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Building the Environmental Literacy Through School Natural

Science Education
The article presents theoretical substantiation and experimental verification of the developed
pedagogic conditions for building the environmental proficiency within the method of the modern
scientific education discipline. The framework integrates learning, playing, labor and social
environmental protection activities by the students on the basis of a systematic activity based
approach; facilitation of research potential and reflexive nature of environmental protection
project-based work by the students; development of ta range of environmental protection
assignments tailored to the age of students; launching of collaborative methodological and
educational efforts of teachers and educators in the establishments providing supplementary
education. These activities will help the students to be more aware and have a strong interest about
the need of protection to our environment. This will give people the perception about
environmental literacy which in turn will ensure the sustainable development of the society and
will give them a competitive mindset to environmental protection. The development of
pedagogical conditions gives rise to situations wherein the students are engaged to environmental
protection activities that is intended to build their environmental literacy.

In the Introduction part, the authors stated the facts that is happening in our environment.
According to Gilmanshina, Gayfullina, Fedotova, & Gilmanshin (2018), “we are now facing
drastic aggravation of environmental situation throughout the world that is caused by
anthropogenic impact on the environment, when the ecological purity of food and life on earth is
a major threat, there is a high need in natural science education for the sustainable development of
the society.” Therewith, I can say that the philosophy of science that is used in this part of the
article is Inductivism. The authors clearly stated observable facts in accordance to our
environmental situation that is prevalent in our planet.

Literature Review:
The author emphasizes how crucial it is to perceive environmental protection activity as a
competence, and the environmental literacy as an essential personal trait of the modern human. It
also specifies the concept of activity based approach to forming cognitive skills that will soon
reveal logical ties among the identified challenges in the environmental protection activities,
decision making and decision implementation. But as the researchers go on with the studies, it has
been stated that “the aforementioned studies do not provide solution to the pedagogical
multifaceted problem of fostering environmental literacy of students through natural science
education by integration of curricular and extra-curricular activities.” This implies that the
philosophy used in the literature review is the Conjecture and Refutation of Anthony Ferruci.
Research Methodology:
As I perceived the contents of the research methodology, I can say that the authors used the
Hypothetico-Deductivism as their philosophy. It was stated that “the core of this research is the
formulation of systematic approach that requires a student a consistency in education and
development of personality, while the activity-based approach proves the futility of knowledge is
not employed in productive activities. This only implies that the psychological abilities if the
human are the result of transformation of external substantive activity into internal mental activity
through gradual advancement.” They also acknowledged the development of pedagogical
conditions in the systematic activity-based approach that gives rise to situations when the students
are engaged in different environmental protection activities that is intended to build their
environmental literacy.

At the initial diagnostic stage of the research, it was found that most of the students, both in the
experimental and control groups have a low level of environmental literacy and that there is no
significant differences were revealed between the two groups of their levels of literacy.
Nevertheless, the didactic experiment after the analysis of intermediate results is identified to be
possibly build the students’ environmental literacy in stages. Thus, explains the final results
indicated in the study. For example, the ability to apply natural science knowledge in order to
explain interrelations between natural phenomena was improved in 89% of students in the
experimental group and 40% of students in the control group. The philosophy that has been used
in the results is Conjecture and Refutation because the study allows scientific criticism until the
study itself has been concluded and it will continue to progress until the end of time.

Gilmanshina, S. I., Gayfullina, A. Z., Fedotova, N. R., & Gimanshin, I. R. (2018). Building the
Environmental Literacy Through School Natural Science Education. VI(Special Issue), 245-253.

Environmental Life-cycle Analysis as a Tool for Sustainability

Studies: A Complete Learning Experience
The article presents Environmental Life-Cycle Analysis (E-CLA), which is a technique for
decision support and learning that is useful and a powerful tool for sustainability analysis, wherein
the application of which is taught to students of environmental science/engineering and industrial
ecology in some universities around the world. Environmental Life-Cycle Analysis (E-CLA)
enables the acquisition of the four levels of knowledge of the Structure of the Observed Learning
Outcome (SOLO) taxonomy. These are unistructural, multi-structural, relational and extended
abstract, it also encompasses the four steps of an E-CLA that mirrors the hierarchy of knowledge-
levels defined by the SOLO. E-CLA will be apply as it “ascend from theory to practice or
application” or “from the acquisition of declarative knowledge (cognitive skills) to functional
knowledge (psychomotor skills)” to the students for a complete learning experience. Life-cycle
and systems thinking is gradually establishing itself firmly and tools like E-LCA will continue to
support decisions which would lead societies and economies of the world towards sustainability.
E-CLA will should be handed down to generations, like an heirloom to be developed and can adapt
to the change of times. This article emphasizes that students should be Learning for (the)
Sustainability of life.

Introduction and Literature Review:

“We, humans, are dependent on the environment for our existence and will continue to be
dependent on it.”
“…while it is an indisputable fact that humankind has wreaked some havoc on the environment
on which it depends, one may wish to measure this havoc and understand what one can do, to hold
back the rate at which the damage is occurring. If one can measure, one can manage.”

These are some of many distinctive lines from the Introduction and Literature Reviews of the study
that entails the usage of Inductivism as its philosophy. The study comprises a uniform law/s that
governs it, which is the Environmental Life Cycle Analysis (E-CLA). E-CLA is about defining
why and for whom the E-LCA needs to be carried out and identifying the scope, assumptions to
be made, limitations and the allocation methods for the analysis. The two action verbs (intended
learning outcomes for students) within quotation marks are of the unistructural knowledge level
— Normalisation and Weighting.

According to Guinee (2017), E-CLA started as a purely theoretical class that shifted towards an
online course and can now best be described as an intensive engaging experience for students in
which theory and practice are combined to provide students the basis to responsibly perform an
LCA study. This study will give us the better understanding of what some of the key indicators in
the environment really meant and how human society affects the environment. In addition, the E-
CLA education is necessary to be imparted among the industry professionals and decision-makers
in the government. The discussion part of the research implies that the Conjecture and Refutation
has been used as the study’s philosophy. It possesses that there should always be a direct
implications of the theories stated at real life practices.

Venkatesh, G. (2019). Environmental Life-cycle Analysis as a Tool for Sustainability Studies: A
Complete Learning Experience. 14(1), 79-85.