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AIM: To perform Amplitude Modulation using

a) Trainer’s Kit
b) Arbitrary Function Generator
c) Multisim
d) Matlab

Apparatus:

Hardware:

a) Trainer’s Kit
b) Amplitude Function Generator

Software:

a) Multisim 13.0
b) Matlab 2014

Theory:

In electronics and telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying one or


more properties of a periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with a
modulating signal that typically contains information to be transmitted. A
modulator is a device that performs modulation. A demodulator (sometimes
detector or demod) is a device that performs demodulation, the inverse of
modulation

The aim of analog modulation is to transfer an analog baseband (or low pass)
signal, for example an audio signal or TV signal, over an analog bandpass channel
at a different frequency, for example over a limited radio frequency band or a cable
TV network channel.

Types of modulation
There are many common modulation methods, including the following -- a very
incomplete list:
 Amplitude modulation (AM), in which the height -- i.e., the strength or
intensity -- of the signal carrier is varied to represent the data being added to the
signal.
 Frequency modulation (FM), in which the frequency of the carrier waveform is
varied to reflect the frequency of the data.
 Phase modulation (PM), in which the phase of the carrier waveform is varied to
reflect changes in the frequency of the data. In PM, the frequency is unchanged
while the phase is changed relative to the base carrier frequency. It is similar to
FM.
Advantages of Modulation
1. Reduction in the height of antenna
2. Avoids mixing of signals
3. Increases the range of communication
4. Multiplexing is possible
5. Improves quality of reception

Amplitude Modulation:

Amplitude modulation (AM) is a modulation technique used in electronic


communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier
wave. In amplitude modulation, the amplitude (signal strength) of the carrier wave
is varied in proportion to that of the message signal being transmitted. The
amplitude modulation is the simplest modulation technique among the wide verity
of modulation techniques in use. The amplitude modulation of a high frequency
signal is easy to achieve and the demodulation is also simple compared to other
techniques. The high frequency signal which is modulated to carry the low
frequency audio signals are called ‘carrier frequency’ and the audio signals used
for modulation is called ‘modulating signal’ or ‘message signal’ or ‘base band
signal’. This article demonstrates how to generate an Amplitude Modulation (AM)
using the simplest possible circuit.

In AM, the carrier itself does not fluctuate in amplitude. Instead, the modulating
data appears in the form of signal components at frequencies slightly higher and
lower than that of the carrier. These components are called sidebands. The lower
sideband (LSB) appears at frequencies below the carrier frequency; the upper
sideband (USB) appears at frequencies above the carrier frequency.
The LSB and USB are essentially "mirror images" of each other in a graph of
signal amplitude versus frequency, as shown in the illustration. The sideband
power accounts for the variations in the overall amplitude of the signal.

When a carrier is amplitude-modulated with a pure sine wave, up to 1/3


(33percent) of the overall signal power is contained in the sidebands. The other 2/3
of the signal power is contained in the carrier, which does not contribute to the
transfer of data. With a complex modulating signal such as voice, video, or music,
the sidebands generally contain 20 to 25 percent of the overall signal power; thus
the carrier consumes75 to 80 percent of the power. This makes AM an inefficient
mode. If an attempt is made to increase the modulating data input amplitude
beyond these limits, the signal will become distorted, and will occupy a much
greater bandwidth than it should. This is called over modulation, and can result in
interference to signals on nearby frequencies.
1. Matlab
In Matlab, we write a program for demonstrating under, perfect and over-modulation.

We have also plotted m v/s Am for constant Ac.

a) Under Modulation
b) Perfect Modulation c) Under Modulation

a) Over Modulation
b) Perfect Modulation

c) Under Modulation
Amplitude Modulation Plot:

Plot of m v/s Am:


2. Trainer’s Kit

In this method a Trainers kit is used which produces a modulating signal of


variable frequency and variable amplitude. A carrier signal of fixed frequency and
amplitude of 120mV 1MHz is generated and it is passed through a bandpass and
modulator, which generates a modulated signal of frequency of 1MHz (practically
76.92 kHz).

Modulation index can be calculated by:


𝑉𝑚𝑎𝑥 − 𝑉𝑚𝑖𝑛
m=
𝑉𝑚𝑎𝑥 + 𝑉𝑚𝑖𝑛

1. Minimum Modulation:
2.4 − 2.25
m= = 0.0322 𝑜𝑟 3.22%
2.4 + 2.25

2. Maximum Modulation:
2.96 + 1.68
m= = 0.276 or 27.6%
2.96 − 1.68

Waveforms on Oscilloscope:

a) Maximum Modulation
b) Minimum Modulation

3. Arbitrary Function Generator:

We use an AFG1022 Arbitrary/Function Generator. The AFG1022


Arbitrary/Function Generator offers the functionality of three generators in one,
and a frequency counter:
25 MHz Function Generator
12.5 MHz Pulse Generator
14-bit Arbitrary Waveform Generator
200 MHz Frequency Counter
The following table describes some of the general features of your instrument:
The steps to perform Amplitude Modulation on AFG is as shown below:
Conclusion:

Amplitude Modulation was performed by all the 4 methods. We observed that


modulation index varied with changing either Ac or Am (depending on the
instrument). In under modulation (m<1), the amplitude varies above and below of
the amplitude of carrier wave (Ac). If m=1 i.e. perfect modulation, the wave
amplitude of modulated signal reaches zero, and this represents full modulation. If
this is exceeded i.e. over modulation (m>1), the negative excursions of the
envelope cannot become less than 0, resulting in distortion and loss of information.