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Introduction to the Week-Long

Training Class

2018 1Q Training

Odessa, TX

February 8, 2018

Short Course Introduction

• Presenter:

– John Jechura

• Short Course Goals:

– Provide an introduction into the week-long GPSA Engineering

Data Book Course

– Provide both in-depth and abbreviated review of numerous

course sections, in order to provide attendees with an

understanding of the lecturing concepts and types of problems

that are performed during the full length class

– Allow attendees to see how the full week long course would

benefit their daily work activities

2

Short Course Format

• Use pieces of the full length course to accomplish a

single, focused “goal”:

– Demonstrating various stages of the design and/or evaluation of

a single type of facility

– Convert Y-Grade NGL feed to higher value hydrocarbon products

(i.e. ethane, propane, butane, etc.)

– This will be accomplished by Fractionation

• We will focus only on a few portions of the data book

class that can be directly used in developing and/or

evaluating the Fractionation facility

• Examples today are in FPS units.

– The GPSA Engineering Data Book is available in both an FPS

and an SI (metric) version

3

Short Course Outline

• Introduction (15 min)

• NGL Fractionation & Product Specs [Sect 19, 2] (20 min)

• Tower Sizing & Internals [Sect. 19] (20 min)

• Separations: Vessel Sizing & Internals [Sect. 7] (30 min)

• Break (30-60 min)

• Pumps [Sect 12] (20 min)

• Heat Exchangers [Sect 9] (20 min)

• Control Valves [Sect 4] (20 min)

• Flow Measurement [Sect 3] (20 min)

• Summary (5 min)

4

GPSA Engineering Data Book

Training & Certification Course

Introduction

Full Course Learning Objectives

• Learn

– Understand what information is provided in the Data Book and

how it applies to the natural gas industry

• Interact

– Work through classroom problems to understand how to use the

detailed information and shortcut methods in the Data Book

• Apply

– Understand how to best utilize the Data Book for daily gas

processing / midstream job functions:

• Design engineer (both engineering firm and operating

company)

• Facilities engineer

• Operations

6

Full Course Learning Objectives

• The focus is not to teach gas processing, nor read you

the Data Book word for word. Purpose is to teach how to

use the Data Book for gas processing

– i.e. we must teach some fundamentals!

• Have Fun!

7

Full Course Material & Handouts

• GPSA Engineering Data Book (EDB)

– Fourteenth Edition, 2017

• Power Point presentations on each section

• Handouts (what’s in front of you):

– Course Outline

– Problem basis handout (all sections)

– Block Flow Diagram

– Heat and Material Balances

– Flash drive

8

Full Course Instructors

Tim Rollenhagen, P.E., P.Eng.

• Anadarko (1 yrs)

– Proc./Mech. Discipline Lead

• AECOM & CH2MHill (15 yrs)

• Colorado State University, 2002

• Member of EDB Editorial Review Board

• Gas Processing Experience (Design):

– Gas & liquids treating/sweetening

– Sour gas & CO2 processing

– NGL recovery & fractionation

– Gathering systems/pipelines/slug analysis

– Produced water treating, emission control

– RAM analysis, nuclear & chemical weapons disassembly

– All phases of design: feasibility → startup & debottlenecking

9

Full Course Instructors

John Jechura

• Colorado School of Mines (19 years)

– Professor of Practice

– Adjunct Assistant Professor:

– Gas Processing, Petroleum Refining,

Energy Technology

• AECOM (10 years)

– Process Department Manager

• Other companies (27 years total)

– National Renewable Energy Laboratory

– Marathon Oil Company

• University of Michigan, 1980

• GPA – Chairman Computer Applications

(now defunct)

10

Full Course Block Flow Diagram

11

Full Course Material Balances

12

Full Course Section Level of Detail

• In depth/task oriented (1.5 – 4 hrs/section)

– Thorough review of entire EDB section

– Numerous example problems, some in detail

– Become familiar with GPSA EDB spreadsheets

– Overview of fundamentals

– Some example problems, mostly quick exercises

– Some topics may be skipped

• Very Brief (15min – 30min/section)

– High level summary of content

13

Full Course Outline

GPSA Engineering Data Book Training Class Schedule

Time Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday

730 General Introduction 16‐Hydrocarbon Recovery 9‐Heat Exchangers 13‐Compressors&Expanders 3‐Measurement

745 (60 min) (105 min) (75 min) (240 min) (165 min)

800

815

830 GPA Intro (5 min)

845 1‐Gen, 26‐Mmbr List (15 min) 8‐Fired Equipment

900 BREAK (25 min) BREAK BREAK

915 2‐Product Specs (20 min) BREAK BREAK

930 23‐Physical Properties 19‐Fractionation 10‐Air Cooled Exchangers

945 (40 min) (75 min) (25 min)

1000 11‐Cooling Towers (15 min)

1015 24‐Thermo Properties 12‐Pumps & Hyd Turbines

1030 (25 min) (195 min) BREAK Summary of Course (10 min)

1045 BREAK BREAK BREAK BREAK

1100 25‐Phase Equilibria (15 min) 14‐Refrigeration Pumps (cont) Final Exam

1115 21‐Hydrocarbon Treating (75 min) (60 min)

1130 (90 min)

1145

1200 LUNCH LUNCH LUNCH LUNCH Finish & Wrap Up

1215

1230 HC Treating (cont.) Refrig. (cont.) Pumps (cont) 4‐Instrumentation

1245 18‐Utilities (120 min)

100 (30 min)

115 20‐Dehydration 6‐Storage (15 min)

130 (180 min) 7‐Separation

145 (180 min)

200 BREAK BREAK BREAK

215 Dehy (cont.) BREAK

230 15‐Prime Movers (15 min)

245 17‐Fluid Flow&Piping 5‐Relief Systems

300 (135 min) (150 min)

315 BREAK

330

345 BREAK BREAK BREAK

400 Dehy (cont.)

415

430

445 22‐Sulfur Recovery

500 (30 min)

515

530

Short Course Block Flow Diagram

15

Short Course “Problem”

Use pieces of the full length course to solve common “problems”

encountered during design and/or evaluation of a Fractionation System:

1. What do our higher value potential products look like and what are the

potential specifications we need to meet?

2. How does Fractionation meet our goal to make higher value products?

3. How do we determine the basic design the mechanical equipment needed

for Fractionation?

a) Design one of the main pieces of equipment, a distillation tower (Deethanizer)

b) Design of vessels (Reflux Accumulator)

c) Design of pumps (Deethanizer Feed Pump)

d) Design of heat exchangers (Feed/Bottoms Cross Exchanger)

4. How is the flow of feed to the Fractionation System controlled?

a) Design of a control valve (feed flow control valve)

b) Design of a flow meter (feed flowmeter)

16

Short Course “Problem”

Use pieces of the full length course to solve common “problems”

encountered during design and/or evaluation of a Fractionation System:

1. What do our higher value potential products look like and what are the

potential specifications we need to meet?

2. How does Fractionation meet our goal to make higher value products?

3. How do we determine the basic design the mechanical equipment needed

for Fractionation?

a) Design one of the main pieces of equipment, a distillation tower (Deethanizer)

b) Design of vessels (Reflux Accumulator)

c) Design of pumps (Deethanizer Feed Pump)

d) Design of heat exchangers (Feed/Bottoms Cross Exchanger)

4. How is the flow of feed to the Fractionation System controlled?

a) Design of a control valve (feed flow control valve)

b) Design of a flow meter (feed flowmeter)

17

NGL FRACTIONATION AND

PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS

(20 MIN)

2018 1Q Training

Odessa, TX

February 8, 2018

18

Product Specifications

EDB Section 2

Learning Objectives

• Summary of Product Specifications section

• Understand what information is provided in the Data

Book and how to use it for daily activities

• Understand why specifications are important to the gas

processing/midstream industry and how they impact the

extent of processing

• Review test method references

20

Short Course Block Flow Diagram

21

What’s in a Product Specification

• Hydrocarbon component limits (% min/max)

• Contaminant limits (% or ppm min/max)

• Water or Moisture limits

• Operating condition limits:

– temperature

– pressure

• Other limits:

– Vapor pressure (TVP and RVP)

– Heating value

– Color

• Reporting requirements

22

Why Do Specifications Exist?

• Safety (H2S, O2)

• Heating value (common design of power generator

combustors, home furnaces, water heaters, etc.)

• Avoid freezing (H2O, CO2)

• Avoid liquids in pipelines, end users (dew point, heavy

hydrocarbon content)

• Effect on downstream equipment (mercury)

• Environmental/emissions (total sulfur)

23

Information in the EDB

• Specifications are set by pipeline/end user authority,

therefore there are limited single “standards” applicable

to any given product

• There are standards available, but producer/buyer may

not require those standards:

– GPA Std. 2140: LPG Specifications

– GPA Std. 2108: Fractionation Grade Product Specifications

• EDB figures are provided for reference of various types

of specifications, but are not all-inclusive

• EDB information is based on typical U.S. specifications

24

Liquid Specifications in EDB

• Commercial Grade LPGs (HD-5 Propane): EDB Figs. 2-

1, 2-5

• Fractionation Grade NGLs: EDB Fig. 2-2

• Ethane (range): EDB Fig. 2-3

• Y-Grade Product: EDB Fig. 2-9

• Other

– Propane water content: EDB Fig. 2-6

– Copper Strip Test: EDB Fig 2-7

25

What’s in the Table?

26

EDB Usage: Best Uses / Limitations

• Great starting point and quick reference for typical gas

and liquid specifications

• Great location to go for test method references

• Sulfur calculation, definitions for copper strip test

specifications, which could deviate from the EDB

• Specs could change over time so EDB info could be

outdated

27

Short Course “Problem”

Use pieces of the full length course to solve common “problems”

encountered during design and/or evaluation of a Fractionation System:

1. What do our higher value potential products look like and what are the

potential specifications we need to meet?

2. How does Fractionation meet our goal to make higher value products?

3. How do we determine the basic design the mechanical equipment needed

for Fractionation?

a) Design one of the main pieces of equipment, a distillation tower (Deethanizer)

b) Design of vessels (Reflux Accumulator)

c) Design of pumps (Deethanizer Feed Pump)

d) Design of heat exchangers (Feed/Bottoms Cross Exchanger)

4. How is the flow of feed to the Fractionation System controlled?

a) Design of a control valve (feed flow control valve)

b) Design of a flow meter (feed flowmeter)

28

Fractionation & Absorption

Section 19

Learning Objectives

• Summary of fundamentals of fractionation and

absorption section in the Data Book

• Understanding of NGL fractionation

• Perform quick tower sizing exercises for both trayed and

packed towers

• Understand best uses of Data Book information

30

Full Course Topics

• Block Flow Diagram/Industry Application

• Types of Fractionators

• Fundamentals: Principles of Fractionation

• Tower Internals and Sizing (diameter)

– Trayed internals

– Packed bed internals

• Mechanical Considerations

– Reboilers

– Other internals that impact height (i.e. nozzles, baffles, etc)

• Heat Integration

• Absorption and Stripping

• Summary: Best Uses/Limitations of the Data Book

31

Short Course Block Flow Diagram

32

Applications: Types & Products

• EDB Pg. 19-4

• Bulk hydrocarbon fractionators:

– Gas demethanizer: leanest gas, C2+

– Gas deethanizer: lean gas, C3+

– Condensate stabilizer: C4- to gas, C5+ liquid

product

– NGL stabilizer: C2-/C1 to gas, C3+/C2+ liquid

• NGL product fractionators:

– Deethanizer: C2 product, C3+ liquid bottoms

– Depropanizer: C3 product, C4+ liquid bottoms

– Debutanizer: C4 product, C5+ bottoms

– Butane splitter (deisobutanizer): iC4, nC4 products

– Ethane/propane fractionator (depropanizer): C2/C3 product

– Propane/butane fractionator (debutanizer): C3/C4 product

33

Fundamentals:

Principles of Fractionation

• Separation by relative volatility, Eq. 19-2

– Light key: desired overhead component

– Heavy key: desired bottoms

• Typical fractionation tower:

– Rectifying section: heavy key component

from feed vapor is absorbed into falling

liquid

– Condenser: cooled overhead, condenses

vapor, generating liquid for rectifying

section

– Stripping section: light key component is

stripped from liquid by gas from reboiler

– Reboiler, generates vapor for stripping

section

34

Fundamentals:

Principles of Fractionation

• Equilibrium stage concept: Fig. 19-3

– Series of equilibrium staged flashes

– Component purity increases further

along the tower

• Light key increases up the tower

• Heavy key increases down the tower

• Product Specifications: Section 2

– Final product specifications will

determine the complexity of the

fractionation unit:

• # of stages

• Reboiler/condenser duty

35

Fundamentals:

Design Considerations

• EDB Pgs. 19-5 to 19-8

• Operating pressure: chosen to minimize duties, also

considering feed/product transport (i.e.

pumping/compression)

– Higher pressure: higher cooling/heating temperatures

– Pressure limited by fluid critical pressure

– Condensing media (air, cooling water, refrigeration)

• Reflux ratio: Qty. of reflux/qty. of overhead product

• Number of stages: qty. of equilibrium stages

• Higher RR, higher duties, lower stages (higher OPEX)

• Lower RR, lower duties, more stages (higher CAPEX)

36

NGL Fractionation Train: Fig. 19-4

NGL Fractionation Train with DIB

ETHANE PRODUCT

RAW NGL

FEED

DEETHANIZER

ISOBUTANE

PROPANE PRODUCT

BUTANE SPLITTER

DEPROPANIZER

C3+

V-34

MIXED C4

PRODUCT

N-BUTANE

DEBUTANIZER

C4+

V-35

NATURAL GASOLINE

Short Course “Problem”

Use pieces of the full length course to solve common “problems”

encountered during design and/or evaluation of a Fractionation System:

potential specifications we need to meet?

2. How does Fractionation meet our goal to make higher value products?

3. How do we determine the basic design the mechanical equipment needed

for Fractionation?

a) Design one of the main pieces of equipment, a distillation tower (Deethanizer)

b) Design of vessels (Reflux Accumulator)

c) Design of pumps (Deethanizer Feed Pump)

d) Design of heat exchangers (Feed/Bottoms Cross Exchanger)

4. How is the flow of feed to the Fractionation System controlled?

a) Design of a control valve (feed flow control valve)

b) Design of a flow meter (feed flowmeter)

39

TOWER SIZING AND INTERNALS

(20 MIN)

2018 1Q Training

Odessa, TX

February 8, 2018

40

Fractionation & Absorption

Section 19

Short Course Block Flow Diagram

42

Fundamentals:

Design Considerations

• Minimum stages:

theoretical minimum

number of stages for a

specific separation,

occurs at total reflux

– Eq. 19-3 to 19-6

• Minimum reflux ratio:

theoretical minimum

reflux ratio for a specific

separation, occurs at

infinite number of stages

– Eq. 19-7, 19-8

43

Fundamentals:

Determining # of Stages

• Fractionation calculations are labor intensive:

– Optimization between CAPEX (tower height, # of stages, tower

diameter) and OPEX (reboiler/condenser duty)

– A computer simulation is best used for tower calculation, to

perform multiple iterations and determine optimum configuration

– Manual computation method provided in EDB pg. 19-8, also

performed in example 19-2:

• Establish feed conditions, operating temperature/pressure

• Establish product splits, condenser & reboiler temperature

• Determine minimum stages

• Determine minimum reflux ratio

• Determine actual # of stages (good starting point is to use

1.3x minimum reflux ratio for operating reflux ratio)

44

Fundamentals:

Typical Parameters

45

Fundamentals:

Typical Parameters (SI)

46

Fundamentals: Tower Design

• Utilize simulation for quick calculation/optimization

• Define feed conditions (flow, temperature, pressure)

• Define product specifications required

• Determine condensing medium (temperature) available, set tower

pressure based on heat transfer approach (Pg. 19-6), keeping within

range of Fig. 19-20 (< 80% critical pressure)

• Utilize Fig. 19-20 for starting points for:

– Number of stages (actual trays X tray efficiency)

– Reflux ratio

• Evaluate range of operation, i.e. changing reflux ratio and # of

stages to optimize:

– OPEX (reboiler duty), CAPEX (tower height, tower diameter)

– Remain above min reflux ratio, min stages

– Feed location

• Shortcut: find # stages/RR where change becomes minimal

47

Internals: Tray Design

• Based on gas and liquid rates through tower:

– Number of valves (gas rate)

– Size/dimensions of downcomers (liquid rate)

• Number of tray passes: Fig. 19-13

– Higher liquid rates → larger downcomers, more passes

– Larger diameter towers → more passes

• Tray spacing:

– Dependent on density difference (liquid – vapor)

– Higher vapor density → higher tray spacing

– Fig. 19-16, 19-17

• Tray efficiency: Pg. 19-15, Eq. 19-22, Ex. 19-4

– Fig. 19-19 (based on relative volatility, viscosity)

– Fig. 19-20 (typical parameters)

48

Internals: Trays

• EDB Pgs. 19-10 to 19-16

• Liquid flows down across tray

• Vapor flows up through tray: Fig. 19-10

– valves, sieves, bubble caps

• Many types, selection is dependent on:

– Cost

– Vapor/liquid loading

– Turndown requirement

• Diameter of tower is set to optimize flow/mass transfer,

minimizing diameter (cost), limited by:

– *Jet flooding (vapor limit)

– Downcomer flooding and backup (liquid limit)

49

Internals: Trays

• Figure 19-12 shows

operational boundaries:

• Bubble cap tower

animation:

– Shows normal operation

– Shows a flooded tower

https://vimeo.com/35147140

• Another bubble cap tower

animation (0:45-1:10)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?

v=82KHGne2TOw

50

Trays: Diameter Calculation Methods

• “C” Factor Method: Pg. 19-10

– Souders-Brown equation method / Stokes law (similar to vessels)

– Eqs. 19-11, 19-12, Fig. 19-13

• Nomograph Method: Pgs. 19-11, Fig. 19-15

– Utilize figure with liquid rate and Vload

• Hand Method: Pg. 19-13, Eqs. 19-14 to 19-21

– Closest to vendor sizing programs

– Utilizes system (foaming) factor: Fig. 19-16

– Downcomer velocity (liquid): Eq 19-14 & Fig. 19-17

– Capacity factor (vapor): Eq. 19-15 & Fig. 19-18

– Calculates flow path length across tray and downcomer area to

determine tower diameter

• Example 19-3 compares all three methods

51

System Factors (Fig. 19-16)

• The system factor adjusts

the following parameters

to account for foaming /

other inefficiencies:

– Capacity factor (vapor)

– Downcomer velocity (liquid)

• Required by some

computer sizing programs

• Figure 19-16 provides:

– Specific values for systems

– General correlation based

on density

52

Section 19 – Fractionation:

Example Problems

1. Trayed Tower Sizing: Determine deethanizer tower

diameter using trays

2. Packed Tower Sizing: Determine deethanizer tower

diameter using packing

53

Problem #1: Trayed Tower Diameter

• Scope: Trayed deethanizer fractionation tower

• Problem basis:

– Sweet-Rich composition

– C2 Spec (vol%):

• C1 = 3% (max)

• C2 = 95% (min)

• C3 = 5% (max)

– C3+ Spec:

• vapor pressure < 208psia @ 100°F

– Assume 2-pass trays

• Determine

– required tower diameter using nomograph method (Fig. 19-15) at

top and bottom of tower, and above/below feed tray

54

Problem#1: Stage Data from

Simulation

55

Problem#1: Key Stage Data

Problem #1: Deethanizer Sizing

stage: (ACFM) (CFS) (gpm) (lb/ft3) (lb/ft3)

1 1396 23.27 1135 3.809 24.02

11 1325 22.08 900 3.624 26.02

12 1317 21.95 1813 3.611 27.66

24 1261 21.02 2679 4.746 25.62

56

Problem#1: Calculate Vload

57

Problem #1:

Nomograph

• Stage 1

– Vload = 10.1 ft/s

– Liq = 1135 GPM

Stage 24 diameter=11’3”

• Stage 11 round up to 11’6”

Stage 12 diameter=8’11”

– Vload = 8.9 ft/s Round up to 9’0”

• Stage 12

– Vload = 8.5 ft/s

– Liq = 1813 GPM

• Stage 24

– Vload = 10 ft/s SUMMARY:

TOP DIAMETER: 8’

– Liq = 2679 GPM BOTTOM DIAMETER: 11’6”

Stage 1 diameter=8’0”

Stage 11 diameter=7’3”

round up to 7’6”

Overall Comparison of Problem

Results

• Trayed Tower: Problem #1 GPSA EDB Methods

– Top (stage 1) diameter = 8’ 0”

– Bottom (stage 24) diameter = 11’ 6”

• Trayed Tower: Vendor Software

– Top (stage 1) diameter = 8’ 6” – 9’ 0” (depending on valve

selection)

– Bottom (stage 24) diameter = 11’ - 11’ 6” (dep on valve selection)

59

EDB Fractionation Section 19:

Summary

• Types of Fractionators in the gas processing industry

• Fundamentals: Principles of Fractionation

• Tower Internals and Sizing (diameter)

– Trayed internals (performed simple calculation)

– Packed bed internals (learned about sizing)

• Mechanical Considerations

– Reboilers

– Other internals that impact height (i.e. nozzles, baffles, etc)

– Calculation of tower height

• Heat Integration

• Absorption and Stripping

60

EDB Usage Summary: Best Uses

• Understand the fundamentals of fractionation and towers

• Understand the details required for specifying the tower

(determination of pressure, stages, specifications), sizing (diameter

and height), internals selection, and performance.

• Understand the effect of specifications and design choices on the

final design

• Many tables and figures providing typical values:

– Operating conditions (pressure, reflux ratio, stages, tray efficiency)

– System factors, Packing HETP

• Quick sizing methods when a simulated tower is available.

• Hand method to determine tower design if a simulation isn’t

available, and to understand fundamentals

• Details for determining mechanical and internal details.

61

EDB Usage Summary: Limitations

• Computer simulations are best used for tower design

and optimization (specification operating conditions,

number of stages, tray profiles-vapor/liquid flows,

properties, etc).

• Vendors:

– Software for more rigorous tower sizing (diameter)

– Used for final tray/packing/internals specification and design

– Proprietary internals

62

Short Course “Problem”

Use pieces of the full length course to solve common “problems”

encountered during design and/or evaluation of a Fractionation System:

potential specifications we need to meet?

2. How does Fractionation meet our goal to make higher value products?

3. How do we determine the basic design the mechanical equipment needed

for Fractionation?

a) Design one of the main pieces of equipment, a distillation tower (Deethanizer)

b) Design of vessels (Reflux Accumulator)

c) Design of pumps (Deethanizer Feed Pump)

d) Design of heat exchangers (Feed/Bottoms Cross Exchanger)

4. How is the flow of feed to the Fractionation System controlled?

a) Design of a control valve (feed flow control valve)

b) Design of a flow meter (feed flowmeter)

63

SEPARATION (VESSEL SIZING

AND INTERNALS)

(30 MIN)

2018 1Q Training

Odessa, TX

February 8, 2018

64

Separation Equipment

Section 7

Short Course Block Flow Diagram

66

Learning Objectives

• Understand the fundamentals of separation of gas, liquid

phases, and solids

• Understand the different types of separators and

separation devices used in the industry, their

applications, and characteristics

• Determine how to use the information/tables given in the

Data Book, applicable to separation equipment

• Perform a number of in-class problems to understand

how to utilize the Data Book for separator design and

operation

• Understand the strengths/weaknesses of the information

in the Data Book

67

Full Course Topics

• Block Flow Diagram

• Industry Applications

• Fundamentals of Separation

• Separator Configurations &

Internals

– Horizontal vs. Vertical

– Gas-Liquid

– Gas-Liquid-Liquid

– Liquid-Liquid

• Separator Zones

• Sizing Examples and Methodologies

• Filtration & Coalescing Devices

• Other Separators: Wellhead separators, slug catcher, oil, water, etc.

• Summary: Best Uses and Limitations of the Engineering Data Book

68

Fundamentals

Fundamentals:

• Goal of separation: separate fluid phases

– Gas

– Hydrocarbon liquid

– Aqueous liquid

– Solids

• Principles of physical separation:

– Momentum

– Gravity settling

– Coalescing

• Fluids must be immiscible with different densities

70

Fundamentals: Types of Separators

• Two-Phase Separators:

– Vapor/Liquid

– Liquid/Liquid

– Vapor/Solid

– Liquid/Solid

• Three-Phase Separators:

– Vapor/Liquid/Liquid

– Vapor/Liquid/Solid

71

Info/Organization of EDB Section 7

• Separation theory/fundamentals: Pgs. 7-3 to 7-10

• Gas-liquid re-entrainment: Pg. 7-8

• Mist eliminators: Pgs. 7-10 to 7-12

• Liquid-liquid fundamentals: Pgs. 7-12 to 7-13

• Separator considerations/selection: Pgs. 7-13 to 7-17

• Types of separators: Pgs. 7-17 to 7-23

• Separator zones/sections: Pgs. 7-24 to 7-29

• Sizing examples/methodologies: Pgs. 7-29 to 7-33

• Gas-liquid-liquid design & example: Pgs. 7-34 to 7-38

• Filtration & coalescers: Pgs. 7-39 to 7-42

• Other separators (slug catchers, oil, water): Pgs. 7-43 to 7-46

• Debottlenecking & troubleshooting: Pgs. 7-46 to 7-47

72

Fundamentals: Gravity Separation

• Dispersed phase droplet size distribution: Fig. 7-3

– Impacts difficulty of separation (Fig. 7-4)

– Caused by upstream processing

– Often not known

73

Fundamentals:

Separation by Impingement

• Pg. 7-7

• Inertial impaction: droplets move in straight line and

impinge on a target (mesh, vane, baffle, etc)

• Direct interception: particles are intercept by the target

(secondary mechanism for mesh mist eliminators)

www.harverstandard.com

shreewire.co.in

74

Fundamentals:

Separation by Impingement

• Diffusion: not common, Brownian motion causes

particles to strike a target

• Centrifugal force: radial forces cause particles to

separate outward (i.e. cyclone)

• Coalescing: media causes droplets to combine

• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LuEs

AVFaKHE kelburneng.co.uk

75

energyeducation.ca

Fundamentals: Mist Eliminators

• Pgs. 7-9, Souders-Brown K-values used to quantify

capacity of vendor design

• Mist eliminators are used to enhance liquid removal from

gas streams

• Vane packs: 10-40 micron droplet removal

• Cyclones: Efficient removal at high pressures and

high gas rates → small footprint required

76

Specification & Configurations

Separation: What drives selection?

• Need to prioritize key parameters to determine what will

drive the separator selection:

– Micron rating (particle/droplet size to be removed)

– Pressure drop

– Turndown ability

– Slug handling requirement

– Fouling service

– Gas or liquid controlled

– Ratio of flowrates for each phase

– Design vs. normal operating conditions

78

Horizontal Gas-Liquid Separators

• Horizontal separator

(Fig. 7-25)

– No internals

– Vertical mesh pad or vane

pack

– Horizontal (hanging) mesh

pad

79

Two- and Three-Phase Design &

Operating Principles

• Pgs. 7-23 to 7-29

• Separation Zones: Fig. 7-33

80

Gravity Separation Section

• Pgs. 7-25, 7-26

• Goal to remove bulk of

liquid droplets

• Common calculation

methods:

– Determine max velocity to

avoid re-entrainment

– Use a empirical equation

for maximum gas velocity

(Fig. 7-37)

– Other

81

Liquid Accumulation Section

• Pgs. 7-28, 7-29

• Discussion of level

heights:

Pg. 7-28, Fig. 7-41

• Typical surge & retention

times:

Fig. 7-42

• Degassing of vapors:

Eq. 7-18 to 7-20

• Liquid outlet nozzle

criteria

82

Sizing Methodology:

Horizontal Separator

• EDB: Pgs. 7-31 – 7-33, Example 7-3

• Liquid volume to accommodate surge requirements, accommodate

degassing, etc.

• Gas area above max liquid level to accommodate gas flowrate,

ensure majority of separation upstream of mesh, and to ensure

adequate area for mesh pad (either as hanging or vertical pad)

• Typically start with an assumed liquid full and L/D ratio (i.e. 70% to

LAHH and 3/1 L/D):

– Calculate liquid levels and surge/retention/degassing

– Calculate gas settling zone area (max velocity, check for re-

entrainment)

– Calculate mesh pad area

– Check nozzles and any physical dimensions

– Iterate back if needed, or to optimize vessel diameter

83

Sizing Examples

Section 7 – Separation Equipment:

Problems

1. Separator Selection: what table to use for selection,

what type of separator should be used

2. Vertical Separator Sizing: determine diameter, height,

liquid levels, inlet and gas outlet nozzle sizes, internals

3. Horizontal Separator Sizing: determine diameter, length,

liquid levels, nozzle sizes, internals

85

Problem #3: Separator Sizing

• Scope: NGL fractionation – Deethanizer reflux drum; partially condensing

• Problem basis from rich-sweet composition:

– Operating conditions: – Surge times/internals:

• Temperature: 47.6°F • LLLL to LLL= 1 min

• Pressure: 415.3 psig (430psia) • LLL to HLL = 5 min

• Gas flowrate: 98,084 lb/hr (29.8MMSCFD) • HLL to HHLL = 1 min

• Liquid flowrate: 229,909 lb/hr (1199 gpm) • Use vertical mesh pad

– Physical properties:

• Gas density: 3.779 lb/ft3

• Liquid density: 23.9 lb/ft3

• Mixture density: 9.22 lb/ft3

• Gas viscosity: 0.0109 cP

• Liquid viscosity: 0.0586 cP

• Determine the following

• Diameter

• Length

• Liquid levels

• Nozzle sizes

Problem #3: Preliminary Vessel Size

Preliminary Vessel Size -- Calculate a prelininary vessel size as a starting point to calculate partially filled cylinder areas/volumes. Assume required

liquid surge colume controls separator sizing (as opposed to gas flowrate):

• Use 70% full (typical maximum) to HHLL required total surge time of 7 minutes, with 3:1 L/D, and 18 in. LLLL

LLLL Height 18 inches

surge time 7 min

• Assume 10% of volume for min liquid level (LLLL) and ignore volume in heads, therefore 60% of volume is used for surge time

60% or 0.6

Total vessel volume: Hint: Use Fig. 6-25 in the

(268,200lb/hr • 1hr/60min • 1ft/44.58lb • 7 min)/ 0.6 = 1870 ft

3

EDB to relate height/diameter

229,909 23.9 13988 gal ratio (Zc) to volume for

At 3:1 L/D: partially full cylinders

3 2

volume = 1170 ft = 3 • D • π • (D /2) -> D = 9.3 ft

9.5’ X 28.5’

HHLL

LLLL

Problem #3: Calculate Levels

Therefore preliminary size is 8ft ID x 24 ft T/T D= 9.5 L = 28.5

LLLL H/D = 18” / 114” = 0.158

LLLL = 18 in. (per Fig. 6-24, interpol. fraction of cylinder volume at H/D = 0.10146

LLLL

Problem #3: Calculate Levels

Therefore preliminary size is 8ft ID x 24 ft T/T D= 9.5 L = 28.5

LLLL = 18 in. (per Fig. 6-24, interpol. fraction of cylinder volume at H/D = 0.10146

(750gal/min) • (7min) = 8394 gal

1199

Volume fraction at HHLL =

8394 13988 0.10146

(5250gal/8750gal) + 0.1298 = 0.70146

0.70146

From Fig. 6-24 @ vol. fraction = 0.7298 H/D ~ 0.661

(hence, 70% was an acceptable preliminary assumption)

Therefore H = HHLL = 5.48ft, Use 6.333 ft 6.2795 6'4"

9.5ft X 0.661 = 6.2795ft

Volume fraction at NLL (assume as 3.5 min above LLLL) =

[((750gal/min) • (3.5min))/8750gal] + 0.1298 0.10146 = 0.40146

1199

0.40146

From Fig. 6-24 @vol. fraction = 0.4298, H/D ~ 0.423 4.0185 ft 9.5ft X 0.423 = 4.0185ft

=> NLL = 3.56 ft or Use 4 ft 1 in

4.0185

Summary: HHLL

HHLL = 6’ 4”

HLL = 5’ 8” NLL

NLL = 4’ 1”

LLL=2’ 4” LLLL

LLLL = 1’ 6”

Problem #3: Check Gas Flow

Volume fraction at HHLL =

Check Gas flow factor @HHLL in Gravity Separation Section --

0.70149 9.5ft

2 2

A = (1 - 0.7298)π (8ft/2) = 21.2 ft

Method 2: Use Correlations from Fig. 7-37

V = ((28,910lb/hr)/(0.774lb/ft3) • 1/13.6ft2 • 1hr/3600sec = 0.341 ft/sec

98084 3.779 21.2

Vt (ex7-1) 0.33 ft/sec 200 micron droplet Calculate maximum allowable horizontal velocity via Fig. 7-35b

Vh(7-14) 2.408011 ft/sec assume mesh is 5ft before end T Vmax 1.275179 ft/sec

V

A

Either method:

V < Vhmax

Problem #3: Horizontal Separator

Results

• NGL fractionation – deethanizer

reflux drum: partially condensing

• Vessel Size: 9’ 6” X 28’ 6”

• Vessel levels: HHLL

– LLLL = 1’ 6” NLL

– LLL = 2’ 4” LLLL

– NLL = 4’ 1”

– HLL = 5’ 8”

– HHLL = 6’ 4”

• Nozzles:

– Inlet Nozzle: 10” • Internals:

– Gas Outlet Nozzle: 8” – Inlet Baffle

– Liquid Outlet Nozzle: 12” – Vertical Mesh Pad

91

Short Course “Problem”

Use pieces of the full length course to solve common “problems”

encountered during design and/or evaluation of a Fractionation System:

potential specifications we need to meet?

2. How does Fractionation meet our goal to make higher value products?

3. How do we determine the basic design the mechanical equipment needed

for Fractionation?

a) Design one of the main pieces of equipment, a distillation tower (Deethanizer)

b) Design of vessels (Reflux Accumulator)

c) Design of pumps (Deethanizer Feed Pump)

d) Design of heat exchangers (Feed/Bottoms Cross Exchanger)

4. How is the flow of feed to the Fractionation System controlled?

a) Design of a control valve (feed flow control valve)

b) Design of a flow meter (feed flowmeter)

92

PUMPS (SELECTION AND SIZING)

(20 MIN)

2018 1Q Training

Odessa, TX

February 8, 2018

93

Pumps and Hydraulic Turbines

Section 12

Short Course Block Flow Diagram

95

Learning Objectives

• Understand the different types of pumps used in the

industry, their applications, and characteristics

• Determine how to use the information/tables given in the

Data Book, applicable to pumps & hydraulic turbines

• Perform a number of in-class problems to understand

how to utilize the Data Book for pump design and

operation

• Understand the strengths/weaknesses of the information

in the Data Book

96

Full Course Topics

• Pumps

– Block Flow Diagram

– Industry Application

– Fundamentals

– Pump Types/Applications

– Centrifugal and Positive

Displacement Pumps Focus:

Theory, selection, and

application

– Other Types of Pumps

• Hydraulic Turbines

• Summary: Best Uses / Limitations of the Data Book

97

Fundamentals

• Purpose of pumping:

– Increase the pressure/head of a liquid or supercritical fluid

– Move fluid from point A to point B

• Convert energy to pressure in flowing fluid

• Fundamentals in EDB:

– Pages 12-3 to 12-8 (Figures 12-2 to 12-5)

– Bernoulli’s Theorem, NPSH, differential head

• Fundamentals can apply to any pump type, main

difference is how the machine increases head

98

Fundamentals: Bernoulli’s Theorem

• Total mechanical energy of flowing fluid (gravitational

potential energy, fluid pressure, kinetic energy of fluid)

remains constant:

99

Fundamentals: NPSHA

• NPSHA: Net Positive Suction Head Available

• Primarily a function of fluid vapor pressure, static head,

and suction piping friction (system design):

100

Fundamentals: NPSHR

• NPSHR: Net Positive Suction Head Required

• Primarily a function of pump physical design, speed, and

flowrate (pump design)

• NPSHR Reduction: Fig. 12-5 (vapor/liquid density

relation, critical pressure approach)

101

Fundamentals: Cavitation

• NPSHA > NPSHR to avoid cavitation

• Safety margin: 0.5 - 1 meter between NPSHA, NPSHR

• Cavitation: formation of vapors at pump suction and the

vapors being imploded back into liquid. The energy

transfer causes a shockwave which damages the pump

impeller and internals

• Videos\100_Cavitation1.mp4 (to 3:00 min)

• Videos\100_Cavitation2.mp4 (8:20 to 13:50)

102

Common Equations: Fig. 12-2

Common Equations: Fig. 12-2 (SI)

Pump Types: Centrifugal www.directindustry.com

www.gouldspumps.com

www.aet-ps.com

Pump Types: Reciprocating

www.spxflow.com

www.crosspump.net

www.pumpsandsystems.com

Rotary Pump:

Axial Pump:

www.flowserve.com

Diaphragm Pump:

www.flsmidth.com

Regenerative Pump:

www.corken.com

Key Pump Design Criteria

• Process conditions:

– Inlet/Outlet Pressures or Head

– NPSHA

– Required Flowrate

– Fluid composition: SG/density, vapor pressure, gasses

– Inlet Temperature, viscosity, specific heat

• Operational flexibility:

– Discharge pressure range

– Flow range

– Entrained gasses, solids

108

Pump Types: Selection Metrics

• Centrifugal:

– Benefits: med-high flow, low-high head, low maintenance,

smaller plot space, cost

– Negatives: limited head range with a single pump, plot space

(multi-stage)

• Reciprocating:

– Benefits: high head, high efficiency, low-mid flow, slurries/viscous

fluids

– Negatives: cost, lower reliability/high maintenance, plot space

109

Section 12 – Pumps & Turbines:

Problems

1. Pump Calculation: determine head, NPSHA, HP

2. Pump Selection: determine pump type

3. Pump Selection: determine centrifugal pump type

4. Pump Affinity Laws: determine flowrate, head, BHP

based on new speed

5. Pump Configuration: evaluate vendor offerings and

determine configuration

6. Positive Displacement Pump: determine suction

acceleration head

7. Hydraulic Turbine: evaluate pump/turbine at new

conditions

110

Problem #2: Pump Selection

• Scope: NGL Feed Pump: Storage to Deethanizer

• Problem basis:

– Based on Full Course Problem #1:

• Required Head = 1296 ft. (289 psid)

• Flowrate = 1187 gpm

• Determine pump type using overall pump selection chart

(Fig. 12-3)

111

Problem #2: Pump Selection

axis for the axis for the

bold lines dashed lines

Short Course “Problem”

Use pieces of the full length course to solve common “problems”

encountered during design and/or evaluation of a Fractionation System:

potential specifications we need to meet?

2. How does Fractionation meet our goal to make higher value products?

3. How do we determine the basic design the mechanical equipment needed

for Fractionation?

a) Design one of the main pieces of equipment, a distillation tower (Deethanizer)

b) Design of vessels (Reflux Accumulator)

c) Design of pumps (Deethanizer Feed Pump)

d) Design of heat exchangers (Feed/Bottoms Cross Exchanger)

4. How is the flow of feed to the Fractionation System controlled?

a) Design of a control valve (feed flow control valve)

b) Design of a flow meter (feed flowmeter)

113

HEAT EXCHANGERS

(20 MIN)

2018 1Q Training

Odessa, TX

February 8, 2018

114

Heat Exchangers

Section 9

Short Course Block Flow Diagram

116

Learning Objectives

• Brief overview of the types of heat exchangers discussed

in the Data Book

• Perform some heat exchange problems to become

familiar with heat exchangers and understand how to

utilize the Data Book for heat exchanger design

• Understand possible uses of Data Book information

117

Full Course Topics

• Block Flow Diagram

• Industry Applications

• Heat Transfer and

Heat Exchanger

Fundamentals

• Types of Heat

Exchange Equipment

and their Function www.titanmf.com

– Heat Exchanger Design

– Heat Exchanger Performance

• Summary: Best Uses/Limitations of the Data Book

118

Heat Exchanger Fundamentals

• Energy change in each fluid (heat transferred to/from)

– Latent (∆Phase) and sensible (∆T) energy changes:

119

Heat Exchanger Fundamentals

• Overall energy flow between fluids & across boundary

– EDB Eqs. 9-5 and 9-6

Q = UA (CMTD) Eq. 9-6

• U = Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient, i.e. resistance from

metal and fouling between fluids and fluids themselves

• A = Heat Transfer Area, surface of metal that fluids are in

contact with between each other

• LMTD = Log Mean Temperature Difference, composite of

cold end and hot end ∆T

• CMTD = Corrected LMTD = (LMTD)*(F)

• F = multi-pass correction factor

• Q(overall) is equal to Q(individual fluids)

120

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient – U

• What's in the EDB?:

– Typical Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients EDB Fig. 9-9

– Metal Thermal Conductivities EDB Fig. 9-8

– Typical Fouling Resistances EDB Figs. 9-9 (S&T), 9-45 (PHE)

– Film Resistance comparisons EDB Figs. 9-10 and 9-11

121

Section 9 – Heat Exchangers:

Problems

1. Heat Exchanger: Single Fluid Side Calculation

2. Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger: Overall Calculation

3. Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger: Exchanger Rating and

Re-use (walk through)

122

Problem #2 – Heat Exchanger

Overall Calculation

• Scope: Deethanizer Feed/Bottoms Exchanger

• Problem basis:

– Operating conditions/physical properties:

• Cold C2+ NGL Feed:

– Temperatures: Tc-in = 79.4°F, Tc-out = 105°F (desired)

• Hot C3+ Bottoms:

– Temperatures: Th-in = 239.7°F, Th-out = 206.6°F (Problem #1 result)

• Heat duty: Q=5.26 MMBTU/hr

• Overall heat transfer coefficient: U = 74 BTU/hr*ft2*°F

• Exchanger configuration: 1 shell pass, 2 tube passes

• Determine:

– Log mean temperature difference (LMTD) (°F)

– LMTD correction factor

– CMTD

– Exchanger area (ft2)

Problem #2: Determine LMTD

Th in=239.7F

GTTD=134.7°F Th out=206.6F

LTTD=127.2°F

Tc out=105F

Tc in=79.4F

Heat Transferred

124

Problem #2: Determine LMTD

GTTD=134.7°F

LTTD=127.2°F

134.7 127.2

130.9

134.7

127.2

Problem #2: Determine LMTD Correction

Factor

F1 = 0.99

239.7 206.6

R 1.293

105 79.4

105 79.4

P 0.1597

239.7 79.4

T1=239.7°F

t2=105°F

t1=79.4°F

T2=206.6°F

Problem #2:

Determine Heat Transfer Area

A

∗

127

Problem#2: Overall Results & Uses

• Desired results: determine:

– Log mean temperature difference (LMTD) = 130.9°F

– LMTD correction factor = 0.99

– CMTD = 129.6°F

– Exchanger area = 548 ft2

• Once surface area is fixed, all resulting parameters

(outlet temperature, duty) become dependent on:

– Cleanliness of exchanger (compared to design fouling factor)

– Fluid properties (compared to design conditions)

– Fluid flowrates (compared to design conditions)

128

Short Course “Problem”

Use pieces of the full length course to solve common “problems”

encountered during design and/or evaluation of a Fractionation System:

potential specifications we need to meet?

2. How does Fractionation meet our goal to make higher value products?

3. How do we determine the basic design the mechanical equipment needed

for Fractionation?

a) Design one of the main pieces of equipment, a distillation tower (Deethanizer)

b) Design of vessels (Reflux Accumulator)

c) Design of pumps (Deethanizer Feed Pump)

d) Design of heat exchangers (Feed/Bottoms Cross Exchanger)

4. How is the flow of feed to the Fractionation System controlled?

a) Design of a control valve (feed flow control valve)

b) Design of a flow meter (feed flowmeter)

129

INSTRUMENTATION/CONTROL

VALVES

(20 MIN)

2018 1Q Training

Odessa, TX

February 8, 2018

130

Instrumentation

Section 4

Short Course

Block Flow Diagram 132

Learning Objectives

• Understand the fundamental concepts related to

instrumentation and control; including sensing devices,

control elements (i.e. valves), and control mechanisms

• Understand the methods used to properly size a control

valve

• Determine how to use the information/tables given in the

Data Book, related to instrumentation

• Understand the strengths/weaknesses of the information

in the Data Book

133

Full Course Topics

• Block Flow Diagram

• Industry Application

• Fundamentals/Background:

– Overview of instrumentation/

control systems

• Instrumentation components:

– Sensing devices (brief summary)

– Transmitters (brief summary)

– Control modes/controllers (light education)

– End devices/control valves (detail discussion/calculations)

• Other Info/Computer control systems

• Summary: Best Uses/Limitations of the Data Book

134

Control Valves

Section 4 –Instrumentation

Control Valves: Physical Information

Fig. 4-26

• EDB Pgs. 4-21 to 4-26

• Control valves provide the means to

increase or decrease flow of a fluid

by variable restriction

• Made up of 3 parts:

– Actuator: provides motive force

– Bonnet: provides seal between

process fluid and ambient,

connects stem to valve internals

– Valve Body: provides the

internals that contact the process

fluid for flow control

136

Control Valves: Actuators

• Provide the motive force to move the control valve:

Pneumatic, electric, hydraulic, manual

• A spring moves the valve to its fail safe position (when

no force is applied): Fig. 4-28

– Fail Open (left valve): air to close

– Fail Closed (right valve): air to open

– Fail last: air to both close and open (video)

• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tiyOHzgSa-s (5:37 – 10:30)

Control Valves: Valve Bodies

• EDB Fig. 4-27 shows a typical globe valve

• Contacts the process fluid, restriction

opens or closes causing more or

less fluid to pass through

• Bonnet: provides packing/seal

• Different types:

– Plug Globe (common control valve)

– Cage globe

– Ball

– Butterfly

– Gate

– Others

• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3RAxRed7QuE

(1 min, overview of actuator and types of bodies)

138

www.flowserve.com

Control Valves: Flow Characteristics

• Flow Characteristics: for • EDB Fig. 4-29

globe valves

– Quick opening: @ 50%

travel, 80% of max flow

– Linear: @ 50% travel, 50%

of max flow

– *Equal percentage: @ 50%

travel, ~20% open. Offset

the increased dP of the

system by opening quicker

139

Control Valve Sizing: Liquid Service

• Liquid valve sizing equations and constants: Figs. 4-35, 4-36

– Flow ~ f(Cv, ΔP)

– Cv=valve coefficient: Fig. 4-32/vendor for full open, calculate for req’d Cv

– Nx=constant: Fig. 4-36

– Fp=piping geometry factor: ANSI/ISA S75.01, if no fittings =1

– P1, P2= inlet/outlet pressures

– Specific weight, specific gravity

– Pv= fluid vapor pressure at valve inlet temperature

– FL= from vendor/Fig. 4-32

– FF= liquid critical pressure ratio factor: Fig. 4-33 (with input from Fig. 4-34 or

determine critical pressure for mixture)

140

Section 4 – Instrumentation:

Problems

1. Gas Control Valve Sizing: Calculate required Cv, select

a valve type/size

2. Liquid Control Valve Sizing: Calculate required Cv,

select a valve type/size

141

Problem #2: Select Equation

142

Problem#2: Calculate Req’d Cv

Section 17: Problem #5: 6” Line used for NGL outlet from CPF.

143

Short Course “Problem”

Use pieces of the full length course to solve common “problems”

encountered during design and/or evaluation of a Fractionation System:

potential specifications we need to meet?

2. How does Fractionation meet our goal to make higher value products?

3. How do we determine the basic design the mechanical equipment needed

for Fractionation?

a) Design one of the main pieces of equipment, a distillation tower (Deethanizer)

b) Design of vessels (Reflux Accumulator)

c) Design of pumps (Deethanizer Feed Pump)

d) Design of heat exchangers (Feed/Bottoms Cross Exchanger)

4. How is the flow of feed to the Fractionation System controlled?

a) Design of a control valve (feed flow control valve)

b) Design of a flow meter (feed flowmeter)

144

FLOW MEASUREMENT

(20 MIN)

2018 1Q Training

Odessa, TX

February 8, 2018

145

Short Course Block Flow Diagram

146

Measurement

Section 3

Learning Objectives

• Understand the fundamental concepts related to

measurement devices, which measure the flow of gases

and liquids at wellheads, through facilities, and pipelines

• Understand the equations and calculations required to

determine flow through different measurement devices

• Understand the concepts to determine fluid composition,

by sampling and chromatography

• Determine how to use the information/tables given in the

Data Book, including a number of in-class problems,

related to measurement

• Understand the strengths/weaknesses of the information

in the Data Book

148

Full Course Topics

• Block Flow Diagram

• Industry Applications

• Fundamentals

– Measurement Standards

– Flow calculation guide

• Types of measurement devices/

calculation of flow:

– Gas

– Liquid

• Other measurement devices:

– Meter proving

– Flare measurement

– Other devices

• Sampling/Chromatography

• Summary: Best Uses/Limitations of Data Book

149

Why Measure?

• Custody transfer or sales of fluid/product from one owner

to the next = revenue

• Accounting of process fluid disposition within a plant:

– Inlets: Feed Streams

– Outlets:

• Products

• Waste Streams

• Flare Streams

– Consumption: Fuel Gas

• Control measurement: used for direct process control

• Check measurement: used to verify process flows and

adjust operating parameters

150

Fundamentals

Section 3 – Measurement

Measurement Standards, Pg. 3-3

• American Petroleum Institute (API) Manual of Petroleum

Measurement Standards (MPMS) esp. Chapter 14

152

Flow Calculation Guide, Fig. 3-2

Flow Calculation Guide Equations, Fig. 3-4

Section 3 – Measurement: Problems

1. Gas Orifice: orifice size, calculate ΔP at given flow, plate

thickness

2. Gas Orifice: length requirements

3. Gas Orifice: orifice rating – new conditions

4. Liquid Orifice: orifice size, calculate flow at given ΔP,

plate thickness

5. Liquid Orifice: orifice rating – new conditions

155

Problem #4:

Liquid Orifice Calculation

• Scope: C3+ NGL Feed to • Desired results:

Fractionation Train: – Determine the orifice size

Sweet-Rich Composition based on a differential

pressure of 175 in H2O

• Problem basis:

– Calculate actual flowrate at

– Conditions and flowrate this differential pressure

from Rich-Sweet MB using the selected orifice

(Stream 6) (assume

– Determine the orifice plate

pressure/temperature is

thickness

per stream)

– Relative density at 60°F

(440 psia) = 0.5099

– 6” Sch. 40 Pipe (per

Section 17, Problem #5)

156

Problem#4: Orifice Calculation

Problem #4: Calculate Key (required)

To determine the approximate orifice size required, the

1/2

Qh = Keyl • Fgt • (hw) From Equation 3-7

1/2

or Keyl = Qh / (Fgt • (hw)

1/2 1/2

Fgt = [1.0057/(G) ] • [Gf /Gl] = 1.3755 Fig 3-4

1/2

1.2193 • (50)

(1.3755*175)

158

Problem#4: Determine Key (Fig. 3-13)

Key (req’d)=3914

Use a 4.25in

orifice,

Key (actual)

= 4227

159

Problem#4: Recalculate Flow

Line Size, D = 6.065 in

Orifice Size, d = 4.250 in

Flange Taps

Flowing Temperature = 79.4 °F

Flowing Pressure = psia

Differential = 175 in. of water

Relative Density = 0.5099 0.491346 @ flowing conditions

Key 4227

To determine the flow rate from Fig. 3-4,

1/2

Qh = Keyl • Fgt • (hw) From Equation 3-7

1/2 1/2

Fgt = [1.0057/(G)] • [Gf /Gl] = 1.3825 Fig 3-4

The value of Keyl from Fig. 3-13 is 3345 for an 8.071 in. line

with a 4.0 in. orifice. The value of Fgt is calculated from the Fig. 3-4 equation

Therefore,

1/2

Qh = 3345 • 1.2560 • (36) = 77,309 gal/hr

160

Problem#4: Orifice Thickness

Thickness=0.125in

dP ok

Problem#4: Liquid Orifice Calculation

• C3+ NGL Feed to Fractionation Train: Sweet-Rich Composition

– Conditions and flowrate from Rich-Sweet MB (Stream 6) (assume

pressure/temperature is per stream)

– Relative density at 60°F (440 psia) = 0.5099

– 6” Sch. 40 Pipe (per Section 17, Problem #5)

• Determine the orifice size to accommodate: Use a 4.25in orifice,

Key (actual) = 4227

– Differential pressure = 175 in H2O

• Calculate actual flowrate at this differential pressure using the

selected orifice Q=77,309gph @ 174inH2O

162

SHORT COURSE SUMMARY

(5 MIN)

2018 1Q Training

Odessa, TX

February 8, 2018

163

Short Course “Problem”

Use pieces of the full length course to solve common “problems”

encountered during design and/or evaluation of a Fractionation System:

1. What do our higher value potential products look like and what are

the potential specifications we need to meet?

2. How does Fractionation help to make higher value products?

3. How do we determine the basic design of the mechanical

equipment needed for Fractionation?

a) Design of a major piece of equipment, a distillation tower (Deethanizer)

b) Design of vessels (Reflux Accumulator)

c) Design of pumps (Deethanizer Feed Pump)

d) Design of heat exchangers (Feed/Bottoms Cross Exchanger)

4. How is the flow of feed to the Fractionation System controlled?

a) Design of a control valve (feed flow control valve)

b) Design of a flow meter (feed flowmeter)

164

Short Course Block Flow Diagram

165

Full Course Block Flow Diagram

166

Full Course Outline

GPSA Engineering Data Book Training Class Schedule

Time Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday

730 General Introduction 16‐Hydrocarbon Recovery 9‐Heat Exchangers 13‐Compressors&Expanders 3‐Measurement

745 (60 min) (105 min) (75 min) (240 min) (165 min)

800

815

830 GPA Intro (5 min)

845 1‐Gen, 26‐Mmbr List (15 min) 8‐Fired Equipment

900 BREAK (25 min) BREAK BREAK

915 2‐Product Specs (20 min) BREAK BREAK

930 23‐Physical Properties 19‐Fractionation 10‐Air Cooled Exchangers

945 (40 min) (75 min) (25 min)

1000 11‐Cooling Towers (15 min)

1015 24‐Thermo Properties 12‐Pumps & Hyd Turbines

1030 (25 min) (195 min) BREAK Summary of Course (10 min)

1045 BREAK BREAK BREAK BREAK

1100 25‐Phase Equilibria (15 min) 14‐Refrigeration Pumps (cont) Final Exam

1115 21‐Hydrocarbon Treating (75 min) (60 min)

1130 (90 min)

1145

1200 LUNCH LUNCH LUNCH LUNCH Finish & Wrap Up

1215

1230 HC Treating (cont.) Refrig. (cont.) Pumps (cont) 4‐Instrumentation

1245 18‐Utilities (120 min)

100 (30 min)

115 20‐Dehydration 6‐Storage (15 min)

130 (180 min) 7‐Separation

145 (180 min)

200 BREAK BREAK BREAK

215 Dehy (cont.) BREAK

230 15‐Prime Movers (15 min)

245 17‐Fluid Flow&Piping 5‐Relief Systems

300 (135 min) (150 min)

315 BREAK

330

345 BREAK BREAK BREAK

400 Dehy (cont.)

415

430

445 22‐Sulfur Recovery

500 (30 min)

515

Thank You!

Engineering Data Book: Introduction to

the Week-Long Training Class

168

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