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Getting Full Use Out of the GPSA

Engineering Data Book:


Introduction to the Week-Long
Training Class

2018 1Q Training
Odessa, TX
February 8, 2018
Short Course Introduction
• Presenter:
– John Jechura
• Short Course Goals:
– Provide an introduction into the week-long GPSA Engineering
Data Book Course
– Provide both in-depth and abbreviated review of numerous
course sections, in order to provide attendees with an
understanding of the lecturing concepts and types of problems
that are performed during the full length class
– Allow attendees to see how the full week long course would
benefit their daily work activities

2
Short Course Format
• Use pieces of the full length course to accomplish a
single, focused “goal”:
– Demonstrating various stages of the design and/or evaluation of
a single type of facility
– Convert Y-Grade NGL feed to higher value hydrocarbon products
(i.e. ethane, propane, butane, etc.)
– This will be accomplished by Fractionation
• We will focus only on a few portions of the data book
class that can be directly used in developing and/or
evaluating the Fractionation facility
• Examples today are in FPS units.
– The GPSA Engineering Data Book is available in both an FPS
and an SI (metric) version

3
Short Course Outline
• Introduction (15 min)
• NGL Fractionation & Product Specs [Sect 19, 2] (20 min)
• Tower Sizing & Internals [Sect. 19] (20 min)
• Separations: Vessel Sizing & Internals [Sect. 7] (30 min)
• Break (30-60 min)
• Pumps [Sect 12] (20 min)
• Heat Exchangers [Sect 9] (20 min)
• Control Valves [Sect 4] (20 min)
• Flow Measurement [Sect 3] (20 min)
• Summary (5 min)

4
GPSA Engineering Data Book
Training & Certification Course

Introduction
Full Course Learning Objectives
• Learn
– Understand what information is provided in the Data Book and
how it applies to the natural gas industry
• Interact
– Work through classroom problems to understand how to use the
detailed information and shortcut methods in the Data Book
• Apply
– Understand how to best utilize the Data Book for daily gas
processing / midstream job functions:
• Design engineer (both engineering firm and operating
company)
• Facilities engineer
• Operations

6
Full Course Learning Objectives
• The focus is not to teach gas processing, nor read you
the Data Book word for word. Purpose is to teach how to
use the Data Book for gas processing
– i.e. we must teach some fundamentals!
• Have Fun!

7
Full Course Material & Handouts
• GPSA Engineering Data Book (EDB)
– Fourteenth Edition, 2017
• Power Point presentations on each section
• Handouts (what’s in front of you):
– Course Outline
– Problem basis handout (all sections)
– Block Flow Diagram
– Heat and Material Balances
– Flash drive

8
Full Course Instructors
Tim Rollenhagen, P.E., P.Eng.
• Anadarko (1 yrs)
– Proc./Mech. Discipline Lead
• AECOM & CH2MHill (15 yrs)
• Colorado State University, 2002
• Member of EDB Editorial Review Board
• Gas Processing Experience (Design):
– Gas & liquids treating/sweetening
– Sour gas & CO2 processing
– NGL recovery & fractionation
– Gathering systems/pipelines/slug analysis
– Produced water treating, emission control
– RAM analysis, nuclear & chemical weapons disassembly
– All phases of design: feasibility → startup & debottlenecking

9
Full Course Instructors
John Jechura
• Colorado School of Mines (19 years)
– Professor of Practice
– Adjunct Assistant Professor:
– Gas Processing, Petroleum Refining,
Energy Technology
• AECOM (10 years)
– Process Department Manager
• Other companies (27 years total)
– National Renewable Energy Laboratory
– Marathon Oil Company
• University of Michigan, 1980
• GPA – Chairman Computer Applications
(now defunct)

10
Full Course Block Flow Diagram
11
Full Course Material Balances

12
Full Course Section Level of Detail
• In depth/task oriented (1.5 – 4 hrs/section)
– Thorough review of entire EDB section
– Numerous example problems, some in detail
– Become familiar with GPSA EDB spreadsheets

• Light Education (45min – 1.5hrs/section)


– Overview of fundamentals
– Some example problems, mostly quick exercises
– Some topics may be skipped
• Very Brief (15min – 30min/section)
– High level summary of content

13
Full Course Outline
GPSA Engineering Data Book Training Class Schedule
Time Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
730 General Introduction 16‐Hydrocarbon Recovery 9‐Heat Exchangers 13‐Compressors&Expanders 3‐Measurement
745 (60 min) (105 min) (75 min) (240 min) (165 min)
800
815
830 GPA Intro (5 min)
845 1‐Gen, 26‐Mmbr List (15 min) 8‐Fired Equipment
900 BREAK (25 min) BREAK BREAK
915 2‐Product Specs (20 min) BREAK BREAK
930 23‐Physical Properties 19‐Fractionation 10‐Air Cooled Exchangers
945 (40 min) (75 min) (25 min)
1000 11‐Cooling Towers (15 min)
1015 24‐Thermo Properties 12‐Pumps & Hyd Turbines
1030 (25 min) (195 min) BREAK Summary of Course (10 min)
1045 BREAK BREAK BREAK BREAK
1100 25‐Phase Equilibria (15 min) 14‐Refrigeration Pumps (cont) Final Exam
1115 21‐Hydrocarbon Treating (75 min) (60 min)
1130 (90 min)
1145
1200 LUNCH LUNCH LUNCH LUNCH Finish & Wrap Up
1215
1230 HC Treating (cont.) Refrig. (cont.) Pumps (cont) 4‐Instrumentation
1245 18‐Utilities (120 min)
100 (30 min)
115 20‐Dehydration 6‐Storage (15 min)
130 (180 min) 7‐Separation
145 (180 min)
200 BREAK BREAK BREAK
215 Dehy (cont.) BREAK
230 15‐Prime Movers (15 min)
245 17‐Fluid Flow&Piping 5‐Relief Systems
300 (135 min) (150 min)
315 BREAK
330
345 BREAK BREAK BREAK
400 Dehy (cont.)
415
430
445 22‐Sulfur Recovery
500 (30 min)
515
530
Short Course Block Flow Diagram

15
Short Course “Problem”
Use pieces of the full length course to solve common “problems”
encountered during design and/or evaluation of a Fractionation System:

1. What do our higher value potential products look like and what are the
potential specifications we need to meet?
2. How does Fractionation meet our goal to make higher value products?
3. How do we determine the basic design the mechanical equipment needed
for Fractionation?
a) Design one of the main pieces of equipment, a distillation tower (Deethanizer)
b) Design of vessels (Reflux Accumulator)
c) Design of pumps (Deethanizer Feed Pump)
d) Design of heat exchangers (Feed/Bottoms Cross Exchanger)
4. How is the flow of feed to the Fractionation System controlled?
a) Design of a control valve (feed flow control valve)
b) Design of a flow meter (feed flowmeter)

16
Short Course “Problem”
Use pieces of the full length course to solve common “problems”
encountered during design and/or evaluation of a Fractionation System:

1. What do our higher value potential products look like and what are the
potential specifications we need to meet?
2. How does Fractionation meet our goal to make higher value products?
3. How do we determine the basic design the mechanical equipment needed
for Fractionation?
a) Design one of the main pieces of equipment, a distillation tower (Deethanizer)
b) Design of vessels (Reflux Accumulator)
c) Design of pumps (Deethanizer Feed Pump)
d) Design of heat exchangers (Feed/Bottoms Cross Exchanger)
4. How is the flow of feed to the Fractionation System controlled?
a) Design of a control valve (feed flow control valve)
b) Design of a flow meter (feed flowmeter)

17
NGL FRACTIONATION AND
PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS
(20 MIN)

2018 1Q Training
Odessa, TX
February 8, 2018

18
Product Specifications

EDB Section 2
Learning Objectives
• Summary of Product Specifications section
• Understand what information is provided in the Data
Book and how to use it for daily activities
• Understand why specifications are important to the gas
processing/midstream industry and how they impact the
extent of processing
• Review test method references

20
Short Course Block Flow Diagram

21
What’s in a Product Specification
• Hydrocarbon component limits (% min/max)
• Contaminant limits (% or ppm min/max)
• Water or Moisture limits
• Operating condition limits:
– temperature
– pressure
• Other limits:
– Vapor pressure (TVP and RVP)
– Heating value
– Color
• Reporting requirements

22
Why Do Specifications Exist?
• Safety (H2S, O2)
• Heating value (common design of power generator
combustors, home furnaces, water heaters, etc.)
• Avoid freezing (H2O, CO2)
• Avoid liquids in pipelines, end users (dew point, heavy
hydrocarbon content)
• Effect on downstream equipment (mercury)
• Environmental/emissions (total sulfur)

23
Information in the EDB
• Specifications are set by pipeline/end user authority,
therefore there are limited single “standards” applicable
to any given product
• There are standards available, but producer/buyer may
not require those standards:
– GPA Std. 2140: LPG Specifications
– GPA Std. 2108: Fractionation Grade Product Specifications
• EDB figures are provided for reference of various types
of specifications, but are not all-inclusive
• EDB information is based on typical U.S. specifications

24
Liquid Specifications in EDB
• Commercial Grade LPGs (HD-5 Propane): EDB Figs. 2-
1, 2-5
• Fractionation Grade NGLs: EDB Fig. 2-2
• Ethane (range): EDB Fig. 2-3
• Y-Grade Product: EDB Fig. 2-9
• Other
– Propane water content: EDB Fig. 2-6
– Copper Strip Test: EDB Fig 2-7

25
What’s in the Table?

26
EDB Usage: Best Uses / Limitations
• Great starting point and quick reference for typical gas
and liquid specifications
• Great location to go for test method references
• Sulfur calculation, definitions for copper strip test

• Different pipelines/end-users have different


specifications, which could deviate from the EDB
• Specs could change over time so EDB info could be
outdated

27
Short Course “Problem”
Use pieces of the full length course to solve common “problems”
encountered during design and/or evaluation of a Fractionation System:

1. What do our higher value potential products look like and what are the
potential specifications we need to meet?
2. How does Fractionation meet our goal to make higher value products?
3. How do we determine the basic design the mechanical equipment needed
for Fractionation?
a) Design one of the main pieces of equipment, a distillation tower (Deethanizer)
b) Design of vessels (Reflux Accumulator)
c) Design of pumps (Deethanizer Feed Pump)
d) Design of heat exchangers (Feed/Bottoms Cross Exchanger)
4. How is the flow of feed to the Fractionation System controlled?
a) Design of a control valve (feed flow control valve)
b) Design of a flow meter (feed flowmeter)

28
Fractionation & Absorption

Section 19
Learning Objectives
• Summary of fundamentals of fractionation and
absorption section in the Data Book
• Understanding of NGL fractionation
• Perform quick tower sizing exercises for both trayed and
packed towers
• Understand best uses of Data Book information

30
Full Course Topics
• Block Flow Diagram/Industry Application
• Types of Fractionators
• Fundamentals: Principles of Fractionation
• Tower Internals and Sizing (diameter)
– Trayed internals
– Packed bed internals
• Mechanical Considerations
– Reboilers
– Other internals that impact height (i.e. nozzles, baffles, etc)
• Heat Integration
• Absorption and Stripping
• Summary: Best Uses/Limitations of the Data Book

31
Short Course Block Flow Diagram

32
Applications: Types & Products
• EDB Pg. 19-4
• Bulk hydrocarbon fractionators:
– Gas demethanizer: leanest gas, C2+
– Gas deethanizer: lean gas, C3+
– Condensate stabilizer: C4- to gas, C5+ liquid
product
– NGL stabilizer: C2-/C1 to gas, C3+/C2+ liquid
• NGL product fractionators:
– Deethanizer: C2 product, C3+ liquid bottoms
– Depropanizer: C3 product, C4+ liquid bottoms
– Debutanizer: C4 product, C5+ bottoms
– Butane splitter (deisobutanizer): iC4, nC4 products
– Ethane/propane fractionator (depropanizer): C2/C3 product
– Propane/butane fractionator (debutanizer): C3/C4 product

33
Fundamentals:
Principles of Fractionation
• Separation by relative volatility, Eq. 19-2
– Light key: desired overhead component
– Heavy key: desired bottoms
• Typical fractionation tower:
– Rectifying section: heavy key component
from feed vapor is absorbed into falling
liquid
– Condenser: cooled overhead, condenses
vapor, generating liquid for rectifying
section
– Stripping section: light key component is
stripped from liquid by gas from reboiler
– Reboiler, generates vapor for stripping
section

34
Fundamentals:
Principles of Fractionation
• Equilibrium stage concept: Fig. 19-3
– Series of equilibrium staged flashes
– Component purity increases further
along the tower
• Light key increases up the tower
• Heavy key increases down the tower
• Product Specifications: Section 2
– Final product specifications will
determine the complexity of the
fractionation unit:
• # of stages
• Reboiler/condenser duty

35
Fundamentals:
Design Considerations
• EDB Pgs. 19-5 to 19-8
• Operating pressure: chosen to minimize duties, also
considering feed/product transport (i.e.
pumping/compression)
– Higher pressure: higher cooling/heating temperatures
– Pressure limited by fluid critical pressure
– Condensing media (air, cooling water, refrigeration)
• Reflux ratio: Qty. of reflux/qty. of overhead product
• Number of stages: qty. of equilibrium stages
• Higher RR, higher duties, lower stages (higher OPEX)
• Lower RR, lower duties, more stages (higher CAPEX)

36
NGL Fractionation Train: Fig. 19-4
NGL Fractionation Train with DIB
ETHANE PRODUCT

RAW NGL
FEED
DEETHANIZER

ISOBUTANE
PROPANE PRODUCT
BUTANE SPLITTER
DEPROPANIZER
C3+
V-34

MIXED C4
PRODUCT
N-BUTANE
DEBUTANIZER
C4+
V-35

NATURAL GASOLINE
Short Course “Problem”
Use pieces of the full length course to solve common “problems”
encountered during design and/or evaluation of a Fractionation System:

1. What do our higher value potential products look like and what are the
potential specifications we need to meet?
2. How does Fractionation meet our goal to make higher value products?
3. How do we determine the basic design the mechanical equipment needed
for Fractionation?
a) Design one of the main pieces of equipment, a distillation tower (Deethanizer)
b) Design of vessels (Reflux Accumulator)
c) Design of pumps (Deethanizer Feed Pump)
d) Design of heat exchangers (Feed/Bottoms Cross Exchanger)
4. How is the flow of feed to the Fractionation System controlled?
a) Design of a control valve (feed flow control valve)
b) Design of a flow meter (feed flowmeter)

39
TOWER SIZING AND INTERNALS
(20 MIN)

2018 1Q Training
Odessa, TX
February 8, 2018

40
Fractionation & Absorption

Section 19
Short Course Block Flow Diagram

42
Fundamentals:
Design Considerations
• Minimum stages:
theoretical minimum
number of stages for a
specific separation,
occurs at total reflux
– Eq. 19-3 to 19-6
• Minimum reflux ratio:
theoretical minimum
reflux ratio for a specific
separation, occurs at
infinite number of stages
– Eq. 19-7, 19-8

43
Fundamentals:
Determining # of Stages
• Fractionation calculations are labor intensive:
– Optimization between CAPEX (tower height, # of stages, tower
diameter) and OPEX (reboiler/condenser duty)
– A computer simulation is best used for tower calculation, to
perform multiple iterations and determine optimum configuration
– Manual computation method provided in EDB pg. 19-8, also
performed in example 19-2:
• Establish feed conditions, operating temperature/pressure
• Establish product splits, condenser & reboiler temperature
• Determine minimum stages
• Determine minimum reflux ratio
• Determine actual # of stages (good starting point is to use
1.3x minimum reflux ratio for operating reflux ratio)

44
Fundamentals:
Typical Parameters

45
Fundamentals:
Typical Parameters (SI)

46
Fundamentals: Tower Design
• Utilize simulation for quick calculation/optimization
• Define feed conditions (flow, temperature, pressure)
• Define product specifications required
• Determine condensing medium (temperature) available, set tower
pressure based on heat transfer approach (Pg. 19-6), keeping within
range of Fig. 19-20 (< 80% critical pressure)
• Utilize Fig. 19-20 for starting points for:
– Number of stages (actual trays X tray efficiency)
– Reflux ratio
• Evaluate range of operation, i.e. changing reflux ratio and # of
stages to optimize:
– OPEX (reboiler duty), CAPEX (tower height, tower diameter)
– Remain above min reflux ratio, min stages
– Feed location
• Shortcut: find # stages/RR where change becomes minimal

47
Internals: Tray Design
• Based on gas and liquid rates through tower:
– Number of valves (gas rate)
– Size/dimensions of downcomers (liquid rate)
• Number of tray passes: Fig. 19-13
– Higher liquid rates → larger downcomers, more passes
– Larger diameter towers → more passes
• Tray spacing:
– Dependent on density difference (liquid – vapor)
– Higher vapor density → higher tray spacing
– Fig. 19-16, 19-17
• Tray efficiency: Pg. 19-15, Eq. 19-22, Ex. 19-4
– Fig. 19-19 (based on relative volatility, viscosity)
– Fig. 19-20 (typical parameters)

48
Internals: Trays
• EDB Pgs. 19-10 to 19-16
• Liquid flows down across tray
• Vapor flows up through tray: Fig. 19-10
– valves, sieves, bubble caps
• Many types, selection is dependent on:
– Cost
– Vapor/liquid loading
– Turndown requirement
• Diameter of tower is set to optimize flow/mass transfer,
minimizing diameter (cost), limited by:
– *Jet flooding (vapor limit)
– Downcomer flooding and backup (liquid limit)

49
Internals: Trays
• Figure 19-12 shows
operational boundaries:
• Bubble cap tower
animation:
– Shows normal operation
– Shows a flooded tower
https://vimeo.com/35147140
• Another bubble cap tower
animation (0:45-1:10)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=82KHGne2TOw

50
Trays: Diameter Calculation Methods
• “C” Factor Method: Pg. 19-10
– Souders-Brown equation method / Stokes law (similar to vessels)
– Eqs. 19-11, 19-12, Fig. 19-13
• Nomograph Method: Pgs. 19-11, Fig. 19-15
– Utilize figure with liquid rate and Vload
• Hand Method: Pg. 19-13, Eqs. 19-14 to 19-21
– Closest to vendor sizing programs
– Utilizes system (foaming) factor: Fig. 19-16
– Downcomer velocity (liquid): Eq 19-14 & Fig. 19-17
– Capacity factor (vapor): Eq. 19-15 & Fig. 19-18
– Calculates flow path length across tray and downcomer area to
determine tower diameter
• Example 19-3 compares all three methods

51
System Factors (Fig. 19-16)
• The system factor adjusts
the following parameters
to account for foaming /
other inefficiencies:
– Capacity factor (vapor)
– Downcomer velocity (liquid)
• Required by some
computer sizing programs
• Figure 19-16 provides:
– Specific values for systems
– General correlation based
on density

52
Section 19 – Fractionation:
Example Problems
1. Trayed Tower Sizing: Determine deethanizer tower
diameter using trays
2. Packed Tower Sizing: Determine deethanizer tower
diameter using packing

53
Problem #1: Trayed Tower Diameter
• Scope: Trayed deethanizer fractionation tower
• Problem basis:
– Sweet-Rich composition
– C2 Spec (vol%):
• C1 = 3% (max)
• C2 = 95% (min)
• C3 = 5% (max)
– C3+ Spec:
• vapor pressure < 208psia @ 100°F
– Assume 2-pass trays
• Determine
– required tower diameter using nomograph method (Fig. 19-15) at
top and bottom of tower, and above/below feed tray

54
Problem#1: Stage Data from
Simulation

55
Problem#1: Key Stage Data

Problem #1: Deethanizer Sizing

Simulation  Vapor rate  Vapor rate  Liquid rate  v  l  


stage: (ACFM) (CFS) (gpm) (lb/ft3) (lb/ft3)
1 1396 23.27 1135 3.809 24.02
11 1325 22.08 900 3.624 26.02
12 1317 21.95 1813 3.611 27.66
24 1261 21.02 2679 4.746 25.62

56
Problem#1: Calculate Vload

57
Problem #1:
Nomograph
• Stage 1
– Vload = 10.1 ft/s
– Liq = 1135 GPM
Stage 24 diameter=11’3”
• Stage 11 round up to 11’6”

Stage 12 diameter=8’11”
– Vload = 8.9 ft/s Round up to 9’0”

– Liq = 900 GPM


• Stage 12
– Vload = 8.5 ft/s
– Liq = 1813 GPM
• Stage 24
– Vload = 10 ft/s SUMMARY:
TOP DIAMETER: 8’
– Liq = 2679 GPM BOTTOM DIAMETER: 11’6”

Stage 1 diameter=8’0”

Stage 11 diameter=7’3”
round up to 7’6”
Overall Comparison of Problem
Results
• Trayed Tower: Problem #1 GPSA EDB Methods
– Top (stage 1) diameter = 8’ 0”
– Bottom (stage 24) diameter = 11’ 6”
• Trayed Tower: Vendor Software
– Top (stage 1) diameter = 8’ 6” – 9’ 0” (depending on valve
selection)
– Bottom (stage 24) diameter = 11’ - 11’ 6” (dep on valve selection)

59
EDB Fractionation Section 19:
Summary
• Types of Fractionators in the gas processing industry
• Fundamentals: Principles of Fractionation
• Tower Internals and Sizing (diameter)
– Trayed internals (performed simple calculation)
– Packed bed internals (learned about sizing)
• Mechanical Considerations
– Reboilers
– Other internals that impact height (i.e. nozzles, baffles, etc)
– Calculation of tower height
• Heat Integration
• Absorption and Stripping

60
EDB Usage Summary: Best Uses
• Understand the fundamentals of fractionation and towers
• Understand the details required for specifying the tower
(determination of pressure, stages, specifications), sizing (diameter
and height), internals selection, and performance.
• Understand the effect of specifications and design choices on the
final design
• Many tables and figures providing typical values:
– Operating conditions (pressure, reflux ratio, stages, tray efficiency)
– System factors, Packing HETP
• Quick sizing methods when a simulated tower is available.
• Hand method to determine tower design if a simulation isn’t
available, and to understand fundamentals
• Details for determining mechanical and internal details.

61
EDB Usage Summary: Limitations
• Computer simulations are best used for tower design
and optimization (specification operating conditions,
number of stages, tray profiles-vapor/liquid flows,
properties, etc).
• Vendors:
– Software for more rigorous tower sizing (diameter)
– Used for final tray/packing/internals specification and design
– Proprietary internals

62
Short Course “Problem”
Use pieces of the full length course to solve common “problems”
encountered during design and/or evaluation of a Fractionation System:

1. What do our higher value potential products look like and what are the
potential specifications we need to meet?
2. How does Fractionation meet our goal to make higher value products?
3. How do we determine the basic design the mechanical equipment needed
for Fractionation?
a) Design one of the main pieces of equipment, a distillation tower (Deethanizer)
b) Design of vessels (Reflux Accumulator)
c) Design of pumps (Deethanizer Feed Pump)
d) Design of heat exchangers (Feed/Bottoms Cross Exchanger)
4. How is the flow of feed to the Fractionation System controlled?
a) Design of a control valve (feed flow control valve)
b) Design of a flow meter (feed flowmeter)

63
SEPARATION (VESSEL SIZING
AND INTERNALS)
(30 MIN)

2018 1Q Training
Odessa, TX
February 8, 2018

64
Separation Equipment

Section 7
Short Course Block Flow Diagram

66
Learning Objectives
• Understand the fundamentals of separation of gas, liquid
phases, and solids
• Understand the different types of separators and
separation devices used in the industry, their
applications, and characteristics
• Determine how to use the information/tables given in the
Data Book, applicable to separation equipment
• Perform a number of in-class problems to understand
how to utilize the Data Book for separator design and
operation
• Understand the strengths/weaknesses of the information
in the Data Book

67
Full Course Topics
• Block Flow Diagram
• Industry Applications
• Fundamentals of Separation
• Separator Configurations &
Internals
– Horizontal vs. Vertical
– Gas-Liquid
– Gas-Liquid-Liquid
– Liquid-Liquid
• Separator Zones
• Sizing Examples and Methodologies
• Filtration & Coalescing Devices
• Other Separators: Wellhead separators, slug catcher, oil, water, etc.
• Summary: Best Uses and Limitations of the Engineering Data Book

68
Fundamentals

Section 7 – Separation Equipment


Fundamentals:
• Goal of separation: separate fluid phases
– Gas
– Hydrocarbon liquid
– Aqueous liquid
– Solids
• Principles of physical separation:
– Momentum
– Gravity settling
– Coalescing
• Fluids must be immiscible with different densities

70
Fundamentals: Types of Separators
• Two-Phase Separators:
– Vapor/Liquid
– Liquid/Liquid
– Vapor/Solid
– Liquid/Solid

• Three-Phase Separators:
– Vapor/Liquid/Liquid
– Vapor/Liquid/Solid

71
Info/Organization of EDB Section 7
• Separation theory/fundamentals: Pgs. 7-3 to 7-10
• Gas-liquid re-entrainment: Pg. 7-8
• Mist eliminators: Pgs. 7-10 to 7-12
• Liquid-liquid fundamentals: Pgs. 7-12 to 7-13
• Separator considerations/selection: Pgs. 7-13 to 7-17
• Types of separators: Pgs. 7-17 to 7-23
• Separator zones/sections: Pgs. 7-24 to 7-29
• Sizing examples/methodologies: Pgs. 7-29 to 7-33
• Gas-liquid-liquid design & example: Pgs. 7-34 to 7-38
• Filtration & coalescers: Pgs. 7-39 to 7-42
• Other separators (slug catchers, oil, water): Pgs. 7-43 to 7-46
• Debottlenecking & troubleshooting: Pgs. 7-46 to 7-47

72
Fundamentals: Gravity Separation
• Dispersed phase droplet size distribution: Fig. 7-3
– Impacts difficulty of separation (Fig. 7-4)
– Caused by upstream processing
– Often not known

73
Fundamentals:
Separation by Impingement
• Pg. 7-7
• Inertial impaction: droplets move in straight line and
impinge on a target (mesh, vane, baffle, etc)
• Direct interception: particles are intercept by the target
(secondary mechanism for mesh mist eliminators)

www.harverstandard.com

shreewire.co.in

74
Fundamentals:
Separation by Impingement
• Diffusion: not common, Brownian motion causes
particles to strike a target
• Centrifugal force: radial forces cause particles to
separate outward (i.e. cyclone)
• Coalescing: media causes droplets to combine
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LuEs
AVFaKHE kelburneng.co.uk

75
energyeducation.ca
Fundamentals: Mist Eliminators
• Pgs. 7-9, Souders-Brown K-values used to quantify
capacity of vendor design
• Mist eliminators are used to enhance liquid removal from
gas streams

• Mesh pads: 10 micron droplet removal


• Vane packs: 10-40 micron droplet removal
• Cyclones: Efficient removal at high pressures and
high gas rates → small footprint required

76
Specification & Configurations

Section 7 – Separation Equipment


Separation: What drives selection?
• Need to prioritize key parameters to determine what will
drive the separator selection:
– Micron rating (particle/droplet size to be removed)
– Pressure drop
– Turndown ability
– Slug handling requirement
– Fouling service
– Gas or liquid controlled
– Ratio of flowrates for each phase
– Design vs. normal operating conditions

78
Horizontal Gas-Liquid Separators
• Horizontal separator
(Fig. 7-25)
– No internals
– Vertical mesh pad or vane
pack
– Horizontal (hanging) mesh
pad

79
Two- and Three-Phase Design &
Operating Principles
• Pgs. 7-23 to 7-29
• Separation Zones: Fig. 7-33

80
Gravity Separation Section
• Pgs. 7-25, 7-26
• Goal to remove bulk of
liquid droplets
• Common calculation
methods:
– Determine max velocity to
avoid re-entrainment
– Use a empirical equation
for maximum gas velocity
(Fig. 7-37)
– Other

81
Liquid Accumulation Section
• Pgs. 7-28, 7-29
• Discussion of level
heights:
Pg. 7-28, Fig. 7-41
• Typical surge & retention
times:
Fig. 7-42
• Degassing of vapors:
Eq. 7-18 to 7-20
• Liquid outlet nozzle
criteria

82
Sizing Methodology:
Horizontal Separator
• EDB: Pgs. 7-31 – 7-33, Example 7-3
• Liquid volume to accommodate surge requirements, accommodate
degassing, etc.
• Gas area above max liquid level to accommodate gas flowrate,
ensure majority of separation upstream of mesh, and to ensure
adequate area for mesh pad (either as hanging or vertical pad)
• Typically start with an assumed liquid full and L/D ratio (i.e. 70% to
LAHH and 3/1 L/D):
– Calculate liquid levels and surge/retention/degassing
– Calculate gas settling zone area (max velocity, check for re-
entrainment)
– Calculate mesh pad area
– Check nozzles and any physical dimensions
– Iterate back if needed, or to optimize vessel diameter

83
Sizing Examples

Section 7 – Separation Equipment


Section 7 – Separation Equipment:
Problems
1. Separator Selection: what table to use for selection,
what type of separator should be used
2. Vertical Separator Sizing: determine diameter, height,
liquid levels, inlet and gas outlet nozzle sizes, internals
3. Horizontal Separator Sizing: determine diameter, length,
liquid levels, nozzle sizes, internals

85
Problem #3: Separator Sizing
• Scope: NGL fractionation – Deethanizer reflux drum; partially condensing
• Problem basis from rich-sweet composition:
– Operating conditions: – Surge times/internals:
• Temperature: 47.6°F • LLLL to LLL= 1 min
• Pressure: 415.3 psig (430psia) • LLL to HLL = 5 min
• Gas flowrate: 98,084 lb/hr (29.8MMSCFD) • HLL to HHLL = 1 min
• Liquid flowrate: 229,909 lb/hr (1199 gpm) • Use vertical mesh pad
– Physical properties:
• Gas density: 3.779 lb/ft3
• Liquid density: 23.9 lb/ft3
• Mixture density: 9.22 lb/ft3
• Gas viscosity: 0.0109 cP
• Liquid viscosity: 0.0586 cP
• Determine the following
• Diameter
• Length
• Liquid levels
• Nozzle sizes
Problem #3: Preliminary Vessel Size
Preliminary Vessel Size -- Calculate a prelininary vessel size as a starting point to calculate partially filled cylinder areas/volumes. Assume required
liquid surge colume controls separator sizing (as opposed to gas flowrate):

• Use 70% full (typical maximum) to HHLL required total surge time of 7 minutes, with 3:1 L/D, and 18 in. LLLL
LLLL Height 18 inches
surge time 7 min

• Assume 10% of volume for min liquid level (LLLL) and ignore volume in heads, therefore 60% of volume is used for surge time
60% or 0.6
Total vessel volume: Hint: Use Fig. 6-25 in the
(268,200lb/hr • 1hr/60min • 1ft/44.58lb • 7 min)/ 0.6 = 1870 ft
3
EDB to relate height/diameter
229,909 23.9 13988 gal ratio (Zc) to volume for
At 3:1 L/D: partially full cylinders
3 2
volume = 1170 ft = 3 • D • π • (D /2) -> D = 9.3 ft

Therefore preliminary size is 8ft ID x 24 ft T/T D= 9.5 L = 28.5


9.5’ X 28.5’

HHLL

LLLL
Problem #3: Calculate Levels
Therefore preliminary size is 8ft ID x 24 ft T/T D= 9.5 L = 28.5

Liquid Level Calculation --


LLLL H/D = 18” / 114” = 0.158

LLLL = 18 in. (per Fig. 6-24, interpol. fraction of cylinder volume at H/D = 0.10146

Interpolate between .148 and .168 = vol frac = 0.10146

LLLL
Problem #3: Calculate Levels
Therefore preliminary size is 8ft ID x 24 ft T/T D= 9.5 L = 28.5

Liquid Level Calculation --

LLLL = 18 in. (per Fig. 6-24, interpol. fraction of cylinder volume at H/D = 0.10146

Surge volume (LLLL to HHLL =


(750gal/min) • (7min) = 8394 gal
1199
Volume fraction at HHLL =
8394 13988 0.10146
(5250gal/8750gal) + 0.1298 = 0.70146
0.70146
From Fig. 6-24 @ vol. fraction = 0.7298 H/D ~ 0.661
(hence, 70% was an acceptable preliminary assumption)
Therefore H = HHLL = 5.48ft, Use 6.333 ft 6.2795 6'4"
9.5ft X 0.661 = 6.2795ft
Volume fraction at NLL (assume as 3.5 min above LLLL) =
[((750gal/min) • (3.5min))/8750gal] + 0.1298 0.10146 = 0.40146
1199
0.40146
From Fig. 6-24 @vol. fraction = 0.4298, H/D ~ 0.423 4.0185 ft 9.5ft X 0.423 = 4.0185ft
=> NLL = 3.56 ft or Use 4 ft 1 in
4.0185

Summary: HHLL
HHLL = 6’ 4”
HLL = 5’ 8” NLL
NLL = 4’ 1”
LLL=2’ 4” LLLL
LLLL = 1’ 6”
Problem #3: Check Gas Flow
Volume fraction at HHLL =

(5250gal/8750gal) + 0.1298 = 0.70146


Check Gas flow factor @HHLL in Gravity Separation Section --
0.70149 9.5ft
2 2
A = (1 - 0.7298)π (8ft/2) = 21.2 ft
Method 2: Use Correlations from Fig. 7-37
V = ((28,910lb/hr)/(0.774lb/ft3) • 1/13.6ft2 • 1hr/3600sec = 0.341 ft/sec
98084 3.779 21.2

Method 1: Terminal Velocity for 200micro droplet

Vt (ex7-1) 0.33 ft/sec 200 micron droplet Calculate maximum allowable horizontal velocity via Fig. 7-35b
Vh(7-14) 2.408011 ft/sec assume mesh is 5ft before end T Vmax 1.275179 ft/sec

V
A
Either method:
V < Vhmax
Problem #3: Horizontal Separator
Results
• NGL fractionation – deethanizer
reflux drum: partially condensing
• Vessel Size: 9’ 6” X 28’ 6”
• Vessel levels: HHLL

– LLLL = 1’ 6” NLL

– LLL = 2’ 4” LLLL

– NLL = 4’ 1”
– HLL = 5’ 8”
– HHLL = 6’ 4”
• Nozzles:
– Inlet Nozzle: 10” • Internals:
– Gas Outlet Nozzle: 8” – Inlet Baffle
– Liquid Outlet Nozzle: 12” – Vertical Mesh Pad

91
Short Course “Problem”
Use pieces of the full length course to solve common “problems”
encountered during design and/or evaluation of a Fractionation System:

1. What do our higher value potential products look like and what are the
potential specifications we need to meet?
2. How does Fractionation meet our goal to make higher value products?
3. How do we determine the basic design the mechanical equipment needed
for Fractionation?
a) Design one of the main pieces of equipment, a distillation tower (Deethanizer)
b) Design of vessels (Reflux Accumulator)
c) Design of pumps (Deethanizer Feed Pump)
d) Design of heat exchangers (Feed/Bottoms Cross Exchanger)
4. How is the flow of feed to the Fractionation System controlled?
a) Design of a control valve (feed flow control valve)
b) Design of a flow meter (feed flowmeter)

92
PUMPS (SELECTION AND SIZING)
(20 MIN)

2018 1Q Training
Odessa, TX
February 8, 2018

93
Pumps and Hydraulic Turbines

Section 12
Short Course Block Flow Diagram

95
Learning Objectives
• Understand the different types of pumps used in the
industry, their applications, and characteristics
• Determine how to use the information/tables given in the
Data Book, applicable to pumps & hydraulic turbines
• Perform a number of in-class problems to understand
how to utilize the Data Book for pump design and
operation
• Understand the strengths/weaknesses of the information
in the Data Book

96
Full Course Topics
• Pumps
– Block Flow Diagram
– Industry Application
– Fundamentals
– Pump Types/Applications
– Centrifugal and Positive
Displacement Pumps Focus:
Theory, selection, and
application
– Other Types of Pumps
• Hydraulic Turbines
• Summary: Best Uses / Limitations of the Data Book

97
Fundamentals
• Purpose of pumping:
– Increase the pressure/head of a liquid or supercritical fluid
– Move fluid from point A to point B
• Convert energy to pressure in flowing fluid
• Fundamentals in EDB:
– Pages 12-3 to 12-8 (Figures 12-2 to 12-5)
– Bernoulli’s Theorem, NPSH, differential head
• Fundamentals can apply to any pump type, main
difference is how the machine increases head

98
Fundamentals: Bernoulli’s Theorem
• Total mechanical energy of flowing fluid (gravitational
potential energy, fluid pressure, kinetic energy of fluid)
remains constant:

• Total equipment head for a pump:

99
Fundamentals: NPSHA
• NPSHA: Net Positive Suction Head Available

• Relation of fluid to vapor formation


• Primarily a function of fluid vapor pressure, static head,
and suction piping friction (system design):

• Other forms (Eq. 12-6a, 12-6b)

100
Fundamentals: NPSHR
• NPSHR: Net Positive Suction Head Required

• Relation of fluid to vapor formation


• Primarily a function of pump physical design, speed, and
flowrate (pump design)
• NPSHR Reduction: Fig. 12-5 (vapor/liquid density
relation, critical pressure approach)

101
Fundamentals: Cavitation
• NPSHA > NPSHR to avoid cavitation
• Safety margin: 0.5 - 1 meter between NPSHA, NPSHR
• Cavitation: formation of vapors at pump suction and the
vapors being imploded back into liquid. The energy
transfer causes a shockwave which damages the pump
impeller and internals
• Videos\100_Cavitation1.mp4 (to 3:00 min)
• Videos\100_Cavitation2.mp4 (8:20 to 13:50)

102
Common Equations: Fig. 12-2
Common Equations: Fig. 12-2 (SI)
Pump Types: Centrifugal www.directindustry.com

www.gouldspumps.com

www.aet-ps.com
Pump Types: Reciprocating

www.spxflow.com

www.crosspump.net
www.pumpsandsystems.com
Rotary Pump:

Pump Types: Other www.lobepro.com

Axial Pump:
www.flowserve.com

Diaphragm Pump:
www.flsmidth.com

Regenerative Pump:
www.corken.com
Key Pump Design Criteria
• Process conditions:
– Inlet/Outlet Pressures or Head
– NPSHA
– Required Flowrate
– Fluid composition: SG/density, vapor pressure, gasses
– Inlet Temperature, viscosity, specific heat
• Operational flexibility:
– Discharge pressure range
– Flow range
– Entrained gasses, solids

108
Pump Types: Selection Metrics
• Centrifugal:
– Benefits: med-high flow, low-high head, low maintenance,
smaller plot space, cost
– Negatives: limited head range with a single pump, plot space
(multi-stage)
• Reciprocating:
– Benefits: high head, high efficiency, low-mid flow, slurries/viscous
fluids
– Negatives: cost, lower reliability/high maintenance, plot space

109
Section 12 – Pumps & Turbines:
Problems
1. Pump Calculation: determine head, NPSHA, HP
2. Pump Selection: determine pump type
3. Pump Selection: determine centrifugal pump type
4. Pump Affinity Laws: determine flowrate, head, BHP
based on new speed
5. Pump Configuration: evaluate vendor offerings and
determine configuration
6. Positive Displacement Pump: determine suction
acceleration head
7. Hydraulic Turbine: evaluate pump/turbine at new
conditions

110
Problem #2: Pump Selection
• Scope: NGL Feed Pump: Storage to Deethanizer
• Problem basis:
– Based on Full Course Problem #1:
• Required Head = 1296 ft. (289 psid)
• Flowrate = 1187 gpm
• Determine pump type using overall pump selection chart
(Fig. 12-3)

111
Problem #2: Pump Selection

Use the left Use the right


axis for the axis for the
bold lines dashed lines
Short Course “Problem”
Use pieces of the full length course to solve common “problems”
encountered during design and/or evaluation of a Fractionation System:

1. What do our higher value potential products look like and what are the
potential specifications we need to meet?
2. How does Fractionation meet our goal to make higher value products?
3. How do we determine the basic design the mechanical equipment needed
for Fractionation?
a) Design one of the main pieces of equipment, a distillation tower (Deethanizer)
b) Design of vessels (Reflux Accumulator)
c) Design of pumps (Deethanizer Feed Pump)
d) Design of heat exchangers (Feed/Bottoms Cross Exchanger)
4. How is the flow of feed to the Fractionation System controlled?
a) Design of a control valve (feed flow control valve)
b) Design of a flow meter (feed flowmeter)

113
HEAT EXCHANGERS
(20 MIN)

2018 1Q Training
Odessa, TX
February 8, 2018

114
Heat Exchangers

Section 9
Short Course Block Flow Diagram

116
Learning Objectives
• Brief overview of the types of heat exchangers discussed
in the Data Book
• Perform some heat exchange problems to become
familiar with heat exchangers and understand how to
utilize the Data Book for heat exchanger design
• Understand possible uses of Data Book information

117
Full Course Topics
• Block Flow Diagram
• Industry Applications
• Heat Transfer and
Heat Exchanger
Fundamentals
• Types of Heat
Exchange Equipment
and their Function www.titanmf.com

• Information Covered in the Data Book


– Heat Exchanger Design
– Heat Exchanger Performance
• Summary: Best Uses/Limitations of the Data Book

118
Heat Exchanger Fundamentals
• Energy change in each fluid (heat transferred to/from)
– Latent (∆Phase) and sensible (∆T) energy changes:

119
Heat Exchanger Fundamentals
• Overall energy flow between fluids & across boundary
– EDB Eqs. 9-5 and 9-6
Q = UA (CMTD) Eq. 9-6
• U = Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient, i.e. resistance from
metal and fouling between fluids and fluids themselves
• A = Heat Transfer Area, surface of metal that fluids are in
contact with between each other
• LMTD = Log Mean Temperature Difference, composite of
cold end and hot end ∆T
• CMTD = Corrected LMTD = (LMTD)*(F)
• F = multi-pass correction factor
• Q(overall) is equal to Q(individual fluids)

120
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient – U
• What's in the EDB?:
– Typical Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients EDB Fig. 9-9
– Metal Thermal Conductivities EDB Fig. 9-8
– Typical Fouling Resistances EDB Figs. 9-9 (S&T), 9-45 (PHE)
– Film Resistance comparisons EDB Figs. 9-10 and 9-11

121
Section 9 – Heat Exchangers:
Problems
1. Heat Exchanger: Single Fluid Side Calculation
2. Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger: Overall Calculation
3. Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger: Exchanger Rating and
Re-use (walk through)

122
Problem #2 – Heat Exchanger
Overall Calculation
• Scope: Deethanizer Feed/Bottoms Exchanger
• Problem basis:
– Operating conditions/physical properties:
• Cold C2+ NGL Feed:
– Temperatures: Tc-in = 79.4°F, Tc-out = 105°F (desired)
• Hot C3+ Bottoms:
– Temperatures: Th-in = 239.7°F, Th-out = 206.6°F (Problem #1 result)
• Heat duty: Q=5.26 MMBTU/hr
• Overall heat transfer coefficient: U = 74 BTU/hr*ft2*°F
• Exchanger configuration: 1 shell pass, 2 tube passes
• Determine:
– Log mean temperature difference (LMTD) (°F)
– LMTD correction factor
– CMTD
– Exchanger area (ft2)
Problem #2: Determine LMTD
Th in=239.7F

GTTD=134.7°F Th out=206.6F

LTTD=127.2°F
Tc out=105F

Tc in=79.4F

Heat Transferred

124
Problem #2: Determine LMTD

GTTD=134.7°F

LTTD=127.2°F

134.7 127.2
130.9
134.7
127.2
Problem #2: Determine LMTD Correction
Factor
F1 = 0.99

239.7 206.6
R 1.293
105 79.4

105 79.4
P 0.1597
239.7 79.4

T1=239.7°F

t2=105°F

t1=79.4°F
T2=206.6°F
Problem #2:
Determine Heat Transfer Area

A

127
Problem#2: Overall Results & Uses
• Desired results: determine:
– Log mean temperature difference (LMTD) = 130.9°F
– LMTD correction factor = 0.99
– CMTD = 129.6°F
– Exchanger area = 548 ft2
• Once surface area is fixed, all resulting parameters
(outlet temperature, duty) become dependent on:
– Cleanliness of exchanger (compared to design fouling factor)
– Fluid properties (compared to design conditions)
– Fluid flowrates (compared to design conditions)

128
Short Course “Problem”
Use pieces of the full length course to solve common “problems”
encountered during design and/or evaluation of a Fractionation System:

1. What do our higher value potential products look like and what are the
potential specifications we need to meet?
2. How does Fractionation meet our goal to make higher value products?
3. How do we determine the basic design the mechanical equipment needed
for Fractionation?
a) Design one of the main pieces of equipment, a distillation tower (Deethanizer)
b) Design of vessels (Reflux Accumulator)
c) Design of pumps (Deethanizer Feed Pump)
d) Design of heat exchangers (Feed/Bottoms Cross Exchanger)
4. How is the flow of feed to the Fractionation System controlled?
a) Design of a control valve (feed flow control valve)
b) Design of a flow meter (feed flowmeter)

129
INSTRUMENTATION/CONTROL
VALVES
(20 MIN)

2018 1Q Training
Odessa, TX
February 8, 2018

130
Instrumentation

Section 4
Short Course
Block Flow Diagram 132
Learning Objectives
• Understand the fundamental concepts related to
instrumentation and control; including sensing devices,
control elements (i.e. valves), and control mechanisms
• Understand the methods used to properly size a control
valve
• Determine how to use the information/tables given in the
Data Book, related to instrumentation
• Understand the strengths/weaknesses of the information
in the Data Book

133
Full Course Topics
• Block Flow Diagram
• Industry Application
• Fundamentals/Background:
– Overview of instrumentation/
control systems
• Instrumentation components:
– Sensing devices (brief summary)
– Transmitters (brief summary)
– Control modes/controllers (light education)
– End devices/control valves (detail discussion/calculations)
• Other Info/Computer control systems
• Summary: Best Uses/Limitations of the Data Book

134
Control Valves

Section 4 –Instrumentation
Control Valves: Physical Information
Fig. 4-26
• EDB Pgs. 4-21 to 4-26
• Control valves provide the means to
increase or decrease flow of a fluid
by variable restriction
• Made up of 3 parts:
– Actuator: provides motive force
– Bonnet: provides seal between
process fluid and ambient,
connects stem to valve internals
– Valve Body: provides the
internals that contact the process
fluid for flow control

136
Control Valves: Actuators
• Provide the motive force to move the control valve:
Pneumatic, electric, hydraulic, manual
• A spring moves the valve to its fail safe position (when
no force is applied): Fig. 4-28
– Fail Open (left valve): air to close
– Fail Closed (right valve): air to open
– Fail last: air to both close and open (video)
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tiyOHzgSa-s (5:37 – 10:30)
Control Valves: Valve Bodies
• EDB Fig. 4-27 shows a typical globe valve
• Contacts the process fluid, restriction
opens or closes causing more or
less fluid to pass through
• Bonnet: provides packing/seal
• Different types:
– Plug Globe (common control valve)
– Cage globe
– Ball
– Butterfly
– Gate
– Others
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3RAxRed7QuE
(1 min, overview of actuator and types of bodies)

138
www.flowserve.com
Control Valves: Flow Characteristics
• Flow Characteristics: for • EDB Fig. 4-29
globe valves
– Quick opening: @ 50%
travel, 80% of max flow
– Linear: @ 50% travel, 50%
of max flow
– *Equal percentage: @ 50%
travel, ~20% open. Offset
the increased dP of the
system by opening quicker

139
Control Valve Sizing: Liquid Service
• Liquid valve sizing equations and constants: Figs. 4-35, 4-36
– Flow ~ f(Cv, ΔP)
– Cv=valve coefficient: Fig. 4-32/vendor for full open, calculate for req’d Cv
– Nx=constant: Fig. 4-36
– Fp=piping geometry factor: ANSI/ISA S75.01, if no fittings =1
– P1, P2= inlet/outlet pressures
– Specific weight, specific gravity
– Pv= fluid vapor pressure at valve inlet temperature
– FL= from vendor/Fig. 4-32
– FF= liquid critical pressure ratio factor: Fig. 4-33 (with input from Fig. 4-34 or
determine critical pressure for mixture)

140
Section 4 – Instrumentation:
Problems
1. Gas Control Valve Sizing: Calculate required Cv, select
a valve type/size
2. Liquid Control Valve Sizing: Calculate required Cv,
select a valve type/size

141
Problem #2: Select Equation

Use Fig. 4-35, volumetric flow with specific gravity

142
Problem#2: Calculate Req’d Cv

Section 17: Problem #5: 6” Line used for NGL outlet from CPF.

143
Short Course “Problem”
Use pieces of the full length course to solve common “problems”
encountered during design and/or evaluation of a Fractionation System:

1. What do our higher value potential products look like and what are the
potential specifications we need to meet?
2. How does Fractionation meet our goal to make higher value products?
3. How do we determine the basic design the mechanical equipment needed
for Fractionation?
a) Design one of the main pieces of equipment, a distillation tower (Deethanizer)
b) Design of vessels (Reflux Accumulator)
c) Design of pumps (Deethanizer Feed Pump)
d) Design of heat exchangers (Feed/Bottoms Cross Exchanger)
4. How is the flow of feed to the Fractionation System controlled?
a) Design of a control valve (feed flow control valve)
b) Design of a flow meter (feed flowmeter)

144
FLOW MEASUREMENT
(20 MIN)

2018 1Q Training
Odessa, TX
February 8, 2018

145
Short Course Block Flow Diagram

146
Measurement

Section 3
Learning Objectives
• Understand the fundamental concepts related to
measurement devices, which measure the flow of gases
and liquids at wellheads, through facilities, and pipelines
• Understand the equations and calculations required to
determine flow through different measurement devices
• Understand the concepts to determine fluid composition,
by sampling and chromatography
• Determine how to use the information/tables given in the
Data Book, including a number of in-class problems,
related to measurement
• Understand the strengths/weaknesses of the information
in the Data Book

148
Full Course Topics
• Block Flow Diagram
• Industry Applications
• Fundamentals
– Measurement Standards
– Flow calculation guide
• Types of measurement devices/
calculation of flow:
– Gas
– Liquid
• Other measurement devices:
– Meter proving
– Flare measurement
– Other devices
• Sampling/Chromatography
• Summary: Best Uses/Limitations of Data Book

149
Why Measure?
• Custody transfer or sales of fluid/product from one owner
to the next = revenue
• Accounting of process fluid disposition within a plant:
– Inlets: Feed Streams
– Outlets:
• Products
• Waste Streams
• Flare Streams
– Consumption: Fuel Gas
• Control measurement: used for direct process control
• Check measurement: used to verify process flows and
adjust operating parameters

150
Fundamentals

Section 3 – Measurement
Measurement Standards, Pg. 3-3
• American Petroleum Institute (API) Manual of Petroleum
Measurement Standards (MPMS) esp. Chapter 14

152
Flow Calculation Guide, Fig. 3-2
Flow Calculation Guide Equations, Fig. 3-4
Section 3 – Measurement: Problems
1. Gas Orifice: orifice size, calculate ΔP at given flow, plate
thickness
2. Gas Orifice: length requirements
3. Gas Orifice: orifice rating – new conditions
4. Liquid Orifice: orifice size, calculate flow at given ΔP,
plate thickness
5. Liquid Orifice: orifice rating – new conditions

155
Problem #4:
Liquid Orifice Calculation
• Scope: C3+ NGL Feed to • Desired results:
Fractionation Train: – Determine the orifice size
Sweet-Rich Composition based on a differential
pressure of 175 in H2O
• Problem basis:
– Calculate actual flowrate at
– Conditions and flowrate this differential pressure
from Rich-Sweet MB using the selected orifice
(Stream 6) (assume
– Determine the orifice plate
pressure/temperature is
thickness
per stream)
– Relative density at 60°F
(440 psia) = 0.5099
– 6” Sch. 40 Pipe (per
Section 17, Problem #5)

156
Problem#4: Orifice Calculation
Problem #4: Calculate Key (required)
To determine the approximate orifice size required, the

1/2
Qh = Keyl • Fgt • (hw) From Equation 3-7

1/2
or Keyl = Qh / (Fgt • (hw)

1/2 1/2
Fgt = [1.0057/(G) ] • [Gf /Gl] = 1.3755 Fig 3-4

Keyl = 71,211 = 3913.56


1/2
1.2193 • (50)
(1.3755*175)

158
Problem#4: Determine Key (Fig. 3-13)

Key (req’d)=3914

Use a 4.25in
orifice,
Key (actual)
= 4227

159
Problem#4: Recalculate Flow
Line Size, D = 6.065 in
Orifice Size, d = 4.250 in
Flange Taps
Flowing Temperature = 79.4 °F
Flowing Pressure = psia
Differential = 175 in. of water
Relative Density = 0.5099 0.491346 @ flowing conditions
Key 4227
To determine the flow rate from Fig. 3-4,

1/2
Qh = Keyl • Fgt • (hw) From Equation 3-7

1/2 1/2
Fgt = [1.0057/(G)] • [Gf /Gl] = 1.3825 Fig 3-4

The value of Keyl from Fig. 3-13 is 3345 for an 8.071 in. line
with a 4.0 in. orifice. The value of Fgt is calculated from the Fig. 3-4 equation
Therefore,
1/2
Qh = 3345 • 1.2560 • (36) = 77,309 gal/hr

160
Problem#4: Orifice Thickness

Thickness=0.125in
dP ok
Problem#4: Liquid Orifice Calculation
• C3+ NGL Feed to Fractionation Train: Sweet-Rich Composition
– Conditions and flowrate from Rich-Sweet MB (Stream 6) (assume
pressure/temperature is per stream)
– Relative density at 60°F (440 psia) = 0.5099
– 6” Sch. 40 Pipe (per Section 17, Problem #5)
• Determine the orifice size to accommodate: Use a 4.25in orifice,
Key (actual) = 4227
– Differential pressure = 175 in H2O
• Calculate actual flowrate at this differential pressure using the
selected orifice Q=77,309gph @ 174inH2O

• Determine the orifice plate thickness Thickness = 0.125in

162
SHORT COURSE SUMMARY
(5 MIN)

2018 1Q Training
Odessa, TX
February 8, 2018

163
Short Course “Problem”
Use pieces of the full length course to solve common “problems”
encountered during design and/or evaluation of a Fractionation System:
1. What do our higher value potential products look like and what are
the potential specifications we need to meet?
2. How does Fractionation help to make higher value products?
3. How do we determine the basic design of the mechanical
equipment needed for Fractionation?
a) Design of a major piece of equipment, a distillation tower (Deethanizer)
b) Design of vessels (Reflux Accumulator)
c) Design of pumps (Deethanizer Feed Pump)
d) Design of heat exchangers (Feed/Bottoms Cross Exchanger)
4. How is the flow of feed to the Fractionation System controlled?
a) Design of a control valve (feed flow control valve)
b) Design of a flow meter (feed flowmeter)

164
Short Course Block Flow Diagram

165
Full Course Block Flow Diagram
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Full Course Outline
GPSA Engineering Data Book Training Class Schedule
Time Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
730 General Introduction 16‐Hydrocarbon Recovery 9‐Heat Exchangers 13‐Compressors&Expanders 3‐Measurement
745 (60 min) (105 min) (75 min) (240 min) (165 min)
800
815
830 GPA Intro (5 min)
845 1‐Gen, 26‐Mmbr List (15 min) 8‐Fired Equipment
900 BREAK (25 min) BREAK BREAK
915 2‐Product Specs (20 min) BREAK BREAK
930 23‐Physical Properties 19‐Fractionation 10‐Air Cooled Exchangers
945 (40 min) (75 min) (25 min)
1000 11‐Cooling Towers (15 min)
1015 24‐Thermo Properties 12‐Pumps & Hyd Turbines
1030 (25 min) (195 min) BREAK Summary of Course (10 min)
1045 BREAK BREAK BREAK BREAK
1100 25‐Phase Equilibria (15 min) 14‐Refrigeration Pumps (cont) Final Exam
1115 21‐Hydrocarbon Treating (75 min) (60 min)
1130 (90 min)
1145
1200 LUNCH LUNCH LUNCH LUNCH Finish & Wrap Up
1215
1230 HC Treating (cont.) Refrig. (cont.) Pumps (cont) 4‐Instrumentation
1245 18‐Utilities (120 min)
100 (30 min)
115 20‐Dehydration 6‐Storage (15 min)
130 (180 min) 7‐Separation
145 (180 min)
200 BREAK BREAK BREAK
215 Dehy (cont.) BREAK
230 15‐Prime Movers (15 min)
245 17‐Fluid Flow&Piping 5‐Relief Systems
300 (135 min) (150 min)
315 BREAK
330
345 BREAK BREAK BREAK
400 Dehy (cont.)
415
430
445 22‐Sulfur Recovery
500 (30 min)
515
Thank You!

Getting Full Use Out of the GPSA


Engineering Data Book: Introduction to
the Week-Long Training Class

168