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Analysis of Speed/Power Trial Data 2014 01

Table of Contents

1 PURPOSE .............................................. 3 5 PROCESSING OF THE RESULTS .. 11

2 TERMS AND DEFINITIONS .............. 3 REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY .. 12

3 RESPONSIBILITIES............................ 4 APPENDIX A. PROPULSIVE


EFFICIENCY CORRECTION BASED ON
4 ANALYSIS PROCEDURE................... 4 LOAD VARIATION TESTS ...................... 14
4.1 General Remarks ............................... 4
A.1 Propulsion efficiency correction ......... 14
4.2 Description of the Analysis Procedure
............................................................. 4 A.2 Correction on shaft rotation rate – effect
4.2.1 Resistance data derived from the of added resistance and of shallow water
acquired data .................................... 6 ............................................................... 15
4.2.2 Evaluation of the acquired data ....... 7
A.3 Load variation test ............................... 15
4.2.3 Evaluation based on Direct Power
Method ............................................. 7 APPENDIX B. EVALUATION OF WIND
4.2.4 Prediction of power curve from DATA .................................................... 18
ballast condition to full load or
stipulated condition ......................... 8 B.1 Averaging process for the true wind
vectors ................................................... 18
4.2.5 Presentation of the trial results ........ 8
4.3 Calculation methods for resistance B.2 Correction for the height of the
increase and other corrections.......... 8 anemometer .......................................... 18
4.3.1 Resistance increase due to the effects
of wind ............................................. 8 APPENDIX C. CORRECTION METHODS
FOR RESISTANCE INCREASE DUE TO
4.3.2 Resistance increase due to the effects WIND 19
of waves ........................................... 9
4.3.3 Resistance increase due to water C.1 Wind resistance coefficients by wind
temperature and salt content .......... 10 tunnel test .............................................. 19
4.3.4 Correction of the ship performance
due to the effects of shallow water. C.2 Data sets of wind resistance coefficients
....................................................... 11 ............................................................... 19
4.3.5 Correction of the ship performance C.3 Regression formula by Fujiwara et al.
due to the effects of displacement and ............................................................... 22
trim ................................................ 11

Updated / Edited by Approved


Specialist Committee on Performance of
27th ITTC 2014
Ships in Service 27th ITTC
Date 2014
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APPENDIX D. CORRECTION METHODS D.4 Seakeeping model tests ........................ 29


FOR RESISTANCE INCREASE DUE TO
WAVES 24 APPENDIX E. CONVERSION FROM
BALLAST SPEED/POWER
D.1 Direct correction method STAwave-1 24 TESTRESULTS TO OTHER STIPULATED
LOAD CONDITIONS ................................. 30
D.2 Empirical transfer function STAwave-2
............................................................... 24 APPENDIX F. NOMENCLATURE........... 31

D.3 Theoretical method with simplified tank


tests........................................................ 26
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Analysis of Speed/Power Trial Data

 Contract Power: Shaft Power that is


stipulated in the newbuilding or
1. PURPOSE
conversion contract between Shipbuilder
These Guidelines concern the method of and Owner.
analysis of the results obtained from the  Docking Report: report that documents
speed/power trials as conducted according Part the condition of the ship hull and
1 of these Guidelines; ITTC 7.5-04-01-01.1. propulsors (available from the most recent
dry-docking).
The descriptions for the calculation methods  Double Run: two consecutive Speed
of the resistance increase due to wind and waves, Runs at the same power setting on
as well as guidelines for analysis and speed reciprocal heading.
corrections are based on relevant research  EEDI: Energy Efficiency Design Index as
results and modified from ITTC 7.5-04-01- formulated by IMO.
01.2/2005 to meet the IMO EEDI requirements.  EEDI Power: Shaft Power that is
stipulated by the EEDI regulations.
The primary purpose of speed trials is to  Ideal Conditions: ideal weather and sea
determine the ship’s performance in terms of condition; deep water, no wind, no waves
speed, power and propeller frequency of and no current.
revolutions under prescribed ship conditions,  Owner: party that signed the newbuilding
and thereby to verify the satisfactory attainment or conversion contract with the
of the contractually stipulated ship speed. Shipbuilder.
 Propeller Pitch: the design pitch, also for
The purpose of these Guidelines is to define
controllable pitch propellers.
the evaluation and correction of speed/power
trials covering all influences which may be  Running Pitch: the operating pitch of a
CPP.
relevant for the individual trial runs with
assurance of the highest accuracy of speed and  Shaft Power: net power supplied by the
power determination in contractual and propulsion machinery to the propulsion
stipulated conditions. shafting after passing through all speed-
reducing and other transmission devices
The applicability of these Guidelines is and after power for all attached auxiliaries
limited to commercial ships of the displacement has been taken off.
type.  Shipbuilder: ship yard that signed the
newbuilding or conversion contract with
the Owner.
2. TERMS AND DEFINITIONS  Ship Speed: speed that is realised under
the stipulated conditions. “Contract Speed”
For the purposes of these Guidelines, the refers to the contractual conditions agreed.
following terms and definitions apply: “EEDI Speed” refers to the conditions
specified by IMO. The ship’s speed during
 Brake Power: power delivered by the a Speed Run is derived from the headway
output coupling of the propulsion distance between start and end position
machinery. and the elapsed time of the Speed Run.
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 Sister Ships: ships with identical main ship-owner shall be obtained concerning the
dimensions, body lines and propulsor limits of wind forces, wave heights and water
system built in a series by the same depths up to which the trials shall be performed.
Shipbuilder. Agreement shall be obtained concerning the
 S/P Trials: speed-power trials to establish methods used to correct the trial data. The
the Speed-Power relation of the vessel. measured data, analysis process and the results
 Speed Run: ship track with specified shall be transparent and open to the Trial Team.
heading, distance and duration over which
Ship Speed and Shaft Power are measured.
4. ANALYSIS PROCEDURE
 S/P Trial Agenda: document outlining
the scope of a particular S/P Trial. This
document contains the guidelines on how 4.1 General Remarks
to conduct the trial and table(s) portraying
the runs to be conducted. This document describes different methods
 Trial Log: for each Speed Run, the log to analyse the results of speed/power tests as
contains the run number, the times when conducted according to Part 1 of these
the Speed Run starts and stops, and the Guidelines. The method to be used depending
data as described in Section 9.4 and on situation and available data is given in the
Appendix C of Part I of these Guidelines. matrix of Table 1.
 The Trial Leader is the duly authorised The procedure for the analysis of speed trials
(Shipbuilder’s representative) person is the Direct Power Method and requires
responsible for the execution of all phases displacement, power, rate of revolutions, speed-
of the S/P Trials including the pre-trial over-ground, wind speed and direction, wave
preparation.
condition, ηD and ηS as input values.
 The Trial Team consists of the Trial
Leader, the Owner’s representative, the
appointed persons responsible for the S/P 4.2 Description of the Analysis Procedure
Trial measurements and the Verifier.
The analysis of speed/power trials shall
 Verifier: third party responsible for
consist of
verification of the EEDI.

For further definitions, system of co-  evaluation of the acquired data


ordinates and sign conventions, reference is  correction of ship performance for
made to Part I of these Guidelines. resistance increase due to wind, waves,
water temperature and salt content
 elimination of current
3. RESPONSIBILITIES  correction of ship speed at each run for the
effect of shallow water
The Trial Team is responsible for carrying  correction of ship performance for
out the trials and for correcting the data received. displacement
Preferably before the sea trials start, but at the  presentation of the trial results
latest when the trial area is reached and the
environmental conditions can be studied,
agreement between the trial team, shipyard and
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Figure 1 Flowchart of speed/power trial


Preparation, analysis
Conduct

Measured Data
VS, PS, nS

Wave Data

Waterdepth Wind Data

Corrections for Corrections for


Speed Resistance Increase
Water
Elimination of
Temperature,
Current
Salt Content

Power Evaluation
Displacement
and Trim

Final
Performance

In the following chapters details of the In calculating resistance increase due to


methods are given. For wave and wind wind, three methods can be used, depending on
corrections the methods depend on the level of whether there are wind tunnel measurements
information which is available to the conducting available or not:
party of the speed/power sea trials. The analysis
and correction method to be followed is If wind tunnel measurements are available:
prescribed below and summarized in Table 1.
Same method as with dataset on the wind
Evaluation resistance coefficient (Appendix C.1)

For the evaluation the Direct Power Method If wind tunnel measurements are not
in combination with the propulsive efficiency available:
correction based on load variation tests (Section
4.2.3, Appendix A) shall be used. Data set on the wind resistance coefficient
(Appendix C.2)
Wind Correction
or regression formula by Fujiwara et al.
(Appendix C.3).
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Evaluation / Correction Method resistance


Data set of STA C.2
Condition coefficients Air Temp. & Water Displ. &
Evaluation Waves Wind Current
available Resistance Density Depth Trim
no C.3
Load yes 4.2.3
Variation
Test no 4.2.3
available Table 1 Evaluation method to be followed. The
heave no D.1 numbers
Included
identify the method by the chapters in
no which the methods are4.3.3described,
4.3.4 e.g.:4.3.5
4.2.3:
Ship Lines and pitch
yes D.2 in method
available to
D.1 or Evaluation
Included based on Direct Power Method,
all parties yes 4.3.3 4.3.4 4.3.5
D.2,D.3 D.1: Wave correction
in method STAwave-1.
Full Seakeeping Included
D.4 4.3.3 4.3.4 4.3.5
Model Tests available in method
Dataset of Wind Tunnel Tests Included in
C.1 4.3.3 4.3.4 4.3.5
Wind available method
Wave correction
In the case transfer functions of added
In calculating resistance increase due to resistance in waves derived from seakeeping
waves, the following procedure shall be used: tank tests are available for the specific vessel at
the relevant draught, trim, speed range and
If ship geometry can't be made available relative wave direction, are available, these shall
to all involved parties and under the condition be used in combination with the wave
that heaving and pitching are small, the direct encountered wave spectrum measured during
correction wave method based on wave the trials (Appendix D.4).
reflection prescribed in D.1 shall be used.
Shallow water
In case significant heave and pitch is
observed during the trials, the empirical To correct for shallow water effect the
formulation of the response function prescribed method proposed by Lackenby(12). shall be
in D.2, shall be used for the analysis. This applied to the ship speed measured during each
empirical transfer function covers both the mean run.
resistance increase due to wave reflection and
the motion induced added resistance. Prescribed Method

Provided that the ship geometry is Table 1 shows which method shall be used,
available to all parties involved and the wave depending on the information available.
spectrum encountered during the speed/power
trials is measured, the theoretical method as 4.2.1 Resistance data derived from the
prescribed in Appendix D.3 in combination with acquired data
simplified seakeeping model test may be used.
In this case the derived transfer functions for The resistance values of each run shall be
added resistance should be used in combination corrected for environmental influences by
with the measured wave spectrum. estimating the resistance increase ΔR as,

R  RAA  RAW  RAS (1)


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with The corrected delivered power is found from


RAA : resistance increase due to relative wind, the measured shaft power by taking into account
RAS : resistance increase due to deviation of the propeller efficiency according to Appendix
water temperature and water density, A:
RAW : resistance increase due to waves.
ΔRVSM  PDM 
The added resistance due to wind, waves, PDC  PDM  1    (3)
D0  PDC p 
temperature and water density is estimated
according section 4.3
with
VSM: ship speed measured, means of means
4.2.2 Evaluation of the acquired data from double run
ηD0: propulsion efficiency coefficient in ideal
The evaluation of the acquired data consists
condition, from model test.
of the calculation of the resistance value
p: derived from load variation model test.
associated with the measured power value
ΔR: Resistance increase due to wind, waves
separately for each run of the speed trials.
and temperature deviations (eq. 1).
The reason that the associated
PDC is the power in no wind and no other
resistance/power shall be calculated for each run
disturbance. For shallow water a speed
is that a careful evaluation shall consider the
correction is applied according to 4.3.4.
effects of varying hydrodynamic coefficients
Deviations in displacement are corrected for
with varying propeller loads. The recommended
according to 4.3.5.
correction methods except for the ones used for
shallow water effect and for displacement and In the Direct Power Method the current is
trim are applicable to resistance values. eliminated by averaging the results of double
runs. Per set of measurements for one engine
4.2.3 Evaluation based on Direct Power setting, after power correction, the average is
Method determined by calculating the “mean of means”
(ref. Principles of Naval Architecture(20)) of the
To derive the speed/power performance of corrected speed and power points.
the vessel from the measured speed over ground,
shaft torque and rpm, the Direct Power Method From the corrected trial points the
is to be used. In this method the measured power differences in speed with the fitted curve at the
is directly corrected with the power increase due same power are derived. Plotting these speed
to added resistance in the trial conditions. The differences on the basis of time for each trial run,
measured delivered power is: a tidal curve can be fitted through these points.
The purpose of creating this tidal curve is to
PDM  PSMs (2) have a quality control on the measured data.

with The correction of the propeller frequency of


PSM: Shaft power measured for each run revolution is also based on the results of the load
ηS: Shaft efficiency (0.99 for conventional variation tank tests (Appendix A). The corrected
shaft) shaft rate nC is
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nM 4.2.5 Presentation of the trial results


nC 
PDM  PDC ΔV
n  v 1 The corrected shaft and/or delivered power
PDC VSM (4) values, together with the associated, corrected
speed values of runs at almost identical power
with level, but in opposite directions (double run),
nM : measured propeller frequency of shall be combined and the mean values of speed,
revolution, power and propeller rate of revolutions shall be
VSM: measured ship speed, means of means used to derive the final results.
from double run
 n , v : overload factors derived from load
4.3 Calculation methods for resistance
variation model test (Appendix A) increase and other corrections
ΔV : speed correction due to shallow water,
determined by according to 4.3.4.
4.3.1 Resistance increase due to the effects of
If load variation tests are not available, the wind
overload factors p, n and v may be obtained
The resistance increase due to relative wind
from statistical values from sufficient load
is calculated by
variation tests for this specific ship type, size
and propulsor. If these can not be provided, the 1
overload factors may be derived by ITTC 7.5- RAA   AVWR 2CX ( WR ) AXV
02-03-01.4 (2011). 2 (5)

with
4.2.4 Prediction of power curve from ballast AXV: area of maximum transverse section
condition to full load or stipulated exposed to the wind,
condition CX: wind resistance coefficient
Note: CX = - CA for method C.3
For dry cargo vessels it is difficult to conduct
VWR: relative wind speed,
speed trials at full load condition. For such cases
ρA: mass density of air,
speed trials at ballast condition are performed
ψWR: relative wind direction; 0 means heading
and the power curve is converted to that of full
wind. See System of Co-ordinates in Part
load or of stipulated condition using the power
1.
curves based on the tank tests for these
conditions. By nature wind speed and direction vary in
time and therefore these are defined by their
The tank test results shall be provided by the
average values over a selected period.
Shipbuilder. These tank test results shall be
obtained in full compliance with the For speed/power trials it is assumed that the
requirements given in Section 7.5 of Part 1 of wind condition is stationary i.e. that the speed
these Guidelines. and direction are reasonably constant over the
duration of each double run. The average speed
The conversion method to be followed to
and direction during the double run are then
convert the trial results for ballast condition to
determined for the duration of each
results for full load or stipulated condition is
measurement run.
given in Appendix E.
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The wind speed and direction are usually Irregular waves can be represented as linear
measured by the on-board anemometer, superposition of the components of regular
positioned mostly in the radar mast on top of the waves. Therefore the mean resistance increase
bridge. Both wind speed and direction at this in short crested irregular waves RAW is
location may be affected by the geometry of the calculated by linear superposition of the
vessel in particular the shape of the directional wave spectrum E and the response
superstructure and the wheel house. function of mean resistance increase in regular
waves Rwave.
The true wind vector for each speed-run is
found from the speed and heading of the vessel 2  Rwave ( , ;VS )
RAW  2  E (, )dd
and the measured wind speed and direction. By 0 0  A2 (6)
averaging the true wind vectors over both speed-
runs of the double run, the true wind vector for
with
the run-set is found. This averaged true wind
RAW: mean resistance increase in short crested
vector is then used to recalculate the relative
irregular waves,
wind vector for each speed-run of the set. This
Rwave: mean resistance increase in regular waves,
procedure is explained in detail in Appendix B-
ζA: wave amplitude,
1.
ω: circular frequency of regular waves,
The wind speed as measured by the α: angle between ship heading and incident
anemometer shall be corrected for the wind regular waves; 0 means heading waves,
speed profile taking into account the height of VS: ship speed through the water,
the anemometer and the reference height for the E: directional spectrum; if the directional
wind resistance coefficients (normally 10 m) spectrum is measured at sea trials by a
according to Appendix B-2. sensors and the accuracy is confirmed, the
directional spectrum is available. If the
The wind resistance coefficient shall be directional spectrum is not measured it is
based on the data derived from model tests in a calculated by the following relation:
wind tunnel. In cases where a database is
available covering ships of similar type, such E = Sf (ω)G(α) (7)
data can be used instead of carrying out model
with
tests. Besides, a statistical regression formula
G: angular distribution function.
concerning wind resistance coefficients of
Sf : frequency spectrum, for ocean waves
various ship types has been developed. The
modified Pierson-Moskowitz type.
methods are mentioned in Appendix C.
The standard form of the frequency
4.3.2 Resistance increase due to the effects of spectrum and the angular distribution function
waves are assumed for the calculation. The modified
Pierson-Moskowitz frequency spectrum of
The most reliable way to determine the ITTC 1978 shown in formula (8).
decrease of ship speed in waves is to carry out
sea keeping tests in regular waves of constant Af B 
wave height, and different wave lengths and Sf ( )  exp   f4 
   
5
(8)
directions at various speeds according to ITTC
7.5-02-07-02.2.
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with calculations of speed trials are based on a


temperature of the sea water of 15°C and a
2
H W1 / 3 density of 1025 kg/m³. The effects of water
Af  173 4 temperature and salt content are calculated as
T1 (9) follows:
691  ρ  C 
Bf 
T1
4 RAS  RT 0   1  RF  F0  1
(10)  ρ0   CF  (13)
m0
T1  2 with
m1 (11)
1
RF   S VS2CF
where 2 (14)
HW1/3: significant wave height,
mn: nth moment of frequency spectrum. 1
RF0  SVS 2CF0
For the angular distribution function the 2 (15)
cosine-power type shown in formula (12) is
1
generally applied; e.g. s=1 for seas and s=75 for RT0  0 S VS2CT0
swells are used in practice. 2 (16)

22 s  2 ( s  1)    where
G( )  cos 2 s  
2 (2s  1)  2  (12)
CF: frictional resistance coefficient for
actual water temperature and salinity,
CF0: frictional resistance coefficient for
where
s: directional spreading parameter, reference water temperature and salinity,
CT0: total resistance coefficient for reference
 : Gamma function,
 : primary wave direction; 0 means heading water temperature and salinity,
waves. RAS: resistance increase due to deviation of
water temperature and water density,
For seas and swells RAW is calculated for RF: frictional resistance for actual water
each run with different wave height, period and temperature and salt content,
direction. RF0: frictional resistance for reference water
temperature and salt content,
The resistance increase due to waves shall be RT0: total resistance for reference water
determined by tank tests or formulae shown in temperature and salt content,
Appendix D. S: wetted surface area,
VS: ship’s speed through the water,
: water density for actual water
4.3.3 Resistance increase due to water
temperature and salt content,
temperature and salt content
0: water density for reference water
Both, water temperature and salt content, temperature and salt content.
affect the density of the sea water and thus the
ship resistance; usually the prediction
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4.3.4 Correction of the ship performance due A practical formula which can be applied
to the effects of shallow water. either to resistance- or power values is the
Admiral-formula. This formula (37) has to be
The formula (17) by Lackenby(12). for the used in case the displacement of the vessel at the
correction of shallow water effects results in a speed/power trial differs from the displacement
correction to the ship’s speed. at the relevant model test within the above
mentioned limits.
V
1/ 2
A   gH 
 0.1242 M2  0.05   1   tanh 2  P1 P
V H   V   3 2 2/3
A V 1
1
3 2/3
V2  2 (18)
for M2  0.05 (17)
H
where
where P1 : power corresp. to displacement Δ1,
AM: midship section area under water, P2 : power corresp. to displacement Δ2,
g: acceleration due to gravity, V1 : speed corresponding to displacement Δ1,
H: water depth, V2 : speed corresponding to displacement Δ2.
V: ship speed,
ΔV: decrease of ship speed due to shallow
water. 5. PROCESSING OF THE RESULTS

After completion of the S/P Trials the


4.3.5 Correction of the ship performance due measured data shall be processed in the
to the effects of displacement and trim following sequence (see also Part 1):

Displacement and trim are, in general, 1. Derive the average values of each
factors that can be adjusted to stipulated values measured parameter for each Speed Run.
at the time of the trials but there may be The average speed is found from the
substantial reasons for discrepancies. DGPS recorded start and end positions
of each Speed Run and the elapsed time;
Trim shall be maintained within very narrow 2. The true wind speed and direction for
limits. For the even keel condition the trim shall each Double Run is derived by the
be less than 1.0% of the mid-ships draught. For method described in Appendix B;
the trimmed trial condition, the immergence of 3. Correction of power due to resistance
the bulbous bow on the ship shall be within 0.1 increase due to wind described in
m compared to the model test condition, Appendix C;
whereas the displacement shall be within 2% of 4. Correction of power due to resistance
the displacement of the model tested condition. increase due to waves (Appendix D);
5. Correction of power due to resistance
Ship resistance is known to be sensitive for
increase due to effect of water
trim in particular for cases where the bulbous
temperature and salinity (4.3.3);
bow or the transom is close to or protrudes the
6. Correction of power for the difference of
waterline. For such effects no reliable correction
displacement from the stipulated
methods exist and therefore trim deviations shall
contractual and EEDI conditions (4.3.5);
be avoided during speed/power trials.
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7. Correction of the rpm and propulsive (3) "Guaranteed speed specifications and the
efficiency from the load variation model analysis procedure", Notification No. 174
test results (4.2.3, Appendix A); of the Ministry of Transport, Japan, 1955.
8. Average the speed, rpm and power over
the two runs of each Double Run and (4) Maruo H., "On the increase of the resistance
over the Double Runs for the same of a ship in rough seas (2nd report)", J.
power setting according to the “mean of SNAJ, Vol. 108, 1960.
means” method to eliminate the effect of
current; (5) Taniguchi, K. & Tamura, K., "On a new
9. Check the current speed for each method of correction for wind resistance
individual speed run by comparing the relating to the analysis of speed trial
“Mean of Means” result at one power results", 11th ITTC, 1966.
setting (step 8) with the results of the
individual run; (6) JTTC, "A tentative guide for the operation of
10. Correction of speed due to the effect of speed trials with large vessels", Bull.
shallow water(4.2.4); SNAJ, No. 442, 1966.
11. Use the speed/power curve from the
(7) ITTC Performance Committee, "ITTC guide
model tests for the specific ship design
for measured-mile trials", Report of the
at the trial draught. Shift this curve along
ITTC Performance Committee, Appendix
the power axis to find the best fit with all
I, 12th ITTC, 1969.
averaged corrected speed/power points
(from step 8) according to the least (8) "Standardization code for trials and testing
squares method; of new ships", The Ship Testing and Trial
12. Intersect the curve at the specified power Trip Committee of the Association of Ship
to derive the ship’s speed at trial draught Technical Societies in Norway, 2nd
in Ideal Conditions; Edition, 1971.
13. Apply the conversion to other stipulated
load conditions according to 4.2.4; (9) "A Study of ship speed trials", No. 2
14. Apply corrections for the contractual Standardization Panel, SRAJ, Res. Rep.
weather conditions if these deviate from No. 12R, 1972.
Ideal Conditions.
(10) "Code for Sea Trials", SNAME, 1989.
6. REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY (11) "BSRA standard method of Speed Trial
Analysis", BSRA Report NS 466, 1978.
(1) ISO 15016, Ships and marine technology –
Guidelines for the assessment of speed (12) Lackenby, H., "The Effect of Shallow
and power performance by analysis of Water on Ship Speed", Shipbuilder, 70,
speed trial data, 2002. No. 672, 1963.
(2) JTTC, "A proposal for a standard method of (13) ITTC Performance Committee, "Hull
speed trial analysis", Bull. SNAJ, No.262, Roughness", Report of the ITTC
1944. Performance Committee, 19th ITTC, 1990.
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(14) ITTC Powering Performance Committee, (19) Boom, H.van den, Huisman, H. and
"An Updated Guide For Speed/Powering Mennen, F.:”New Guidelines for
Trials", Report of the ITTC Powering Speed/Power Trials” SWZ/Maritime,
Performance Committee, Appendix I, 21st Jan./Feb.2013;
ITTC, 1996.
Hansa Int. Maritime Journal 150th year,
(15) Japan Ship Research Association, "SR208: No. 4, April 2013; Hansa-online.de/STA-
New Speed Trial Analysis Method", JIP.pdf.
Report of the SR208 Committee, 1993.
(20) “Principles of Naval Architecture”,
(16) Fujiwara, T., Ueno, M. and Ikeda, Y.: "A Volume II, Section II, Ship
New Estimation Method of Wind Forces Standardization Trials, SNAME 1988.
and Moments acting on Ships on the basis
of Physical Component Models", J.
JASNAOE, Vol.2, 2005.

(17) Sea Trial Analysis Joint Industry Project:


Recommended Analysis of Speed Trials,
MARIN, 2006.

(18) Tsujimoto, M., Shibata, K., Kuroda, M. and


Takagi K.: "A Practical Correction
Method for Added Resistance in Waves",
J. JASNAOE, Vol.8, 2008.
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APPENDIX A. PROPULSIVE ΔRM VSM   


EFFICIENCY CORRECTION BASED ON  Pcorr    PDM 1  DM  (A-3)
D0  D0 
LOAD VARIATION TESTS
with
A.1 propulsion efficiency correction  D 0 propulsion efficiency coefficient
At the sea trial the following quantities are
obtained on board:  in ideal condition

PSM shaft power measured on board  DM propulsion efficiency coefficient


for each single run
VSM ship speed, means of means from  during sea trial
double run
The propulsion efficiency coefficient in
ΔRM resistance increase from wind,
ideal condition, ηD0, is obtained from standard
waves etc for each run. The value
towing tank test and interpolated to the speed
is computed according to section
VSM.
4.3 in these Guidelines.
The propulsion efficiency is assumed to vary
The measured delivered power is linearly with the added resistance according to:

PDM  PSMS  DM ΔRM


(A-1)  p 1
D0 R0 (A-4)
with
where
S Shaft efficiency
 P is overload factor derived from load
(normally 0.99 for conventional shaft)
variation model test as described in
The delivered power corrected to ideal section A.3.
condition is derived by  R0 resistance in ideal condition

PDC  PDM  Pcorr (A-2) This leads to the expression for the corrected
delivered power:
with
 Pcorr correction of delivered power due ΔR M VSM  PDM 
PDC  PDM  1   
 D 0  PDC p 
(A-5)
 to the increased resistance and the
 changed propulsive efficiency This is solved as:

 Pcorr can be written as


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 2 Note that VSM  is the mean of double runs to


1 ΔR M VSM  ΔR M VSM  ΔR M Vthe 
PDC   PDM    PDM    4 PDM
eliminate  p  of current, or mean of means
SM effect
2 D0  D0  in caseof 
D 0 quadruple runs.
 
(A-6)

It is assumed that propeller open water test,


A.2 Correction on shaft rotation rate – effect resistance and self-propulsion tests are carried
of added resistance and of shallow water out at trial draught and evaluated according to
the tanks normal procedures. In addition, a load
variation test is carried out at the trial draught
With the PDC found as described above the and at minimum one speed close to the predicted
correction on shaft rate is EEDI speed (75%MCR). This speed shall be
one of the speeds tested in the normal self-
propulsion test.
n P  PDC ΔV
 n DM  v (A-7)
nC PDC VSM The load variation test includes at least 4
self-propulsion test runs, each one at a different
where rate of revolution while keeping the speed
constant. The rate of revolutions are to be
n  nM  nC selected such that
(A-8)

with ΔR
 [-0.1 0 +0.1 +0.2]- (A-10)
R0
nM measured rpm
where-
nC corrected rpm
S
 n,  v overload factors derived from load ΔR   FD  FX   3
variation model test as described in section A.3.
M - (A-11)

ΔV speed correction due to shallow water, R0 full scale resistance RTS at the actual
determined by equation (17) in Guidelines speed, from resistance test
FX external tow force, measured during
From this follows that the corrected shaft load variation test
rate nC is FD skin friction correction force, same as
in the normal self-propulsion tests
nM  scale factor
nC  (A-9)
PDM  PDC ΔV S,M-water density in full scale and model
n  v 1
PDC VSM test

The “added resistance” in the load variation


A.3 Load variation test test has to be accounted for in the post
processing. For example, if the standard self-
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propulsion test is carried out and processed and PD in the nominators). The variable n is the
according to ITTC 7.5–02–03–01.4 (1978 ITTC slope of the linear curve going through {0,0}
Performance Prediction Method) at tow force and fitted to the data points with least square
FD, the measured data is processed according to method. Figure A.2 gives an example.
the mentioned procedure with one modification:
from section 2.4.3 and onwards. Dependency of shaft rate with speed change

The shaft rate n from the load variation test


CTS is replaced by CTSAdd is plotted against the resistance R0+R. The
corresponding curves for other speeds are
with assumed to be parallel to this line (red lines in
Figure 3) and go through the point { R0 , n} from
R the calm water self-propulsion test (red *). The
CTSAdd  CTS  (A-12)
1  V 2 S intersection of these lines with a constant
2 s s s
resistance gives the rpm dependency of speed
where (green squares □). The slope of the n/n - V/V
curve fitted with least square method is v
VS full scale ship speed (Figure A.3).

SS full scale wetted surface, same values as


used in normal self-propulsion test

In this way the added resistance is reflected


in the propeller load KT/J2, and as a consequence
in

JTS, ns, PDS, OS, and D.

Dependency of propulsion efficiency with


resistance increase

The fraction between the propulsion


efficiency DM from the load variation test and
that from the normal self-propulsion test D is
plotted against the added resistance fraction
R/R0 (with ideal condition R0 in the
nominator). Figure A.1 shows an example. The
variable p is the slope of the linear curve going
through {0,1} and fitted to the data points with
least square method.
Figure A.1 Relation between propeller
Dependency of shaft rate with power increase efficiency and resistance increase

Similarly, the effect on shaft rate n/n is


plotted against P/PD0 (with ideal condition n
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Figure A.2 Relation between propeller rate and


power increase Figure A.3 Relation between propeller rate and
speed change
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UzA1: true wind vector at a run 1,


UzA2: true wind vector at a run 2,
APPENDIX B. EVALUATION OF WIND V1 : ship movement vector at a run 1,
DATA V2 : ship movement vector at a run 2,
B.1 Averaging process for the true wind VWR1: measured relative wind vector at run 1,
VWR2: measured relative wind vector at run 2,
vectors

The true wind vectors in each run are found


B.2 Correction for the height of the
from the speed and heading of the vessel and the
measured wind speed and direction. By anemometer
averaging the true wind vectors over both runs
of the double run, the true wind vector for the The difference between the height of the
run-set is found. This averaged true wind vector anemometer and the reference height is to be
is then used to recalculate the relative wind corrected by means of the wind speed profile
vector for each run of the set. given by formula (B-1).
1/7
z 
Measured Corrected U z ( zref )  U z ( z )  ref 
A A

 z  (B-1)
V1 V1
UzA2 V'WR1 where
VWR UzA V2
V2
111 UzA UzA(z): wind speed at height z,
UzA1 VWR2 V'WR2
zref: reference height.
Figure B-1 True wind vectors and relative wind
vectors. The reference height is selected as the
corresponding height for the specific wind
The averaging procedure of the wind vectors resistance coefficient from wind tunnel tests
is explained by Figure B-1 where: (normally 10 m).
UzA: averaged true wind vector,
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APPENDIX C. CORRECTION Table C-1 Ship type for the wind resistance
METHODS FOR RESISTANCE data set
INCREASE DUE TO WIND Ship type LC Superstructure Test vessel
Tanker/bulke
r
For calculating the resistance increase due to conventional
L normal 280kDWT

wind the following methods are to be used: bow


Tanker/bulke
C.1 Wind resistance coefficients by wind r
B normal 280kDWT
conventional
tunnel test bow
Tanker/bulke
If wind resistance tests for the specific vessel r cylindrical B normal 280kDWT
bow
have been performed in a qualified wind tunnel, LNG carrier A prismatic integrated 125k-m3
the wind resistance coefficients derived by these LNG carrier A
prismatic extended
138k-m3
deck
measurements shall be used to compute the LNG carrier A spherical 125k-m3
wind resistance of the vessel in the trial Container
L with containers 6800TEU
condition. ship
Container without containers,
L 6800TEU
C.2 Data sets of wind resistance coefficients ship with lashing bridges
Container
B with lashing bridges 6800TEU
ship
Data sets of the wind resistance coefficients Container
B without lashing bridges 6800 TEU
have been collected by STA-JIP(19). ship
Car Carrier A normal Autosky
Ferry/Cruise
Data sets are available for tankers/bulkers, LNG A normal
ship
carriers, container ships, car carriers, General Cargo
A normal
ship
ferries/cruise ships and general cargo ships as
shown in Table C-1. The wind resistance LC = Loading Condition
L = Laden
coefficients for each ship type are shown in Fig. B = Ballast
C-1. A = Average

For the use of these coefficients the vessel


type, shape and outfitting shall be carefully
evaluated and compared with the geometry of
the vessel from the data set. The data provided
are limited to the present-day common ship
types. For special vessels such as tugs, supply
ships, fishery vessels and fast crafts, the
geometry of the vessel is too specific to make
use of the available database wind tunnel results
for the specific shiptype are required.
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6800 TEU CONTAINERSHIP


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Fig.C-1 Wind resistance coefficients for various ship types(19).

C.3 Regression formula by Fujiwara et al.


for 90   WR  180(deg .)
A general regression formula based on
model tests in wind tunnels for various ships has AYV A B A
CXLI   20   21   22 XV   23  24 XV
been developed by Fujiwara et al.(16). LOA hBR AYV LOA BhBR
(C-5)
CAA  CLF cos WR
B h A AXV
 1  CLF  20  21  22 C   23 OD2  
CXLI  sin WR  sin WR cos 2  WR  LOA LOA LOA 24
B2
 2 
(C-6)
sin WR cos WR  CALF sin WR cos  WR (C-1)
3

AOD
CALF   20   21
AYV (C-7)
with

0   WR  90(deg .)
for
for
 WR  90(deg .)
AYV C
CLF  10  11  12 MC
LOA B LOA CAA   90(deg .)

(C-2)
 
WR

1
A A CAA   90(deg .)    CAA   90(deg .)  
CXLI  10  11 YV  12 XV 2 WR WR

LOA hBR BhBR


(C-3)
where
AOD B
CALF  10  11  12 AOD: lateral projected area of superstructures
AYV LOA (C-4) etc. on deck,
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AXV: area of maximum transverse section used in the formulae are shown in Table C-2.
exposed to the winds,
AYV projected lateral area above the waterline,
B: ship breadth, j
CAA: wind resistance coefficient, 0 1 2 3 4
CMC: horizontal distance from midship section β 0.922 -0.507 -1.162 - -
ij -0.018 5.091 -10.367 3.011 0.341
to centre of lateral projected area AYV,
δ -0.458 -3.245 2.313 - -
hBR: height of top of superstructure (bridge ij 1.901 -12.727 -24.407 40.310 5.481
etc.), ε 0.585 0.906 -3.239 - -
hC : height from waterline to centre of lateral ij 0.314 1.117 - - -
projected area AYV,
LOA: length overall, Table C-2 Non-dimensional parameters
μ: smoothing range; normally 10(deg.),
ψWR: relative wind direction; 0 means heading The system of co-ordinates and the sign
winds. conventions and explanation of the input
parameters are shown in Fig C.2
The non-dimensional parameters βij, δij and εij

AOD AYV AXV


center of AYV
HBR upper deck

CMC
HC

LOA B

midship

Figure C.2 Input parameters for regression formula by Fujiwara


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APPENDIX D. CORRECTION LBWL: Length of the bow on the water line to


METHODS FOR RESISTANCE 95% of maximum beam as shown in Fig.D-1,
INCREASE DUE TO WAVES

D.1 Direct correction method STAwave-1 95%B LBWL

Specifically for speed trial conditions with


present day ships a dedicated and practical
method has been developed by STA-JIP (19) to
estimate the added resistance in waves with
limited input data. Fig.D-1 Definition of LBWL
Speed trials are conducted in low to mild sea STAwave-1 has been extensively validated
states with restricted wave heights. In short head for the following conditions:
waves the encounter frequency of the waves is
high. In these conditions the effect of wave 1. Significant wave height;
induced motions can be neglected and the added
resistance is dominated by the wave reflection H≤ 2.25 Lpp /100
of the hull on the waterline. The water line 2. Heave and pitch during speed/power
geometry is approximated based on the ship trial are small;
beam and the length of the bow section on the (vertical acceleration at bow < 0.05g)
water line (Fig D.1). 3. Head waves;

Formula (D-1) estimates the resistance The wave corrections are thus restricted to
increase in head waves provided that heave and wave directions in the bow sector to ±45 (deg.)
pitching are small. The application is restricted off bow. Wave within this sector are corrected
to waves in the bow sector (within +/- 45 deg. as head waves. Waves outside the ±45 (deg.)
off bow). For wave directions outside this sector sector are not corrected for.
no wave correction is applied.
D.2 Empirical transfer function STAwave-2
1 B
RAWL   gH W1/3
2
B
16 LBWL The empirical method STAwave-2(19) has
(D-1)
been developed by STA-JIP to approximate the
where transfer function of the mean resistance increase
in heading regular waves by using the main
B: beam of the ship parameters such as ship dimensions and speed,
see Fig.D-2. For this purpose an extensive
HW1/3: significant wave height, seakeeping model test results for large
population of ships has been used to derive
parametric transformation functions.
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14.0 for   1
Rwave 
d1    LPP 
2.66
(D-7)
ff(Fn,Cb)
(Fr, CB)
 566   elsewhere
  B 
Added resistance

and
f(L/B) f (Fr, CB)
f(Fn,Cb)

1
f (Lpp, B) RAWR  g A 2 B1 ( )
2 (D-8)
2 1 1/2 1/4 1/8
Wave length / Ship Length
wave length / ship length  2 I12 (1.5kTM )
1 ( )  f1
Fig.D-2 Parametric transfer function of  2 I12 (1.5kTM )  K12 (1.5kTM ) (D-9)
meanresistance increase in regular waves.
0.769
 V 
This empirical transfer function covers both f1  0.692 S   1.81CB
6.95

the mean resistance increase due to wave  T g


 M  (D-10)
reflection RAWR and the motion induced
resistance RAWM . where:

RAWM  4 g A 2 B 2 / Lpp raw( ) CB : block coefficient,


(D-2)
k yy : non dimensional radius of gyration in
With
lateral direction,
raw( )
Lpp: ship length between perpendiculars,
b 
  b1 exp  1 1   d1   a1 Fr1.50 exp  3.50 Fr  TM: draught at midship,
 d1 
(D-3) I1: modified Bessel function of the first kind
of order 1,
LPP 3
k yy K1: modified Bessel function of the second
g
  kind of order 1,
1.17 Fr 0.143 (D-4)
With the following restrictions:
a1  60.3CB1.34
(D-5)
75(m)  Lpp  350(m)
1. ,
11.0 for   1
b1   2. 4.0 
Lpp
 9.0 ,
 8.50 elsewhere (D-6) B
B
3. 2.2   5.5 ,
T
4. 0.10  Fr  0.30 ,
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5. 0.50  CB  0.90 and 


RAWM  4πρ  3  m4 H1 (m)
m 
 2

6. wave direction within 0 to ±45 deg. from


bow.
(m  K 0 ΩE ) 2 (m  K cos α )
dm
(m  K 0 ΩE ) 4  m 2 K 0
2

The method is applicable to the mean 1


resistance increase in long crested irregular head for ΩE  (D-13)
waves RAWL, formula (D-11). The wave 4

 
corrections are thus restricted to wave directions 
RAWM  4πρ  3  m42  m1 H1 (m)
m m 2
in the bow sector to ±45 (deg.) off bow. Waves
within this sector are corrected as head waves. (m  K 0 ΩE ) 2 (m  K cos α )
Waves outside the ±45 (deg.) sector are not dm
(m  K 0 ΩE ) 4  m 2 K 0
2
corrected for.
1
 Rwave (;VS ) for ΩE  (D-14)
RAWL  2 Sf ( )d 4
0  A2 (D-11)
with
D.3 THEORETICAL METHOD WITH EVS
SIMPLIFIED TANK TESTS E  (D-15)
g
Applying the theoretical formula, the mean
resistance increase in regular waves Rwave is 2
K (D-16)
calculated from the components of the mean g
resistance increase based on Maruo's theory
RAWM and its correction term which primarily is g
valid for short waves RAWR. K0  2
(D-17)
VS
Rwave  RAWM  RAWR
(D-12) E    KVS cos  (D-18)

with
RAWM: mean resistance increase in regular m1 

K 0 1  2E  1  4E  (D-19)
waves based on Maruo's theory(4), which 2
is mainly induced by ship motion.
RAWR: mean resistance increase due to wave m2 

K 0 1  2E  1  4E  (D-20)
reflection for correcting RAWM. 2
RAWR should be calculated with accuracy
because the mean resistance increase in
m3  

K 0 1  2 E  1  4E  (D-21)
short waves is predominant one. 2

The expression of RAWM is given in the


following formulae. m4  

K 0 1  2E  1  4E  (D-22)
2

H1 (m)   σ ( x) e imx dx (D-23)


L
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where VS
g: gravitational acceleration, 
g (D-27)
H1(m): function to be determined by the
distribution of singularities which
1
  sin    w  sin  w dl 
represents periodical disturbance by Bf  2

the ship, B I
(D-28)
VS: ship speed through the water,
α: encounter angle of incident waves (0   sin    w  sin  w dl
2

II
deg. means head waves),
ρ: density of fluid, where
ω: circular wave frequency, I1: modified Bessel function of the first
ω E: circular wave frequency of encounter. kind of order 1,
K1 : modified Bessel function of the second
The expression of RAWR is given by
kind of order 1,
Tsujimoto et al.(18) The calculation method
k: wave number,
introduces an experimental coefficient in short
T: draught; for a trim condition T is the
waves into the calculation in terms of accuracy
deepest draught,
and takes into account the effect of the bow
βw: slope of the line element dl along the
shape above the water.
water line and domains of the
1 integration (I & II ) are shown in Fig.D-
RAWR  g A 2 BBf T (1  CU Fr ) 3.
2 (D-24)
When Bf <0, then Rwave= 0 is assumed.
where
B: ship breadth,
Bf: bluntness coefficient,
CU: coefficient of advance speed, aft fore II
Fr: Froude number, X
αT: effect of draught and encounter
G
w  I
waves
frequency,
ζA: wave amplitude. Y

with Fig.D-3 Coordinate system wave reflection.

 2 I12 (keT ) The coefficient of the advance speed in


T 
 I (keT )  K (keT )
2 2
1 1
2
(D-25)
oblique waves CU(α) is calculated on the basis
of the empirical relation line shown in Fig. D-41,
which has been obtained by tank tests of various
ke  k 1   cos  
2

(D-26) ship types following to the procedures in the

1
The empirical relation line in Fig.D-4 was obtained as
follows. CU is derived from the result of tank tests and RAWM,  
as formula (D-29). 1  Rwave ( Fr)  RAWM ( Fr) 
EXP

CU    1
Fr  1 
g A BBf  T
2

 2 
 (D-29)
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next paragraph. When CU(α=0) is obtained by should be selected such that the speeds during
tank tests the relation used in oblique waves is the sea trials lie between the lowest and the
shifted parallel to the empirical relation line. highest selected Fr.
This is illustrated in Fig.D-5 for both fine and
blunt ships. When tank tests are not carried out, the
coefficient of advance speed in head waves CU
The aforementioned coefficient CU(α=0) is (α = 0) is calculated by the following empirical
determined by tank tests which should be relations, formulae (D-31) and (D-32), shown in
carried out in short waves since RAWR is mainly Fig.D-4. The formulae are suitable for all ships.
effected by short waves. The length of short
waves should be 0.5LPP or less. The coefficient
of advance speed CU is determined by the least
CU (  0)  310Bf  68
square method through the origin against Fr; see for Bf  58 / 310
Fig.D-6.
(D-31)
70
CU
CU (  0)  10 for Bf  58 / 310 (D-32)
60

50

40

30

20

10

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7


Bf
Exp. in heading waves Exp. in oblique waves
empirical relation

Fig.D-4 Relation between the coefficient of


advance speed on added resistance due to wave
reflection and the bluntness coefficient for
conventional hull form above water.

The tank tests should be conducted for at


least three different Froude Numbers Fr. The Fr

with with
EXP
Rwave : mean resistance increase in regular waves measured B(x): sectional breadth,
CVP: vertical prismatic coefficient,
in the tank tests. t: time,
TM: draught at midship,
In calculating RAWM the strength of the singularity σ is x: longitudinal coordinate,
calculated by the formulation of slender body theory as formula Zr: vertical displacement relative to waves in steady
(D-30) and the singularity is concentrated at depth of CVPTM. motion.

1   
σ    VS Z r ( x) B( x) (D-30)
4π  t x 
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70 70
CU CU
60 60

50 50

40 40

30 30

20 20

10 10

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
Bf Bf
Exp. in heading waves empirical relation Exp. in heading waves empirical relation
relation used in oblique waves relation used in oblique waves

Fig.D-5 Shift of the empirical relation in oblique waves (upper; for fine ship Bf  58 / 310 , lower;
for blunt ship Bf  58 / 310 ).
at the trial draughts and trim; and at contractual
U=CU Fr draughts if required. A minimum of two
different ship speeds VS covering the speed
range tested in the speed/power trials have to be
tank tested.

If the trials are not conducted in head seas and


following seas, the tank tests should not only
comprise head and following waves but also the
relevant obligue wave conditions. A maximum
interval of incident wave angle shall be 30° for
Fr
head to beam seas (0°-90°) but may be larger for
ship speed in beam to following seas (90°-180°).
the sea trial
conditions in this
range These tests shall be performed for a combination
of circular frequency of regular waves (ω), angle
between ship heading and incident regular
Fig.D-6 Relation between effect of advance waves (α) and ship speed through the water (VS)
speed (αU=CUFr) and Froude number Fr. based on the following: A minimum of 5 wave
D.4 Seakeeping model tests lengths in the range of 0.5LPP or less to 2.0LPP.
The test set-up and procedure shall follow ITTC
Transfer functions of the resistance increase 7.5-02 07-02.2.
in waves (Rwave) may be derived from the tank
tests in regular waves. The tank tests have to be
conducted for the specific vessel geometry
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where

APPENDIX E. CONVERSION FROM


BALLAST SPEED/POWER TEST PBallast,P: predicted power at ballast condition
RESULTS TO OTHER STIPULATED by tank tests,
LOAD CONDITIONS PBallast,S: power at ballast condition obtained by
the speed trials,
For dry cargo vessels it is difficult or PFull,P: predicted power at full load condition
unfeasible to conduct speed trials at full load by tank tests,
condition. For such cases speed trials at ballast PFull,S: power at full load condition,
condition are performed and the result of the αP: power ratio.
speed trials is converted to that of full
load/stipulated condition using tank test results. Fig.E-1 shows an example of the conversion
to derive the resulting ship speed at full load
The power curve at full load/stipulated condition (VFull,S) at 75%MCR.
condition is obtained from the results of the
speed trials at ballast condition using the power
curves predicted by model tank tests. The tank
tests should be carried out at both draughts:
ballast condition corresponding to that of the
speed trials and full load/stipulated condition.

Using the power curve obtained by the speed


trials at ballast condition, the conversion on ship
speed from ballast condition to full load
condition to be carried out by the power ratio αP
defined in formula (E-1). The adjusted power at
full load condition (PFull,S) is calculated by
formula (E-2).

PBallast,P Fig.E-1 An example of ship speed adjustment


P  (E-1)
PBallast,S using power ratio.

PFull,P
PFull,S  (E-2)
P
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APPENDIX F. NOMENCLATURE CWL prismatic waterline coefficient


[-]
AE/AO blade area ratio [-] D diameter of the actual full scale
AX transverse area above water propeller [m]
[m2] D depth, moulded, of a ship hull
AM: midship section area under water [m]
[m²] E: directional sea spectrum
AR rudder area Fr Froude number [-]
AT submerged area transom [m2] G angular distribution function [-]
AXV area of maximum transverse g gravitational acceleration [m/s²]
section exposed to the winds h waterdepth [m]
[m²] hANEMO height anemometer above water
B ship breadth [m] [m]
Bf bluntness coefficient [-] hR rudder height [m]
bR : rudder span [m] HS1/3 sum of significant wave height
C coefficient for starboard and port of swell and wind driven seas
rudder [-] [m]
CAAjj measured wind resistance HW1/3 significant wave height [m]
coefficient at wind tunnel [-] I1 modified Bessel function of the
Cˆ AAij estimated wind resistance first kind of order 1 [-]
J propeller advance ratio [-]
coefficient [-] KQ propeller torque coefficient [-]
CAA(ψWR): wind resistance coefficient KT propeller thrust coefficient [-]
CB block coefficient K1 modified Bessel function of the
CF frictional resistance coefficient second kind of order 1[-]
for actual water temperature and k wave number [-]
salt content [-] kYY non dimensional longitudinal
CF0 frictional resistance coefficient radius of gyration [% of LPP]
for reference water temperature LCB longitudinal centre of buoyancy
and salt content. [-] forward of midship [% of LPP]
CM midship area coefficient [-] LBWL distance of the bow to 95% of
Cnmargin rpm margin in percent rpm at maximum breadth on the
NCR [%] waterline [m]
CPA prismatic coefficient of aft part LPP length between perpendiculars
(from midship to A.P.) [-] [m]
CSEAMAR sea margin in percentage NCR LWL length at waterline [m]
[%] MCR maximum continuous rating
CT0 total resistance coefficient for [kW]
reference water temperature and NCR nominal continuous rating [kW]
salt content, [-] nMCR rpm at MCR [rpm]
CU coefficient of advance speed [-] nNCR rpm at NCR [rpm]
CWA water plane area coefficient of NP number of propellers [-]
aft part (from midship to A.P.) NS number of ships [-]
[-] Nψ number of wind directions [-]
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n: measured rate of revolution of TA draught at aft perpendicular [m]


propeller at each run TF draught at forward perpendicular
nC corrected rpm (RPMC) [rpm] [m]
n(i) propeller frequency of TM draught at midships [m]
revolutions at (i)th run [rpm] t thrust deduction fraction [-]
n(i+1) propeller frequency of tAref reference air temperature [°C]
revolutions at (i+1)th run [rpm] tSref reference sea water temperature
P propeller pitch at 0.7 R [m] [°C]
PB break horse power [kW] VFM mean current velocity [m/s]
PD delivered power at propeller VG′(i+1): ship speed over the ground at
[kW] (i+1)th run [kn]
P/D pitch/diameter ratio at 0.7R [-] VKN ship speed over ground [kn]
PS ship shaft power [kW] VS ship speed (VS) [kn]
PSC Corrected ship power (PSC) VSC. corrected ship speed (VSC) [kn]
[kW] VWR apparent wind speed, relative
RAA resistance increase due to wind velocity [m/s]
relative winds [N] w wake fraction [-]
RAS resistance increase due to wm mean wake fraction
deviation of water temperature Z number of propeller blades [-]
and water density [N] α: wave direction relative to bow,
RAW mean resistance increase in short angle between ship heading
crested irregular waves [N] [deg]
RAWM mean resistance increase in and incident regular waves; 0
regular waves based on Maruo's means head waves.
theory(4), αT: effect of draught and encounter
RAWR mean resistance increase due to frequency [-]
wave reflection for correcting β drift angle [deg]
RAWM. βw slope of the line element dl
RT total resistance in still water [N] along the water line [deg]
RT0 resistance for reference water βWR apparent wind direction relative
temperature and salt content [N] to bow [deg]
Rwave mean resistance increase in  displaced volume [m3]
regular waves [N] Δ displacement [t]
Rββ resistance increase due to drift ΔR resistance increase [N]
[N] Δref reference displacement[m3]
Rδδ resistance increase due to ΔVS decrease of ship speed due to
steering [N] shallow water [kn]
S wetted surface hull [m2] Δτ load factor increase due to
S frequency spectrum, for ocean resistance increase [-]
waves modified Pierson- δ rudder angle [deg]
Moskowitz type [-] δn correction factor for RPM
SAPP wetted surface appendages [m2] (DRPM) [-]
SE EST δPA power correction factor for wind
averaged standard errors of wind
(DPWIN) [kW]
resistance coefficient [-]
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δPt pwer correction factor for ρ density of the sea water,for


temperature (DPTEM) [kW] actual temperature & salt
δPρ power correction factor for content [kg/m³]
density (DPDEN) [kW] ρA mass density of air [kg/m³]
δPΔ power correction factor for ρWSref sea water density according to
displacement (DPDIS) [kW] contract [kg/m3]
δVH speed correction factor for depth ρWS sea water density [kg/m3]
(DVDEP) [kn] ρ0 water density for reference water
ζa wave amplitude [m] temperature and salt content
ηD propulsive efficiency or quasi [kg/m³]
propulsive coefficient [-] ψ heading of ship; compass course
ηR relative rotative efficiency by [deg]
use of the thrust identity [-] ψWR: relative wind direction [deg]
ηS mechanical efficinecy in ω circular frequency of incident
shafting(s) and gear box(es) [-] regular waves [rad/s]
ΛR aspect ratio of rudder [-]
λ model scale 1: λ [-]