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Present by:-

Cp 0310 (PARTH)
Cp 0410 (DARSHAN)
Types Of PAVEMENT:-
Surface Dressing
 The friction course is the uppermost pavement layer
and is designed to provide a skid resistant surface.

 The thickness of frictional course varies between 20mm

– 75mm.

 This comprises of bituminous and termed also as seal


 The structural course is designed to distribute the traffic loadings to the base

 The thickness of this course varies between 50mm – 150mm.

 It may be composed of crushed stone, crushed slag, and other untreated or

stabilized materials.

 The sub-base layer is often the main load-bearing layer of a

 It is designed to evenly spread the load of the paving, and any traffic
thereon, to the sub-grade below.
 Two different types of material are considered here
• Unbound Granular Material
• Cement Bound Material
 The two most common binders are
• Bitumen (tar)
• Cement
Stabilized Sub-grade
 This is a structural layer that is approx.12“ (300 mm)
 Sub-grades are commonly compacted before the
construction of a pavement, and are sometimes stabilized
by the addition of asphalt, soil, cement, Portland cement
or lime.
 It is the foundation of the pavement structure.
 Preparation of its construction usually involves digging, in
order to remove surface vegetation, topsoil and other
unwanted material, and to create space for the upper layer
of the pavement which is known as sub-grade formation.
 The load-bearing strength of sub-grade is measured by
California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test.
Various Coats:-
 Seal Coat: Seal coat is a thin surface treatment used to
water-proof the surface and to provide skid resistance.

 Tack Coat: Tack coat is a very light application of asphalt,

usually asphalt emulsion diluted with water. It provides
proper bonding between two layer of binder course and must
be thin, uniformly cover the entire surface, and set very fast.

 Prime Coat: Prime coat is an application of low viscous

cutback bitumen to an absorbent surface like granular bases
on which binder layer is placed. It provides bonding between
two layers. Unlike tack coat, prime coat penetrates into the
layer below, plugs the voids, and forms a water tight surface.

 Sub-grade: It is the normal soil on which the pavement rest and to which the
entire load of the structure as well as that of traffic playing on the surface above is
ultimately transferred.
 Sub-base course: It is placed immediately above the sub-grade soil and is
composed of hard well burnt clinker, natural gravel or any other suitable material.
 Base course: It forms the structure proper of flexible composed of broken stone
cemented together by materials which allow some degree of flexibility.
 Surface course: It consist of a mixture of bituminous material and aggregate
and forms the actual wearing coat.
Tests conducted
 Tests for Bitumen  Tests for Aggregate
 Penetration Test  Crushing Test
 Ductility Test  Shape Test
 Viscosity Test  Abrasion Test
 Softening Point Test  Impact Test
 Flash and Fire Point Test  Soundness Test
 Spot Test  Shape Test
 Loss on Heating Test  Specific Gravity & Water Absorption
 Bitumen Adhesion Test
 Tests for sub grade
 Penetration test
 Shear test
 Bearing test

 Unbound materials are those aggregates which are loose and do not adhere
to their neighbor but rely on the natural interlocking of adjacent particles.
 An unbound sub-base material can be loosened and removed quite easily.

 Bound materials are those which do bond with their neighboring particles by
means of a "binder".
 Bound materials 'set' and are consequently more difficult to loosen and
Materials for C.C Road:-
 Cement Content
 Maximum Cement: 425 kg/m3
 Minimum Cement : 350 kg/m3

 Coarse Aggregates
 AIV: shall be < 30% for wearing surfaces
 LA abrasion value <35%
 Maximum Normal Size: 25mm
 Water Absorption : 2% maximum

 Fine Aggregates : as per IS:383

 Concrete Requirements
 Minimum Flexural Strength : 45 kg\cm2
 W\C ratio 0.5 maximum
 Recommended Mix PQC : M40
Physical Characteristic Requirement of Concrete:-
Requirement of Course Aggregate as per IS383
Requirement of Fine Aggregate as per IS383

Fineness modulus
of fine aggregates:
2.0 to 3.5
Dry Lean Concrete sub-base
 Size of coarse aggregate
20 mm preferably
 Fine aggregate:
clean natural sand or crushed stone or both
 cement:
150 kg minimum
 28 day average compressive strength of 5 cubes >= 10 MPa
Types of SEALANT

 Hot poured elastic type

 Hot poured rubberized
 Cold applied thermosetting type
 Performed compression seals
Ministry of Road Transport & Highways
Standard Specifications
for Road and Bridge Works - 4th Revision-2001
300 Earthwork, Erosion control and Drainage

301 Excavation for roadway and drains

302 Blasting operations
303 presplit ting rock excavation slopes
304 Excavation for structures
305 Embankment construction
306 Soil erosion and sedimentation control
307 Turfing with sods
308 Seeding and mulching
309 Surface/ sub surface drains
310 Preparation and surface treatment of formation
311 works to be kept free of water
312 water course at culverts
313 Construction of rockfill embankment
400 Sub-bases, Bases (non bituminous) and

401 Granular Sub Base

402 Lime treated soil for improved sub grade/ sub base
403 Cement treated sub-base/ base
404 Water Bound macadam sub-base/ base
405 Crushed cement Concrete sub-base/ base
406 Wet Mix Macadam sub-base/ base
407 Shoulders, Island and Median
408 Cement concrete kerbs and kerb with channel
409 Footpaths and Seperators
410 Crusher-run Macadam base
500 Bases and Surface courses (Bituminous)

501 General requirements for Bituminous pavement layers.

Annexure A to 501: Protection of the Environment.
502 Prime coat over Granular Base
503 Tack coat
504 Bituminous Macadam
505 Bituminous Penetration Macadam
506 Built-up spray grout
507 Dense graded bituminous Macadam
508 Semi-Dense Bituminous concrete
509 Bituminous concrete
510 Surface Dressing
511 Open-Graded premix surfacing
500 Bases and Surface courses (Bituminous) continued

512 Close-Graded premix surfacing/ Mixed seal surfacing

513 Seal coat
514 Supply of stone Aggregates for pavement courses
515 Mastic Asphalt
516 Slurry Seal
517 Recycling of Bituminous pavement
518 Fog Spray
519 Bituminous Cold Mix (Including Gravel Emulsion)
520 Sand Asphalt Base Course
522 Crack Prevention Courses
Other Important Sections

600 Concrete Pavement

700 Geosynthetics
800 Traffic signs, markings & other road appurtenances
900 Quality control for road works
1000 Materials for structures
1100 Pile foundations
1200 Well foundations
1700 Structural concrete
2000 Bearings
2100 Open foundations
2600 Expansion joints
2700 Wearing coat and appurtenances
 The maintenance operations involved the
assessment of road condition, diagnosis
of the problem and adopting the most
appropriate maintenance step.
General causes of pavement failure
1. Defects in the quality of material use.
2. Defect in construction method.
3. Defect in quality control during
4. Settlement of foundation of embankment it
5. Increase in the magnitude of the wheel
6. Environment factors including heavy
rainfall, soil erosion, high water table,
snow fall etc.
Typical Flexible Pavement Failure
Reflection Cracking

Joint reflection cracking on an arterial.

Longitudinal Cracking

Longitudinal cracking from poor longitudinal joint construction


Pothole on a road after heavy rains

Slippage (Shrinkage) Cracking
Water Bleeding
Typical Rigid Pavement Failure
Corner Break
Linear Cracking
Types of Maintenance:-
I. Routine maintenance
II. Periodic maintenance
III. Special repairs(rehabilitation)
Routine maintenance

 Routine maintenance include following

I. Upkeep of carriage way.
II. Maintenance of shoulders and sub
III. Maintenance of side drains and other
ancillary works.
IV. Patch repairs of pot holes and localized
Periodic maintenance
I. Line Painting
II. Crack Sealing
III. Asphalt Patching
IV. Re-shouldering
V. Slopes
VI. Bridge and Pavement Inspections
VII. Minor Bridge Maintenance
VIII. Signs, Barriers & Guide rails
IX. Re-lamping
Special maintenance

I. Asphaltic Overlays
II. Surface Treatments
III. Major Bridge/Structure Maintenance
IV. Sign Replacement
Maintenance of bituminous surface
 Patch repairs:- patch repairs are carried out on the damaged or
improper road surface.

 Pot holes repair:-the excavated patches are clean and painted with
bituminous binders and premix material is placed in the section.

 Surface treatment:-it is customary to spread blotting materials such

as aggregate chips or maximum size of about 10 mm or course send during

 Resurfacing:- if the surface is totally worn out and develop a poor riding
surface it may be more economical to provide an additional surface course on the
existing surface.
Maintenance of Cement concrete surface
 Main defects in this types of surface is formation of
 Maintenance of joint is also require in this surface.
 Cracks develop in rigid surface classified as under
I. Temperature cracks:- the cracks are filled by suitable grade
bituminous sealing compound, heated to liquid consistency.

II. Structure cracks:- in this type of crack we have to recast the failure
Crack Sealing Operations

Traffic control

Cleaning & Drying
 For safety and operational reasons it will be
necessary to provide suitable safety features and
other facilities along the project road.
 These features will include

Safety barriers road signs

Road markings Road lighting

Route markers Kilometre stones

Road delineators ROW pillars

Parking areas & rest areas Weighbridges

 Safety Barriers – it is use for proper judgment of driver so that car
does not slip .
 The Safety Barrier shall conform to NHAI/MoRTH Circulars. Safety
barriers shall be located at sharp horizontal curves, high embankments
and at bridge approaches.
Road Signs - Traffic signs or Road Signs are signs erected at the side of roads to provide
information to road users.
The colour, configuration, size and location of road signs shall be in accordance with IRC: 67-
 There are mainly six types of signs namely

 Danger warning signs: They are use to warn traffic of existing or potentially
hazardous conditions. They ensure safety of traffics. Usage must be minimum
or it tends to breed disrespect for this signs.
 Prohibitory or restrictive signs: These are intended to inform the highway users
of traffic rules or regulations. They give definite negative instruction prohibiting
the motorist from making particular manoeuvres.
 Mandatory signs: These signs convey definite positive instruction when it is
desired that motorist take some positive action. The two most important
mandatory signs are
(i) STOP sign and (ii) YIELD or GIVE WAY signs
 six types of signs (contd.)

 Information, facilities, or service signs : These are intended to guide the

motorist along streets and highways, to inform him of intersecting
routes, to direct him to cities, towns, villages or other important
destinations, to identify nearby rivers and streams, parks, forests and
historical sites, and generally to give him such information as will help
him along his way in the most simple, direct manner possible.
 Direction, position, or indication signs: These signs indicate the name
of the place , distance remaining and are generally rectangular in
 Route Marker signs:The design and location of route marker signs
shall be as per IRC: 2-1968.
 Road Markings – To divide road in proper lane so in order to avoid accident.
 These markings shall be applied to road centre lines, edge line, continuity line, stop lines,
give-way lines, diagonal markings, zebra crossing and at parking areas by means of an
approved self-propelled machine which has a satisfactory cut-off value capable of applying
broken lines automatically.
 Road markings shall be as per IRC: 35-1997.
 Road Lighting – In order to avoid accidents during night and better visibility lighting is
 Lighting is to be provided at the bus stops, pedestrian crossings, truck terminals and
maintenance buildings, if any.
 Rumble strips : in order to reduce speed at toll collection and diversion of
the road

 Cat's eye : places such as hilly region , sharp turns, road repair work.

 Botts' dots : it is a part of road marking to indicate the lane, it is also use
as a divider.
 Road Delineators –
 The design and location for road delineators shall be as per IRC: 79-
 Rest Areas : For rest areas, IRC:SP:12-1988 will be followed.
rest areas are provided at every 50 km interval .
Highway construction site safety
(during construction)
 All workers should be trained to understand the proper way to use the system and
to identify hazards. The workers will be responsible for providing fall protection
systems and to ensure the use of these systems.

 Falls from heights is the leading cause of injury in the construction industry. In the
OSHA Handbook (29 CFR), fall protection is needed in areas and activities that

 Equipment on the job site must have light and reflectors if intended for night use.

 During excavation, the contractor is responsible for providing

a safe work environment for workers and pedestrians. The
contractor shall comply with all standards set forth in 29 CFR
Subpart P.

 No person is allowed to cross underneath or stand

underneath any loading or digging equipment. Employees are
to remain at a safe distance from all equipment while it is

 The sites and vehicles are protected by signs and barricades.

 Part of NH-8 Vadodara to Surat:

 Vadodara to Bharuch : 108.700 km to 192.000 km------83.3km.

 Bharuch to Surat : 198.000km to 263.000km.-----65.0km.
 6 lane work : 198.000km to 249.000km------51.0km
 4 lane Improvement :249.000km to 263.000 km----14.0km

 6 major intersections on the project corridor.

 1 existing ROB on the project corridor, at 261.000.

 2 new ROBs have been proposed at km 205.925 and km

226.750 that are now serving as at grade level crossings

Type of project Infrastructure

Type of contract Built operate transfer (BOT)
End use of project Road transportation.
Owner/ Authority National Highway Authority of India (NHAI)
Contractor M/s IRB Infrastructures Pvt Ltd.
Date of starting 7thJanuary 2007
Construction Time frame 30 months
Intended date of completion 6th July 2009
Concession period 15 years
 NH-8 connects Mumbai to Ahmedabad, Jaipur and then on to
Delhi, this route faces intense vehicular activity 24 hours a day.

 PCU count on the project corridor is 70,000 PCUs up to Kamrej

Junction (249/000 Km) and 22000 PCUs after it.

 However the condition of the road, was considered safe for only
32,000 PCUs, this shows the need for capacity augmentation of
the project corridor.
 Width of total cross section : 21.5 m + median + 21.5 m
 Components (Any one side LHS or RHS)
 Main carriage way : 11.5 m
 Service road : 8.0 m
 Intermediate separator : 2 m
 Median : varying according to chainage
 Footpath (over drain ) : 2.0 m

Structure of Road
 Sub grade required thickness as per levels
 Granular sub base (GSB) : 200 mm
 Wet mix macadam(WMM) : 250 mm
 Dense Bituminous Concrete(DBM) : 150 mm
 Bituminous Concrete (BC) : 50 mm




 Unbound graded Stone

 Bituminous Materials
• Cutback Bitumen
• Bituminous Emulsion

 Aggregates
• natural gravels
• crushed rock, from artificial sources.
 It is the bottom most layer of a pavement and hence is vital for durability
of the pavement.
 Material used is approved from consultants and in accordance with IRC
 Material pass through 75 mm sieve and no greater than 75 mm.

 Mix Design : 20 mm aggregates -- 37%.

 10 mm aggregates -- 43%.
 Crushed sand –16.5%.
 Stone dust -- 3.5%
 WMM is produced in bitumen plant from where it is
transported in dumpers to the site of work

 BITUMEN : Bitumen of S 60-70 grade is used as a binder in

the mix.

 COARSE AGGREGATE : Coarse aggregate is of crushed


 FINE AGGREGATE : Fine aggregate will be crusher run

screenings, natural sand or both. They will consist of the fraction
passing 2.8 mm sieve and retained on 90 micron sieve

 FILLER : The filler shall be cement or stone dust


 Engineers : 2
 Surveyors : 3
 Supervisors : 4
 Labourers : 20 - 25
 String levels : 100 nos.
 Grader : 1
 Dumper 20 T capacity : 6 nos.
 Roller Compactor : 1 no.
 Edge cutter : 1 no.
Structure of road

 Structural Elements of Road.

 Safety standards followed
(during construction)

 During construction they followed these mandatory safety standards.

 Safety helmets and safety shoes
 Hand gloves were compulsory
 Safe working methods were deployed to the best of they can.
 Safety goggles were compulsory for person dealing with welding
 Sufficient Fire Extinguishers available near the critical areas of site.
 All the machine operators must have the necessary
license to operate, and get it renewed every 6 months
after carrying out the necessary test.
 Proper fencing panels and proper lockable gates were
 First aid booth were available.
 Proper material storage yard had been provided.
 Drinking water facility was available.
 Proper security guard cabins at gates.
 Regular checks and maintenance of all the equipments
used on site.
 Proper storage of diesel cylinders and gas cylinders.
 Proper sign boards and warning boards at required
 safety accessories
Safety features on Highway
 They have provided safety barriers for proper judgment of
driver so that car does not slip. They provided it according to
NHAI/MoRTH Circulars.

 They have provided traffic signs colour, configuration, size and location of
road signs according to IRC: 67-2001.

 They have provided sodium light at a distance of 25m c/c on both side of

 They have also provided road delineators near toll collection booth as per
IRC code.
 They have also provided 8 m wide service road at both sides
of the highway for the emergency.
 They have provided rest area at a distance of 40 km as per
IRC code having width of 7 m and length of 100 m.
Pavement Maintanance System
1) Visual Inspections

2) Daily Road Patrols

3) Detailed Inspections
 Surface Distress
 Road Roughness
 Rutting
 Strength