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5-04

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Procedures and Guidelines Page 1 of 33

Analysis of Speed/Power Trial Data 2014 01

Table of Contents

EFFICIENCY CORRECTION BASED ON

4 ANALYSIS PROCEDURE................... 4 LOAD VARIATION TESTS ...................... 14

4.1 General Remarks ............................... 4

A.1 Propulsion efficiency correction ......... 14

4.2 Description of the Analysis Procedure

............................................................. 4 A.2 Correction on shaft rotation rate – effect

4.2.1 Resistance data derived from the of added resistance and of shallow water

acquired data .................................... 6 ............................................................... 15

4.2.2 Evaluation of the acquired data ....... 7

A.3 Load variation test ............................... 15

4.2.3 Evaluation based on Direct Power

Method ............................................. 7 APPENDIX B. EVALUATION OF WIND

4.2.4 Prediction of power curve from DATA .................................................... 18

ballast condition to full load or

stipulated condition ......................... 8 B.1 Averaging process for the true wind

vectors ................................................... 18

4.2.5 Presentation of the trial results ........ 8

4.3 Calculation methods for resistance B.2 Correction for the height of the

increase and other corrections.......... 8 anemometer .......................................... 18

4.3.1 Resistance increase due to the effects

of wind ............................................. 8 APPENDIX C. CORRECTION METHODS

FOR RESISTANCE INCREASE DUE TO

4.3.2 Resistance increase due to the effects WIND 19

of waves ........................................... 9

4.3.3 Resistance increase due to water C.1 Wind resistance coefficients by wind

temperature and salt content .......... 10 tunnel test .............................................. 19

4.3.4 Correction of the ship performance

due to the effects of shallow water. C.2 Data sets of wind resistance coefficients

....................................................... 11 ............................................................... 19

4.3.5 Correction of the ship performance C.3 Regression formula by Fujiwara et al.

due to the effects of displacement and ............................................................... 22

trim ................................................ 11

Specialist Committee on Performance of

27th ITTC 2014

Ships in Service 27th ITTC

Date 2014

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Analysis of Speed/Power Trial Data 2014 01

FOR RESISTANCE INCREASE DUE TO

WAVES 24 APPENDIX E. CONVERSION FROM

BALLAST SPEED/POWER

D.1 Direct correction method STAwave-1 24 TESTRESULTS TO OTHER STIPULATED

LOAD CONDITIONS ................................. 30

D.2 Empirical transfer function STAwave-2

............................................................... 24 APPENDIX F. NOMENCLATURE........... 31

tests........................................................ 26

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Analysis of Speed/Power Trial Data 2014 01

stipulated in the newbuilding or

1. PURPOSE

conversion contract between Shipbuilder

These Guidelines concern the method of and Owner.

analysis of the results obtained from the Docking Report: report that documents

speed/power trials as conducted according Part the condition of the ship hull and

1 of these Guidelines; ITTC 7.5-04-01-01.1. propulsors (available from the most recent

dry-docking).

The descriptions for the calculation methods Double Run: two consecutive Speed

of the resistance increase due to wind and waves, Runs at the same power setting on

as well as guidelines for analysis and speed reciprocal heading.

corrections are based on relevant research EEDI: Energy Efficiency Design Index as

results and modified from ITTC 7.5-04-01- formulated by IMO.

01.2/2005 to meet the IMO EEDI requirements. EEDI Power: Shaft Power that is

stipulated by the EEDI regulations.

The primary purpose of speed trials is to Ideal Conditions: ideal weather and sea

determine the ship’s performance in terms of condition; deep water, no wind, no waves

speed, power and propeller frequency of and no current.

revolutions under prescribed ship conditions, Owner: party that signed the newbuilding

and thereby to verify the satisfactory attainment or conversion contract with the

of the contractually stipulated ship speed. Shipbuilder.

Propeller Pitch: the design pitch, also for

The purpose of these Guidelines is to define

controllable pitch propellers.

the evaluation and correction of speed/power

trials covering all influences which may be Running Pitch: the operating pitch of a

CPP.

relevant for the individual trial runs with

assurance of the highest accuracy of speed and Shaft Power: net power supplied by the

power determination in contractual and propulsion machinery to the propulsion

stipulated conditions. shafting after passing through all speed-

reducing and other transmission devices

The applicability of these Guidelines is and after power for all attached auxiliaries

limited to commercial ships of the displacement has been taken off.

type. Shipbuilder: ship yard that signed the

newbuilding or conversion contract with

the Owner.

2. TERMS AND DEFINITIONS Ship Speed: speed that is realised under

the stipulated conditions. “Contract Speed”

For the purposes of these Guidelines, the refers to the contractual conditions agreed.

following terms and definitions apply: “EEDI Speed” refers to the conditions

specified by IMO. The ship’s speed during

Brake Power: power delivered by the a Speed Run is derived from the headway

output coupling of the propulsion distance between start and end position

machinery. and the elapsed time of the Speed Run.

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Analysis of Speed/Power Trial Data 2014 01

Sister Ships: ships with identical main ship-owner shall be obtained concerning the

dimensions, body lines and propulsor limits of wind forces, wave heights and water

system built in a series by the same depths up to which the trials shall be performed.

Shipbuilder. Agreement shall be obtained concerning the

S/P Trials: speed-power trials to establish methods used to correct the trial data. The

the Speed-Power relation of the vessel. measured data, analysis process and the results

Speed Run: ship track with specified shall be transparent and open to the Trial Team.

heading, distance and duration over which

Ship Speed and Shaft Power are measured.

4. ANALYSIS PROCEDURE

S/P Trial Agenda: document outlining

the scope of a particular S/P Trial. This

document contains the guidelines on how 4.1 General Remarks

to conduct the trial and table(s) portraying

the runs to be conducted. This document describes different methods

Trial Log: for each Speed Run, the log to analyse the results of speed/power tests as

contains the run number, the times when conducted according to Part 1 of these

the Speed Run starts and stops, and the Guidelines. The method to be used depending

data as described in Section 9.4 and on situation and available data is given in the

Appendix C of Part I of these Guidelines. matrix of Table 1.

The Trial Leader is the duly authorised The procedure for the analysis of speed trials

(Shipbuilder’s representative) person is the Direct Power Method and requires

responsible for the execution of all phases displacement, power, rate of revolutions, speed-

of the S/P Trials including the pre-trial over-ground, wind speed and direction, wave

preparation.

condition, ηD and ηS as input values.

The Trial Team consists of the Trial

Leader, the Owner’s representative, the

appointed persons responsible for the S/P 4.2 Description of the Analysis Procedure

Trial measurements and the Verifier.

The analysis of speed/power trials shall

Verifier: third party responsible for

consist of

verification of the EEDI.

ordinates and sign conventions, reference is correction of ship performance for

made to Part I of these Guidelines. resistance increase due to wind, waves,

water temperature and salt content

elimination of current

3. RESPONSIBILITIES correction of ship speed at each run for the

effect of shallow water

The Trial Team is responsible for carrying correction of ship performance for

out the trials and for correcting the data received. displacement

Preferably before the sea trials start, but at the presentation of the trial results

latest when the trial area is reached and the

environmental conditions can be studied,

agreement between the trial team, shipyard and

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Analysis of Speed/Power Trial Data 2014 01

Preparation, analysis

Conduct

Measured Data

VS, PS, nS

Wave Data

Speed Resistance Increase

Water

Elimination of

Temperature,

Current

Salt Content

Power Evaluation

Displacement

and Trim

Final

Performance

methods are given. For wave and wind wind, three methods can be used, depending on

corrections the methods depend on the level of whether there are wind tunnel measurements

information which is available to the conducting available or not:

party of the speed/power sea trials. The analysis

and correction method to be followed is If wind tunnel measurements are available:

prescribed below and summarized in Table 1.

Same method as with dataset on the wind

Evaluation resistance coefficient (Appendix C.1)

For the evaluation the Direct Power Method If wind tunnel measurements are not

in combination with the propulsive efficiency available:

correction based on load variation tests (Section

4.2.3, Appendix A) shall be used. Data set on the wind resistance coefficient

(Appendix C.2)

Wind Correction

or regression formula by Fujiwara et al.

(Appendix C.3).

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Analysis of Speed/Power Trial Data 2014 01

Data set of STA C.2

Condition coefficients Air Temp. & Water Displ. &

Evaluation Waves Wind Current

available Resistance Density Depth Trim

no C.3

Load yes 4.2.3

Variation

Test no 4.2.3

available Table 1 Evaluation method to be followed. The

heave no D.1 numbers

Included

identify the method by the chapters in

no which the methods are4.3.3described,

4.3.4 e.g.:4.3.5

4.2.3:

Ship Lines and pitch

yes D.2 in method

available to

D.1 or Evaluation

Included based on Direct Power Method,

all parties yes 4.3.3 4.3.4 4.3.5

D.2,D.3 D.1: Wave correction

in method STAwave-1.

Full Seakeeping Included

D.4 4.3.3 4.3.4 4.3.5

Model Tests available in method

Dataset of Wind Tunnel Tests Included in

C.1 4.3.3 4.3.4 4.3.5

Wind available method

Wave correction

In the case transfer functions of added

In calculating resistance increase due to resistance in waves derived from seakeeping

waves, the following procedure shall be used: tank tests are available for the specific vessel at

the relevant draught, trim, speed range and

If ship geometry can't be made available relative wave direction, are available, these shall

to all involved parties and under the condition be used in combination with the wave

that heaving and pitching are small, the direct encountered wave spectrum measured during

correction wave method based on wave the trials (Appendix D.4).

reflection prescribed in D.1 shall be used.

Shallow water

In case significant heave and pitch is

observed during the trials, the empirical To correct for shallow water effect the

formulation of the response function prescribed method proposed by Lackenby(12). shall be

in D.2, shall be used for the analysis. This applied to the ship speed measured during each

empirical transfer function covers both the mean run.

resistance increase due to wave reflection and

the motion induced added resistance. Prescribed Method

Provided that the ship geometry is Table 1 shows which method shall be used,

available to all parties involved and the wave depending on the information available.

spectrum encountered during the speed/power

trials is measured, the theoretical method as 4.2.1 Resistance data derived from the

prescribed in Appendix D.3 in combination with acquired data

simplified seakeeping model test may be used.

In this case the derived transfer functions for The resistance values of each run shall be

added resistance should be used in combination corrected for environmental influences by

with the measured wave spectrum. estimating the resistance increase ΔR as,

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Analysis of Speed/Power Trial Data 2014 01

RAA : resistance increase due to relative wind, the measured shaft power by taking into account

RAS : resistance increase due to deviation of the propeller efficiency according to Appendix

water temperature and water density, A:

RAW : resistance increase due to waves.

ΔRVSM PDM

The added resistance due to wind, waves, PDC PDM 1 (3)

D0 PDC p

temperature and water density is estimated

according section 4.3

with

VSM: ship speed measured, means of means

4.2.2 Evaluation of the acquired data from double run

ηD0: propulsion efficiency coefficient in ideal

The evaluation of the acquired data consists

condition, from model test.

of the calculation of the resistance value

p: derived from load variation model test.

associated with the measured power value

ΔR: Resistance increase due to wind, waves

separately for each run of the speed trials.

and temperature deviations (eq. 1).

The reason that the associated

PDC is the power in no wind and no other

resistance/power shall be calculated for each run

disturbance. For shallow water a speed

is that a careful evaluation shall consider the

correction is applied according to 4.3.4.

effects of varying hydrodynamic coefficients

Deviations in displacement are corrected for

with varying propeller loads. The recommended

according to 4.3.5.

correction methods except for the ones used for

shallow water effect and for displacement and In the Direct Power Method the current is

trim are applicable to resistance values. eliminated by averaging the results of double

runs. Per set of measurements for one engine

4.2.3 Evaluation based on Direct Power setting, after power correction, the average is

Method determined by calculating the “mean of means”

(ref. Principles of Naval Architecture(20)) of the

To derive the speed/power performance of corrected speed and power points.

the vessel from the measured speed over ground,

shaft torque and rpm, the Direct Power Method From the corrected trial points the

is to be used. In this method the measured power differences in speed with the fitted curve at the

is directly corrected with the power increase due same power are derived. Plotting these speed

to added resistance in the trial conditions. The differences on the basis of time for each trial run,

measured delivered power is: a tidal curve can be fitted through these points.

The purpose of creating this tidal curve is to

PDM PSMs (2) have a quality control on the measured data.

PSM: Shaft power measured for each run revolution is also based on the results of the load

ηS: Shaft efficiency (0.99 for conventional variation tank tests (Appendix A). The corrected

shaft) shaft rate nC is

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Analysis of Speed/Power Trial Data 2014 01

nC

PDM PDC ΔV

n v 1 The corrected shaft and/or delivered power

PDC VSM (4) values, together with the associated, corrected

speed values of runs at almost identical power

with level, but in opposite directions (double run),

nM : measured propeller frequency of shall be combined and the mean values of speed,

revolution, power and propeller rate of revolutions shall be

VSM: measured ship speed, means of means used to derive the final results.

from double run

n , v : overload factors derived from load

4.3 Calculation methods for resistance

variation model test (Appendix A) increase and other corrections

ΔV : speed correction due to shallow water,

determined by according to 4.3.4.

4.3.1 Resistance increase due to the effects of

If load variation tests are not available, the wind

overload factors p, n and v may be obtained

The resistance increase due to relative wind

from statistical values from sufficient load

is calculated by

variation tests for this specific ship type, size

and propulsor. If these can not be provided, the 1

overload factors may be derived by ITTC 7.5- RAA AVWR 2CX ( WR ) AXV

02-03-01.4 (2011). 2 (5)

with

4.2.4 Prediction of power curve from ballast AXV: area of maximum transverse section

condition to full load or stipulated exposed to the wind,

condition CX: wind resistance coefficient

Note: CX = - CA for method C.3

For dry cargo vessels it is difficult to conduct

VWR: relative wind speed,

speed trials at full load condition. For such cases

ρA: mass density of air,

speed trials at ballast condition are performed

ψWR: relative wind direction; 0 means heading

and the power curve is converted to that of full

wind. See System of Co-ordinates in Part

load or of stipulated condition using the power

1.

curves based on the tank tests for these

conditions. By nature wind speed and direction vary in

time and therefore these are defined by their

The tank test results shall be provided by the

average values over a selected period.

Shipbuilder. These tank test results shall be

obtained in full compliance with the For speed/power trials it is assumed that the

requirements given in Section 7.5 of Part 1 of wind condition is stationary i.e. that the speed

these Guidelines. and direction are reasonably constant over the

duration of each double run. The average speed

The conversion method to be followed to

and direction during the double run are then

convert the trial results for ballast condition to

determined for the duration of each

results for full load or stipulated condition is

measurement run.

given in Appendix E.

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Analysis of Speed/Power Trial Data 2014 01

The wind speed and direction are usually Irregular waves can be represented as linear

measured by the on-board anemometer, superposition of the components of regular

positioned mostly in the radar mast on top of the waves. Therefore the mean resistance increase

bridge. Both wind speed and direction at this in short crested irregular waves RAW is

location may be affected by the geometry of the calculated by linear superposition of the

vessel in particular the shape of the directional wave spectrum E and the response

superstructure and the wheel house. function of mean resistance increase in regular

waves Rwave.

The true wind vector for each speed-run is

found from the speed and heading of the vessel 2 Rwave ( , ;VS )

RAW 2 E (, )dd

and the measured wind speed and direction. By 0 0 A2 (6)

averaging the true wind vectors over both speed-

runs of the double run, the true wind vector for

with

the run-set is found. This averaged true wind

RAW: mean resistance increase in short crested

vector is then used to recalculate the relative

irregular waves,

wind vector for each speed-run of the set. This

Rwave: mean resistance increase in regular waves,

procedure is explained in detail in Appendix B-

ζA: wave amplitude,

1.

ω: circular frequency of regular waves,

The wind speed as measured by the α: angle between ship heading and incident

anemometer shall be corrected for the wind regular waves; 0 means heading waves,

speed profile taking into account the height of VS: ship speed through the water,

the anemometer and the reference height for the E: directional spectrum; if the directional

wind resistance coefficients (normally 10 m) spectrum is measured at sea trials by a

according to Appendix B-2. sensors and the accuracy is confirmed, the

directional spectrum is available. If the

The wind resistance coefficient shall be directional spectrum is not measured it is

based on the data derived from model tests in a calculated by the following relation:

wind tunnel. In cases where a database is

available covering ships of similar type, such E = Sf (ω)G(α) (7)

data can be used instead of carrying out model

with

tests. Besides, a statistical regression formula

G: angular distribution function.

concerning wind resistance coefficients of

Sf : frequency spectrum, for ocean waves

various ship types has been developed. The

modified Pierson-Moskowitz type.

methods are mentioned in Appendix C.

The standard form of the frequency

4.3.2 Resistance increase due to the effects of spectrum and the angular distribution function

waves are assumed for the calculation. The modified

Pierson-Moskowitz frequency spectrum of

The most reliable way to determine the ITTC 1978 shown in formula (8).

decrease of ship speed in waves is to carry out

sea keeping tests in regular waves of constant Af B

wave height, and different wave lengths and Sf ( ) exp f4

5

(8)

directions at various speeds according to ITTC

7.5-02-07-02.2.

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Analysis of Speed/Power Trial Data 2014 01

temperature of the sea water of 15°C and a

2

H W1 / 3 density of 1025 kg/m³. The effects of water

Af 173 4 temperature and salt content are calculated as

T1 (9) follows:

691 ρ C

Bf

T1

4 RAS RT 0 1 RF F0 1

(10) ρ0 CF (13)

m0

T1 2 with

m1 (11)

1

RF S VS2CF

where 2 (14)

HW1/3: significant wave height,

mn: nth moment of frequency spectrum. 1

RF0 SVS 2CF0

For the angular distribution function the 2 (15)

cosine-power type shown in formula (12) is

1

generally applied; e.g. s=1 for seas and s=75 for RT0 0 S VS2CT0

swells are used in practice. 2 (16)

22 s 2 ( s 1) where

G( ) cos 2 s

2 (2s 1) 2 (12)

CF: frictional resistance coefficient for

actual water temperature and salinity,

CF0: frictional resistance coefficient for

where

s: directional spreading parameter, reference water temperature and salinity,

CT0: total resistance coefficient for reference

: Gamma function,

: primary wave direction; 0 means heading water temperature and salinity,

waves. RAS: resistance increase due to deviation of

water temperature and water density,

For seas and swells RAW is calculated for RF: frictional resistance for actual water

each run with different wave height, period and temperature and salt content,

direction. RF0: frictional resistance for reference water

temperature and salt content,

The resistance increase due to waves shall be RT0: total resistance for reference water

determined by tank tests or formulae shown in temperature and salt content,

Appendix D. S: wetted surface area,

VS: ship’s speed through the water,

: water density for actual water

4.3.3 Resistance increase due to water

temperature and salt content,

temperature and salt content

0: water density for reference water

Both, water temperature and salt content, temperature and salt content.

affect the density of the sea water and thus the

ship resistance; usually the prediction

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Analysis of Speed/Power Trial Data 2014 01

4.3.4 Correction of the ship performance due A practical formula which can be applied

to the effects of shallow water. either to resistance- or power values is the

Admiral-formula. This formula (37) has to be

The formula (17) by Lackenby(12). for the used in case the displacement of the vessel at the

correction of shallow water effects results in a speed/power trial differs from the displacement

correction to the ship’s speed. at the relevant model test within the above

mentioned limits.

V

1/ 2

A gH

0.1242 M2 0.05 1 tanh 2 P1 P

V H V 3 2 2/3

A V 1

1

3 2/3

V2 2 (18)

for M2 0.05 (17)

H

where

where P1 : power corresp. to displacement Δ1,

AM: midship section area under water, P2 : power corresp. to displacement Δ2,

g: acceleration due to gravity, V1 : speed corresponding to displacement Δ1,

H: water depth, V2 : speed corresponding to displacement Δ2.

V: ship speed,

ΔV: decrease of ship speed due to shallow

water. 5. PROCESSING OF THE RESULTS

4.3.5 Correction of the ship performance due measured data shall be processed in the

to the effects of displacement and trim following sequence (see also Part 1):

Displacement and trim are, in general, 1. Derive the average values of each

factors that can be adjusted to stipulated values measured parameter for each Speed Run.

at the time of the trials but there may be The average speed is found from the

substantial reasons for discrepancies. DGPS recorded start and end positions

of each Speed Run and the elapsed time;

Trim shall be maintained within very narrow 2. The true wind speed and direction for

limits. For the even keel condition the trim shall each Double Run is derived by the

be less than 1.0% of the mid-ships draught. For method described in Appendix B;

the trimmed trial condition, the immergence of 3. Correction of power due to resistance

the bulbous bow on the ship shall be within 0.1 increase due to wind described in

m compared to the model test condition, Appendix C;

whereas the displacement shall be within 2% of 4. Correction of power due to resistance

the displacement of the model tested condition. increase due to waves (Appendix D);

5. Correction of power due to resistance

Ship resistance is known to be sensitive for

increase due to effect of water

trim in particular for cases where the bulbous

temperature and salinity (4.3.3);

bow or the transom is close to or protrudes the

6. Correction of power for the difference of

waterline. For such effects no reliable correction

displacement from the stipulated

methods exist and therefore trim deviations shall

contractual and EEDI conditions (4.3.5);

be avoided during speed/power trials.

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Analysis of Speed/Power Trial Data 2014 01

7. Correction of the rpm and propulsive (3) "Guaranteed speed specifications and the

efficiency from the load variation model analysis procedure", Notification No. 174

test results (4.2.3, Appendix A); of the Ministry of Transport, Japan, 1955.

8. Average the speed, rpm and power over

the two runs of each Double Run and (4) Maruo H., "On the increase of the resistance

over the Double Runs for the same of a ship in rough seas (2nd report)", J.

power setting according to the “mean of SNAJ, Vol. 108, 1960.

means” method to eliminate the effect of

current; (5) Taniguchi, K. & Tamura, K., "On a new

9. Check the current speed for each method of correction for wind resistance

individual speed run by comparing the relating to the analysis of speed trial

“Mean of Means” result at one power results", 11th ITTC, 1966.

setting (step 8) with the results of the

individual run; (6) JTTC, "A tentative guide for the operation of

10. Correction of speed due to the effect of speed trials with large vessels", Bull.

shallow water(4.2.4); SNAJ, No. 442, 1966.

11. Use the speed/power curve from the

(7) ITTC Performance Committee, "ITTC guide

model tests for the specific ship design

for measured-mile trials", Report of the

at the trial draught. Shift this curve along

ITTC Performance Committee, Appendix

the power axis to find the best fit with all

I, 12th ITTC, 1969.

averaged corrected speed/power points

(from step 8) according to the least (8) "Standardization code for trials and testing

squares method; of new ships", The Ship Testing and Trial

12. Intersect the curve at the specified power Trip Committee of the Association of Ship

to derive the ship’s speed at trial draught Technical Societies in Norway, 2nd

in Ideal Conditions; Edition, 1971.

13. Apply the conversion to other stipulated

load conditions according to 4.2.4; (9) "A Study of ship speed trials", No. 2

14. Apply corrections for the contractual Standardization Panel, SRAJ, Res. Rep.

weather conditions if these deviate from No. 12R, 1972.

Ideal Conditions.

(10) "Code for Sea Trials", SNAME, 1989.

6. REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY (11) "BSRA standard method of Speed Trial

Analysis", BSRA Report NS 466, 1978.

(1) ISO 15016, Ships and marine technology –

Guidelines for the assessment of speed (12) Lackenby, H., "The Effect of Shallow

and power performance by analysis of Water on Ship Speed", Shipbuilder, 70,

speed trial data, 2002. No. 672, 1963.

(2) JTTC, "A proposal for a standard method of (13) ITTC Performance Committee, "Hull

speed trial analysis", Bull. SNAJ, No.262, Roughness", Report of the ITTC

1944. Performance Committee, 19th ITTC, 1990.

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Analysis of Speed/Power Trial Data 2014 01

(14) ITTC Powering Performance Committee, (19) Boom, H.van den, Huisman, H. and

"An Updated Guide For Speed/Powering Mennen, F.:”New Guidelines for

Trials", Report of the ITTC Powering Speed/Power Trials” SWZ/Maritime,

Performance Committee, Appendix I, 21st Jan./Feb.2013;

ITTC, 1996.

Hansa Int. Maritime Journal 150th year,

(15) Japan Ship Research Association, "SR208: No. 4, April 2013; Hansa-online.de/STA-

New Speed Trial Analysis Method", JIP.pdf.

Report of the SR208 Committee, 1993.

(20) “Principles of Naval Architecture”,

(16) Fujiwara, T., Ueno, M. and Ikeda, Y.: "A Volume II, Section II, Ship

New Estimation Method of Wind Forces Standardization Trials, SNAME 1988.

and Moments acting on Ships on the basis

of Physical Component Models", J.

JASNAOE, Vol.2, 2005.

Recommended Analysis of Speed Trials,

MARIN, 2006.

Takagi K.: "A Practical Correction

Method for Added Resistance in Waves",

J. JASNAOE, Vol.8, 2008.

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Analysis of Speed/Power Trial Data 2014 01

EFFICIENCY CORRECTION BASED ON Pcorr PDM 1 DM (A-3)

D0 D0

LOAD VARIATION TESTS

with

A.1 propulsion efficiency correction D 0 propulsion efficiency coefficient

At the sea trial the following quantities are

obtained on board: in ideal condition

for each single run

VSM ship speed, means of means from during sea trial

double run

The propulsion efficiency coefficient in

ΔRM resistance increase from wind,

ideal condition, ηD0, is obtained from standard

waves etc for each run. The value

towing tank test and interpolated to the speed

is computed according to section

VSM.

4.3 in these Guidelines.

The propulsion efficiency is assumed to vary

The measured delivered power is linearly with the added resistance according to:

(A-1) p 1

D0 R0 (A-4)

with

where

S Shaft efficiency

P is overload factor derived from load

(normally 0.99 for conventional shaft)

variation model test as described in

The delivered power corrected to ideal section A.3.

condition is derived by R0 resistance in ideal condition

PDC PDM Pcorr (A-2) This leads to the expression for the corrected

delivered power:

with

Pcorr correction of delivered power due ΔR M VSM PDM

PDC PDM 1

D 0 PDC p

(A-5)

to the increased resistance and the

changed propulsive efficiency This is solved as:

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1 ΔR M VSM ΔR M VSM ΔR M Vthe

PDC PDM PDM 4 PDM

eliminate p of current, or mean of means

SM effect

2 D0 D0 in caseof

D 0 quadruple runs.

(A-6)

A.2 Correction on shaft rotation rate – effect resistance and self-propulsion tests are carried

of added resistance and of shallow water out at trial draught and evaluated according to

the tanks normal procedures. In addition, a load

variation test is carried out at the trial draught

With the PDC found as described above the and at minimum one speed close to the predicted

correction on shaft rate is EEDI speed (75%MCR). This speed shall be

one of the speeds tested in the normal self-

propulsion test.

n P PDC ΔV

n DM v (A-7)

nC PDC VSM The load variation test includes at least 4

self-propulsion test runs, each one at a different

where rate of revolution while keeping the speed

constant. The rate of revolutions are to be

n nM nC selected such that

(A-8)

with ΔR

[-0.1 0 +0.1 +0.2]- (A-10)

R0

nM measured rpm

where-

nC corrected rpm

S

n, v overload factors derived from load ΔR FD FX 3

variation model test as described in section A.3.

M - (A-11)

ΔV speed correction due to shallow water, R0 full scale resistance RTS at the actual

determined by equation (17) in Guidelines speed, from resistance test

FX external tow force, measured during

From this follows that the corrected shaft load variation test

rate nC is FD skin friction correction force, same as

in the normal self-propulsion tests

nM scale factor

nC (A-9)

PDM PDC ΔV S,M-water density in full scale and model

n v 1

PDC VSM test

A.3 Load variation test test has to be accounted for in the post

processing. For example, if the standard self-

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Analysis of Speed/Power Trial Data 2014 01

propulsion test is carried out and processed and PD in the nominators). The variable n is the

according to ITTC 7.5–02–03–01.4 (1978 ITTC slope of the linear curve going through {0,0}

Performance Prediction Method) at tow force and fitted to the data points with least square

FD, the measured data is processed according to method. Figure A.2 gives an example.

the mentioned procedure with one modification:

from section 2.4.3 and onwards. Dependency of shaft rate with speed change

CTS is replaced by CTSAdd is plotted against the resistance R0+R. The

corresponding curves for other speeds are

with assumed to be parallel to this line (red lines in

Figure 3) and go through the point { R0 , n} from

R the calm water self-propulsion test (red *). The

CTSAdd CTS (A-12)

1 V 2 S intersection of these lines with a constant

2 s s s

resistance gives the rpm dependency of speed

where (green squares □). The slope of the n/n - V/V

curve fitted with least square method is v

VS full scale ship speed (Figure A.3).

used in normal self-propulsion test

in the propeller load KT/J2, and as a consequence

in

resistance increase

efficiency DM from the load variation test and

that from the normal self-propulsion test D is

plotted against the added resistance fraction

R/R0 (with ideal condition R0 in the

nominator). Figure A.1 shows an example. The

variable p is the slope of the linear curve going

through {0,1} and fitted to the data points with

least square method.

Figure A.1 Relation between propeller

Dependency of shaft rate with power increase efficiency and resistance increase

plotted against P/PD0 (with ideal condition n

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power increase Figure A.3 Relation between propeller rate and

speed change

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UzA2: true wind vector at a run 2,

APPENDIX B. EVALUATION OF WIND V1 : ship movement vector at a run 1,

DATA V2 : ship movement vector at a run 2,

B.1 Averaging process for the true wind VWR1: measured relative wind vector at run 1,

VWR2: measured relative wind vector at run 2,

vectors

B.2 Correction for the height of the

from the speed and heading of the vessel and the

measured wind speed and direction. By anemometer

averaging the true wind vectors over both runs

of the double run, the true wind vector for the The difference between the height of the

run-set is found. This averaged true wind vector anemometer and the reference height is to be

is then used to recalculate the relative wind corrected by means of the wind speed profile

vector for each run of the set. given by formula (B-1).

1/7

z

Measured Corrected U z ( zref ) U z ( z ) ref

A A

z (B-1)

V1 V1

UzA2 V'WR1 where

VWR UzA V2

V2

111 UzA UzA(z): wind speed at height z,

UzA1 VWR2 V'WR2

zref: reference height.

Figure B-1 True wind vectors and relative wind

vectors. The reference height is selected as the

corresponding height for the specific wind

The averaging procedure of the wind vectors resistance coefficient from wind tunnel tests

is explained by Figure B-1 where: (normally 10 m).

UzA: averaged true wind vector,

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APPENDIX C. CORRECTION Table C-1 Ship type for the wind resistance

METHODS FOR RESISTANCE data set

INCREASE DUE TO WIND Ship type LC Superstructure Test vessel

Tanker/bulke

r

For calculating the resistance increase due to conventional

L normal 280kDWT

Tanker/bulke

C.1 Wind resistance coefficients by wind r

B normal 280kDWT

conventional

tunnel test bow

Tanker/bulke

If wind resistance tests for the specific vessel r cylindrical B normal 280kDWT

bow

have been performed in a qualified wind tunnel, LNG carrier A prismatic integrated 125k-m3

the wind resistance coefficients derived by these LNG carrier A

prismatic extended

138k-m3

deck

measurements shall be used to compute the LNG carrier A spherical 125k-m3

wind resistance of the vessel in the trial Container

L with containers 6800TEU

condition. ship

Container without containers,

L 6800TEU

C.2 Data sets of wind resistance coefficients ship with lashing bridges

Container

B with lashing bridges 6800TEU

ship

Data sets of the wind resistance coefficients Container

B without lashing bridges 6800 TEU

have been collected by STA-JIP(19). ship

Car Carrier A normal Autosky

Ferry/Cruise

Data sets are available for tankers/bulkers, LNG A normal

ship

carriers, container ships, car carriers, General Cargo

A normal

ship

ferries/cruise ships and general cargo ships as

shown in Table C-1. The wind resistance LC = Loading Condition

L = Laden

coefficients for each ship type are shown in Fig. B = Ballast

C-1. A = Average

type, shape and outfitting shall be carefully

evaluated and compared with the geometry of

the vessel from the data set. The data provided

are limited to the present-day common ship

types. For special vessels such as tugs, supply

ships, fishery vessels and fast crafts, the

geometry of the vessel is too specific to make

use of the available database wind tunnel results

for the specific shiptype are required.

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for 90 WR 180(deg .)

A general regression formula based on

model tests in wind tunnels for various ships has AYV A B A

CXLI 20 21 22 XV 23 24 XV

been developed by Fujiwara et al.(16). LOA hBR AYV LOA BhBR

(C-5)

CAA CLF cos WR

B h A AXV

1 CLF 20 21 22 C 23 OD2

CXLI sin WR sin WR cos 2 WR LOA LOA LOA 24

B2

2

(C-6)

sin WR cos WR CALF sin WR cos WR (C-1)

3

AOD

CALF 20 21

AYV (C-7)

with

0 WR 90(deg .)

for

for

WR 90(deg .)

AYV C

CLF 10 11 12 MC

LOA B LOA CAA 90(deg .)

(C-2)

WR

1

A A CAA 90(deg .) CAA 90(deg .)

CXLI 10 11 YV 12 XV 2 WR WR

(C-3)

where

AOD B

CALF 10 11 12 AOD: lateral projected area of superstructures

AYV LOA (C-4) etc. on deck,

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AXV: area of maximum transverse section used in the formulae are shown in Table C-2.

exposed to the winds,

AYV projected lateral area above the waterline,

B: ship breadth, j

CAA: wind resistance coefficient, 0 1 2 3 4

CMC: horizontal distance from midship section β 0.922 -0.507 -1.162 - -

ij -0.018 5.091 -10.367 3.011 0.341

to centre of lateral projected area AYV,

δ -0.458 -3.245 2.313 - -

hBR: height of top of superstructure (bridge ij 1.901 -12.727 -24.407 40.310 5.481

etc.), ε 0.585 0.906 -3.239 - -

hC : height from waterline to centre of lateral ij 0.314 1.117 - - -

projected area AYV,

LOA: length overall, Table C-2 Non-dimensional parameters

μ: smoothing range; normally 10(deg.),

ψWR: relative wind direction; 0 means heading The system of co-ordinates and the sign

winds. conventions and explanation of the input

parameters are shown in Fig C.2

The non-dimensional parameters βij, δij and εij

center of AYV

HBR upper deck

CMC

HC

LOA B

midship

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METHODS FOR RESISTANCE 95% of maximum beam as shown in Fig.D-1,

INCREASE DUE TO WAVES

present day ships a dedicated and practical

method has been developed by STA-JIP (19) to

estimate the added resistance in waves with

limited input data. Fig.D-1 Definition of LBWL

Speed trials are conducted in low to mild sea STAwave-1 has been extensively validated

states with restricted wave heights. In short head for the following conditions:

waves the encounter frequency of the waves is

high. In these conditions the effect of wave 1. Significant wave height;

induced motions can be neglected and the added

resistance is dominated by the wave reflection H≤ 2.25 Lpp /100

of the hull on the waterline. The water line 2. Heave and pitch during speed/power

geometry is approximated based on the ship trial are small;

beam and the length of the bow section on the (vertical acceleration at bow < 0.05g)

water line (Fig D.1). 3. Head waves;

Formula (D-1) estimates the resistance The wave corrections are thus restricted to

increase in head waves provided that heave and wave directions in the bow sector to ±45 (deg.)

pitching are small. The application is restricted off bow. Wave within this sector are corrected

to waves in the bow sector (within +/- 45 deg. as head waves. Waves outside the ±45 (deg.)

off bow). For wave directions outside this sector sector are not corrected for.

no wave correction is applied.

D.2 Empirical transfer function STAwave-2

1 B

RAWL gH W1/3

2

B

16 LBWL The empirical method STAwave-2(19) has

(D-1)

been developed by STA-JIP to approximate the

where transfer function of the mean resistance increase

in heading regular waves by using the main

B: beam of the ship parameters such as ship dimensions and speed,

see Fig.D-2. For this purpose an extensive

HW1/3: significant wave height, seakeeping model test results for large

population of ships has been used to derive

parametric transformation functions.

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14.0 for 1

Rwave

d1 LPP

2.66

(D-7)

ff(Fn,Cb)

(Fr, CB)

566 elsewhere

B

Added resistance

and

f(L/B) f (Fr, CB)

f(Fn,Cb)

1

f (Lpp, B) RAWR g A 2 B1 ( )

2 (D-8)

2 1 1/2 1/4 1/8

Wave length / Ship Length

wave length / ship length 2 I12 (1.5kTM )

1 ( ) f1

Fig.D-2 Parametric transfer function of 2 I12 (1.5kTM ) K12 (1.5kTM ) (D-9)

meanresistance increase in regular waves.

0.769

V

This empirical transfer function covers both f1 0.692 S 1.81CB

6.95

M (D-10)

reflection RAWR and the motion induced

resistance RAWM . where:

(D-2)

k yy : non dimensional radius of gyration in

With

lateral direction,

raw( )

Lpp: ship length between perpendiculars,

b

b1 exp 1 1 d1 a1 Fr1.50 exp 3.50 Fr TM: draught at midship,

d1

(D-3) I1: modified Bessel function of the first kind

of order 1,

LPP 3

k yy K1: modified Bessel function of the second

g

kind of order 1,

1.17 Fr 0.143 (D-4)

With the following restrictions:

a1 60.3CB1.34

(D-5)

75(m) Lpp 350(m)

1. ,

11.0 for 1

b1 2. 4.0

Lpp

9.0 ,

8.50 elsewhere (D-6) B

B

3. 2.2 5.5 ,

T

4. 0.10 Fr 0.30 ,

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RAWM 4πρ 3 m4 H1 (m)

m

2

bow.

(m K 0 ΩE ) 2 (m K cos α )

dm

(m K 0 ΩE ) 4 m 2 K 0

2

resistance increase in long crested irregular head for ΩE (D-13)

waves RAWL, formula (D-11). The wave 4

corrections are thus restricted to wave directions

RAWM 4πρ 3 m42 m1 H1 (m)

m m 2

in the bow sector to ±45 (deg.) off bow. Waves

within this sector are corrected as head waves. (m K 0 ΩE ) 2 (m K cos α )

Waves outside the ±45 (deg.) sector are not dm

(m K 0 ΩE ) 4 m 2 K 0

2

corrected for.

1

Rwave (;VS ) for ΩE (D-14)

RAWL 2 Sf ( )d 4

0 A2 (D-11)

with

D.3 THEORETICAL METHOD WITH EVS

SIMPLIFIED TANK TESTS E (D-15)

g

Applying the theoretical formula, the mean

resistance increase in regular waves Rwave is 2

K (D-16)

calculated from the components of the mean g

resistance increase based on Maruo's theory

RAWM and its correction term which primarily is g

valid for short waves RAWR. K0 2

(D-17)

VS

Rwave RAWM RAWR

(D-12) E KVS cos (D-18)

with

RAWM: mean resistance increase in regular m1

K 0 1 2E 1 4E (D-19)

waves based on Maruo's theory(4), which 2

is mainly induced by ship motion.

RAWR: mean resistance increase due to wave m2

K 0 1 2E 1 4E (D-20)

reflection for correcting RAWM. 2

RAWR should be calculated with accuracy

because the mean resistance increase in

m3

K 0 1 2 E 1 4E (D-21)

short waves is predominant one. 2

following formulae. m4

K 0 1 2E 1 4E (D-22)

2

L

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where VS

g: gravitational acceleration,

g (D-27)

H1(m): function to be determined by the

distribution of singularities which

1

sin w sin w dl

represents periodical disturbance by Bf 2

the ship, B I

(D-28)

VS: ship speed through the water,

α: encounter angle of incident waves (0 sin w sin w dl

2

II

deg. means head waves),

ρ: density of fluid, where

ω: circular wave frequency, I1: modified Bessel function of the first

ω E: circular wave frequency of encounter. kind of order 1,

K1 : modified Bessel function of the second

The expression of RAWR is given by

kind of order 1,

Tsujimoto et al.(18) The calculation method

k: wave number,

introduces an experimental coefficient in short

T: draught; for a trim condition T is the

waves into the calculation in terms of accuracy

deepest draught,

and takes into account the effect of the bow

βw: slope of the line element dl along the

shape above the water.

water line and domains of the

1 integration (I & II ) are shown in Fig.D-

RAWR g A 2 BBf T (1 CU Fr ) 3.

2 (D-24)

When Bf <0, then Rwave= 0 is assumed.

where

B: ship breadth,

Bf: bluntness coefficient,

CU: coefficient of advance speed, aft fore II

Fr: Froude number, X

αT: effect of draught and encounter

G

w I

waves

frequency,

ζA: wave amplitude. Y

T

I (keT ) K (keT )

2 2

1 1

2

(D-25)

oblique waves CU(α) is calculated on the basis

of the empirical relation line shown in Fig. D-41,

which has been obtained by tank tests of various

ke k 1 cos

2

1

The empirical relation line in Fig.D-4 was obtained as

follows. CU is derived from the result of tank tests and RAWM,

as formula (D-29). 1 Rwave ( Fr) RAWM ( Fr)

EXP

CU 1

Fr 1

g A BBf T

2

2

(D-29)

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next paragraph. When CU(α=0) is obtained by should be selected such that the speeds during

tank tests the relation used in oblique waves is the sea trials lie between the lowest and the

shifted parallel to the empirical relation line. highest selected Fr.

This is illustrated in Fig.D-5 for both fine and

blunt ships. When tank tests are not carried out, the

coefficient of advance speed in head waves CU

The aforementioned coefficient CU(α=0) is (α = 0) is calculated by the following empirical

determined by tank tests which should be relations, formulae (D-31) and (D-32), shown in

carried out in short waves since RAWR is mainly Fig.D-4. The formulae are suitable for all ships.

effected by short waves. The length of short

waves should be 0.5LPP or less. The coefficient

of advance speed CU is determined by the least

CU ( 0) 310Bf 68

square method through the origin against Fr; see for Bf 58 / 310

Fig.D-6.

(D-31)

70

CU

CU ( 0) 10 for Bf 58 / 310 (D-32)

60

50

40

30

20

10

Bf

Exp. in heading waves Exp. in oblique waves

empirical relation

advance speed on added resistance due to wave

reflection and the bluntness coefficient for

conventional hull form above water.

least three different Froude Numbers Fr. The Fr

with with

EXP

Rwave : mean resistance increase in regular waves measured B(x): sectional breadth,

CVP: vertical prismatic coefficient,

in the tank tests. t: time,

TM: draught at midship,

In calculating RAWM the strength of the singularity σ is x: longitudinal coordinate,

calculated by the formulation of slender body theory as formula Zr: vertical displacement relative to waves in steady

(D-30) and the singularity is concentrated at depth of CVPTM. motion.

1

σ VS Z r ( x) B( x) (D-30)

4π t x

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70 70

CU CU

60 60

50 50

40 40

30 30

20 20

10 10

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

Bf Bf

Exp. in heading waves empirical relation Exp. in heading waves empirical relation

relation used in oblique waves relation used in oblique waves

Fig.D-5 Shift of the empirical relation in oblique waves (upper; for fine ship Bf 58 / 310 , lower;

for blunt ship Bf 58 / 310 ).

at the trial draughts and trim; and at contractual

U=CU Fr draughts if required. A minimum of two

different ship speeds VS covering the speed

range tested in the speed/power trials have to be

tank tested.

following seas, the tank tests should not only

comprise head and following waves but also the

relevant obligue wave conditions. A maximum

interval of incident wave angle shall be 30° for

Fr

head to beam seas (0°-90°) but may be larger for

ship speed in beam to following seas (90°-180°).

the sea trial

conditions in this

range These tests shall be performed for a combination

of circular frequency of regular waves (ω), angle

between ship heading and incident regular

Fig.D-6 Relation between effect of advance waves (α) and ship speed through the water (VS)

speed (αU=CUFr) and Froude number Fr. based on the following: A minimum of 5 wave

D.4 Seakeeping model tests lengths in the range of 0.5LPP or less to 2.0LPP.

The test set-up and procedure shall follow ITTC

Transfer functions of the resistance increase 7.5-02 07-02.2.

in waves (Rwave) may be derived from the tank

tests in regular waves. The tank tests have to be

conducted for the specific vessel geometry

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where

BALLAST SPEED/POWER TEST PBallast,P: predicted power at ballast condition

RESULTS TO OTHER STIPULATED by tank tests,

LOAD CONDITIONS PBallast,S: power at ballast condition obtained by

the speed trials,

For dry cargo vessels it is difficult or PFull,P: predicted power at full load condition

unfeasible to conduct speed trials at full load by tank tests,

condition. For such cases speed trials at ballast PFull,S: power at full load condition,

condition are performed and the result of the αP: power ratio.

speed trials is converted to that of full

load/stipulated condition using tank test results. Fig.E-1 shows an example of the conversion

to derive the resulting ship speed at full load

The power curve at full load/stipulated condition (VFull,S) at 75%MCR.

condition is obtained from the results of the

speed trials at ballast condition using the power

curves predicted by model tank tests. The tank

tests should be carried out at both draughts:

ballast condition corresponding to that of the

speed trials and full load/stipulated condition.

trials at ballast condition, the conversion on ship

speed from ballast condition to full load

condition to be carried out by the power ratio αP

defined in formula (E-1). The adjusted power at

full load condition (PFull,S) is calculated by

formula (E-2).

P (E-1)

PBallast,S using power ratio.

PFull,P

PFull,S (E-2)

P

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[-]

AE/AO blade area ratio [-] D diameter of the actual full scale

AX transverse area above water propeller [m]

[m2] D depth, moulded, of a ship hull

AM: midship section area under water [m]

[m²] E: directional sea spectrum

AR rudder area Fr Froude number [-]

AT submerged area transom [m2] G angular distribution function [-]

AXV area of maximum transverse g gravitational acceleration [m/s²]

section exposed to the winds h waterdepth [m]

[m²] hANEMO height anemometer above water

B ship breadth [m] [m]

Bf bluntness coefficient [-] hR rudder height [m]

bR : rudder span [m] HS1/3 sum of significant wave height

C coefficient for starboard and port of swell and wind driven seas

rudder [-] [m]

CAAjj measured wind resistance HW1/3 significant wave height [m]

coefficient at wind tunnel [-] I1 modified Bessel function of the

Cˆ AAij estimated wind resistance first kind of order 1 [-]

J propeller advance ratio [-]

coefficient [-] KQ propeller torque coefficient [-]

CAA(ψWR): wind resistance coefficient KT propeller thrust coefficient [-]

CB block coefficient K1 modified Bessel function of the

CF frictional resistance coefficient second kind of order 1[-]

for actual water temperature and k wave number [-]

salt content [-] kYY non dimensional longitudinal

CF0 frictional resistance coefficient radius of gyration [% of LPP]

for reference water temperature LCB longitudinal centre of buoyancy

and salt content. [-] forward of midship [% of LPP]

CM midship area coefficient [-] LBWL distance of the bow to 95% of

Cnmargin rpm margin in percent rpm at maximum breadth on the

NCR [%] waterline [m]

CPA prismatic coefficient of aft part LPP length between perpendiculars

(from midship to A.P.) [-] [m]

CSEAMAR sea margin in percentage NCR LWL length at waterline [m]

[%] MCR maximum continuous rating

CT0 total resistance coefficient for [kW]

reference water temperature and NCR nominal continuous rating [kW]

salt content, [-] nMCR rpm at MCR [rpm]

CU coefficient of advance speed [-] nNCR rpm at NCR [rpm]

CWA water plane area coefficient of NP number of propellers [-]

aft part (from midship to A.P.) NS number of ships [-]

[-] Nψ number of wind directions [-]

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propeller at each run TF draught at forward perpendicular

nC corrected rpm (RPMC) [rpm] [m]

n(i) propeller frequency of TM draught at midships [m]

revolutions at (i)th run [rpm] t thrust deduction fraction [-]

n(i+1) propeller frequency of tAref reference air temperature [°C]

revolutions at (i+1)th run [rpm] tSref reference sea water temperature

P propeller pitch at 0.7 R [m] [°C]

PB break horse power [kW] VFM mean current velocity [m/s]

PD delivered power at propeller VG′(i+1): ship speed over the ground at

[kW] (i+1)th run [kn]

P/D pitch/diameter ratio at 0.7R [-] VKN ship speed over ground [kn]

PS ship shaft power [kW] VS ship speed (VS) [kn]

PSC Corrected ship power (PSC) VSC. corrected ship speed (VSC) [kn]

[kW] VWR apparent wind speed, relative

RAA resistance increase due to wind velocity [m/s]

relative winds [N] w wake fraction [-]

RAS resistance increase due to wm mean wake fraction

deviation of water temperature Z number of propeller blades [-]

and water density [N] α: wave direction relative to bow,

RAW mean resistance increase in short angle between ship heading

crested irregular waves [N] [deg]

RAWM mean resistance increase in and incident regular waves; 0

regular waves based on Maruo's means head waves.

theory(4), αT: effect of draught and encounter

RAWR mean resistance increase due to frequency [-]

wave reflection for correcting β drift angle [deg]

RAWM. βw slope of the line element dl

RT total resistance in still water [N] along the water line [deg]

RT0 resistance for reference water βWR apparent wind direction relative

temperature and salt content [N] to bow [deg]

Rwave mean resistance increase in displaced volume [m3]

regular waves [N] Δ displacement [t]

Rββ resistance increase due to drift ΔR resistance increase [N]

[N] Δref reference displacement[m3]

Rδδ resistance increase due to ΔVS decrease of ship speed due to

steering [N] shallow water [kn]

S wetted surface hull [m2] Δτ load factor increase due to

S frequency spectrum, for ocean resistance increase [-]

waves modified Pierson- δ rudder angle [deg]

Moskowitz type [-] δn correction factor for RPM

SAPP wetted surface appendages [m2] (DRPM) [-]

SE EST δPA power correction factor for wind

averaged standard errors of wind

(DPWIN) [kW]

resistance coefficient [-]

ITTC – Recommended 7.5-04

-01-01.2

Procedures and Guidelines Page 33 of 33

Analysis of Speed/Power Trial Data 2014 01

temperature (DPTEM) [kW] actual temperature & salt

δPρ power correction factor for content [kg/m³]

density (DPDEN) [kW] ρA mass density of air [kg/m³]

δPΔ power correction factor for ρWSref sea water density according to

displacement (DPDIS) [kW] contract [kg/m3]

δVH speed correction factor for depth ρWS sea water density [kg/m3]

(DVDEP) [kn] ρ0 water density for reference water

ζa wave amplitude [m] temperature and salt content

ηD propulsive efficiency or quasi [kg/m³]

propulsive coefficient [-] ψ heading of ship; compass course

ηR relative rotative efficiency by [deg]

use of the thrust identity [-] ψWR: relative wind direction [deg]

ηS mechanical efficinecy in ω circular frequency of incident

shafting(s) and gear box(es) [-] regular waves [rad/s]

ΛR aspect ratio of rudder [-]

λ model scale 1: λ [-]