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Nitrate

Nitrate contains the elements Nitrogen and Oxygen.

It has the chemical formula NO3.

Nitrogen is a part of all living cells. Nitrogen is a part of


chlorophyll, the green pigment of the plant that is responsible
for photosynthesis. Nitrogen helps with rapid growth of the
plant, increases seed and fruit production and improves the
quality of crops.

Nitrogen often comes from fertilizer application and from


the air.

When plants do not get enough nitrogen then their leaves are
affected. It leads to stunting and yellowing of the lower
leaves.
Phosphate

Phosphate contains the elements Phosphorus and Oxygen.

It has the chemical formula PO4.

Phosphorus (P) is an essential part of the process of


photosynthesis. It is involves in the formation of all oils,
sugars and starches. It also helps to transform solar energy
into chemical energy. Phosphorus effects how quickly the
plant grows, and encourages blooming and root growth.

Phosphorus often comes from fertilizer, bone meal, and


superphosphate.

When plants do not get enough phosphorus the leaves can


turn purple and roots do not grow properly.
Potassium

It has the chemical symbol K.

Potassium is absorbed by plants in larger amounts than any


other mineral element except nitrogen and, in some cases,
calcium. Potassium helps the plants to build protein and it is
needed during photosynthesis. Potassium also increases fruit
quality and causes a plant to get fewer diseases.

Potassium is supplied to plants by soil minerals, organic


materials, and fertilizer.

When plants don’t get enough potassium they get yellow


leaves with dead spots.
Magnesium

It has the chemical symbol Mg.

Magnesium is part of the chlorophyll in all green plants and


essential for photosynthesis. It also helps activate many plant
enzymes needed for growth.

Soil minerals, organic material, fertilizers, and dolomitic


limestone are sources of magnesium for plants.

When plants do not have enough magnesium they have green


veins, but the leaves look yellow.
Iron

It has the chemical symbol Fe.

Iron is essential for the formation of chlorophyll.

Sources of iron are the soil, iron sulfate, iron chelate.

When a plant does not get enough iron the upper leaves
look patchy yellow. The tips of the leaves may also look
scorched.
Calcium

It has the chemical symbol Ca.

Calcium is an essential part of plant cell wall structure.


It also helps to transport other elements around the
plant.

Sources of calcium are dolomitic lime, gypsum, and


superphosphate.

Plants that do not get enough calcium have leaves which


curl and roll. The edge of the leaves also withers and
blackens.
Sulphur

It has the chemical symbol S.

Sulphur is important for making protein. Sulphur also helps in


chlorophyll formation. Sulphur improves the root growth and
seed production, and helps plants to grow well and be
resistant to the cold.

Sulphur may be supplied to the soil from rainwater. It is also


added in some fertilizers as an impurity, especially the lower
grade fertilizers. The use of gypsum also increases soil
sulphur levels.

When a plant does not get enough sulphur the leaves turn
light green or yellow, and the stems are very thin.