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CHAPTER 1 LIGHT- REFLECTION & REFRACTION PHYSICS

Q1. What is light?

ANs: Light is source of electromagnetic radiation (radiant energy) which produces in us the sensation of sight. We receive light
from two sources

a) Natural resources and b) Artificial sources.

Sun is the natural source of light. Incandescent lamp, burning candle, fluorescent tube etc are man-made sources of light.

Q2. What is a source of light? Define luminous and non-luminous sources of light?

Ans: A source of light in an object from which light is given out. The sources of light are of two kinds:-

a) Luminous sources: Those sources which possess or emit light of their own are called luminous sources e.g. sun, stars, electric
lamp, glow worms etc.

b) Non-luminous sources: Those sources which do not possess or emit light of their own are called non luminous sources. E.g.
moon, planets etc.

Q3. What is an optical medium? What do you mean by transparent, translucent and opaque objects?

Ans: A substance through which light can travel without much loss in its intensity is known as optical medium.e.g air, water, glass
etc.

The substances which pass most of the incandescent light through them are called transparent objects e.g. water, glass.

The substances which pass partial light through them are called translucent objects e.g. tracing paper.

The substances which do not pass light at all through them are called opaque objects e.g. stone, wood.

Q4.What is meant by the term reflection? State the laws of reflection?

Ans: The bouncing back of light after striking a surface, in the same medium, is called reflection. The ray of light which strikes on
the surface of the mirror is called incident ray and the ray of light which is sent back by the mirror is called refracted ray. The
point where a ray of light strikes on the surface of the mirror is called point of incidence. The angle which the incident ray makes
with the normal is called angle of incidence (i) and the angle which the refracted ray makes with the normal is called the angle of
refraction(r).

The refraction of light from a plane surface or from a spherical surface takes place according to two laws, which known as laws of
reflection of light. The laws of reflection of light are:

IST LAW: The incident ray, the reflected ray and normal to the reflecting

surface at the point of incidence all lie in the same plane.

2ND LAW: According to this law the angle of incidence ( ∠ i ) is equal to angle of reflection ( ∠ r ) i.e.
∠ i=∠ r
Q5. What is a mirror?

Ans: Highly polished smooth surface from which most of the light is reflected is called a mirror. Mirrors are made by depositing a
thin layer of silver metal on one side of the glass sheet. There are two types of mirrors:

1) Plane mirrors: It is a mirror where reflecting surface is plane.

2) Curved mirror: It is the mirror whose reflected surface is curved one.

Q6. Define 1) object 2) Image.


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Ans: Anything which gives light rays (either its own or reflected by it ) is called an object.e.g bulb, a candle , a tree , our face. The
object can be of two types: very small objects (called point objects) or large objects (called extended objects).

Image is an optical appearance produced when light rays coming from an object are reflected from a mirror or refracted through
a lens. An image is formed when the light rays coming from an object meet at a point, after reflection from a mirror or refracted
through a lens. The images are of two types-

1. Real image

2. Virtual image.

Q7 What is the difference between the real image and virtual image?

Ans: REAL IMAGE: If the rays after reflection or refraction actually converge at a point, the image is said to be real. It can be
obtained on a suitably placed screen. It is usually inverted. The images of actors, actresses and scenes on the screen, in the
cinema hall are the examples of the real images. A concave mirror and convex lens produce real image.VIRTUAL IMAGES: If the
rays actually do not meet, but appears to meet when produced backwards, the image is virtual. The virtual image cannot be
taken on a screen.It is usually erect. Image of our face in a plane mirror is a example of virtual image. A convex mirror and
concave lens form virtual images.

Q8. What is the nature of the image formed by a plane mirror?

Ans: The image formed by the plane mirror is virtual ,erect and of the same size as that of the object. Image is formed as far
behind the mirror as the object is in front of it and laterally inverted.

Q9. What do you mean by lateral inversion?

Ans: When an object is placed in front of the plane mirror, then the right side of the object appears to become the left side of the
image; and the right side of an object appears to become the right side of image. Thus change of sides of an object and its mirror
image is called lateral inversion.

Lateral inversion occurs due to the fact that the image of an object in a plane mirror is formed as far behind the mirror as the
object is in front of it.

Q10. What is a spherical mirror?

Ans: A part of a hollow sphere whose inner or outer surface has been polished or silvered is known as a spherical mirror. There
are two types of spherical mirrors:

(i) Concave mirror. (ii) Convex mirror.

1. Concave mirror: The spherical mirror that has a concave reflecting surface is called a concave mirror. The reflection takes place
only at inner (i.e. concave) surface.

2. Convex mirror: The spherical mirror that has a convex reflecting surface is called convex mirror. Here the reflecting surface
faces outwards and the polishing surface on the inner spherical surface.

Q10. Define the following terms for concave and convex mirror with the help of neat diagram.

Ans: (i) Pole: The mid-point or centre of the reflecting surface of a spherical mirror is called pole of the mirror. P represents the
position of poles of concave and convex mirrors.
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2. Centre of curvature: It is the centre of the hollow sphere of which the mirror is a part.C is the centre of the curvature. 3. 3.
Radius of curvature: It is the radius of that sphere of which the mirror is a part.PC is the radius of curvature.

4. Principle axis: The line joining the pole and the centre of curvature is called the principle axis of the mirror. It extends on both
sides of the mirror. XY is the principle axis.

5. Principle focus and focal length:

(a) Concave mirror: The principle focus of a concave mirror is a point on the principle axis at which all the incident rays parallel to
principle axis meet after reflection from the concave mirror. Principle focus of a mirror is denoted by F. The principle focus of
concave mirror is real.

Focal length: The distance of principle focus from


the pole of the mirror is called focal length of mirror. it is denoted by f focal length of a concave mirror, f = PFb) Convex mirror:
The principle focus of a convex mirror is the point on the principle axis from which all the incident rays parallel to principle axis
appear to come after reflection from the convex mirror. The principle focus of convex lens is virtual.

Focal length: The distance of principle focus (F) from the pole P of the mirror is called the focal length of the mirror. Thus focal
length of mirror, f = PF.

6. Linear aperture: The distance AB between two extreme points on the periphery of the spherical mirror is called linear
aperture.

Q10. What are the rules used for constructing images formed by spherical mirrors?

Ans: The following rules are helpful for constructing the images formed by spherical mirrors:

(A) For concave mirrors:

1. A ray of light incident parallel to the principle axis after reflection passes through the principle focus.

2. A ray of light which passes through the principal focus after reflection becomes parallel to the principle axis.

3. A ray of light which passes through the centre of curvature after reflection retraces its path back.4. A ray of light incident at the
pole and making an angle with principle axis, after reflection goes on the other side of the principle axis making the same angle
with it.

(B) For convex mirror:

1. A ray of light incident parallel to the principal axis after reflection appears to come from the principle focus.2. A ray of light
directed towards the principle focus after reflection become parallel to the principle axis.3. A ray of light directed towards the
centre of curvature after reflection retraces its path back.
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4. A ray of light incident at the pole and making an angle with the principal axis, after reflection goes on the other side of the
principle axis making the same angle with it.

Q12. Give the sign conventions for reflection by spherical mirrors?

Ans: The process by which the sign (positive or negative) of object distance, image distance and the focal length of a mirror (such
as concave or convex) is determined is called as the sign convention.

According to the Cartesian sign conventions.

1. The object is always taken on the left side of the mirror i.e. the light is incident o the mirror from the left hand side of the
mirror2. All distances are measured from the pole of the mirror.

3.The distance measured in the same direction as that if the incident light is taken as positive i.e. Distances on the right side of
the pole are positive.

4. The distances measured in the direction opposite to the direction of the incident light are taken as negative i.e. distances on
the left side of the pole are taken as negative.

5. The heights measured upwards and perpendicular to the principal axis of the mirror is taken as positive.

6. The heights measured downwards and perpendicular to the principle axis of the mirror is taken as negative.

REMEMBER:

On the basis of convention it is concluded that:

a) The focal length f of a concave mirror is negative.

b) The focal length f of a convex mirror is positive.

c) The object distance (u) is always negative.

d) The height of all the virtual and erect images is considered positive.

e) The height of all the real and inverted images is taken as negative.

f) The height of an object is always considered positive.

Q13. Draw the ray diagram and find position, nature and size of image formed baby the concave mirror when an object is
moved from infinity to the concave mirror?

Ans: The nature and size of image formed by a concave mirror depends upon the position of the object in front of the mirror.

Case I: when the object is at infinity:

When the object is placed at infinity, the rays coming from it are parallel to each other. Let us consider two rays, one striking the
pole of the mirror and other passing through the centre of curvature. The ray which is incident at the pole gets reflected
according to the law of reflection and the second ray which passes through the center of curvature of the mirror retraces its
path. These rays after reflection form an image at F that is real, inverted and diminished.

Case II: When the object is placed beyond C:

When the object is placed beyond C a ray parallel to the principal passes through the focus after reflection. Another ray passing
through the centre of curvature retraces its path. These rays after reflection meet at a point between C and F. Thus the image is
formed between C and F and is real, inverted and diminished.
CaseIII: when the object is placed at the centre of curvature:

Consider two rays, one parallel to the principal axis and the other passing through the focus. The ray of light which is parallel to
the principal axis passes through the focus after reflection. The other ray passing through the focus after reflection emerges
parallel to the principle axis. After reflection these rays meet at the centre of curvature. Thus the image is formed at centre of
curvature (c) and is real, inverted and of the same size of object.
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Case IV: When the object is between C and F:

Consider a ray of light which is parallel to the principal axis and another ray passing through the focus. The ray which is parallel to
the principal axis passes through the principle focus and the ray which passes through the focus after reflection emerges parallel
to p beyond C. Thus the image is formed beyond C and is real,
inverted and magnified.
Casev: when the object is at focus:

Consider a ray of light which is parallel to the principle axis and another ray passing through the centre of curvature. The ray
which is parallel to the principal axis passes through the focus and the ray which passes through the centre of curvature retraces
its path. The reflected rays are parallel to each other and would meet only at infinity and image formed is real, inverted and
enlarged.

Case VI: When the object is between the pole and focus:

Consider a ray of light which is parallel to the principal axis and another ray which is passing through the centre of curvature. The
ray which is passing through the centre of curvature retraces its path and the other ray which is parallel to the principal axis after
reflection passes through the focus.The rays appear to meet behind the mirror when the reflected rays are extended backwards.
Thus the image is formed behind the mirror and it is virtual, erect and magnified.
Q14. Give the nature, position and size of the image formed by a convex mirror when an object is moved from infinity to the
mirror?

Ans: Case I: When the object is at infinity:

Consider an object at infinity, all the incident rays coming from the object are parallel to each other and parallel to the principle
axis They are diverging in such a way that when they are produced backwards, they appear to meet at F behind the mirror. Thus
the image is formed at infinity and is tual, erect and highly diminished.
Case II: When the object is placed between the mirror and infinity:

Consider an object placed in front of a convex mirror. An incident ray comes parallel to the principle axis and after reflection gets
diverged. Another incident ray travellingtowards the centre of curvature is reflected back along the same path. The two reflected
rays when produced backwards appear to meet behind the mirror between pole and focus. Thus the image is formed behind the
mirror between P and F and it is virtual, erect and diminished.

Q16. What is mirror formula?

Ans: The relation between image distance, object distance and focal length for a mirror is given by an equation known as mirror
formula.

If v = image distance .u = object distance f = focal length of the mirror. Then mirror formula is given by

1 1 1
+ =
v u f
Q17. Explain linear magnification?

Ans: The linear magnification (m) produced by a mirror is defined as the ratio of the size of the image (h 2) to the size of the
object (h1). That is

¿ theimage
Magnification(m) =
¿ the object
h2
or m= (i)
h1
Where h2 = size of image

h1 = size of object.

If m is positive the image is erect and if negative the image is inverted.


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Linear magnification produced can be written by another formula, in terms of object distance (u) and image distance (v).

Thus linear magnification produced by a mirror is equal to the ratio of the image distance (v) to the object distance (u) with a
minus sign. That is

Image Distance
Magnification = - (ii)
Object Distance
−v
or m =
u
From (i) and (ii) , we have ,

h2 −v
=
h1 u

Q18. Give the relation between focal length (f) and radius of curvature of spherical mirror?

Ans: The focal length of spherical mirror is half of its radius of curvature.i.e

R
f=
2
Q10. Give the uses of concave mirrors?

Ans: 1. Concave mirrors are used in motor headlights, torches and search lights.

2. Concave mirrors are used as shaving and making up mirrors.

3. Concave mirrors are used to collect light energy. The idea is used in TV satellite dishes, solar furnaces etc.

4. Concave mirrors are used and dentists and ENT (ear, nose, teeth) specialists.

Q20. Give the uses of convex mirrors?

Ans: 1. Convex mirrors are commonly used as rear view mirrors in vehicles because they produce erect and diminished images of
objects behind the vehicle. Thus convex mirrors enable driver to view much large area.

2. Convex mirrors are used in street lights to diverge light over a large area.

3. Convex mirrors are used at blind curves.

Q21. Define refraction of light?Ans: When light travels from one medium to another, it observes a change in its path at the
boundary of two media. The bending of light rays when they pass from one medium to another is called refraction. The
phenomenon of refraction of light is caused due to change in speed of light on going from one medium to another medium.

When light travels from a rarer medium to a denser medium, it bends towards the normal and when light travels from a denser
medium to a rarer medium it moves away from the normal.

Q22. What are the laws of refraction of light?

Ans: When a light ray suffers refraction ongoing from one medium to another medium, it obeys two laws known as the laws of
refraction.IST LAW: The incident ray, the refracted ray and the normal at the point of incidence all lie in the same plane.

2ND LAW OR SNELLS LAW: The ratio of sine of angle of incidence to the sine of angle of refraction is a constant for a given pair of
media and for a given wavelength of light.

sin i
Mathematically, =a constant
sinr
This constant is known as refractive index of the second medium with respect to the first medium.
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Q22. Define refractive index?

Ans: A ray of light which travels obliquely from one optical medium changes its direction in the second medium by the
phenomenon of refraction.The extent of change in direction that takes place in a given pair of media is expressed in terms of the
refractive index, which is defined as the ratio of speed of light in two different media. Refractive index of a given pair of medium
is defined as the ratio of speed of light in vacuum to the speed of light in another given medium.e.g.

velocity of light ∈vacuum


Refractive index =
velocity of light ∈other medium
Speed of light in vacuum is maximum and is equal to 3 ×10 8m/s. However it decreases in denser medium like water, glass etc.

Q23. Explain the refraction of light through glass slab?

Ans: A glass slab is rectangular in shape with its opposite faces parallel to each other. When A ray of light falls on a glass slab
obliguely, making a certain angle with the normal, it emerges out of the glass slab parallel to its original direction. There is a shift
in the path of the incident ray which is known as “lateral shift”.

Consider a rectangular glass slab PQRS of same thickness. Let incident ray AB travelling in air strikes the glass slab at B making
an angle of incidence (i) with the normal N1N1I. After reflection the ray of light bends towards the normal. The refracted ray
makes (r) with the normal N2N2I.

According to Snells law of refraction

Sini1/sinr1 = constant (1n2)

:. 1n2 = n2/n1

n2/n1 = sini1/sinr1

or n2sinr1 = n1sini1.

The refracted ray BC strikes the surface RS at C and suffers another refraction as it enters air again. The ray emerges out of the
glass slab as CD. Ray BC makes angle r2 with the normal N2N2I. The ray moves away from the normal.

According to Snells law of refraction.

sini1/sinr2 = constant (2n1)

or 2n1 = n1/n2.

:. n1/n2 = sini2/sinr2

But <i2 = <r1 (alternative angles)

:. n1/n2 = sinnr1/sinr2.

n1sinr2 = n2sinr1 (ii)

Comparing (i) and (ii) n1sinr2 = n1sini1

Or <i1 = <r2.

Hence AB CD.

Q23.What is a lens and what are its various types.

Ans: A lens is the portion of a transparent refracting medium bounded by two surfaces out of which at least one surface is
curved. The other surface may be plane or curved.

Lenses are usually made of glass. The working of lens is based on the refraction of light rays when they pass through it. Lenses
are divided into two categories-

i) Convex lens or converging lens.


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ii) Concave lens or diverging lens.

i) Convex lens: - A convex lens is thicker in the middle and thinner at the edges. Convex lens converges a parallel beam of light
rays.
ii) Concave lens: - A concave lens is thinner at the middle and thicker at the edges. Concave lens diverges a parallel beam of light
incident on it.
Q24. Define the following technical terms used in lenses.
Ans:
1. Optical centre: - The centre point of a lens is known as its optical centre. The optical centre of lens is denoted by O.

2. Principle axis:- The principal axis of a lens is a line passing through the optical centre of the lens and perpendicular to both the
faces of the lens.

5. Principle foci:- On lens, light can be made incident from either direction. Therefore a lens has two foci or two focal points.

First focal point or first principle focus: - For a convex lens the first principle focus is point(f) on the principle axis such that the
rays starting from this point after refraction through the lens become parallel to the principle axis.
For the concave lens the first principle focus is a point on the principal axis such that the rays directed towards this
point after refraction through the lens become parallel to the principle axis.
Second focal point or second principle focus: For a convex lens second principle focus is a point (FI) on the principle axis such
that the ray of light parallel to the principle axis incident on the lens after refraction through the lens meets at this point.
For a concave lens second principle focus(F) is a point on the principle axis such that the rays of light parallel to principle axis
after refraction through the lens appear to come from this point.
6. Focal lengths: The distance of principle focus from optical centre is called the focal length of lens. There are two focal lengths
of a lens.
First focal length: The distance of principle focus from the optical centre is called the first focal length of lens. It is denoted by f 1.
Second focal length: The distance of second principle focus from the optical centre is called the second focal length of lens. It is
denoted by f2.
Q25. What are the rules for locating images formed by convex lens?

ANs: 1. A ray of light proceeding parallel to the principle axis after refraction through a convex lens passes through the principle
focus.

2. A ray of light passing through the principle focus of a convex lens after refraction become parallel to the principle axis.3. A ray
of light passing through the optical centre of a convex lens emerges without suffering any deviation.

Q26. What are the rules for locating images formed by concave lens?

Ans: 1. A ray of light proceeding close and parallel to the principle axis after refraction through a concave lens appears to diverge
from the principle focus.

2. A ray of light directed towards the principle focus of a concave lens after refraction become parallel to the principle axis.

3. A ray of light passing through the optical centre of a concave lens emerges without suffering any deviation.

Q26. What is lens formula? Give its sign conventions.

Ans: The relation between the object distance (u), the image distance (v )and the focal length(f) for both types of lenses is
written as:

1 1 1
− =
v u f
Where v = image distance = object distance = focal length of lens.

This relationship is called the lens formula.

Sign conventions for image formation in case of lenses.


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1. The object is always placed to the left of the lens.

2. All distances parallel to principle axis are measures from optical centre.

3. All distances measured to the right of optical centre are taken as positive. While that measured to the left of the optical centre
are taken as negative.

4. Distances measured perpendicular to and above the principle axis are taken as positive.

5. Distance measured perpendicular to and below the principle axis are taken as negative.

Q27. What is magnification of lens?

Ans: Magnification of a lens is the ratio of the height of the image formed by lens to the actual height of object.

h2
Linear magnification, m= ( i)
h1
Where h2 = size of image and h1 = size of object.

In terms of image distance (v) and object distance (u), the linear magnifications equal to the ratio of image distance to the object
distance.

v
So m= ( ii)
u
From (i) and (ii) we have

h2 v
=
h1 u

If m is positive, then the image is erect and when m is negative the image is inverted.

Q27. What is the power of a lens? What is its SI unit?

Ans: The power of a lens is a measure of its ability to produce convergence or divergence of light rays falling on it. The power is
said to be positive if the lens converges the rays and negative if the lens diverges the rays. The power of lens is defined as the
reciprocal of its focal length, when focal length is measured in meters.

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Symbolically, P=
f
The SI unit of power of a lens is dioptre. It is denoted by symbol D.

Q28. Draw the ray diagram and find position, nature and size of image formed by a convex lens, when object is placed at

1. At infinity. 2. Beyond 2FI 3. At 2FI 4. Between FIand 2FI 5. At FI 6. Between FI and C.

Ans: 1. When the object is placed at infinity:

When the object is at infinity, the rays coming from it are parallel to each other. Let one of the parallel rays pass through the
focus F1 and the other ray pass through the optical centre. The ray which passes through F 1 becomes parallel to the principle axis
after reflection and the ray which passes through the optical centre does not suffer any deviation. The image is formed at F 2 and
is inverted, real and highly diminished.

2. When the object is placed beyond 2FI:

When the object is placed beyond 2FI, the ray parallel to the principle axis after refraction passes through F and the ray which
passes through the optical centre come out without any deviation. The refracted rays intersected at a point between F and 2F.
Thus the image is formed between F and 2F which is real, inverted and diminished.
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3. When the object is placed at 2FI:-

When the object is placed at 2FI, the rays starting from the top of the object placed at 2F Ipasses through the optic centre without
any deviation and the other ray which is parallel to the principal axis after refraction passes through the focus. These two
refracted ray meet at 2F. Thus the image is formed at 2F which is real, inverted and of same size as the object.

4. When the object is between FI and 2FI:-


When the object is between FI and 2FI, consider two rays coming from the object. The ray which is parallel to the principle axis
after refraction passes through the F on the other side of the lens. The ray passing through the optical centre comes out of the
lens without any deviation. The two refracted ray intersect each other at a point beyond 2F. Thus the image id formed beyond 2F
which is real, inverted and magnified.

5. When the object is placed at the focus (FI) of a convex lens:-


When the object is placed at FI, consider two rays coming from the top of the object. One of the rays which is parallel to the
principal axis after refraction passes through F and other ray which passes through the optical centre comes out without any
deviation. These two refracted rays are parallel to each other and parallel rays meet only at infinity. Thus the image is formed at
infinity which is real, inverted and magnified.

6. When the object is placed between optical centre and focus:-


When the object is placed between optical centre (c) and principle focus FI. Consider two rays starting from the top of the object
placed between FI and optical centre. The ray parallel to the principle axis after refraction passes through the focus (f). The ray
passing through the optical centre goes through the lens undeviated. These refracted rays appear to meet only when produced
backwards. Thus the image is formed on the same side of the lens which is virtual, erect and magnified.

Q28. Form the image in case an object is moved from infinity to the concave lens?

Ans: 1. When the object is at infinity:When the object is placed at infinity, the rays parallel to the principle axis after refraction
diverge. Both these refracted ray, which produced backwards meet at the focus on the same side of the lens. Thus the image is
formed at FI which is virtual, erect and highly diminished.

2. When the Object between the lens and infinity:

When the object is placed between infinity and optical centre. Consider a ray starting from the top of the object passes towards
the optical centre. The ray after refraction passes undeflected. Another ray starting from the object runs parallel to the principal
axis, after reflection is deviated away from the principle axis and appears to come from second focus (2F I) of concave lens. Both
these refracted rays when produced backwards meet between focus and optical centre on the same side of the lens. Thus the
image is formed between focus (FI) and optical centre which is virtual, erect and diminished.