selling goods, such as Craigslist and eBay has led to significantly les s classified ad sales
for newspapers.

Most newspapers are businesses, and they pay their expenses with a mixture of
subscription revenue, newsstand sales, and adver tising revenue (other businesses or individuals pay to
place advertisements in the pages, including displa y ads, classified ads, and their online equivalents ).
Some newspapers are government-run or at least governmen t-funded; their reliance on advertising
revenue and on profitability is less critical to their survival . The editorial independence of a newspaper
is thus always subject to the interests of someone, whether owners , advertisers, or a
government. Some newspapers with high editorial independence, high journalism q uality, and large
circulation are viewed as newspap ers of record.

Many newspapers, besides employing journalists on t heir own payrolls, also subscribe to news
agencies (wire services) (such as the Associated Pr ess, Reuters, or Agence France-Presse), which
employ journalists to find, assemble, and report the news, then sell the content to the various
newspapers. T his is a way to avoid duplicating the expense of reporting from around the world.
Circa 2005, there were approximately 6,580 daily newspaper titles in the w orld selling 395 million
print copies a day (in the U.S., 1,450 titles selling 55 million copies). The late 2 000s–early 2010s global
recession, combined with th e rapid growth of free web-based alternatives, has helped c ause a decline
in advertising and circulation, as m any papers had to retrench operations to stanch the los ses.[2]
Worldwide annual revenue approached $100 billion in 2005-7, then plunged during the wor ldwide
financial crisis of 2008-9. Revenue in 2016 fell to only $53 billion, hurting every major publisher as their
efforts to gain online income fell far short of the goal.

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Q.9 Write a newspaper article on any recent event (political, social, entertainment, sport, etc.). It
should contain all the following mentioned elements. Follow the guidelines and format given in
Unit 9. (20)

i. Headline
ii. Byline
iii. Lead Paragraph
iv. Who, What, When, Where, Why, How

Headline: High flying escape ends in death

Byline: By Robin Sloan Lead

Lead Paragraph: Icarus, son of the famous inventor, Daedalus, plunged into the Aegean Sea and
drowned while attem pting to escape from the island of Crete early yesterday aft ernoon. His body has
yet to be recovered.

Explanation: Icarus and his father had made wings from wax and bird feathers they had collected over
the years while im prisoned on the island of Crete. They attached the homemade wings t o their arms
and, using a flapping motion, lifted off from the i sland shortly before noon. While making their escape,
Icarus flew too cl ose to the sun. As a result, the heat melted the wax on his wings whic h caused the
feathers to drop off. The wings collapsed and Icaru s fell into the sea and drowned.

Additional Information: Daedalus, sobbing from the distant shore where he had landed safely, said,
“My last words to Icarus before we left the island was to stay close and not fly too high! He just didn’t
listen! Why didn’t he listen to me?” Daedalus and Icarus ha d been held prisoner by King Minos on the
island of Crete, and had been forced to build a labyrinth at the palace of Knossos. It was known to be
the most difficult maze in the world to navigate successfull y.

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