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Introduction

Brief Background

The mango industry, which is one of the Philippines aid in sustaining the

country’s economy, produces about 685 thousand metric tons of mango from January

2018 up to September 2018 (Philippine Statistics Authority, 2018). Around 41% of the

total mango production is then used for the mango processing industry (BAS, 2004)

which accumulated to roughly around 281 thousand metric tons of processed mango

products such as dried mango, mango puree and mango concentrates. Majority of the

processing plants for the production of dehydrated candied and puree mangoes are

located in Cebu. Profood, which is one of the main exporter of processed mango, have an

operating capacity of 1140 metric tons of mango per day (Galolo, 2017) along with nine

more mango processing plants based in Cebu making Cebu as a top producer and

exporter of processed mango products.

Along with banana, pineapple and other agricultural products, processed mango

products has played an important role in the foreign trade market. Philippines, being

ranked seventh amongst the exporters of fresh and dried mangoes, exports around 4%

share of the global market and 98% of the total production is used for domestic

consumption (Couto et.al, 2017).

Processing of mango come into life for the purpose of extending the mangoes

shelf life since ripe mangoes tend to degrade faster causing for a loss in profit and also,

accumulation of wastes in the landfill. In the said processing of mangoes, only the flesh

part of the mango is used and is then processed to produced dried mango, puree, candies,
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and juice concentrates as its end products leaving 50% by-products or wastes such as

mango seeds and peels. Around 40%, by average, is the percent waste accumulated by

the mango seeds (Feedipedia, 2016).

According to Istiana et.al (2017), using Luff Schoorl testing method, Mangifera

Indica L. species of mango seeds has a glucose content of 15.29% which can be therefore

be used to produce a bioethanol through converting the glucose content into alcohol using

the fermentation process and distillation process for purification. Mango seeds are

normally dried and is used as fuel for the reboiler. However, due to large amounts of

mango being processed every day, generation of mango seeds and its storage is becoming

a problem for the processing plants. As a raw material being this abundant, as well as the

need of its proper disposal and high market gap of bioethanol in the country, mango seed

wastes can be of used as a raw material in producing bioethanol.

Bioethanol, on the other hand, is a fuel that contains energy from geologically

recent carbon fixation, produced from living organisms, such as plants and algae. Fuels

are made by biomass conversion. The biomass can be converted into liquid fuel. Biofuels

have increased in popularity because of rising oil prices and the need for energy security

(Jacques et.al, 2015). Bioethanol is also used as an additive for gasoline because of its

property that oxygenates the fuel mixture so that it burns completely and can therefore

reduce greenhouse gases emission. Greenhouse gases are the one to blame for the rapid

increase of temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere so to cut down greenhouse gases

emissions, experts, scientists, researchers and the government aimed to switch to

alternative source of energy aside from the use of fossil fuels. At present time, the most

common blend is 90% gasoline and 10% ethanol which the blend is called E10 (Pirolini,
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2015) but the Department of Energy wants to pursue the E20 or 20% ethanol blend in

gasoline by the year 2020 (USDA, 2017). The only thing that hinders the E20 blend is the

lack of renewable sources of raw material and lack of bioethanol plant operating in the

country.

Therefore, this driven the researchers to come up with a plant design for the

production of bioethanol using mango seeds. The name of the plant will be MaKernel

Bioethanol Plant. The logo of the company is

Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to come up with a plant design for the

production of bioethanol from mango seeds kernel.

Furthermore, the specific objectives of this study are:

1. To generate a process that will be able to produce bioethanol from mango seeds

kernel using two stage acid hydrolysis

2. Conduct a market study which includes the evaluation of the local market

production of bioethanol
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3. Select a plant location that provides proximity to the source of raw material,

provides good target market and is easily accessible.

4. To provide the necessary design of all the equipment needed for the production of

bioethanol and the treatment of the waste produced based on the material balances

attained.

5. Prepare financial statements for the first five years of operation of the plant

Scope and Limitations

The study of the production of bioethanol using mango seeds kernel as the raw

material is objectively chosen based on market, technical, financial and social aspects of

business. Mango seeds waste will be the main raw material that will be used in this plant

design which will be supplied by the mango processing industries in Cebu. The proposed

plant will be located near to the source of raw material and water. All designs made are

purely theoretical and are based for the ideal operation of the plant. The proposed

duration of the construction of the plant will be roughly around two years and a financial

study covering the first five years of the plant operation will be provided. Estimates for

the costs of goods, equipment, buildings, facilities, labor and services were taken from

Chemical Engineering books and other reliable internet sites.

Significance of the Study

The study of the Production of Bioethanol from Mango Seeds Kernel will be of

great benefit to the following:


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Biofuel Industry.

Production of bioethanol from a new source of raw material which is

mango seeds kernel will be of great benefit to the biofuel industry in the Philippines

especially now that the target ethanol blend for gasoline is E20. As the demand of the

bioethanol increases, the demand for renewable sources also increases.

Environment.

Due to the increasing consumption of fossil fuel every year, generation

and accumulation of toxic pollutants and compound in the atmosphere increases which

are harmful to the environment. Therefore, the use of bioethanol mixed in the gasoline is

helpful to the environment because it reduces greenhouse gases, it is carbon neutral and it

can be easily diluted to non-toxic concentrations or can be easily degraded in case of fuel

spills. By-product gases produced by bioethanol is much cleaner compared to petroleum

based fuels.

Community.

From the construction up to the operation of the plant, many will be given

jobs which results to the increase in employment rate of the people in the community that

would somehow help them in providing their needs. Increase in the economic growth of

the city is also one of the great opportunities that the community can benefit for the

building of a bioethanol plant in their place.

Mango Processing Industries.

Mango seed is an industrial waste generated from the mango processing

industries. It is considered as a waste material of dried mango manufacturers that causes

problem of storage and contributes to the pollution in the processing plants due to its
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accumulation on the surroundings. Utilization of the mango seeds by using it as a raw

material for the production of bioethanol can help reduce the problem of the dried mango

manufacturers in their storage problem and cost for disposal.


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Chapter 1

Market Study

Product Description

Ethanol, C2H5OH is an alcohol, a group of chemical compounds whose molecules

contain a hydroxyl group, –OH, bonded to a carbon atom. Ethanol is a natural byproduct

of plant fermentation. Since ethanol is produced from plants that harness the power of the

sun, ethanol is also considered as a renewable, environment-friendly fuel that is

inherently cleaner than gasoline.

On the other hand, Bioethanol is a good source of renewable fuel. Its expanding

use is helping to reduce harmful pollutants in our air. Bioethanol is produced through

processing biological matter, either waste products or crops grown specifically for the

purpose of creating Ethanol. In Philippines, gasoline and petroleum diesel is blended with

10% v/v bioethanol and used in motor vehicles to improve vehicle emissions and power.

The raw material used to produce bioethanol product is Mango seed kernel which

considered waste by the Mango processing industries. The mango seeds were known to

contain sugar make it a potential feedstock for bioethanol production and this will be

done by fermentation of glucose with Saccharomyces cerevisiae producing high grade

bioethanol.

Product Demand

Within the span of seven years, local bioethanol supply increased approximately

12 times, ranging from 23 million liters (ML) in 2009 to 274 ML in 2017, resulting to the

reduction of bioethanol importation to about half of the total bioethanol requirement.


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With the expected entry of three more bioethanol distilleries by 2018 with a combined

capacity of 149M L, local bioethanol supply can cover about 72% of the current

bioethanol requirement at E10, based on the assumed local bioethanol distilleries

utilization rate of 100%. However, increase in the bioethanol blending to E20 by 2020

corresponds to a rise in bioethanol supply requirement from 605M L in 2018 at E10 to a

projected 860M L in 2020 using E20. Assuming a 100% local bioethanol distillery

utilization rate, the realistic local bioethanol capacity in 2020 is only about 386M L, or

45% of the bioethanol supply requirement in 2020 implementing E20.

The following table shows the ethanol blend targets and implementation dates

since inception. As an aspirational goal, the DOE wants to make available an 85 percent

ethanol blend to be promoted voluntarily by 2025. (* aspirational and voluntary goal)

Table 1

Percent Ethanol Blend of Gasoline for the Past years


Year % Blend

2009 5

2011 10

2015 10

2020 20

2025 20/85*

Product Supply

Table 2 shows the ten accredited bioethanol producers here in the Philippines

while Table 3 shows the additional bioethanol plant constructed for the sole purpose of
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decreasing the importation of bioethanol and utilizing the feedstock available in the

country.

Table 2.

List of Accredited Bioethanol Producers


Producer Registered Location Feedstock

Capacity (Million

liters/ year)

San Carlos 40 San Carlos City, Sugarcane

Bioenergy Corp. Negros Occidental

Leyte Agri Corp. 9 Ormoc City, Leyte Molasses

Roxol Bioenergy 30 La Carlota City, Molasses

Corp. Negros Occidental

Green Future 54 San Mariano, Sugarcane

Innovations, Inc Isabela

Balayan Distillery, 30 Calaca, Batangas Molasses

Incorporated

Far East Alcohol 15 Apalit, Pampanga Molasses

Corp.

Kooll Company 14.12 Talisay City, Molasses

Inc. Negros Occidental

Universal Robina 30 Bais City, Negros Molasses

Corporation Oriental
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Absolute Distillers 30 Lian, Batangas Molasses

Inc.

Progreen Agricorp 30 Nasugbu, Batangas Molasses

Inc.

Total 282.12

Table 3.

Certificate Registration with Notice to Proceed


Producer Registered Location Feedstock

Capacity (Million

liters/ year)

Cavite Biofuels 38 Magallanes, Cavite Sugarcane

Producers, Inc.

Canlaon Alcogreen 45 Bago City, Negros Sugarcane

Agro Industrial Occidental

Corp.

Emperador 66 Gimalas, Balayan, Sugarcane/

Distillers, Inc. Batangas Molasses

Total 149

Source: Department of Energy

Based from Table 2 and Table 3, as given by the Department of Energy, there are

currently 13 bioethanol plants registered in the crop year 2017-2018. Meanwhile,

according to the Sugar Regulatory Administration, the country’s ethanol production


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gradually increases every year but is still short of the annual demand of 174.12 million

liters. Insufficient feedstock availability and high domestic ethanol price are the two main

challenges identified to bridge the bioethanol supply gap and accelerate local bioethanol

investment. At present time, Philippines uses only molasses and sugarcane for bioethanol

production. However, available molasses in the country cannot cater the demand for an

E20 blend. Additionally, sugarcane is used in the production for bioethanol and as well as

for the production of sugar which is a common necessity in the country. Higher price of

local ethanol than gasoline is also a factor that threatens the stability of the Philippines

bioethanol production (Demafelis et.al, 2017).

Demand – Supply Analysis

The Philippines was the first country in Southeast Asia to enact biofuels

legislation. The blend mandate was gradually increased in accordance with the Biofuels

Act of 2007, ending with a 10 percent ethanol requirement in August 2011, which

remains the current mandate. However, meeting this target with domestically produced

ethanol has been a challenge due to the inadequate capacity of existing sugarcane

distilleries, low productivity and high production costs (Foreign Agricultural Service,

2016).

Imported ethanol is expected to satisfy at least one quarter of the domestic

demand in the Philippines for the next several years even though domestic production

capacity is catching up. Fuel use is predicted to increase as the population and economy

continue to expand (Foreign Agricultural Service, 2016).

Increasing motor vehicle sales, accelerating construction activities, a growing

population and continued expansion of the Philippine economy, all translate to increased
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fuel consumption in the next 3 - 5 years. According to GAIN report, as of year 2018 the

fuel consumption is 605 ML which is composed of the fuel production and fuel imports

of 280 ML and 325 ML, respectively. The present distilleries can supply 431.12 ML of

bioethanol leaving a 173.88 ML market gap.

The plant will produce 17.4 ML of bioethanol per year contributing to about 10%

of the market gap. It will therefore cut down the market gap to about 156.49 ML in the

year 2019. Moreover, the capacity is based on the growing demand and consumption and

inadequate domestic production of bioethanol.

Price Study

According to Sugar regulatory administration the average bioethanol price index

for 2nd half of the crop year 2017 – 2018 is at Php 50 per Liter however on July 2018 the

reference price increase to Php 58.08 compared to Php 42.42 per liter. Prices are seen

moving when the 4th quarter comes because of the start of milling season where molasses

is available (Biofuels Digest, 2018).

Mango seeds has an average market value of Php 725 per ton and it is available

all year round. Compared to the molasses that is Php 8,216 per ton. Using the mango seed

as a feedstock for bioethanol productions will help the energy sector in finding a new

source of ethanol that can cater the consumers demand.

Marketing Program

The marketing program for bioethanol from mango seed wastes will be as focused

on the following:

1. Raw material will be used promotes environment friendly program;


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2. Emphasize key advantages of the product that can be compared to sugarcane-,

raw sugar-, molasses-derived and imported ethanol;

3. Create a strong distribution channels to ensure stability of production;

4. Offer a competitive price at the level of Philippine market;

5. Focus for local Filipino distributors as key target for the market; and

6. Build a relationship business, long-term relationships, not single-transaction

deals with customers.


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Chapter 2

Technical Study

Raw Material

Mangoes proved to be abundant in the Philippines with roughly around 800 to

900 thousand metric tons of mango produced annually in the country. This is due to the

country’s location which fits the conditions needed to grow a mango bearing tree.

According to Philippine Statistics Authority in the year 2018, the country still has an

existing production area of 185,194 hectares with 9,460,132 number of bearing trees.

Base on export volume and value, mango industry is one of the aid for Philippines

industry economic standing. Peak season for harvesting mangoes is between April to

June, however, Central Visayas and Mindanao produce mango fruits during off season to

avoid the oversupplying of mango during the peak season.

According to K&R United (2016), production of mango fruit in the country is all

year round compared to other countries such as Indonesia, USA, Malaysia and Thailand

which harvest time for mango are only around 2 months, 4 months, 4 months and 8

months, respectively, per year.

Around 90% of the total production of mango in the country is used for local

consumption while the remaining 10% are the only ones exported. Processed mango

products such as dried mangoes, purees, or concentrated juices takes the 41% of the

mango supply left for local consumption (AgriBusiness, 2016). There are several mango

processing companies currently operating in the Philippines which causes a rapid

accumulation of mango wastes that is not utilized well and ended up being a pollution.
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From this mango consumption, the part of the fruit which always becomes waste

and is discarded are its seed. Since mango seed is a large industrial waste available due to

expanding mango processing plants, and lack of bioethanol supply in the country, a

research about the possibility of converting the mango seeds kernel as a renewable source

of energy such as bioethanol were conducted (Cristina,2017). By average, around 40% of

the total weight is the weight of the mango seed in the entire fruit and around 60% of the

total weight of the mango seed is composed of the kernel (Archimede et.al, 2015).

According to Cristina et.al.(2017), mango seeds kernel cont201ains 15.29% of

soluble sugars. Additionally, Table 1 shows the chemical composition of mango seed

kernel (MSK) using the values taken from the research study of Chime et.al, (2017).

These includes the cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin content which can be further

convert into sugar using acid hydrolysis.

Table 4.

Chemical Composition of MSK


Constituents Dry weight, %

Ash 3.88

Fat and Wax 8.7

Lignin 15.0

Hemicelluloses 34.06

Cellulose 25.2

Using all the data gathered, this proves that utilizing the mango seed waste

is the best suitable raw material to be used in the process to produce bioethanol.
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Manufacturing Process

Schematic Diagram.

Figure 1 shows the overall processes involved in producing bioethanol

from mango seeds.

Mango
Seeds
Breaking
Rolls

Sieving Outer Shell

Water Drying

Mango seed kernel Milling


powder

1st Stage Acid Biomass 2nd Stage Acid


70% H2SO4 30% H2SO4
Hydrolysis Hydrolysis

Acid-sugar-solution

Recovered H2SO4 Electrodialysis

Gypsum Neutralization Ca(OH)2

Yeast, DAP, Urea Fermentation Carbon Dioxide

Distillation Slops

Dehydration Ethanol

Figure 1. Schematic diagram for producing bioethanol from mango seeds


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Process Involved.

Preparation of Mango Seed Kernel (MSK).

Mango seeds will be collected from wastes produced from various mango

processing plants which are located in Cebu and other places in the Philippines.

Breaking Rolls.

Mango seed contains, by average, around 60% kernel and the remaining

40% for the outer shell. The material needed for the process is the kernel so the mango

seeds undergo the crusher to free the kernel inside of the mango seeds.

Sieving.

Since the outer shell and the MSK are mixed, a sieving machine which is

used to separate the two. The outer shell is then used for the boiler while the MSK

proceeds to the next process.

Drying.

The MSK which contains 44.4% moisture will be dried to achieve a 12%

moisture. Co-current rotary drier will be used to the process for the purpose of reducing

the moisture content of the MSK.

Milling.

After the MSK have been dried, it further undergoes milling to reduce its

particle size up to 40 mesh through the use of pin mill.

Acid Hydrolysis.

The powdered MSK will undergo a two-stage acid hydrolysis process to

convert the lignocellulosic materials into fermentable sugars. Arkenol process will be

used in converting the lignocellulosic materials into sugars.


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1st Stage Acid Hydrolysis.

The powdered MSK which consists of 25.2% cellulose, 34.06%

hemicelluloses,15% lignin, 15.29% soluble sugar and the remaining is made up of solids,

will be subjected to a dilute sulfuric acid pre-treatment for 20 minutes for the purpose of

achieving high reaction rates and improving the hydrolysis of cellulose. Sulfuric acid

(70% v/v) with a ratio of 1 g biomass per 1.25 g of acid will be used for the breaking

down of complex structures such as cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin which is then

converted into fermentable sugars. The working temperature will be 50oC. A mass of

17,231 kg per hour of sulphuric acid will be used. According to Arkenol Technology, the

acid hydrolysis process converts 90% of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin into

fermentable sugars.

2nd Stage Acid Hydrolysis.

For the 2nd stage of acid hydrolysis, biomass produced from the previous

hydrolysis process will react with 30% sulphuric acid with a ratio similar to that in the 1st

stage acid hydrolysis. With a working temperature of 100oC, the mixture will be

thoroughly mixed with a retention time of 30 minutes per batch. A biomass having a flow

rate of 4,702 kg per hour will be used. The acid-sugar solution will be further processed

while the biomass left will be collected to be used as fertilizers.

Electrodialysis.

A total of 33,100.26 kg per hour of acid-sugar solution contained from two

stages of acid hydrolysis enters the electrodialysis tank, where an assumption is made that

95% of the H2SO4 will be recovered and will be returned back to the two-stage acid

hydrolysis while the remaining sugar solution with 5% remaining H2SO4 will be
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forwarded to neutralization process. A retention time of 15 minutes and working of

temperature of 60oC will be used.

Neutralization.

The acid-sugar solution which contains fermentable sugar will be

neutralized with Ca(OH)2 to the pH conditions (4.4-4.6) which is the best suitable pH

solution for fermentation. Sulfuric acid neutralized using Ca(OH)2 produces a byproduct

which is gypsum. Gypsum is then allowed to settle down in the neutralization tank which

is then further filtered. Gypsum can be sold which can be an additional profit for the

company.

Ethanol Fermentation.

The obtained sugar solution with a brix of 19, which is ideal for

fermentation, undergoes fermentation for the conversion of fermentable sugars into

bioethanol by using yeast, or the Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The sugar solution will be

further supplemented with other nutritional components of fermentation such as urea and

DAP which are needed by the yeasts to achieve higher activity rate from the yeasts. The

pH will then be maintained within the range of 4.0-4.2. This process will start by feeding

a small amount of fermentable sugar solution in the culture vessel containing yeasts for

propagation (Piriya et.al,2012). There will be three culture vessels for the growth of

yeasts cells, which will then be transferred in the three pre-fermenter tank for its

propagation and growth. Fermentation will occur by fed-batch method. The fermentable

sugar solution will be fed gradually to the main fermenter.


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Filter.

The beer produced from the fermentation process will undergo filtering to

remove the residue which are the yeast, DAP, urea and solids that were not filtered.

Clarified beer will then be further processed in the distillation.

Distillation.

The clarified beer which contains 6.64% (v/v) enters the distillation and is

then heated up to 78.5oC which is its operating temperature which is determined using the

differences of volatilities of components in a mixture. Using the principle of distillation,

low boiling components are concentrated in the vapour phase, and the vapour is then

condensed giving a more concentrated less volatile compounds in a liquid phase. In

ethanol production, and efficient distillation tower is used to separate the water and

ethanol. Water, having the high boiling point stays in the bottom while the ethanol is

obtained from the top of the tower (Onuki, 2008). A good distillation obtains 95% (v/v)

ethanol in the distillate and 2% (v/v) ethanol in the bottoms.

Dehydration.

An extra process is required before the final blending of the pure ethanol

with gasoline because the required purity of ethanol to be used for blend with the fuel is

99.99%. Since distillation only achieved 95% purity, the distillate will undergo further

separation of water and ethanol with the use of molecular sieve dehydrator. In ensuring

the level of dryness in final ethanol product but not compromising the energy

consumption of the plant, zeolite has been proven to be ideal. The dehydration process

will be using Zeolite 3A as the adsorbent of the Pressure Swing Adsorption process.
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Mass Production Flow Rate.

Different manufacturing plants, mainly dried mango and mango juices

manufacturing plant, are considered as source of the raw material with the basis of 50

tons per day per manufacturing plant, of waste generated during off season and is

expected to increase during peak season (Profood Corp., 2016). As of present time, a total

of 46 manufacturing plants for the production of dried mango and mango juices exists in

the country.

The desired production per year is the 10% of the present market gap of

the bioethanol industry here in the Philippines for the year 2018 which is 17.4 Million

Liter. A total of 58,000 L per day of bioethanol is used as the basis.

The mass of mango seeds to be processed is based on the capacity of

Profood, which is one of the main exporter of processed mango, with an operating

capacity of 1140 metric tons of mango per day (Galolo, 2017) along with nine more

mango processing plants which is also based on Cebu.

However, the presumptive amount of mango seeds calculated needed per

day to provide the required 58,000 L of ethanol have a small discrepancy due to other

processes added and the loss per process undergone by the raw material compared to the

study of Cristina et al. which causes some variations in the yield of the bioethanol.

Figure 2 shows the mass flow rate diagram of the entire operation. It is the

material balance in every process which indicates the mass of the material that goes in

and goes out in a process.


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Figure 2. Mass Flow Rate Diagram


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Process Flow Diagram.

The process flow diagram is used to illustrate the entire process of

operation involved in a bioethanol plant. Figure 3 shows the block flow diagram of the

each processes the raw material undergoes before it produce the main product, the

bioethanol.

Figure 4 shows the production flow diagram which shows the equipment

and vessels used in every process in the entire operation.


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Acid

Breaking 1st Stage Acid


MSK Sieving Drying Milling
Rolls Hydrolysis

Outer
Water
Shell
2nd Stage
Acid Acid
Hydrolysis
Yeast,
DAP, Urea Ca(OH)2

Centrifugal Neutralizatio Electrodialys Recovered


Fermentation n is H2SO4
Separation

Undissolve Gypsum
CO2
d yeast and
suspended
solids
95%
Alcohol
Distillation Dehydration At least 99.99%
Beer alcohol
Biodigester

Slops
Figure 3. Block Flow Diagram
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Figure 4. Production Flow Diagram


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Power Plant Diagram.

Electrical power generation has long been recognized as highly inefficient.

Two-thirds of the energy fueling the process is wasted as unused heat after high pressure,

high temperature steam does its work. When the typical efficiency of electrical

generation is added to the typical efficiency of a boiler system providing process heat to

an ethanol plant, the combined efficiency is roughly 49 percent. Bringing the power

generation to the ethanol plant and making use of the electrical generation's waste heat in

a combined heat and power (CHP) system, boosts that efficiency to 75 percent.

Increasing the efficiency of power and steam generation, in turn, reduces carbon

emissions (Schill, 2009). Instead of separately purchasing electricity from the local grid

and a gas boiler for onsite heating, the plant will use power co-generation technology for

its operations (Cogen, 2017).

A combination of biomass such as Napier grass, mango seed shell and

methane, which are recovered from the process, will be used in the co-generation plant as

boiler fuel. Through conveying system that connects biomass shed and biomass-fired

boiler, the biomass will be fed to the furnace. Demineralized water from water treatment

plant will be used in the boiler to avoid scaling in the boiler and pipes. This water will be

converted to steam through heating in the furnace. The steam from the boiler will pass

through super heaters, to be heated above its saturation temperature, which will convert it

from saturated steam or wet steam to superheated steam or dry steam (Vallourec, 2017).

And then transformation of thermal energy to mechanical energy takes place where the

high-pressured steam will pass through a series of rotor blades of the non-condensing

turbine (Thermal Engineering, 2011). The turbine will be connected to a generator where
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mechanical energy will be converted to electrical energy that will supply power to the

entire bioethanol plant. The steam from the turbine will then be used for the production of

bioethanol in the process area.

The exhaust stream from the production will be liquefy in a condenser and

will be cooled down through the cooling tower. The cooled water will undergo recovery

in the water treatment plant and will supply the demineralized water that will recirculate

in the power plant. Before heating in the economizer and feeding it to the boiler, the

demineralized water will be introduced in the deaerator. The deaerator has significant

importance in remove the trapped air in the water molecules which can affect the boiler

drum badly and lead to corrosion (Sethi, 2016).

The flue gas coming from the boiler can be further utilized through the use

of economizer, part of the heat will be extracted to heat the feed water to the boiler. The

rest of the flue gas will be introduced in the gas scrubber before releasing it to the

atmosphere. The use of economizer reduces the fuel consumption thus, increasing the

boiler efficiency (Sethi, 2016). Figure 5 shows the Power Plant Diagram of the

bioethanol plant.
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Figure 5. Power Plant Diagram


29

Waste Water Treatment Plant.

The process will be carried out in anaerobic digester. The slops will then

be fed into the reactor where anaerobic bacterial culture will be maintained in suspension.

Inlet temperature of the slops will be assumed to be at 40oC. According to Metcalf and

Eddy (1991), an average period of 10 days as a residence time for anaerobic digestion at

40oC is the recommended time for the slops to be retained in the reactor. Produced gas

such as methane gas and carbon dioxide gas due to the decomposition of organic matter

present in the wastewater are then fed into the degasser for the separation of two gases.

Methane gas will then be fired to the boiler meanwhile the carbon dioxide will be

produced will be stored to sell it out for usage in carbonated drinks. The remaining

wastewater after the anaerobic digestion process will flow to the clarifier for further

treatment before it will be completely disposed to the lagoon. Important parameters such

as BOD, COD and pH of the wastewater will be monitored and reduced in order to meet

the effluent standards set by the DENR. Figure 6 shows the waste water treatment plant

diagram of bioethanol producing plant.


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Figure 6. Waste Water Treatment Plant Diagram of a Bioethanol Producing Plant.


31

Ground Water Treatment Plant.

Utilizing the ground water sources the location site provides, the

bioethanol plant will provide its own water supply through deep well injection. The

groundwater will be extracted from the source using pumps and the raw water tank will

store the water pumped from the deep well. For the primary treatment, a sedimentation

process will be done that will cause the suspended solids to form slurry which will then

be moved to the center of the tank which is then collected in a trough (Fein and Kaplan,

2014). Therefore, the raw water from the tank will be fed to the clarifier to remove any

suspended solids. The clarified water tank will store the collected overflow from the

clarifier.

The clarified water will then pass through the Activated Carbon Filter tank

where through using activated carbon, organic matter from the feed water will be

removed through adsorption process (Kneen, 1995).

For the softening of water, or the removal of iron and manganese, the

water will pass through the ion exchange unit. This involves a chemical process where

water is filtered through an exchange media such as NaCl. As the water flows through the

unit, the resin releases its sodium ions and trades them for calcium and magnesium ions

(Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences, 2017).

Lastly, the softened water then undergoes reverse osmosis. In reverse

osmosis, the softened water will travel through semi-permeable membrane using

pressurized pumps to filter out minerals and other contaminants. The water that will be

collected after the process will be the demineralized water. The demineralized water will
32

go into the cooling tower to be fed to condenser and boiler. The rest of the demineralized

water will be fed into the remaining process.

The processed water tank will store the water from the activated carbon

filter which will be used for the heat exchanger, fermentation and utilities.

The softened water tank will store the water from the softening unit which

will then be used for the hydrolysis process and utilities.

For the water supply needed in the power plant, the demineralized water

from the reverse osmosis process will be used which is then further stored in a

demineralized water tank.

Using the cooling water, the used water from the distillation process and

power plant will be cooled down and recover it again in the water treatment plant for

further use.
33

Production Schedule

The plant will be designed to operate 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. A total of

300 days a year will the plant be operating while allocating the remaining 65 days for

scheduled maintenance. Full inspection, repairs and modification of machineries and

facilities are done during maintenance. For the production and engineering department,

the daily 24 hour work schedule will be divided into 3 shifts (8 AM-4 PM, 4PM-12 AM,

12 AM-8 AM) where in each shift, there will be at least 2 on duty operators on each

division and 1 supervisor. The initiation of shifts will start after steady-state condition of

the plant is reached which is expected 2 months after the start-up of the plant. For the

administrative department, they will have 8 hours (8 AM-5 PM) of duty per day with 1

hour of lunch period from 12 NOON to 1 PM, 6 days a week. The employees will

continue on working on regular days, non-working holidays and will be entitled to leaves.

Incentives will be provided for those who will work on holidays, both for all the

departments.

The plant has the capacity to process 38,685 kg of mango seeds per hour to

produce 1,882 kg of bioethanol per hour. The maximum annual bioethanol production of

the plant is 17.4 million liter which can help in boosting the country’s bioethanol supply

and can cater the country’s increasing demand for bioethanol. Table 2.3.1 and 2.3.4

shows the number of employees under each department.


34

Table 5.

Personnel with Shifting Schedule


NUMBER OF PERSONNEL
SHIFT 2 SHIFT 3
DEPARTMENT POSITION SHIFT 1
(4 PM-12 (12 AM-8
(8 AM-4 PM)
AM) AM)
Administrative Security Guards 4 4 4
Nurse 1 1 1
Driver 1 1 1
Maintenance and Maintenance 1 1 1
Engineering Supervisor
Maintenance 2 2 2
Staff
Electrical 1 1 1
Supervisor
Instrumentation 1 1 1
Supervisor
Instrumentation 1 1 1
Operators
Power Plant 1 1 1
Supervisor
Power Plant 2 2 2
operator
Production Production 1 1 1
Supervisor
Raw Materials 2 2 2
Handling
Dryer and Mill 1 1 1
Acid Hydrolysis 2 2 2
Fermentation 2 2 2
Distilling 1 1 1
Column
Operator
Waste 1 1 1
Treatment Plant
Ground Water 1 1 1
Plant
Quality Control 2 2 2
Analyst
Laboratory 2 2 2
Sampler
Production 5 5 5
Helper
35

Table 6.

Personnel with Regular Day Schedule (8 AM- 5 PM)


NUMBER OF
DEPARTMENT POSITION
PERSONNEL
Plant Manager 1
Administration Head 1
Human Resources Head 1
Human Resources Staff 1
Attending Physician 1
Accounting and Finance 1
Administrative Head
Accounting and Finance 2
Staff
Sales and Marketing Head 1
Sales and Marketing Staff 1
Logistics and Purchasing 3
Head
Logistics and Purchasing 1
Staff
Production Head 1
Engineering Head 1
Production Maintenance Head 1
Quality Control Officer 1
Pollution Control Officer 1
Safety Officer 1
Driver 4
36

Equipment Design and Specifications

Rolling Mill (Ready Made).

Function: To break the outer shell

Model: FW 812 by CPM SKET

Material to be crushed: Mango seed

Number of unit: 3 units

Capacity (each unit): 13,000 kg/hr

Dimensions:

Length: 2670 mm

Width: 3740 mm

Height: 1990 mm

Sieving (Ready Made).

Function: to separate Mango kernel from seed

Type: Vibrating screen

Model: LDS1-2700-7.2 by Sinfonia Technology Co., Ltd.

Number of unit: 3 units

Capacity (each unit): 13,000 kg/hr

Dimensions:

Length: 4.5 m

Width: 3.4 m

Height: 2.4 m
37

Dryer (by Feeco International Inc.).

Function: To reduce the seed moisture content from 44.4% to 12% moisture to

maintains its viability and vigor in process.

Type: Rotary Drum Dryer

Number of Units: 3 units

Capacity (each unit): 7736.93 kg/hr

Heating System: Steam-heated air

Gas Flow Pattern in Dryer: Co-current gas flow

Residence Time: 1.69 hrs

Dimensions:

Length: 25.5 m

Diameter: 2.88 m

Milling (Ready Made).

Function: To reduce the size of kernel to optimum particle size

Particle size: 0.212-1.180 mm

Type: Pin mill

Model: Simpactor Pin Mill by Sturtevant Inc.

Capacity: 5000 kg/hr

Dimensions:

Length: 2.4384 m

Width: 1.524 m

Height: 2.5908 m
38

Hydrolysis.

1st Stage Acid Hydrolysis.

Equipment: Pitched – blade turbine mixing reactor

Function: Facilitates the breaking down of cellulosic and hemi-cellulosic lignin

wall for the recovery of fermentable sugars

Type of Material: Carbon Steel

No. of Units: 1

Operation: Batch

Operating time per batch: 30 min

Feed Rate: 744,395.4 kg/day = 31,016.475 kg/hr

Volume per unit: 15.657 m3

Dimension:

Diameter: 2.585 m

Height: 3.8775 m

Working Pressure: 137.895 kPa

Wall thickness: 5.765x10-3 m

Width of Baffle: 0.2154 m

No. of Impellers: 2

Impeller Diameter: 0.862 m

Length of Blade: 0.2155 m

Width of Blade: 0.1724 m

Impeller above vessel floor: 0.862 m

Lower impeller clearance: 0.862 m


39

Upper impeller clearance: 2.585 m

2nd Stage Acid Hydrolysis

Equipment: Pitched – blade turbine mixing reactor

Function: Facilitates the breaking down of cellulosic and hemi-cellulosic lignin

wall for the recovery of fermentable sugars

Type of Material: Carbon Steel

No. of Units: 1

Operation: Batch

Operating time per batch: 30 min

Feed Rate: 253,901.97 kg/day = 10,579.25 kg/hr

Volume per unit: 5.2896 m3

Dimension:

Diameter: 1.8 m

Height: 2.7 m

Working Pressure: 137.895 kPa

Wall thickness: 4.4547x10-3 m

Width of Baffle: 0.15 m

No. of Impellers: 2

Impeller Diameter: 0.6 m

Length of Blade: 0.15 m

Width of Blade: 0.12 m

Impeller above vessel floor: 0.6 m


40

Lower impeller clearance: 0.6 m

Upper impeller clearance: 1.8 m

Electrodialysis (Ready Made).

Function: Provision for recovery of sulphuric acid from the two-stage hydrolysis

process.

Unit Model: Model 5 by Beta Control System Inc.

Capacity: 1000-7000 gal per day

Dimensions:

Immersion exchangers: 1.3 m2

Reactor Tank: 1.8 x 1.5 x 1.5 m

Settler Tank: 1.3 m diameter

Main Fermenter (Stirred Tank Reactor).

Function: Production of Industrial Alcohol by Fermentation

Type of Material: Carbon Steel

No. of Units: 5

Operation: Batch

Volume per unit: 755.49 m3

Dimension:

Diameter: 7.83 m

Height: 15.66 m

Working Pressure: 443.49 kPa


41

Type of Head: Torispherical

Depth of Dished Bottom: 1 meter

Wall Thickness: 0.0237 m

Head Thickness: 0.0259 m

Width of Baffle: 0.6525 m

Height of Baffle: 15.66 m

No. of Impellers: 2

Impeller Diameter: 2.61 m

Length of Blade:0.6525 m

Width of Blade: 0.522 m

Impeller above vessel floor: 2.61 m

Lower Impeller Clearance: 2.61 m

Upper Impeller Clearance: 11.11 m

Pre-fermenter.

Function: For the preparation of yeast before it enters the main fermenter

No. of Units: 3

Type of Material: Carbon Steel

Volume per unit: 75.55 m3

Dimension:

Diameter: 3.64 m

Height: 7.28 m

Wall thickness: 0.0121 m


42

Width of Baffle: 0.3033 m

Height of Baffle: 7.28 m

No. of Impellers: 2

Length of Blade: 0.3033 m

Width of Blade: 0.2426 m

Impeller above vessel floor: 1.2133 m m

Lower Impeller Clearance: 1.2133 m

Upper Impeller Clearance: 5.52 m

Culture Vessel.

Function: Preparing of the yeast cultures

Type of Material: Carbon Steel

3rd Culture Vessel.

No. of Units: 1

Volume of Vessel: 75.55 m3

Diameter of Vessel: 3.64 m

Height of the Vessel: 7.28 m

1st and 2nd Culture Vessel

No. of Units: 1

Volume of Vessel: 7.56 m3

Diameter of Vessel: 1.69 m


43

Height of the Vessel: 3.38 m

H= 2(1.69) = 3.38 m

Bd-95 Disk Stack Centrifuge (Ready Made).

Function: To separate the dead yeasts cells and suspended solids present in the

fermented solution.

Type of Material: Stainless Steel 1.4418 49

No. of Units: 1

Throughput capacity (max): 60 m3/hr

Bowl Speed: 4,300 rpm

Bowl Volume: 66 L

Sludge Space: 17 L

Motor Speed: 1,821 rpm

Motor power installed: 60 kW

Neutralization.

Short Retention Time Clarifier

Function: For the neutralization of the acid-sugar solution

Type of Material: Type 304 Stainless Steel

No of Units: 1

Capacity: 462,694.28 kg/day

Volume of tank: 555.2331 m3

Dimension:
44

Height of tank: 8.9083m

Diameter of Tank: 8.9083m

Width of Baffle: 0.7424 m

Impeller above vessel floor: 2.9694 m

Impeller Diameter: 2.9694 𝑚

Length of Blade: 2.2271 m

Width of Blade: 1.7817 m

Operating Temperature: 30 oC

Cooling Jacket for neutralization.

Cooling Fluid: Water

Height of Jacket: 8.55m

No. of spirals: 15

Mass flow rate of water: 2611.4 kg/hr

Spacing between jacket and vessel wall: 0.3m

Pitch: 0.5938 m

Cross sectional area of channel: 0.17814m2

Length of channel: 391.807 m

Distillation.

Function: To separate ethanol from the fermented beer.

Type: Bubble Cap Tray Distilling Column

Capacity:
45

No. of Units: 1

Height of Tower: 28.05 𝑚

Diameter of Tower: 1.87 m

Tray Spacing: 0.5

No. of Stages: 11 stages (including reboiler)

Feed Tray: 8th tray

Condenser.

Function: To condense the vapor containing by 95% volume ethanol.

Materials of Construction: Carbon steel except for plates

No. of units: 1

Materials of Construction for the plates: 304 Stainless Steel

Dimensions:

Area: 128.55 m2

Length of tubes: 8m

Diameter of tubes:
7
Outside diameter: 8 𝑖𝑛 =22.23mm

Inside diameter: 0.652 in = 16.56mm

Surface area of one tube = 0.5587 m2

Number of tubes: 230

Pitch: Square pitch at 27.79 mm

Bundle Diameter: 537.04 mm

No. of tubes in Center row: 19


46

Reboiler.

Function: To generate vapors in the bottoms which are returned to the column.

No. of Units: 1

Materials of Construction: Carbon Steel

Materials of Construction for Tube: 317 Stainless Steel

Type: Kettle Type (Shell and Tube)

Dimensions:

Area: 21.56 m2

Nominal length (One U tube): 10 m

Number of U tubes: 46

Outside Diameter: 50 mm

Inside diameter 45 mm

Pitch: Square pitch at 62.5 mm

Bundle diameter: 0.57m

Shell diameter: 1.14m

Liquid level from base: 1 m

Freeboard: 0.14 m

Molecular Sieve Dehydrator.

Function: To further remove the water in the water-ethanol solution of the

distillate

No. of Units: 1

Capacity: 48,580.8 kg/day = 48.3333 kmol/hr


47

Type of Material: Carbon Steel

Type of Vessel: Pressure Swing Adsorption

Height of Vessel: 3 m

Diameter of Vessel: 1 m

Absorbent Used: Zeolite 3Ǻ

Pore Size: 3Ǻ

Moisture Adsorption Capacity: 20%

Pressure: 25 atm max with 3.673 atm H2O partial pressure

2 atm min with 1.90 atm H2O partial pressure

Storage Tanks.

Mango Seed Kernel (MSK) Powder Storage (Ready-Made).

Function: Will be used in the storage of mango seed kernel powder

Type of material: Stainless Steel

No. of units: 2

Capacity: 200 tons

Tank Diameter: 3.6 m

Tank Height: 13.6 m

Total Height: 18.6 m


48

Ethanol Storage Tank.

Function: Serves as a container for the 99.99% ethanol from the molecular sieve

dehydration section for the whole day production. The product will be

stored for several days until distributed to the loading trucks.

Number of units: 3

Type of Material: Carbon Steel

Capacity (per unit): 175.933 m3

Diameter of the tank: 4.47 m

Height of the tank: 11.175 m

Hydrolysate Storage Tank.

Function: To store the hydrolysate produced from the acid hydrolysis process

Volume: 118.36 m3

Diameter: 4.49 m

Height: 7.48 m

70% H2SO4 Storage Tank.

Function: To store the 70% blend of sulphuric acid which will be used in the 1st

stage hydrolysis

Number of units: 1

Type of Material: Carbon Steel

Capacity: 477.035 m3

Diameter of the tank: 7.14 m


49

Height of the Tank: 11.9 m

30% H2SO4 Storage Tank.

Function: To store the 30% blend of sulphuric acid which will be used in the 2nd

stage hydrolysis

Number of units: 1

Type of Material: Carbon Steel

Capacity: 162.71 m3

Diameter of the tank: 4.99 m

Height of the Tank: 8.32 m

H2SO4 Recovery Tank.

Function: To store the recovered sulphuric acid from electrodialysis

Number of Units: 1

Type of material: Carbon Steel

Capacity: 363.6 m3

Diameter of the tank: 6.52 m

Height of the tank: 10.87 m

Water Treatment Plant.

Anaerobic Digester.

Function: Anaerobic digestion is a process in which microorganisms break down

organic materials into methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide. This is accomplished in
50

the absence of oxygen therefore the anaerobic digester tank is capped to prevent

oxygen from coming in and to capture the methane and carbon dioxide produced.

The produced methane will be fed in the boiler for fuel consumption while the

carbon dioxide is sold to bottling companies.

Number of Units: 3

Type of Material: Carbon Steel

Capacity: 390 m3

Diameter of tank: 6.92 m

Height of tank: 10.38 m

Impeller Diameter: 2.31

Height of impeller from ground: 2.31 m

Width of Baffle: 0.5775 m

No. of Impellers: 2

Length of Blade: 0.5775 m

Width of Blade: 0.462 m

Lower Impeller Clearance: 2.31 m

Upper Impeller Clearance: 6.92 m

Process Water Tank.

Function: To store the groundwater from the source that will be used in the process

Number of units: 1

Type of material: Carbon Steel

Diameter of the tank: 3.25 m


51

Height of the tank: 6.5 m

Demineralized Water Tank.

Function: To stock the demineralized water after the reverse osmosis process

Number of units:1

Type of material: Carbon Steel

Capacity: 95m3

Diameter of the tank: 3.93 m

Height of the tank: 7.85 m

Clarifier.

Type: Circular Clarifier

Material of Construction: Carbon Steel

Operating Conditions

Suspended Solids<25 ppm

Turbidity<25 NTU

Basis: 1 hour

Diameter: 4 m

Volumetric flow rate: 190 m3/h

Clarifier (from MAK Water Lamella Clarifier).

Function: Separation of solid contaminants from liquids in effluent streams

Number of units: 2
52

Type of Material: Carbon Steel

Lamella Clarifier flow rate: 150 m3/hr

Settling area: 150 m2

Settling rate: 75.15 m3/hr

Efficiency: 95%

Treated Water Turbidity: 1-3

Dimensions (clarifier only): 5.8 x 3.0 X 6.5 m

Degasser.

Function: Recovery of the methane gas from the anaerobic digester.

Number of units: 2

Materials in contact with solvent: Polytetrafluoroethylene, polyether, ether ketone

Maximum flow rate: 10 ml/min per channel

Number of channels: 4

Internal volume per channel: typically 12 ml per channel

Analog Output (AUX): for pressure monitoring, range 0-3 V

Lagoon.

Function: Receive, hold and treat wastewater for a period of time before disposal.

Number of Units: 3

Capacity (per unit): 3000 m3

Dimensions: 30 x 20 x 5 m
53

Cooling Tower.

Function: To cool the water from the condenser and boiler and return it back to

the process.

Number of Units: 1

Capacity: 972 m3/hr

Length: 18 m

Height: 9 m

Width: 6 m

Diameter of each fan: 2 m

Motor output: 1 kW

Type: Counter Current Flow

Reverse Osmosis.

1st Stage Osmosis: 11 Pressure Vessels

2nd Stage Osmosis: 5 pressure vessels

Type of material: polyamide layer, polysulfone layer, polyester base

Thickness of membrane: 1 mm

Number of membrane in a pressure vessel: 1000 layers

Activated Carbon Filter.

Material of Construction: Carbon Steel

Filtering Media: Activated Carbon

Operating Conditions
54

Regeneration: Every 24 hours

Replacement of Filtering Media: Every 120 days

Turbidity< 5 NTU

Diameter = 4 m

Volumetric Flow Rate = 188.65 m3/hr

Softening Unit.

Material of Construction: Carbon Steel

Resin: Tulsion T-40

Polymer matrix: Polystyrene copolymer

Physical form: Moist spherical beads

Ionic form: Na+

Operating Conditions

Hardness: 5ppm CaCO3 maximum

Diameter = 5 m

Volumetric Flow Rate = m3/hr

Power Plant.

Turbine.

Function: Produces Mechanical Energy using steam produced from the boiler

Type: Steam Turbine

Number of Units:

Power Generation
55

Operating Parameters:

Inlet Pressure: 4000 kPa

Outlet Pressure: 30 kPa

Inlet Temperature: 500 deg C

𝑘𝑔
Steam Requirement: 29,376.06 ℎ𝑟

Boiler.

Functions: Produces steam from demineralized water for power co-generation

Type: Water Tube Boiler

Number of units: 1

𝑘𝑔
Fuel Steam Capacity:29,376.06 ℎ𝑟

𝑘𝑔
Amount of fuel: 36,969.77 ℎ𝑟
56

Plant Location

The plant will be located in Brgy. Carmen, Toledo City, Cebu. The land that will

be bought will be 200219.38 square meters of land area. The plant area will occupy 75%

of land that which will include the administrative building, production facilities,

laboratory, wastewater treatment facility, water treatment facility, storage facilities and

other facilities essential for operation. While the remaining 25% of the land around will

be utilized as buffer zone.

Figure 7. Proposed Plant Location as viewed in the map

The plant is enclosed by four points which is specifically located at the following

points:

Latitude: Longitude:

 10° 22' 55.11'' N 123° 40' 0.48'' E

 10° 22' 59.376'' N 123° 40' 12'' E


57

 10° 22' 45.9912'' N 123° 40' 20.604'' E

 10° 22' 39.72'' N 123° 40' 8.4'' E

The reasons for selection the location are as follows:

Availability of raw materials.

The main raw material for the proposed plant is mango seed. There are

three leading mango processing industry: Profood, M’Lhuillier Food Products, and FPD

Food International that generate tons of mango seed waste from their manufacturing of

dried mangoes and other products that operates on Cebu city, the supply of raw materials

is ensured for production.

Accessibility to the Market.

Fuel use is predicted to increase as the population and economy continue

to expand. This means that the proposed bioethanol plant will supply the local market

specifically the Central Visayas area. The plant is one and seventeen hours away to the

Cebu international port and less than one hour away to the Toledo port in which the

product is distributed to different locations in the Visayas.

Water Supply.

The plant will have its own water supply through deep well injection that

collects water and distributes it throughout the plant.

Power Supply.

The plant will generate its own electricity by steam powered turbine. The

boiler will use a combination of methane gas, which is generated by the plant through

anaerobic digestion and biomass as fuels. In case of emergency situations, the plant will

connect to the local power grid as a contingency plan.


58

Community.

The plant is approximately 3.5 km away from Toledo City making it

accessible to hospitals, church, shopping districts and basic needs. The company will give

priority to workers from the community to work inside the plant. The workers will have

benefits such as SSS, PhilHealth & etc.


59

Plant Layout

Figure 8 shows the plant layout of the proposed plant. The plant was arranged and

designed with high regard to the efficiency of the production and overall safety of the

personnel. The production will start near the receiving area of the plant where raw

materials are received and prepared for milling. The center of the plant will be designated

as the main area operation where fermentation and distillation facilities and control room

will be located. The supporting facilities such as the warehouse will be located on the

right side of the plant, the water treatment house will be near the power plant station and

the laboratory will be located near the control room. The fire house and clinic will be

situated near the production are in case of accidents or emergencies. The administration

building will be located near the entrance making it accessible for visitors. The

wastewater treatment plant will be situated on the lower right side of the plant.

Scheduling of deliveries for raw material and other materials needed for

production will be observed to avoid traffic congestion


60

Figure 8. Plant Layout


61

Buildings and Facilities

Administrative Building.

This will be the office for the Plant Manager, Human Resource Staffs and

Finance Personnel of the plant. The building will be located near the canteen for an easy

access of the employees of the plant. Per OSH requirements, each floor should be at least

2.7 meters from floor to ceiling with maximum number of persons employed in a

workroom area shall not exceed one person per 11.5 cubic meters. This is to avoid

stampede whenever emergency situations happen and also to provide an optimum

environment for the workers. Exposed sides of a Stairway floor opening should be

guarded on to avoid accidents.

Power Plant Station.

It will be found near the administrative building. It will also near the

distillery plant since it will be commonly used in this area and also in case of a power

shut down, personnel in the distillery plant can have and easy access to the power

generator operators to minimize production loss. Control room for this equipment will be

found near the area. Where mechanical handling equipment is used, safe clearance is

required to avoid contact of the worker to the rotating equipment. Power boiler should be

equipped by at least one safety valve if the heating surface is 500 square feet and two

safety valves for more than 500 square feet. Suitable manholes or other openings for

frequent inspection, examination and cleaning should not be less than 70 mm x 90 mm.

Canteen.

The area for the employees to have their lunch breaks and snacks. It will

be located besides the administrative building for an easy access to the employees. Under
62

the Occupational Health and Safety Act of 2004, employers are required to provide

hygienic facilities for preparing and eating meals while at work. It is a must that the

canteen and even the one’s preparing the foods are checked from time to time to avoid

contamination of foods which may result to large number of employees being sick.

Clinic.

The clinic shall have a licensed nurse and a physician throughout the plant

operation. The office will be equipped with the first aid kits, oxygen tanks, transport

materials, beds and other equipment that would be beneficial in case of emergency. It will

be found inside the control room. An addition of personal ambulance to transport patients

which cannot be healed by mainly first aid kits is also used as a safety precaution.

Distillation Plant.

Distillation columns, condensers, cooling towers, molecular sieve

dehydrator and heat exchangers will be found in this region. It will be located near the

fermentation plant for an easy access transport of material that will be distilled. Interlocks

all over the distillation area are provided so that when the sensors read differently from

the required values, it will automatically inform the DCS or at worst case scenario, shut

the process off to avoid further damages or accidents.

Fermentation Plant.

The area will be located near the distillation plant. Mango seeds kernel

powder storage tank, vats, and heat exchangers are found in this area. The control room

for this area is the one used in the distillery plant since both process are co-located to

each other. Plenty of safety signs are also required for each tanks defining the hazards it

may present.
63

Parking Lot.

The parking lot must have a standby ambulance and fire trucks for

emergency purposes. This area will be located on the upper side of the plant.

Quality Control Laboratory.

A building set for scientific research where all the tests for quality analysis

of raw materials and product, chemicals used and other materials that need quality

assurance. This will be located between near the control room. The laboratory will have

its own ventilation and exhaust equipment to provide continual inflow of fresh air to keep

the concentration of contaminants within safe limits. Hazardous processes shall also be

carried out in a separate rooms, and shall be carried out in an air-tight enclosure to

prevent personal contact with harmful substances and the escape of dusts, fibers, fumes

gases and mists into the air on the room which the person works. Labelled containers and

organization also play a big role to avoid confusion of chemicals in the quality control

laboratory. Personal disposal facility for laboratories are provided since disposed

materials might be contaminated with various chemicals.

Storage Room.

Final product will be stored in this area using vats. The storage room will

be located near the distillation plant for an easy transport. The tanks should be supported

so that leakage from any part of the tank will be noticeable. An addition of bund walls to

hold overflows during maximum operations. Tanks used for storing corrosive or caustic

liquids should have a permanent open wet pipe not less than 5 cm, in diameter at highest

point of the tank and a drain connection at the lowest point in the tank discharging in a

safe place such as a bund wall.


64

Warehouse.

The warehouse will be located near the ancillary process of the plant for

an easy transfer of materials that will be bought by the company and for an easy checking

of inventories. Roadways for automobiles, trucks and other vehicles shall be constructed

with good wearing surfaces.

Wastewater Treatment Plant.

This plant will consist of the demineralized water production, process

water storage, raw water storage, and aeration tanks. It will be situated near the disposal

area of the treated water. Interlocks all over the effluent area are used to avoid disposal of

below standard values wastewater effluent which may be toxic to the environment.

Values for BOD, COD, pH and temperature are monitored to ensure that the effluent

water will conform to the DENR’s standard for wastewater treatment.

Raw Materials and Supplies

Raw Material.

The globalization of mango production and consumption is a relatively

new phenomenon that is experiencing rapid growth. Over the past ten years, trade in

mango products has tripled; in 2005 the total exports were just US$ 696 million, while in

2015 it had increased to almost US$ 2.1 million. Mango products include fresh mango

and processed ones such as dried, frozen, puree and juice. The mango export market is

quite concentrated and dominated by developing countries located in the Tropics. The

Philippine holds a relatively significant position in the mango GVC (Global Value

Chain), and in 2015, the country ranked seventh amongst exporters of fresh and dried
65

mango, with US$ 91 million in exports and a 4% share of the global market

(UNComtrade, 2016).

For the third quarter of 2018, mango production was 4.3 percent higher

compared to the production in the same period of previous year, from 55.44 thousand MT

to 57.85 thousand MT. Central Visayas, with 19.10 thousand MT share, was the highest

producer of mango during the period, sharing 33.0 percent to national production.

Northern Mindanao ranked next with 20.1 percent share and third was Caraga with 12.0

percent share. Carabao variety reached 46.46 thousand MT during the period,

contributing 80.3 percent to total mango production (Philippines Statistics Authority,

2018).

Waste Disposal

Gypsum from Neutralization.

Gypsum is a by-product of the neutralization process and will be separated

by a centrifuge. The separated gypsum will be sold by the company.

Bottoms Products (Slops).

Distillery slop is the waste from alcohol manufacture, as from breweries or

distilleries, which produce highly organic pollutants (Thares, 2011).

Slops will directly proceed to the anaerobic digester in order to produce

methane (CH4) gas to be used as an additional fuel and the liquid that is left behind will

then be used as a fertilizer by the farmers.

Sludge.

Sludge will be removed after centrifugation is complete. It has a high

biochemical oxygen demand (BOD).


66

It is advisable to dewater the sludge. The same with the slops it will also

undergo anaerobic digester to produce methane gas and to be used as a fertilizer

by the farmers

Carbon Dioxide from Fermentation.

Carbon dioxide is a by-product of fermentation together with water. To

eliminate its environmental effects, it will be utilized by condensing it to produce liquid

carbon dioxide and will be sold to bottling companies.

Biomass.

Biomass from the 2nd stage acid hydrolysis will be collected. It will not

undergo anymore anaerobic digester but will be given together with the slops to the

farmers.

Flue Gases from Combustion of Fuel.

Flue gases are the by-products of the combustion of the biomass and

methane gas in the boiler. These air pollutants should be treat first before discharging

because of its great threats to the environment. To remove harmful particles and gases

from the exhaust stream, wet scrubbers will be used.

Labor Requirement

The plant requires a range of labor in order to function efficiently. The following

are the labor needed to ensure the quality and quantity of product produced. All the cited

labors, except for the administrative section, are required to use or be in their Personal

Protective Equipment before going out into the field. Some PPE’s needed are the hard

hats for any debris that may fall, goggles for eye protection against particulate matters,

gloves whenever there is a need to be in contact with a chemical or slurry, or hold


67

something that may cause wounds, and respirators, to avoid inhaling particulate matter

and odorous substances emitted in every tanks of the processes involved.

Chemical Engineers.

Chemical engineers are responsible in designing various plant equipment

and supervising the processes involved in the production to ensure efficient manufacture

and yield high quality of the bioethanol.

Civil Engineers.

Civil engineers are responsible in constructing the plant and its facilities.

They plan, design and oversee construction and maintenance of building structures and

infrastructure.

Electrical Engineers.

Electrical engineers are responsible for power generation and electrical

equipment of the plant.

Mechanical Engineers.

Mechanical engineers are responsible for the repair and maintenance of

equipment of the plant. They plan and design tools, engines, machines, and other

mechanically functioning equipment. Oversee installation, operation, maintenance, and

repair of such equipment.

Environmental Engineers.

Environmental engineers are responsible for all the pollution being

produced in the plant to ensure that the standards set by the Department of Environmental

and Natural Resources will be met. They are involved in efforts to improve recycling,

waste disposal, public health, and water and air pollution control.
68

Plant Manager.

Plant manager is responsible in supervising the operation of the entire

plant. He is responsible in managing the workforce in the plant. They will oversee all

daily operations of the plant from production and manufacturing to ensuring policies and

procedures are followed. They develop processes that will maximize stewardship, safety,

quality and productivity.

Plant Operators.

Plant operators are responsible in manning all the equipment in the plant.

They monitor reactors, turbines, generators, and cooling systems, adjusting controls as

necessary. Operators also start and stop equipment and record the data.

Office Personnel.

Office personnel are responsible for the inspection of products for quality

control and assurance.

Maintenance Personnel.

Maintenance personnel are responsible in maintaining and repairing

equipment, facilities and other industrial machinery.

Organizational Structure

Figure 9 shows the organizational chart which summarizes the hierarchy of the

company
69

Owner
(Corporation)

General
Manager
(1)

Plant Administrative
Manager (1) Head (1)

Human Sales and


Production Maintenance Engineering Resource Accounting Logistics
Marketing
Head (1) Head (1) Head (1) Head (1) Head (1)
Head (1) Head (1)

Physician (1)
Safety Quality Production Maintenance Power Plant
Officer (1) Control Supervisor Staff (6) Supervisor
Human Sales and
Officer (1) (3) (3) Accounting Logistics
Resource Marketing Staff (4)
Nurse (3) Staff (3)
Staff (2)
Staff (2)
Quality Production Power Plant
Control Operators Operators
Analyst (6) (27) (6) Security
Guards
(12)
Samplers Helpers
(6) (14)

Figure 9. Organizational Chart


70

Chapter 3

Financial Study

Increase of bioethanol production is one of the most important issue that the

Philippine industry is currently facing. Rampant increase of transportation vehicles which

uses E10 as its fuels drive the demand of the bioethanol the highest in the past years.

Department of Energy also has set to implement the E20 or the 20% ethanol blend of

fuels used by the year 2020. For this purpose, Biofuels Act of 2006 was made to cater the

increasing demand of bioethanol in the Philippines.

Evaluating the economic viability of an investment is done using an analytical

tool which is the financial study analysis. This consists of the evaluation of the financial

condition and operating performance of the investment as well as forecasting its future

condition and performance. Expected return and expected risk are the two specific factors

in order to come up with the financial decision, which financial feasibility analysis can be

of used to examine those two factors (Fabozzi and Peterson, 2003). This chapter will

determine if the project proposed is financially feasible.

Total Capital Investment

The total capital investment for the implementation of MaKernel Bioethanol Plant

is estimated to reach 813,352,250.43.


71

Table 7.

Total Project Cost


Direct Cost
a. Purchased Equipment 257,681,763.76
b. Purchased Equipment Installation 77,304,529.13
c. Instrumentation and Control 77,304,529.13
d. Pipings 103,072,705.50
e. Electrical Equipment Installation 25,768,176.38
f. Buildings and Structures 46,382,717.48
g. Land Improvement 7,730,452.91
h. Service Facilities 51,536,352.75
i. Land 46,382,717.48
Total Direct Cost 595,244,874.29
Indirect Cost
a. Engineering and Supervision 51,536,352.75
b. Construction Fee 23,191,358.74
c. Contractor Fee 12,884,088.19
d. Contingency 25,768,176.38
Total Indirect Cost 113,379,976.05
Total Direct And Indirect Cost 708,624,850.34
Office and Transportation Equipment 4,842,036.00
Fixed Capital Investment 713,466,886.34
Working Capital 99885364.09
Total Project Cost 813,352,250.43

Total Project Cost = Fixed Capital Investment + Working Capital

Fixed Capital Investment = Total Direct Cost + Total Indirect Cost + Office and

Transportation Equipment

Working Capital = Fixed Capital Investment x 0.14

Financing Scheme

To finance the proposed project and operation of the plant, the researchers will

borrow 40% of the total project cost needed from the land bank of the Philippines

amounting to Php 325,340,900.2 with an interest of 8% per year and is payable in 10

years. The purchased land title along with the buildings and equipment, will be the
72

collateral for the loan. The remaining amount of 488011350.3 will come from the

shareholder’s venture.

Major Assumptions

1. Main product, bioethanol will be sold at Php 45 per liter.

2. By-product CO2 will be sold by 500 per metric ton.

3. Raw material, Mango Seed will have a price of Php 725/ton.

4. Company will have a land of 20 hectares. The cost of land will 120 per square

meter.

5. Construction period will be (2) years and production starts on the third year.

6. Freight cost is 20% of purchased equipment cost.

7. Working Capital will be 15% of the total capital investment.

8. Cost of Electrical Installation will be 10% of the purchased product equipment

price

9. Cost of Land Improvement will be 3% of the purchased land lot.

10. Engineering Costs, which includes home office cost or contractor charges,

engineering services required to carry out the project, will be 20% of the purchase

equipment cost.

11. The Construction expenses will be 9% Purchased Equipment cost.

12. Contractor’s fee will be 5% of the Purchased Equipment cost.

13. Purchased Equipment Installation 30% of Purchased Equipment cost.

14. Instrumentation and control will be 30% of Purchased Equipment cost.

15. Piping are 40% of Purchased Equipment cost.

16. Electrical Equipment and materials 10% of Purchased Equipment cost.


73

17. Buildings and structure 18% of Purchased Equipment cost.

18. Service Facilities are 20% of Purchased Equipment cost.

19. Contingency is 10% indirect plant cost

20. Construction Expense is 6% Purchased Equipment cost.

21. Product sales will increase 4% annually for first five years

22. Fourth and fifth year of production will be at full capacity.

23. Sales for CO2 shall remain constant at Php 6,000,000 per month, regardless of

production capacity per year.

24. All of the produced bioethanol will be sold.

25. Money loaned from the bank is 40% of the total project cost.

26. Bank Loans Payable Php 381,773,086.68 paid at the end of the 3rd year or 1st year

of operation and a stated interest rate of 8% is to be paid annually for 10 years.

27. Interest in the loan during Pre-operational Phase will be paid immediately in those

years.

28. An increase of 3% annually of the initial salary in the employees’ salary for the

first five years of operations.

29. Income tax is 30%.

30. The contribution table for PhilHealth is based on the PhilHealth. Premium

Contribution Table.

31. The contribution table for SSS is based on the SSS 2018 schedule of contribution.

32. Employee’s Healthcare is Php 8,000/employee per year and will remain the same

for the first five years.


74

33. Accident Insurance of employee is Php 250 per employees per year and will

remain the same for the first five years of operation.

34. Depreciation is calculated using straight line method.

35. Factory Equipment & Machineries and office and Transportation.

36. Depreciation starts at the first year of operation. Salvage value is 10% of the fixed

cost.

37. There are 300 working days in a year.

38. Maintenance and `s 2% of the total purchased equipment cost.

39. Sales are paid 95% cash upon delivery and the 5% is paid the following year

40. Dividends are 5% of the net Income.

41. Service life of building, structures, and land improvement, equipment/office

supply, and equipment and machineries and services facilities are 30, 10, 15 and

10 years respectively.

42. Purchase of indirect materials is paid 70% cash upon purchased and the remaining

30% is paid the following year.

43. Advertising and marketing are Php 500,000.00 in the first year of operations and

will decrease 5% every year for the next four years of operations.

44. Under Section 3 of Biofuels Act of 2006, sales tax is 0%.

45. The surplus cash shall be invested in money market and with an option to pay off

loans.

46. Raw material cost will increase 1.5% every year.


75

Financial Statements

Financial statement or financial report is a structured representation which

provides information about the company’s financial activities and performance that are

essential for making economic decisions

The financial statements are made of Income Statement, Cash Flow and the

Balance Sheet. These statements are made from year 2021 – 2025 and are based on the

assumptions made by the authors to financially show the company’s progress.


76

Table 8.

Income Statement

Operation

1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th Year 5th Year

Sales 805,822,500.00 838,055,400.00 871,577,616.00 906,440,720.64 942,698,349.47

Cost of Sales 383,838,101 394,544,334 405,549,143 416,861,485 428,490,585

Total Gross Profit 421,984,399.00 443,511,066.00 466,028,473.00 489,579,235.64 514,207,764.47

Operating Expenses 56,137,864.32 56,516,309.59 67,917,842.80 57,276,886.54 57,658,896.31

Operating Income 365,846,534.68 386,994,756.41 398,110,630.20 432,302,349.10 456,548,868.16

Interest Expense 26,026,956 24,230,573 22,290,187 17,931,369 26,897,054

Income before Tax 339,819,578.68 362,764,183.41 375,820,443.20 414,370,980.10 429,651,814.16

Income Tax (30%) 101,945,873.60 108,829,255.02 112,746,132.96 124,311,294.03 128,895,544.25

Net Income 237,873,705.08 253,934,928.39 263,074,310.24 290,059,686.07 300,756,269.91


77

Table 9.
Balance Sheet (Assets)
Pre – Operational Operational
Year 1 Year 2 1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th Year 5th Year
Current Assets
50,090,862.1 354,640,151.5 881,709,648.9 1,172,193,729.7 1,470,601,605.6
Cash 431,721,556.28 614,791,333.46
2 7 0 6 6
Accounts
- - 40,291,125.00 41,902,770.00 43,578,880.80 45,322,036.03 47,134,917.47
Receivable
50,090,862.1 394,931,276.5 925,288,529.7 1,217,515,765.7 1,517,736,523.1
Current Assets 431,721,556.28 656,694,103.46
2 7 0 9 3
Non – Current Assets
Property, Plant and Equipment (Schedule 13)
Land 24,026,325.60 24,026,325.60 24,026,325.60 24,026,325.60 24,026,325.60 24,026,325.60 24,026,325.60
Buildings,
Structures and
141,724,970.07 141,724,970.07 141,724,970.07 141,724,970.07 141,724,970.07 141,724,970.07 141,724,970.07
Land
Improvement
Office and
Transportation 4,842,036.00 4,842,036.00 4,842,036.00 4,842,036.00 4,842,036.00 4,842,036.00 4,842,036.00
Equipment
Total Cost of
Factory
541,131,703.89 541,131,703.89 541,131,703.89 541,131,703.89 541,131,703.89 541,131,703.89 541,131,703.89
Equipment &
Machineries
Service
51,536,352.75 51,536,352.75 51,536,352.75 51,536,352.75 51,536,352.75 51,536,352.75 51,536,352.75
Facilities
Less:
Accumulated - - (41,793,705.95) (83,587,412.67) (125,381,118.59) (167,174,825.11) (208,968,531.23)
Depreciation
78

Non-Current
763,261,388.31 763,261,388.31 721,467,682.36 679,673,975.64 637,880,269.72 596,086,563.20 554,292,857.08
Assets

Total Assets 1,194,982,944.59 813,352,250.43 1,116,398,958.93 1,336,368,079.10 1,563,168,799.42 1,813,602,328.99 2,072,029,380.21


79

Table 10.
(Liabilities and Shareholders’ Equity)
Pre – Operational Operational
nd
Year 1 Year 2 1st Year 2 Year 3rd Year 4th Year 5th Year
Liabilities
Current Liability:
Account Payable 381,630,694.16 - 99,525,120.3 102,510,873.9 105,586,200.1 108,753,786.1 112,016,399.7
Non-Current Liability
Loans Payable 325,340,900.2 325,340,900.2 302,882,468.5 278,627,653.1 252,432,452.5 224,141,694.3 193,587,675.5
Total Liabilities 706,971,594.36 325,340,900.2 402,407,588.80 381,138,527.00 358,018,652.60 332,895,480.40 305,604,075.20
Shareholders’ Equity
Ordinary Capital 488,011,350.
488,011,350.3 488,011,350.3 488,011,350.3 488,011,350.3 488,011,350.3 488,011,350.3
3
Retained Earnings:
Beginning
- - - 225,980,019.83 467,218,201.80 717,138,796.52 992,695,498.29
Balance
Net Income
- - 237,873,705.08 253,934,928.39 263,074,310.24 290,059,686.07 300,756,269.91

Less: Dividends - - (11,893,685.25) (12,696,746.42) (13,153,715.51) (14,502,984.30) (15,037,813.50)


Retained
- - 225,980,019.83 467,218,201.80 717,138,796.52 992,695,498.29 1,278,413,954.71
earnings, ending
Total
Shareholders’ 488,011,350.3 488,011,350.3 713,991,370.13 955,229,552.10 1,205,150,146.82 1,480,706,848.59 1,766,425,305.01
Equity
Total Liabilities
& Shareholders’ 1,194,982,944.59 813,352,250.43 1,116,398,958.93 1,336,368,079.10 1,563,168,799.42 1,813,602,328.99 2,072,029,380.21
Equity
80

Table 11.
Statement of Cash Flow
Pre-Operation Operational
Year 1 Year 2 1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th Year 5th Year
1. Cash Flow from Plant Operation Activities
Net Income - - 237,873,705.08 253,934,928.39 263,074,310.24 290,059,686.07 300,756,269.91
Increase/Decrea
se in Accounts - - (40,291,125.00) (1,611,645.00) (1,676,110.80) (1,743,155.23) (1,812,881.44)
Receivable
Increase/Decrea
se in
- - 41,793,706.32 41,793,706.32 41,793,706.32 41,793,706.32 41,793,706.32
Depreciation
(Table …)
Increase/Decrea
se in Accounts - - 99,525,120.3 2,985,753.6 3,075,326.2 3,167,586 3,262,613.6
Payable
Net Cash
provided by
- - 338,901,406.70 297,102,743.31 306,267,231.96 333,277,823.16 343,999,708.39
Operating
Activities
2. Cash Flow from Investing Activities
Purchase of
Land (Schedule (12,013,162.8) (12,013,162.8) - - - - -
14)
Purchase of
Buildings,
Structures and
(70,862,485) (70,862,485) - - - - -
Land
Improvements
(Schedule 14)
81

Purchase of
Factory
Equipment & (270,565,852) (270,565,852) - - - - -
Machineries
(Schedule 14)
Purchase of
Office and
(2,421,018) (2,421,018) - - - - -
Transportation
Equipment
Purchase of
Service (25,768,176.4) (25,768,176.4) - - - - -
Facilities
Net Cash
provided by
(381,630,694) (381,630,694) - - - - -
Investing
Activities
3. Cash Flow from Financing Activities
Proceeds of 10
Year Bank 325,340,900.2 - - - - - -
Loan
Issuance of
488,011,350.3 - - - - - -
Capital
Payment of
Loan - - (22,458,432) (24,254,815) (26,195,201) (28,290,758) (30,554,019)
(Schedule 17)
Payment of
- - (11,893,685.25) (12,696,746.42) (13,153,715.51) (14,502,984.30) (15,037,813.50)
Dividends
Net Cash
provided by
813,352,250.43 - (34,352,117.25) (36,951,561.42) (39,348,916.51) (42,793,742.30) (45,591,832.50)
Financing
Activities
82

Increase in
431,721,556.28 (381,630,694) 304,549,289.45 260,151,181.89 266,918,315.45 290,484,080.86 298,407,875.89
Cash
Cash Balance,
- 431,721,556.28 50,090,862.12 354,640,151.57 614,791,333.46 881,709,648.90 1,172,193,729.76
Beginning
Cash Balance,
431,721,556.28 50,090,862.12 354,640,151.57 614,791,333.46 881,709,648.90 1,172,193,729.76 1,470,601,605.66
End
83

Financial Ratios
The following ratios shown are computed from the figures in the financial
statement:

Test of Liquidity.

Current Assets
Current Ratio=
Current Liabilities

Years of Operation Ratio

Year 1 3.97

Year 2 6.41

Year 3 8.76

Year 4 11.20

Year 5 13.55

The current ratio increases annually. The company is in a sound financial

position since the ratios calculated are better than 1:1 ratio, thus can pay their short-term

obligations.
84

Test for Profitability.

Gross Profit
Gross Profit Margin =
Sales

Years of Operation Ratio

Year 1 0.52

Year 2 0.53

Year 3 0.53

Year 4 0.54

Year 5 0.55

Income Before Taxes


Pre - Tax Profit Margin =
Sales

Years of Operation Ratio

Year 1 0.42

Year 2 0.43

Year 3 0.43

Year 4 0.46

Year 5 0.46
85

Income Before Taxes


Return on Assests =
Total Assets

Years of Operation Ratio

Year 1 0.30

Year 2 0.27

Year 3 0.24

Year 4 0.23

Year 5 0.21

Income Before Taxes


Return on Equity =
Equity

Years of Operation Ratio

Year 1 0.70

Year 2 0.74

Year 3 0.77

Year 4 0.85

Year 5 0.88
86

Sales
Sales to Assets =
Total Assets

Years of Operation Ratio

Year 1 0.73

Year 2 0.63

Year 3 0.55

Year 4 0.49

Year 5 0.44

Payback Period.

Year Net Cash Flow Accumulated Total

0 Year
(813,352,250.43) (813,352,250.43)
Pre - Operation

1st Year
(381,630,694.16) (1,194,982,944.59)
Pre – Operation

0 Year
304,549,289.45 (890,433,655.14)
Operation

1st Year
260,151,181.89 (630,282,473.25)
Operation

2nd Year
266,918,315.45 (363,364,157.80)
Operation

3rd Year
290,484,080.86 (72,880,076.94)
Operation

4th Year
298,407,875.89 225,527,798.95
Operation
87

The payback period for the total project cost of Php 813,352,250.43 is

approximately 3 years and 6 months after the start of operation.

Breakeven Analysis.
Total Fixed Cost
Breakeven Point (BEP) in Volume =
(Selling Price per L-Variable Cost per L)

Fixed Cost = Operating Expenses + Interest Expenses


Variable Cost = (Cost of Sales + Income Tax)/Total Annual Production

Selling Price Variable Cost


Total Fixed Cost BEP in Liters
per Liter per Liter

Year 1 82,164,820.32 45 27.92 4,810,197.81

Year 2 80,746,882.59 46.8 28.93 4,518,449.83

Year 3 90,208,029.80 48.67 29.79 4,777,230.05

Year 4 75,208,255.54 50.62 31.10 3,853,253.82

Year 5 84,555,950.31 52.64 32.03 4,103,399.99

Based from the computation above, more than the calculated

Breakeven Point of Bioethanol, which is the main product, must be sold in order for the

company to start earning profit. The effect of tax is not includes in this analysis.

Financial Analysis

The financial study gives emphasis on the feasibility of the plant which will

produce 17,400,000 liters of bioethanol annually. It is expected that the cost for the

project is high but factors like the current demand of bioethanol in the market, the selling
88

of by-products and the generation of own power for the production affects the financial

performance of the company.

The plant’s financial performance in determined through calculating the financial

ratios which indicates the company’s financial liquidity, profitability and insolvency.

Using the current ratio it is determined the liquidity of the company. From the values

calculated above, the current ratio increases annually and has high values therefore, the

company is will be able to meet its short term obligations and will be able to pay for its

liabilities.

The profitability of the company on the other hand, is determined by the Gross

Profit Margin, Pre – Tax Profit Margin, Return on Assets (ROA), Sales to Assets (STA)

and Return on Equity (ROE). From the values calculated above, the current ratio is

increasing for the first five years of operation due to the increasing current assets. For the

gross profit margin, the ratios for the three year of operation are increasing and on its

fourth year the ratio decreases due to the decrease in total gross profit. This only shows

that the company was not able to use its assets to efficiently generate profit. Return on

Equity (ROE) increases also because on the increasing sales during the period and that is

because there is an increase in profit before tax every year but on the fourth year it

decreases.

The payback period for the company is approximately 3 years and 3 months

which indicates the length of time when the business can recover its investment. The

company’s short payback period indicates that the investments are recovered sooner and

available for future investments and further use.


89

Summary

The main objective of this feasibility study is to come up with a plant design for

the production of bioethanol from mango seed kernel biomass.

Furthermore, the specific objectives of this study are:

6. To generate a process that will be able to produce bioethanol from mango seeds

kernel using two stage acid hydrolysis

7. Conduct a market study which includes the evaluation of the local market

production of bioethanol

8. Select a plant location that provides proximity to the source of raw material,

provides good target market and is easily accessible.

9. To provide the necessary design of all the equipment needed for the production of

bioethanol and the treatment of the waste produced based on the material balances

attained.

10. Prepare financial statements for the first five years of operation of the plant.

The plant will be situated at Brgy. Carmen, Toledo City, Cebu. The land that will

be bought will be 200219.38 square meters of land area. The main raw material for the

proposed plant is mango seed. There are three leading mango processing industry:

Profood, M’Lhuillier Food Products, and FPD Food International that generate tons of

mango seed waste from their manufacturing of dried mangoes and other products that

operates on Cebu city, the supply of raw materials is ensured for production. This fact

supports the decision to put up the plant at the previously mentioned location.
90

As stated in the product and demand analysis, increasing motor vehicle sales,

accelerating construction activities, a growing population and continued expansion of the

Philippine economy, all translate to increased fuel consumption in the next 3 - 5 years.

According to GAIN report, as of year 2018 the fuel consumption is 605 ML which is

composed of the fuel production and fuel imports of 280 ML and 325 ML, respectively.

The present distilleries can supply 431.12 ML of bioethanol leaving a 173.88 ML market

gap.

The plant will supply 17.4 ML of bioethanol per year contributing to about 10%

of the market gap. It will therefore cut down the market gap to about 156.49 ML in the

year 2019. It will be sold at Php 45.00 per liter.

Equipment design and specification have been calculated based on literatures such

as Perry’s Chemical Engineering Handbook 8th Edition, Chemical Engineering Principles

by Towler and Sinnot, Heuristics in Chemical Engineering and Chemical Process

Equipment – Design and Selection by Walas. The cost of equipment and assumptions

used in the financial study on direct costs, indirect costs and other costs were based on

the Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers by Peters and Timmerhaus.
91

Conclusions and Recommendation

The proposed bioethanol plant has an annual production of 17.4 ML liters by using

mango seed kernel as raw material. The proposed project shows that it can meet the

bioethanol demand of the country and can compete with other bioethanol plant available

locally. The plant site gives an advantage on the economic sustainability of the plant due

to its high availability of the raw materials, its accessibility of water supply and

distribution or marketing finished products. The plant location was strategically located

away from the residential area.

The financial study shows that the proposed plant’s projected performance will be

stable based on the projected liquidity, profitability and project leverages which gave

reasonable and acceptable values.

The plant layout was designed to the plant’s efficiency and 30% safety factor. The

plant layout includes all the equipment, buildings and facilities arranged and designed to

fulfil the production capacity set for the plant.

The following are the recommendations offered by the researchers for the

improvement of the production of bioethanol from mango seed kernels:

1. Use of an alternative process to be able to be able to promote a zero waste plant;

2. Improve the financial assumption on the prices of goods, equipment, services and

materials purchased to avoid too much deviation from actual financial values;

3. Use of enzymatic hydrolysis instead of acid hydrolysis to improve the yield of

alcohol; and
92

4. The by-product CO2 can be captured and sold as liquid CO2 as food grade for

beverages and industrial grade.


93

Appendix A

Material Balance

Different manufacturing plants, mainly dried mango and mango juices

manufacturing plant, are considered as source of the raw material with the basis of 50

tons per day per manufacturing plant, of waste generated during off season and is

expected to increase during peak season (Profood Corp., 2016). As of present time, a total

of 46 manufacturing plants for the production of dried mango and mango juices exists in

the country.

The desired production per year is the 10% of the present market gap of the

bioethanol industry here in the Philippines for the year 2018 which is 17.4 Million Liter.

A total of 58,000 L per day of bioethanol is used as the basis.

The mass of mango seeds to be processed is based on the capacity of Profood,

which is one of the main exporter of processed mango which contributes to around 85%

of the total mango processed products produced in Cebu, with an operating capacity of

1140 metric tons of mango per day (Galolo, 2017) along with nine more mango

processing plants which is also based on Cebu.

Calculations based on the processes involved in the production of bioethanol from

mango seeds kernel yields around 0.1041 L of ethanol for every 1 kg of mango seeds

kernel used, while mango seed kernel is on average, 60% of the whole seed.

Raw material = 58,000 L

1 𝑘𝑔 𝑚𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑜 𝑠𝑒𝑒𝑑 𝑘𝑒𝑟𝑛𝑒𝑙 1 𝑘𝑔 𝑚𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑜 𝑠𝑒𝑒𝑑 1 𝑡𝑜𝑛


( ) (0.6 𝑘𝑔 𝑚𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑜 𝑠𝑒𝑒𝑑 𝑘𝑒𝑟𝑛𝑒𝑙) (1000 𝑘𝑔) = 928.43 kg/day
0.1041 𝐿
94

However, the presumptive amount of mango seeds calculated needed per day to

provide the required 58,000 L of ethanol have a small discrepancy due to other processes

added and the loss per process undergone by the raw material compared to the study of

Cristina et. al which causes some variations in the yield of the bioethanol.

Breaking Rolls
The breaking of the mango seeds into mango kernel and its outer shell.

928.43 Ton 928.43 Ton


Mango Seeds Mango Kernel
and Outer Shell

Sieving
The separation of the Mango Kernel and Outer Shell with the use of sieving. By average,
60% of the entire mango seed is the kernel.
Mango Seed Kernel = 0.6 (928,431) = 557,058.99 kg/day
Mango Seed (Outer Shell)= 557,058.99-928,431= 371,372.7 kg/day

928.431 Ton 557.05899 Ton


Mango Kernel and Mango Kernel
Outer Shell

Outer Shells
371.3727 Ton

Drying
Mango seed kernel contains approximately 44.4% moisture. The initial 44.4% moisture
content will be reduced to 12% moisture content.
95

Before drying: 557,058.99 kg/day


Using the mango seed kernel balance: (1-0.444)(557.05899)=X(1-0.12)
X=After drying mass = 351,960 kg/day
Water Evaporated= 351,960-557,058.99= 205,098.99 kg/day

205.09899 Ton

557.05899 Ton 351.96 Ton


44.4% moisture 12% moisture

Milling
Based on the assumption that 6% of the mango seeds are losses during milling.
Loss= 351,960(0.06)
= 21,117.6 kg/day
MSK Pwder after milling = 351,960 - 21,117.6 = 330,842.4 kg/day

351.96 Ton 330.84 Ton


Dried Mango Seeds MSK Powder

21.12 Tons (Loss)


96

1st Stage Acid Hydrolysis

413.55 Ton
70% H2SO4

330.84 Ton Biomass


MSK Powder 112.85 Ton
Fermentable Sugar
242.2Ton

631.55 Ton
Sugar-Acid-H2O
Solution

Characterization of the Mango seed kernel:


Cellulose (C) = 25.2%
Hemicellulose (H) = 34.06%
Lignin (L) = 15%
Soluble Sugar = 15.29%
Other solids= 10.45%
MCHL= (MSK)(Cellulose + Hemicellulose + Lignin)
= (330,842.4 kg/day)(0.252+0.3406+0.15)
= 245,683.5662 kg/day
According to literature, 78% of CHL will be converted as Fermentable sugars
MCHL Converted= 0.78 (245,683.5662 kg/day)
=191,633.1817 kg/day
For soluble sugars:
MSOLUBLE SUGARS=0.1529(330,842.4 kg/day)
= 50,585.8 kg/day
For Fermentable sugars:
97

MFERMENTABLE SUGAR= MCHL Converted + MSOLUBLE SUGARS


= 191,633.1817 kg/day + 50,585.8 kg/day
= 242,218.98 kg/day
Using the Arkenol process as the basis, acid to biomass ratio is 1.25:1
70% H2SO4 = 1.25 (330,842.4) kg/day
70% H2SO4 = 413,553 kg/day
Approximately 90% of the fermentable sugars are recovered during the acid hydrolysis
FS of biomass= 0.1 (242,218.98 kg/day)
= 24,221.9 kg/day
Biomass= 330,842.4 – 242,218.98 + 24,221.9
= 112,845.32 kg/day
Sugar-acid-water solution= 330,842.2+ 413,553 – 112,845.32
= 631,549.88 kg/day

2nd Stage Acid Hydrolysis


Biomass: 112,845.32 kg/day
30% H2SO4: (1.25)( 112,845.32 kg/day) = 141,056.65 kg/day
Approximately 90% of the fermentable sugars are recovered during the acid hydrolysis
Fermentable Sugar of Hydrolysate = 0.1 (24,221.9 kg/day) = 2,422.19 kg/day
Biomass= 112,845.32 - 24,221.9 + 2,422.19
= 91,045.61 kg/day
Sugar-Acid-Water solution= 112,845.32 + 141,056.65 - 91,045.61
= 162,856.36 kg/day

Total Sugar-Acid-H2O solution from both stages:


631,549.88 + 162,856.36 =794,406.24 kg/day
Total H2SO4: 0.7(413,553) + 0.3(141,056.65) = 331,804.1 kg/day
Total Fermentable Sugar: 242,218.98 (0.9)+ 24,221.9 (0.9)= 239,796.79 kg/day
98

141.01 Ton
30% H2SO4

112.85 Ton Biomass


MSK Powder 91.045 Ton

162.86 Ton
Sugar-Acid-H2O
Solution

Electrodialysis
Assuming 95% of the sulfuric acid was recovered
C= 0.95 (331,804.1) = 315,213.9 kg/day
OMB: F= C + D
Solving for D (Sugar Solution)
794,406.24 = 315,213.9 + D
D= 479,192.34 kg/day

Sugar-Acid-H2O
794.41 Ton Solution

Sugar-Acid-H2O 479.19 Ton


Solution

315.2 Ton
Recycle H2SO4
99

Neutralization
Ca(OH)2 will be used to neutralize the sulfuric acid.
The neutralization reaction between Ca(OH)2 and H2SO4 is

H2SO4 + Ca(OH)2 CaSO4 · 2H2O (Gypsum)

1 𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙 H2SO4 1 𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙 Ca(OH)2 74 𝑘𝑔 Ca(OH)2


MCa(OH)2= (0.05)(331,804.1) kg H2SO4 ( )( ) (1 𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙 Ca(OH)2)
98𝑘𝑔H2SO4 1 𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙 H2SO4

=12,527.3 kg/day
Mgypsum =
1 𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙 Ca(OH)2 1 1 𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙 CaSO4 ● 2H2O 172 𝑘𝑔 CaSO4 ● 2H2O
12,527.3 kg Ca(OH)2 ( 74 𝑘𝑔 Ca(OH)2 ) ( ) (1 𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙 CaSO4 ● 2H2O)
1 𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙Ca(OH)2

CaSO4 ● 2H2O (gypsum) = 29,117.5 kg/day

MSugar-H2O-acid= 479,192.34 +12,527.3 - 29,117.5 = 462,602.14 kg/day

12.53 Ton
Ca(OH)2

Sugar-Acid-H2O
Solution Gypsum

479.19 Ton 29.12 Tons

462.6 Ton
Sugar-Acid-H2O
Solution

Fermentation
239,796.79 𝑘𝑔
Brix= ( 462,602.14+X ) = 0.19

X= Additional water= 799,486.23 𝑘𝑔


Feed= 799,486.23 + 462,602.14 = 1,262,088.4 kg/day
100

According to Cristina et.al (2017), a ratio of 1:6, 1 kg of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for


every 6 kg of mango seeds kernel, is used for the optimum activity of the yeast in the
solution.
Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) = 330,842.4 kg mango seed kernel/6 = 55,140.4 kg/day
1 𝑘𝑔 𝑘𝑔 𝐿
DAP =(1𝑔/𝐿) (1000 𝑔) (799,486.23 + 462,602.14 )(1 𝑘𝑔) = 1262.0884 kg/day
𝑑𝑎𝑦

1 𝑘𝑔 𝑘𝑔 𝐿
Urea =(16.67 𝑔/𝐿) (1000 𝑔) (799,486.23 + 462,602.14 ) (1 𝑘𝑔) =
𝑑𝑎𝑦
21,039.01313 kg/day
Yeast + Urea + DAP = 77,471.5 kg/day

Yeast + Urea +
DAP
799.5 Ton
77.5 Ton
Water

462.6 Ton 1295 Ton


H2O-Sugar Mixed Liquor
Solution

44.6 Ton
CO2

Centrifugation
After fermentation, suspended solids which include nutrients and dead yeasts are
separated using the centrifuge.

1295 Ton 1217.5 Ton


Mixed Liquor 6.64% v/v C2H5OH

77.5 Ton
Suspended Solids
101

Distillation
Feed Condition: 6.64% (v/v) ethanol @ T= 320C
From Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook 8th Edition, Table 2-32:
Density of ethanol: 16.9224 mol/L = 779.5811 g/L
Density of water: 55.4454 mol/L = 998.8489 g/L
Based from Baya et.al (2018) assumptions, a good distillation produces 95% (v/v)
ethanol and bottoms containing 2% (v/v) ethanol

Solving for X𝐹 with the feed 6.64% (v/v) ethanol,


0.0664(16.9224)
X𝐹 =
0.09(16.9224) + 0.91(55.4454)
X𝐹 = 0.0212
MWF = 0.0212 (46 kg/kmol) + (1-0.0212)(18 kg/kmol)
= 18.5936 kg/kmol
kmol 1000mol
F= 1.2175 x 106 kg/day (18.5936 kg) ( )= 65.4781 x 106 mol/day
1kmol

For distillate using 95% (v/v) ethanol,


0.95(16.9224)
X𝐷 =
0.95(16.9224) + 0.91(55.4454)
X𝐷 = 0.8529
MW of the Distillate = 46(0.8529)+18(1-0.8529) = 41.88 kg/kmol

For bottoms using 2% (v/v) ethanol,


0.02(16.9224)
X𝐵 =
0.02(16.9224) + 0.98(55.4454)
X𝐵 = 0.0062
MWB = 0.0062(46 kg/kmol) + (1-0.0062)(18 kg/kmol)
= 18.189 kg/kmol
102

Overall Material Balance


F=D+B

65.4781 x 106 mol = D + B (eq.1)


Ethanol Balance
FX𝐹 = DX𝐷 + BX𝐵
65.4781 x 106 mol (0.0212) = D(0.8529)+B(0.0062) (eq.2)
1𝑘mol 41.88 kg
D = 1.16 x 106 mol/day (1000 mol) ( ) = 48, 580.8 kg/day
1kmol

1𝑘mol 18.189 kg
B=64.3181 x 106 mol/day (1000 mol) ( ) = 1.1699 x 106 kg/day
1kmol

L D= 48, 580.8 kg/day


XD=
0.8529

F = 1.2175 x
106 kg/day

XF = 0.0212

B= 1.1699 x 106 kg/day

XB= 0.0062
LM
103

Dehydration
MW of the Distillate = 41.88 kg/kmol
kg 1000 mol mol
D=48580.8 ( ) = 1.16 × 106
day 41.88 kg day
Ethanol in D=(0.8529)(1.16×106 )
=991.38×103 mol
Water in D=(1.16×106 ) − (991.38 × 103 )
= 170,987.3 mol

Assume 99% recovery

Ethanol in gas product=(0.99)(991.38×103 )


46 g 1 kg
= 981.45 × 103 mol/day( )( )
1 mol 1000 g
= 45, 146.7 kg/day
Assume 99.99% purity

1 − 0.9999
Water in product = (981.45 × 103 mol)
0.9999
mol 18 𝑔 1 kg
= 98.15 ( )( )
day 1 mol 1000 g
= 1.7667 kg/day

kg kg
45, 146.7 1.7667
day day
Ethanol production rate = +
kg kg
0.7796 L 0.99885 L

L Kg
= 𝟓𝟖𝟎𝟎𝟎 (0.7787 )
day L
= 𝟒𝟓𝟏𝟔𝟒. 𝟔 𝐤𝐠/𝐝𝐚𝐲
104

Feed= 48, 580.8 kg/day

Product=
58,000 L/day
= 45,164.6
kg/day
105

Appendix B

Energy Balance

Roll Crusher (Ready Made)

From the data of FW 812

Power requirement: 122 kW * 3 units = 366 kW

Sieving (Ready Made)

From the data of LDS1-2700-7.2

Power requirement: 55 kW* 3 units = 165 kW

Dryer

1.) Vaporization temperature

𝑇𝑣 = 100 °C

2.) Sensible heat to raise temperature of solid from initial (30°C) to vaporization

temperature (100°C)

𝑞1 = 𝑀𝑠(𝐶𝑝, 𝑠)(𝑇𝑣 − 𝑇𝑠𝑖)

𝑞1 = 4,301.73 × 4.25 × (100 − 30)

𝑘𝐽
𝑞1 = 1,279,765.66

3.) Sensible heat to raise temperature if water from initial (30°C) to vaporization

temperature (100°C)

𝑞2 = 𝑀𝑤(𝐶𝑝, 𝑤)(𝑇𝑣 − 𝑇𝑠𝑖)


106

𝑞2 = 3,435.20 × 4.186 × (100 − 30)

𝑘𝐽
𝑞2 = 1,006,581.456

4.) Latent heat to vaporize the moisture

𝑞3 = 𝑉𝜆v

𝑘𝐽
𝜆v=2260
𝑘𝑔

𝑘𝐽
𝑞3 = 2848.60 × 2260 = 6,442,244.789

5.) Sensible heat to raise temperature of the bone dry solid from vaporization

temperature (100°C) to final product temperature (50°C)

𝑞4 = 𝑀𝑠(𝐶𝑝, 𝑠)(𝑇𝑠𝑓 − 𝑇𝑣)

𝑞4 = 4,301.73 × 4.25(50 − 100)

𝑘𝐽
𝑞4 = −914,118.3287

6.) Sensible heat to raise temperature of water remaining in the material from

vaporization temperature (100) to final product temperature (50°C)

𝑞5 = 𝑀𝑤𝑓(𝐶𝑝, 𝑤)(𝑇𝑠𝑓 − 𝑇𝑣)

𝑞5 = 586.60 × 4.186(50 − 100)

𝑘𝐽
𝑞5 = −122,775.3794

7.) Total heat requirement of the system

𝑞𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝑞1 + 𝑞2 + 𝑞3 + 𝑞4 + 𝑞5

𝑞𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 1,279,765.66 + 1,006,581.456 + 6,442,244.789 − 914,118.3287

− 122,775.3794
107

𝒌𝑱
𝒒𝒕𝒐𝒕𝒂𝒍 = 𝟕, 𝟔𝟗𝟏, 𝟔𝟗𝟖. 𝟏𝟗𝟕
𝒉

Milling (Ready Made)

From the data of Simpactor Pin mill

Power Requirement: 18.64 kW * 3 units = 55.92 kW

Electrodialysis (Ready Made)

Power Requirement: 8-24 kW = 10.88 – 32.63 hp

Fermentation

The chemical reaction involved in producing ethanol from glucose is

C6H12O6(s) 2CO2(g) +2C2H5OH(g)

The heat of reaction at T= 32oC is,

Q= ΔHr = ΔHo298 + mCp,mΔT

For CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physiscs,

ΔHof [CO2] = -393.5 kL/mol

ΔHof [C2H5OH] = -278 kJ/mol

ΔHof [C6H12O6] = -1273.3 kJ/mol

ΔHo298 = Σ ΔHof [products] - Σ ΔHof [reactants]

ΔHo298 = [ 2(-393.5) + 2(-278) ] – (-1273.3) kJ/mol

ΔHo298 = -69.7 kJ/mol

Cp,m= (xH2O)(Cp, H2O) + (xsugar)(Cp, sugar)


108

Mass (sugar) = 239,796.79 kg/day = 1,332,204.39 mol/day

Mass (water) = 799,486.23 kg/day

= 44.42 x106 mol/day

44.42 x106
( )
18
xH2O = ( 44.42 x106 1,322,204.39 ) = 0.99
( )+( )
18 180

Xsugar = 1-0.99 = 0.01

Cp, H2O = 75.35 J/mol K

Cp, sugar = 218.6 J/mol K

Cp,m = 0.99(75.35) + 0.01(218.6)

Cp,m = 76.781 J/mol K = 0.076781 kJ/mol K

Q = (-69.7 kJ/mol)( 1,322,204.39 mol/day) + (1,322,204.39 mol/day + 44.42 x106

mol/day) (0.076781 kJ/mol K) (32-30)K

Q= -85,133,381.6 kJ/day

Dehydration

TD= 78.5oC

D= 48.3333 kmol/hr

But superheating feed at 80oC,

Qs = D[CpΔTλ]

Assume that properties of feed are of ethanol because of 95% ethanol,

From Perry’s Chemical Engineering Handbook, 8th Edition:

@ T= 78.5oC
109

λethanol = 44,252 kJ/mol

Cp ethanol = 137.54 kJ/mol. K

Qs ethanol = 48.3333 [137.54(353.15 – 351.45) + 44,252]

Qs ethanol = 2,150,133.04 kJ/hr

From Molecular Sieve:

Product of sieve= 981.548 kmol/day

Temperature of ethanol at the molecular sieve is at T= 80oC

With water entering at 25oC and assuming tht condensation of ethanol is completed at

50oC

Qc = P(CpΔT + λ)

Ethanol Properties @ T= 80oC

λ= 38,872 kJ/kmol.K

Cp= 84.059 kJ/kmol.K

Qc= 981.548 [ (84.059) (78.5-50) + ( 38,872) ]

Qc = 40,506,210.24 kJ/day
110

Distillation Energy Balance:

From Geankoplis (3rd ed). Appendix 3-23

𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙
XF = 0.0212 %EtOH = 6.7% F = 65.4781 x 106 𝑑𝑎𝑦

𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙
xD = 0.8529 %EtOH = 95% D = 1.16𝑥106 𝑑𝑎𝑦

𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙
xB = 0.0062 %EtOH = 2% B = 64.3181 x 106 𝑑𝑎𝑦

TF = 80 deg C

TBP = 94.98 deg C

Ropt = 2.02

From McCabe, Smith & Harrison (6th Ed).

FHf + qr = DHD + BHB + qc

VHv = LnHLn + DHB + qc

Since Ln and D have same compositios,

HLn = HD
111

From Geankoplis (3rd Ed). App 3-23

Enthalphy (liquid) Enthalphy (vapor) Mass Fraction

KJ/Kg KJ/Kg

418.9 2675 0

371.7 2517 0.1

314 2193 0.3

285.9 1870 0.5

258.4 1544 0.7

224.7 1223 0.9

207 1064 1

𝜌 𝐸𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑙 = 779.58 g/L

𝜌 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 = 998.85 g/L

(0.067)(779.58)
XF = (0.067)(779.58)+(1−0.067)(998.8489) = 0.053

(0.95)(779.58)
XD = (0.95)(779.58)+(1−0.95)(998.8489) = 0.937

(0.02)(779.58)
XB = (0.02)(779.58)+(1−0.02)(998.8489) = 0.016

Using linear interpolation

𝑘𝐽
HF = 396.72
𝑘𝑔

𝑘𝐽
HV = 2649.72 𝑘𝑔
112

𝑘𝐽
HB = 215.87 𝑘𝑔

𝑘𝐽
HLn = HD = 391.87 𝑘𝑔

Average molecular weight of distillate:

MWave = (0.8529 x 46kg/kmol) + ((1-0.8529) x 18 kg/kmol)

MWave = 41.88 kg/kmol

𝑚𝑜𝑙
At reflux ratio (R) = 3.02, D = 1.16𝑥106 𝑑𝑎𝑦

𝑚𝑜𝑙
L = 3.02 (1.16𝑥106 )
𝑑𝑎𝑦

L = 3.50x106 mol/day

V = L+D =3.50x106 mol/day + 1.16𝑥106 mol/day

V= 4.66x106 mol /day

VHv = LnHLn + DHB + qc

mol 𝑘𝑔 𝑘𝐽 1𝑘𝑔
(4.66x106 day ) (41.88 𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙 ) (2649.72 ) (1000𝑔) =
𝑘𝑔

mol 𝑘𝐽 𝑘𝑔 1𝑘𝑔 𝑚𝑜𝑙


(3.50x106 day ) (391.87 ) (41.88 ) (1000𝑔) + (1.16𝑥106 )( 215.87
𝑘𝑔 𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑑𝑎𝑦

𝑘𝐽 41.88𝑘𝑔 1𝑘𝑔
)( ) (1000𝑔) + 𝑞𝑟
𝑘𝑔 𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙

KJ 𝒌𝑱
Reboiler duty: 𝑞𝑟 = 4.49x108 day = 𝟏. 𝟖𝟕𝒙𝟏𝟎𝟔 𝒉𝒓

Feed xf= 0.0212

FHf + qr = DHD + BHB + qc


113

𝑘𝑔 𝑘𝑔 𝑘𝑔
(𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑑)𝑀𝑊𝑎𝑣𝑒 = (0.0212 × 46 ) + ((1 − 0.0212) × 18 ) = 18.59
𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙

𝑘𝑔 𝑘𝑔
(𝑏𝑜𝑡𝑡𝑜𝑚𝑠)𝑀𝑊𝑎𝑣𝑒 = (0.0062 × 46 ) + ((1 − 0.0062) × 18 )
𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙

𝑘𝑔
= 18.17
𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙
𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑘𝑔 𝑘𝐽 1𝑘𝑔
(65.4781 x 106 ) ( 18.59 𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙) ( 396.72 ( )) +
𝑑𝑎𝑦 𝑘𝑔 1000𝑔

𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑘𝐽 41.88𝑘𝑔 1𝑘𝑔


𝑞𝑟 =(1.16𝑥106 ) (391.87 )( ) (1000𝑔) +
𝑑𝑎𝑦 𝑘𝑔 𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙

mol 1𝑘𝑔 kg 𝑘𝐽 KJ
(64.3181 x 106 day )(1000𝑔)(18.17 kmol)( 215.87 ) + 4.49x1011 day
𝑘𝑔

𝑘𝐽 𝒌𝑱
Condenser duty: 𝑞𝑐 = 2.37𝑥108 𝑑𝑎𝑦 = 𝟗. 𝟖𝟗𝒙𝟏𝟎𝟔 𝒉𝒓

Neutralization with cooling jacket

The neutralization tank needs to be maintained at 30 degrees Celsius therefore a

cooling jacket must be installed to regulate the exothermic reaction in the tank.

Calculation for the amount of water needed to regulate the temperature of the

neutralization tank is shown below.

∆𝐻𝑅 = Σ 𝐻𝑓(𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑) − Σ 𝐻𝑓(𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑐𝑡)

H2SO4 + Ca(OH)2 CaSO4 · 2H2O (Gypsum)

From table 2-178 Perry’s ChE Handbook 8th ed,

∆𝐻𝑓(𝐻2 𝑆𝑂4 ) = −193.69 kCal/mol

∆𝐻𝑓(𝐿𝑖𝑚𝑒) = −235.58 kCal /mol

∆𝐻𝑓(𝐺𝑦𝑝𝑠𝑢𝑚) = −479.33 kCal/mol


114

Substituting Values

∆𝐻𝑅 = (−479.33) − ((−235.58) + (−193.68))

𝑘𝐶𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑎𝑙
∆𝐻𝑅 = −50.06 = −50,060.00
𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑚𝑜𝑙

For the latent heat of water, λs

λs = ∆𝐻𝑉 − ∆𝐻𝐿

Where: ∆𝐻𝑉 =enthalphy of saturated vapour

∆𝐻𝐿 =enthalphy of liquid water

From Appendix 2-9 of Geankoplis

ΔHv = −2676.1 kJ/kg

kJ
ΔHL = 419.04
kg

kJ kJ 1kg 18.0154g
λs = (2676.1 kg − 419.04 kg) (1000g) ( )
1mol

kJ Cal
λs = 40.66 mol = 539,168.1644 kg

The values obtained shows that ΔHf is greater than λs, the cooling water in the cooling

jacket will undergo phase change with a maximum temperature of 120 deg C. Assuming

there is no heat added or released in the system,

𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑢𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑖𝑧𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 + 𝑄𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑗𝑎𝑐𝑘𝑒𝑡 = 0

−𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑢𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑖𝑧𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 𝑄𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑗𝑎𝑐𝑘𝑒𝑡

−(𝑚𝐶∆𝑇)𝑛𝑒𝑢𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑖𝑧𝑒𝑑 𝑚𝑖𝑥𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 = (𝑚𝐶∆𝑇)𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟(𝑙𝑖𝑞) + (𝑚𝐶∆𝑇)𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟(𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑚) + (𝑚λs )𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟

From Perry’s ChE Handbook (8th ed),

𝐶𝑝𝑚 = ∑𝐶𝑖=1 𝑥𝑖 𝐶𝑝𝑖


115

75+30
𝑇𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑛 = = 52.5℃
2

Where:

xi= mass fraction of substance in I mixture

Cpi = specific heat capacity of substance I when pure

Tpure = reference temperature for Cp

From table 2-174 of Perry’s ChE 8th ed.

Cal
𝐶𝑝𝐻2 𝑆𝑂4 = 794.3 kg ℃

From table 2-176 of Perry’s ChE 8th ed.

Cal
𝐶𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑚𝑒 = 794.3 kg ℃

Cal
𝐶𝑝𝑔𝑦𝑝𝑠𝑢𝑚 = 0.259 kg ℃

From table 2-154 of Perry’s ChE 8th ed.

Cal
𝐶𝑝𝑔𝑙𝑢𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑒 = 334.0055 kg ℃

From table 2-153 of Perry’s ChE 8th ed.

Cal
𝐶𝑝𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 = 997.77 kg ℃

The mass fractions will be taken from appendix (material balance)

12,527.30 29,117.5
𝑋𝑙𝑖𝑚𝑒 = 925,388.56 = 0.0135 𝑋𝑔𝑦𝑝𝑠𝑢𝑚 = 925,388.56 = 0.1675 𝑋𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 =

222805.55
= 0.2408
925,388.56

16,590.20 242,218.98
𝑋𝐻2 𝑆𝑂4 = 925,388.56 = 0.0179 𝑋𝑔𝑙𝑢𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑒 = = 0.2617
925,388.56
116

Cpm = 794.3(0.0179) + 794.3(0.0135) +

0.259(0.1675)+ 334.0055(0.2617)+ 997.77(0.2408)

Cal
Cpm = 352.6567 kg ℃

The reference temperature for water would be the mean temperature of the initial and

final temperature of the water before it vaporizes, which is 25 deg C and 100 deg C

respectively.

25+100
Tmean = = 62.5 ℃
2

From table 2-153 of Perry’s ChE Handbook 8th ed,

𝑐𝑎𝑙
𝐶𝑝𝐻2 𝑂 = 998.99
𝑘𝑔 ℃

The reference temperature for steam would be the mean temperature of the initial and

final temperature of the water after it vaporizes, which is 100 deg C and 120 deg C

respectively.
120+100
Tmean = = 110℃
2

From table 2-153 of PCEH 8th ed.,

𝑐𝑎𝑙
𝐶𝑝H2O = 1011.4120
kg ℃

Substituting Value

925,388.56𝑘𝑔 1day 352.6567cal cal


-( ( 24hr)( )(30 − 52.5)℃ = 𝑚𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 ((539,168.1644 kg ) +
𝑑𝑎𝑦 kg ℃

cal
(1011.4120 kg ℃ (120 − 100)℃)

mwater = 546.92kg/hr
117

Neutralization

3.9 ℎ𝑝
Power per unit volume = 1000 𝑔𝑎𝑙

3.9 ℎ𝑝 1 𝑔𝑎𝑙 𝑘𝑤
Power = 1000 𝑔𝑎𝑙 (3.78 𝑥10−3 𝑚3 )(0.746 ℎ𝑝 )( 555.2331𝑚3 )

Power = 427.35 kW

Pumps

Pump 1 (From 70% H2SO4 Storage Tank to 1st Stage Acid Hydrolysis Reactor)

Data:

Mass flow rate: 413,553 kg/day = 4.786 kg/s

Viscosity: 3.42 x 10-3 Pa-s

Density: 1,127 kg/m3

4.786 m3
Volumetric flow rate: = 4.247 x 10-3
1127 s

Mechanical Energy Balance:

v22 -v21 g∆z ∆ρ


W= + + +∑F
2gc α gc ρ

Assume negligible velocity at point 1 and 2, and P1 = P2 = atmospheric pressure

g∆z
W= + ∑F
gc

From Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers by Max S. Peters et al.,

Optimum Diameter is given by the following expression:

m3 kg
Di =0.363 m0.45
v ρ
0.13
where mv ( s ) and ρ= m3

0.45
Di =0.363(4.247 x 10-3 ) (1127)0.13

Di = 0.0775 m
118

4.247 x 10-3 m
v= π = 0.9
( 4 )(0.0775)2 s

∑ F= ∑ Flength + ∑ Ffittings

2fLv2
∑ Flength =
Dgc

Dvρ (0.0775)(0.9)(1127)
NRe = = = 22,985 ≈ Turbulent flow
μ 3.42 x 10 − 3

From Table 6-1 PCEH 8th

ϵ (commercial steel)= 0.0457 mm

ε 0.0457×10-3
= = 5.897x10-4
D 0.0775

From Fig. 6-9 PCEH 8th


ϵ
@NRe =22,985 and D = 5.897x10-4

f = 0.0068

2(0.0068)(8)(0.9)2
∑ Flength = = 0.142 J/kg
0.0775

Fittings: 2 – 90o elbow, standard

From Table 6-4 PCEH 8th

Kf (90o ell, standard) = 0.75

Kf (gate valve, open) = 0.17

v2
∑ Ffittings = ∑ Kf ( )
2gc

[2(0.75)+0.17)](0.9)2
∑ Ffittings = =0.676 J/kg
2

∑ F = 0.142 + 0.676 = 0.818 J/kg

g∆z 9.8(5)
W= + ∑ F= + 0.818 = 49.818 J/kg
gc 1
119

W = 49.818 J/kg (4.786 kg/s)

W = 238.43 Watts

Using 70% efficiency for pump:

238.43
Wactual = = 340.61 Watts
0.70

Pump 2 (From 1st Stage Acid Hydrolysis Reactor to @nd Stage Acid Hydrolysis)

Data:

Mass flow rate: 112,850 kg/day = 1.31kg/s

Viscosity: 2.81x10-4 Pa-s

Density: 990 kg/m3

1.31 m3
Volumetric flow rate: = 1.32 x 10-3
990 s

Mechanical Energy Balance:

v22 -v21 g∆z ∆ρ


W= + + +∑F
2gc α gc ρ

Assume negligible velocity at point 1 and 2, and P1 = P2 = atmospheric pressure

g∆z
W= + ∑F
gc

From Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers by Max S. Peters et al.,

Optimum Diameter is given by the following expression:

m3 kg
Di =0.363 m0.45
v ρ
0.13
where mv ( s ) and ρ= m3

0.45
Di =0.363(1.32 x 10-3 ) (990)0.13

Di = 0.12 m
120

1.32 x 10-3 m
v= π = 0.12
( 4 )(0.12)2 s

∑ F= ∑ Flength + ∑ Ffittings

2fLv2
∑ Flength =
Dgc

Dvρ (0.12)(0.12)(990)
NRe = = = 50,733 ≈ Turbulent flow
μ 2.81 x 10−4

From Table 6-1 PCEH 8th

ϵ (commercial steel)= 0.0457 mm

ε 0.0457×10-3
= = 3.81x10-4
D 0.12

From Fig. 6-9 PCEH 8th


ϵ
@NRe =50,733 and D = 3.81x10-4

f = 0.0055

2(0.0055)(8)(0.12)2
∑ Flength = = 0.011 J/kg
0.12

Fittings: 2 – 90o elbow, standard

From Table 6-4 PCEH 8th

Kf (90o ell, standard) = 0.75

Kf (gate valve, open) = 0.17

v2
∑ Ffittings = ∑ Kf ( )
2gc

[2(0.75)+0.17)](0.12)2
∑ Ffittings = =0.01 J/kg
2

∑ F = 0.011+ 0.012 = 0.023 J/kg

g∆z 9.8(5)
W= + ∑ F= + 0.023 = 49.023 J/kg
gc 1
121

W = 49.023 J/kg (1.31 kg/s)

W = 64.22 Watts

Using 70% efficiency for pump:

64.22
Wactual = = 91.74 Watts
0.70

Pump 3 (From 30% H2SO4 Storage Tank to 2nd Stage Acid Hydrolysis Reactor)

Data:

Mass flow rate: 141,056.65 kg/day = 1.6326 kg/s

Viscosity: 1.9 x 10-3 Pa-s

Density: 1221.2 kg/m3

1.6326 m3
Volumetric flow rate: 1221.2 =1.337 x 10-3 s

Mechanical Energy Balance:

v22 -v21 g∆z ∆ρ


W= + + +∑F
2gc α gc ρ

Assume negligible velocity at point 1 and 2, and P1 = P2 = atmospheric pressure

g∆z
W= + ∑F
gc

From Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers by Max S. Peters et al.,

Optimum Diameter is given by the following expression:

m3 kg
Di =0.363 m0.45
v ρ
0.13
where mv ( s ) and ρ= m3

0.45
Di =0.363(1.337 x 10−3 ) (1221.2)0.13

Di = 0.0466 m
122

1.337 x 10-3 m
v= π = 0.7839
( 4 )(0.0466)2 s

∑ F= ∑ Flength + ∑ Ffittings

2fLv2
∑ Flength =
Dgc

Dvρ (0.0466)(0.7839)(1221.2)
NRe = = = 23,479 ≈ Turbulent flow
μ 1.9 𝑥 10−3

From Table 6-1 PCEH 8th

ϵ (commercial steel)= 0.0457 mm

ε 0.0457×10-3
= = 9.807x10-4
D 0.0466

From Fig. 6-9 PCEH 8th


ϵ
@NRe = 23,479 and D = 9.807x10-4

f = 0.0069

2(0.0069)(8)(0.7839)2
∑ Flength = = 1.456 J/kg
0.0466

Fittings: 2 – 90o elbow, standard

From Table 6-4 PCEH 8th

Kf (90o ell, standard) = 0.75

Kf (gate valve, open) = 0.17

v2
∑ Ffittings = ∑ Kf ( )
2gc

[2(0.75)+0.17)](0.7839)2
∑ Ffittings = =0.513 J/kg
2

∑ F = 1.456 + 0.513 = 1.969 J/kg

g∆z 9.8(5)
W= + ∑ F= + 1.969 = 50.969 J/kg
gc 1
123

W = 50.969 J/kg (1.6326 kg/s)

W = 83.21 Watts

Using 70% efficiency for pump:

83.21
Wactual = = 118.87 Watts
0.70

Pump 4 (From 2nd Stage Hydrolysis Reactor to Neutralization Reactor)

Data:

Mass flow rate: 794,406.24 kg/day = 9.19 kg/s

Viscosity: 0.055 Pa-s

Density: 1265 kg/m3

9.19 m3
Volumetric flow rate: 1000 = 9.19 x 10-3 s

Mechanical Energy Balance:

v22 -v21 g∆z ∆ρ


W= + + +∑F
2gc α gc ρ

Assume negligible velocity at point 1 and 2, and P1 = P2 = atmospheric pressure

g∆z
W= + ∑F
gc

From Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers by Max S. Peters et al.,

Optimum Diameter is given by the following expression:

m3 kg
Di =0.363 m0.45
v ρ
0.13
where mv ( s ) and ρ= m3

0.45
Di =0.363(9.19 x 10-3 ) (1265)0.13

Di = 0.11 m
124

9.19 x 10-3 m
v= π = 0.97
( 4 )(0.11)2 s

∑ F= ∑ Flength + ∑ Ffittings

2fLv2
∑ Flength =
Dgc

Dvρ (0.11)(0.97)(1265)
NRe = = = 2454.1≈ Turbulent flow
μ 0.055

From Table 6-1 PCEH 8th

ϵ (commercial steel)= 0.0457 mm

ε 0.0457×10-3
= = 4.15x10-4
D 0.11

From Fig. 6-9 PCEH 8th


ϵ
@NRe = 2454.1 and D = 4.15x10-4

f = 0.0086

2(0.013)(5)(0.97)2
∑ Flength = = 0.38 J/kg
0.11

Fittings: 2 – 90o elbow, standard

From Table 6-4 PCEH 8th

Kf (90o ell, standard) = 0.75

Kf (gate valve, open) = 0.17

v2
∑ Ffittings = ∑ Kf ( )
2gc

[2(0.75)+0.17)](0.97)2
∑ Ffittings = = 0.79 J/kg
2

∑ F = 0.38+ 0.79 = 1.17 J/kg

g∆z 9.8(5)
W= + ∑ F= + 1.17 = 50.17 J/kg
gc 1
125

W = 50.17 J/kg (9.19 kg/s)

W = 461.06 Watts

Using 70% efficiency for pump:

461.06
Wactual = = 658.66 Watts
0.70

Pump 5 (From Neutralization to Culture Vessel)

Data:

Mass flow rate: 462,602.14 kg/day = 5.35kg/s

Viscosity (32oC): 0.066 Pa-s

Density: 1296.8 kg/m3

5.35 m3
Volumetric flow rate: 1063.6 = 5.03 x 10-3 s

Mechanical Energy Balance:

v22 -v21 g∆z ∆ρ


W= + + +∑F
2gc α gc ρ

Assume negligible velocity at point 1 and 2, and P1 = P2 = atmospheric pressure

g∆z
W= + ∑F
gc

From Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers by Max S. Peters et al.,

Optimum Diameter is given by the following expression:

m3 kg
Di =0.363 m0.45
v ρ
0.13
where mv ( s ) and ρ= m3

0.45
Di =0.363(5.03 x 10-3 ) (1296.8)0.13

Di = 0.085 m
126

5.03 x 10-3 m
v= π = 0.89
( 4 )(0.085)2 s

∑ F= ∑ Flength + ∑ Ffittings

2fLv2
∑ Flength =
Dgc

Dvρ (0.085)(0.89)(1296.8)
NRe = = = 1486.41 ≈ Laminar flow
μ 0.066

f = 16/Re

f=16/(1486.41)

f=0.011

2(0.011)(5)(0.89)2
∑ Flength = = 1.02 J/kg
0.085

Fittings: 2 – 90o elbow, standard

From Table 6-4 PCEH 8th

Kf (90o ell, standard) = 0.75

Kf (gate valve, open) = 0.17

v2
∑ Ffittings = ∑ Kf ( )
2gc

[2(0.75)+0.17)](0.89)2
∑ Ffittings = = 0.66 J/kg
2

∑ F = 0.66 + 1.02 = 1.68 J/kg

g∆z 9.8(3)
W= + ∑ F= + 1.68 = 31.08 J/kg
gc 1

W = 31.10 J/kg (5.35 kg/s)

W = 166.28 Watts

Using 70% efficiency for pump:


127

166.38
Wactual = = 237.54 Watts
0.70

Pump 6 (From Neutralization to 1st fermenter)

Data:

Mass flow rate: 462,602.14 kg/day = 5.35kg/s

Viscosity (32oC): 0.066 Pa-s

Density: 1296.8 kg/m3

5.35 m3
Volumetric flow rate: 1063.6 = 5.03 x 10-3 s

Mechanical Energy Balance:

v22 -v21 g∆z ∆ρ


W= + + +∑F
2gc α gc ρ

Assume negligible velocity at point 1 and 2, and P1 = P2 = atmospheric pressure

g∆z
W= + ∑F
gc

From Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers by Max S. Peters et al.,

Optimum Diameter is given by the following expression:

m3 kg
Di =0.363 m0.45
v ρ
0.13
where mv ( s ) and ρ= m3

0.45
Di =0.363(5.03 x 10-3 ) (1296.8)0.13

Di = 0.085 m

5.03 x 10-3 m
v= π = 0.89
( 4 )(0.085)2 s

∑ F= ∑ Flength + ∑ Ffittings

2fLv2
∑ Flength =
Dgc
128

Dvρ (0.085)(0.89)(1296.8)
NRe = = = 1486.41 ≈ Laminar flow
μ 0.066

f = 16/Re

f=16/(1486.41)

f=0.011

2(0.011)(5)(0.89)2
∑ Flength = = 1.02 J/kg
0.085

Fittings: 2 – 90o elbow, standard

From Table 6-4 PCEH 8th

Kf (90o ell, standard) = 0.75

Kf (gate valve, open) = 0.17

v2
∑ Ffittings = ∑ Kf ( )
2gc

[2(0.75)+0.17)](0.89)2
∑ Ffittings = = 0.66 J/kg
2

∑ F = 0.66 + 1.02 = 1.68 J/kg

g∆z 9.8(3)
W= + ∑ F= + 1.68 = 31.08 J/kg
gc 1

W = 31.10 J/kg (5.35 kg/s)

W = 166.28 Watts

Using 70% efficiency for pump:

166.38
Wactual = = 237.54 Watts
0.70

Pump 7 (From 3rd Culture Vessel to 1st Prefermenter)

Data:

Mass flow rate: 1,295,000 kg/day = 15 kg/s


129

Viscosity (32oC): 2.06x10-3 Pa-s

Density: 1037.2 kg/m3

15 m3
Volumetric flow rate: 1037.2 = 0.014 s

Mechanical Energy Balance:

v22 -v21 g∆z ∆ρ


W= + + +∑F
2gc α gc ρ

Assume negligible velocity at point 1 and 2, and P1 = P2 = atmospheric pressure

g∆z
W= + ∑F
gc

From Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers by Max S. Peters et al.,

Optimum Diameter is given by the following expression:

m3 kg
Di =0.363 m0.45
v ρ
0.13
where mv ( s ) and ρ= m3

Di =0.363(0.014)0.45 (1037.2)0.13

Di = 0.13 m

0.014 m
v= π = 1.05
( 4 )(0.13)2 s

∑ F= ∑ Flength + ∑ Ffittings

2fLv2
∑ Flength =
Dgc

Dvρ (0.13)(1.05)(1037.2)
NRe = = = 68,727 ≈ Turbulent flow
μ 2.06x10−3

From Table 6-1 PCEH 8th

ϵ (commercial steel)= 0.0457 mm

ε 0.0457×10-3
= = 3.51x10-4
D 0.13
130

From Fig. 6-9 PCEH 8th


ϵ
@NRe = 68,727 and D = 3.54x10-4

f = 0.005

2(0.005)(9)(1.05)2
∑ Flength = = 0.82 J/kg
0.13

Fittings: 2 – 90o elbow, standard

From Table 6-4 PCEH 8th

Kf (90o ell, standard) = 0.75

Kf (gate valve, open) = 0.17

v2
∑ Ffittings = ∑ Kf ( )
2gc

[2(0.75)+0.17)](1.05)2
∑ Ffittings = = 0.92 J/kg
2

∑ F = 0.82 + 0.92 = 1.74 J/kg

g∆z 9.8(6)
W= + ∑ F= + 1.34 = 60.14 J/kg
gc 1

W = 60.14 J/kg (15 kg/s)

W = 902.1 W

Using 70% efficiency for pump:

902.1
Wactual = = 1288 Watts
0.70

Pump 8 (From 3rd Pre-fermenter to 1st main fermenter)

Data:

Mass flow rate: 1,295,000 kg/day = 15 kg/s

Viscosity (32oC): 2.06x10-3 Pa-s


131

Density: 1037.2 kg/m3

15 m3
Volumetric flow rate: 1037.2 = 0.014 s

Mechanical Energy Balance:

v22 -v21 g∆z ∆ρ


W= + + +∑F
2gc α gc ρ

Assume negligible velocity at point 1 and 2, and P1 = P2 = atmospheric pressure

g∆z
W= + ∑F
gc

From Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers by Max S. Peters et al.,

Optimum Diameter is given by the following expression:

m3 kg
Di =0.363 m0.45
v ρ
0.13
where mv ( s ) and ρ= m3

Di =0.363(0.014)0.45 (1037.2)0.13

Di = 0.13 m

0.014 m
v= π = 1.05
( 4 )(0.13)2 s

∑ F= ∑ Flength + ∑ Ffittings

2fLv2
∑ Flength =
Dgc

Dvρ (0.13)(1.05)(1037.2)
NRe = = = 68,727 ≈ Turbulent flow
μ 2.06x10−3

From Table 6-1 PCEH 8th

ϵ (commercial steel)= 0.0457 mm

ε 0.0457×10-3
= = 3.51x10-4
D 0.13

From Fig. 6-9 PCEH 8th


132

ϵ
@NRe = 68,727 and D = 3.54x10-4

f = 0.005

2(0.005)(5)(1.05)2
∑ Flength = = 0.42 J/kg
0.13

Fittings: 2 – 90o elbow, standard

From Table 6-4 PCEH 8th

Kf (90o ell, standard) = 0.75

Kf (gate valve, open) = 0.17

v2
∑ Ffittings = ∑ Kf ( )
2gc

[2(0.75)+0.17)](1.05)2
∑ Ffittings = = 0.92 J/kg
2

∑ F = 0.42 + 0.92 = 1.34 J/kg

g∆z 9.8(11)
W= + ∑ F= + 1.34 = 109.14 J/kg
gc 1

W = 109.14 J/kg (15 kg/s)

W = 1637.1 W

Using 70% efficiency for pump:

1637.1
Wactual = = 2,338 Watts
0.70

Pump 9 (From 5th main fermenter to Centrifuge)

Data:

Mass flow rate: 1,295,000 kg/day = 15 kg/s

Viscosity (32oC): 2.06x10-3 Pa-s

Density: 1037.2 kg/m3


133

15 m3
Volumetric flow rate: 1037.2 = 0.014 s

Mechanical Energy Balance:

v22 -v21 g∆z ∆ρ


W= + + +∑F
2gc α gc ρ

Assume negligible velocity at point 1 and 2, and P1 = P2 = atmospheric pressure

g∆z
W= + ∑F
gc

From Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers by Max S. Peters et al.,

Optimum Diameter is given by the following expression:

m3 kg
Di =0.363 m0.45
v ρ
0.13
where mv ( s ) and ρ= m3

Di =0.363(0.014)0.45 (1037.2)0.13

Di = 0.13 m

0.014 m
v= π = 1.05
( 4 )(0.13)2 s

∑ F= ∑ Flength + ∑ Ffittings

2fLv2
∑ Flength =
Dgc

Dvρ (0.13)(1.05)(1037.2)
NRe = = = 68,727 ≈ Turbulent flow
μ 2.06x10−3

From Table 6-1 PCEH 8th

ϵ (commercial steel)= 0.0457 mm

ε 0.0457×10-3
= = 3.51x10-4
D 0.13

From Fig. 6-9 PCEH 8th


ϵ
@NRe = 68,727 and D = 3.54x10-4
134

f = 0.005

2(0.005)(5)(1.05)2
∑ Flength = = 0.42 J/kg
0.13

Fittings: 2 – 90o elbow, standard

From Table 6-4 PCEH 8th

Kf (90o ell, standard) = 0.75

Kf (gate valve, open) = 0.17

v2
∑ Ffittings = ∑ Kf ( )
2g c

[2(0.75)+0.17)](1.05)2
∑ Ffittings = = 0.92 J/kg
2

∑ F = 0.42 + 0.92 = 1.34 J/kg

g∆z 9.8(8)
W= + ∑ F= + 1.34 = 79.74 J/kg
gc 1

W = 79.74 J/kg (15 kg/s)

W = 1196.1 W

Using 70% efficiency for pump:

1196.1
Wactual = = 1708 Watts
0.70

Pump 10 (From Centrifuge to Distillation)

Data:

Mass flow rate: 1,217,500 kg/day = 14.09 kg/s

Viscosity (32oC): 1.0 x 10-3 Pa-s

Density: 989.25 kg/m3

14.09 m3
Volumetric flow rate: 985.25 = 0.014 s
135

Mechanical Energy Balance:

v22 -v21 g∆z ∆ρ


W= + + +∑F
2gc α gc ρ

Assume negligible velocity at point 1 and 2, and P1 = P2 = atmospheric pressure

g∆z
W= + ∑F
gc

From Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers by Max S. Peters et al.,

Optimum Diameter is given by the following expression:

m3 kg
Di =0.363 m0.45
v ρ
0.13
where mv ( s ) and ρ= m3

Di =0.363(0.014)0.45 (989.25)0.13

Di = 0.13 m

0.014 m
v= π = 1.05
( 4 )(0.13)2 s

∑ F= ∑ Flength + ∑ Ffittings

2fLv2
∑ Flength =
Dgc

Dvρ (0.13)(1.05)(989.25)
NRe = = = 135,032 ≈ Turbulent flow
μ 1x10−3

From Table 6-1 PCEH 8th

ϵ (commercial steel)= 0.0457 mm

ε 0.0457×10-3
= = 3.51x10-4
D 0.13

From Fig. 6-9 PCEH 8th


ϵ
@NRe = 135,032 and D = 3.54x10-4

f = 0.005
136

2(0.005)(9)(1.05)2
∑ Flength = = 0.76 J/kg
0.13

Fittings: 2 – 90o elbow, standard

From Table 6-4 PCEH 8th

Kf (90o ell, standard) = 0.75

Kf (gate valve, open) = 0.17

v2
∑ Ffittings = ∑ Kf ( )
2gc

[2(0.75)+0.17)](1.05)2
∑ Ffittings = = 0.92 J/kg
2

∑ F = 0.76 + 0.92 = 1.68 J/kg

g∆z 9.8(8)
W= + ∑ F= + 1.68 = 80.08 J/kg
gc 1

W = 80.08 J/kg (14.07 kg/s)

W = 1126.72 W

Using 70% efficiency for pump:

1126.72
Wactual = = 1609.61 Watts
0.70

Pump 11 (From Distillation to Dehyrdation)

Data:

Mass flow rate: 48, 580.8 kg/day = 0.56 kg/s

Viscosity (32oC): 1.07 x 10-3 Pa-s

Density: 807.05 kg/m3

0.56 𝑚3
Volumetric flow rate: 807.05 = 6.94𝑥10−4 𝑠

Mechanical Energy Balance:


137

v22 -v21 g∆z ∆ρ


W= + + +∑F
2gc α gc ρ

Assume negligible velocity at point 1 and 2, and P1 = P2 = atmospheric pressure

g∆z
W= + ∑F
gc

From Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers by Max S. Peters et al.,

Optimum Diameter is given by the following expression:

m3 kg
Di =0.363 m0.45
v ρ
0.13
where mv ( s ) and ρ= m3

0.45
Di =0.363(6.94𝑥10−4 ) (807.05)0.13

Di = 0.03 m

6.94x10−4 m
v= π = 0.98
( 4 )(0.03)2 s

∑ F= ∑ Flength + ∑ Ffittings

2fLv2
∑ Flength =
Dgc

Dvρ (0.03)(0.98)(807.05)
NRe = = = 23,036 ≈ Turbulent flow
μ 1.07 x 10 − 3

From Table 6-1 PCEH 8th

ϵ (commercial steel)= 0.0457 mm

ε 0.0457×10-3
= = 1.52x10-3
D 0.03

From Fig. 6-9 PCEH 8th


ϵ
@NRe = 23,036 and D = 1.52𝑥10−3

f = 0.007

2(0.007)(9)(0.98)2
∑ Flength = = 4.03 J/kg
0.03
138

Fittings: 2 – 90o elbow, standard

From Table 6-4 PCEH 8th

Kf (90o ell, standard) = 0.75

Kf (gate valve, open) = 0.17

v2
∑ Ffittings = ∑ Kf ( )
2gc

[2(0.75)+0.17)](0.98)2
∑ Ffittings = = 0.80 J/kg
2

∑ F = 4.03 + 0.80 = 4.83 J/kg

g∆z 9.8(8)
W= + ∑ F= + 4.83 = 83.23 J/kg
gc 1

W = 83.26 J/kg (0.56 kg/s)

W = 46.6256

Using 70% efficiency for pump:

46.6256
Wactual = = 66.61 Watts
0.70

Pump 12 (From Dehydration to Ethanol Storage tank)

Data:

Mass flow rate: 45,164.60 kg/day = 0.56 kg/s

Viscosity (32oC): 9.81x10-4 Pa-s

Density: 781 kg/m3

0.52 𝑚3
Volumetric flow rate: = 6.66𝑥10−4
781 𝑠

Mechanical Energy Balance:

v22 -v21 g∆z ∆ρ


W= + + +∑F
2gc α gc ρ
139

Assume negligible velocity at point 1 and 2, and P1 = P2 = atmospheric pressure

g∆z
W= + ∑F
gc

From Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers by Max S. Peters et al.,

Optimum Diameter is given by the following expression:

m3 kg
Di =0.363 m0.45
v ρ
0.13
where mv ( ) and ρ=
s m3

0.45
Di =0.363(6.66𝑥10−4 ) (781)0.13

Di = 0.03 m

6.66x10−4 m
v= π = 0.94
( 4 )(0.03)2 s

∑ F= ∑ Flength + ∑ Ffittings

2fLv2
∑ Flength =
Dgc

Dvρ (0.03)(0.94)(781)
NRe = = = 22,451 ≈ Turbulent flow
μ 9.81 x 10 − 4

From Table 6-1 PCEH 8th

ϵ (commercial steel)= 0.0457 mm

ε 0.0457×10-3
= = 1.52x10-3
D 0.03

From Fig. 6-9 PCEH 8th


ϵ
@NRe = 23,036 and D = 1.52𝑥10−3

f = 0.007

2(0.007)(10)(0.94)2
∑ Flength = = 3.71 J/kg
0.03

Fittings: 2 – 90o elbow, standard


140

From Table 6-4 PCEH 8th

Kf (90o ell, standard) = 0.75

Kf (gate valve, open) = 0.17

v2
∑ Ffittings = ∑ Kf ( )
2gc

[2(0.75)+0.17)](0.94)2
∑ Ffittings = = 0.73 J/kg
2

∑ F = 3.71 + 0.73 = 4.44 J/kg

g∆z 9.8(8)
W= + ∑ F= + 4.44 = 82.84 J/kg
gc 1

W = 82.84 J/kg (0.56 kg/s)

W = 46.39 Watts

Using 70% efficiency for pump:

46.39
Wactual = = 66.27 Watts
0.70

Pump 13 (From Electrodialysis to Recovery Tank)

Data:

Mass flow rate: 315,213.9 kg/day= 3.65 kg/s

Viscosity (32oC): 20x10-3 Pa-s

Density: 1,840 kg/m3

3.65 𝑚3
Volumetric flow rate: 1840 = 1.98𝑥10−3 𝑠

Mechanical Energy Balance:

v22 -v21 g∆z ∆ρ


W= + + +∑F
2gc α gc ρ

Assume negligible velocity at point 1 and 2, and P1 = P2 = atmospheric pressure


141

g∆z
W= + ∑F
gc

From Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers by Max S. Peters et al.,

Optimum Diameter is given by the following expression:

m3 kg
Di =0.363 m0.45
v ρ
0.13
where mv ( s ) and ρ= m3

0.45
Di =0.363(1.98𝑥10−3 ) (1840)0.13

Di = 0.06 m

1.98𝑥10−3 m
v= π =0.70
( 4 )(0.06)2 s

∑ F= ∑ Flength + ∑ Ffittings

2fLv2
∑ Flength =
Dgc

Dvρ (0.06)(0.70)(1840)
NRe = = = 3,864 ≈ Laminar flow
μ 20x 10 − 3

f=16/Re

f=16/(3864)

f = 0.0041

2(0.0041)(10)(0.70)2
∑ Flength = = 0.67 J/kg
0.06

Fittings: 2 – 90o elbow, standard

From Table 6-4 PCEH 8th

Kf (90o ell, standard) = 0.75

Kf (gate valve, open) = 0.17

v2
∑ Ffittings = ∑ Kf ( )
2gc
142

[2(0.75)+0.17)](0.70)2
∑ Ffittings = = 0.41 J/kg
2

∑ F = 0.67 + 0.41 = 1.08 J/kg

g∆z 9.8(5)
W= + ∑ F= + 1.08 = 50.08 J/kg
gc 1

W = 50.08 J/kg (3.65 kg/s)

W = 182.79 W

Using 70% efficiency for pump:

182.79
Wactual = = 261.13 Watts
0.70

Pump 14 (From Lime Slurry Storage Tank to Neutralization Reactor)

Data:

Mass flow rate: 12,527.3 kg/day = 0.145 kg/s

Viscosity: 1.03 x 10-3 Pa-s

Density: 2,210 kg/m3

0.145 m3
Volumetric flow rate: = 6.47 x 10-5
2240 s

Mechanical Energy Balance:

v22 -v21 g∆z ∆ρ


W= + + +∑F
2gc α gc ρ

Assume negligible velocity at point 1 and 2, and P1 = P2 = atmospheric pressure

g∆z
W= + ∑F
gc

From Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers by Max S. Peters et al.,

Optimum Diameter is given by the following expression:

m3 kg
Di =0.363 m0.45
v ρ
0.13
where mv ( s ) and ρ= m3
143

0.45
Di =0.363(6.47 x 10-5 ) (2240)0.13

Di = 0.0129 m

6.47 x 10-5 m
v= π = 0.495
( 4 )(0.0129) 2 s

∑ F= ∑ Flength + ∑ Ffittings

2fLv2
∑ Flength =
Dgc

Dvρ (0.0129)(0.495)(2240)
NRe = = = 13,886 ≈ Turbulent flow
μ 1.03 𝑥 10−3

From Table 6-1 PCEH 8th

ϵ (commercial steel)= 0.0457 mm

ε 0.0457×10-3
= = 3.54x10-3
D 0.0129

From Fig. 6-9 PCEH 8th


ϵ
@NRe = 13,886 and D = 3.54x10-3

f = 0.0095

2(0.0095)(8)(0.495)2
∑ Flength = = 2.89 J/kg
0.0129

Fittings: 2 – 90o elbow, standard

From Table 6-4 PCEH 8th

Kf (90o ell, standard) = 0.75

Kf (gate valve, open) = 0.17

v2
∑ Ffittings = ∑ Kf ( )
2gc

[2(0.75)+0.17)](0.495)2
∑ Ffittings = = 0.20 J/kg
2
144

∑ F = 2.89 + 0.2 = 3.09 J/kg

g∆z 9.8(5)
W= + ∑ F= + 23.009 = 72.01 J/kg
gc 1

W = 72.01 J/kg (0.145 kg/s)

W = 10.44 Watts

Using 70% efficiency for pump:

10.44
Wactual = = 14.92 Watts
0.70

Pump 15 (From Condenser to Biodigester)

Data:

𝑘𝑔
Mass flow rate: 94,505 ℎ𝑟 = 26.25 kg/s

Viscosity (32oC): 1x 10-3 Pa-s

Density: 1000 kg/m3

26.25 𝑚3
Volumetric flow rate: = 0.03
1000 𝑠

Mechanical Energy Balance:

v22 -v21 g∆z ∆ρ


W= + + +∑F
2gc α gc ρ

Assume negligible velocity at point 1 and 2, and P1 = P2 = atmospheric pressure

g∆z
W= + ∑F
gc

From Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers by Max S. Peters et al.,

Optimum Diameter is given by the following expression:

m3 kg
Di =0.363 m0.45
v ρ
0.13
where mv ( s ) and ρ= m3

Di =0.363(0.03)0.45 (1000)0.13
145

Di = 0.18

0.03 m
v= π = 1.18
( 4 )(0.18)2 s

∑ F= ∑ Flength + ∑ Ffittings

2fLv2
∑ Flength =
Dgc

Dvρ (0.18)(1.18)(1000)
NRe = = = 212,400 ≈ Turbulent flow
μ 1x 10 − 3

From Table 6-1 PCEH 8th

ϵ (commercial steel)= 0.0457 mm

ε 0.0457×10-3
= = 2.54x10-4
D 0.18

From Fig. 6-9 PCEH 8th


ϵ
@NRe = 212,400 and D = 2.54x10-4

f = 0.004

2(0.004)(10)(1.18)2
∑ Flength = = 0.62 J/kg
0.18

Fittings: 2 – 90o elbow, standard

From Table 6-4 PCEH 8th

Kf (90o ell, standard) = 0.75

Kf (gate valve, open) = 0.17

v2
∑ Ffittings = ∑ Kf ( )
2g c

[2(0.75)+0.17)](1.18)2
∑ Ffittings = = 1.16 J/kg
2

∑ F = 0.62 + 1.16 = 1.78 J/kg


146

g∆z 9.8(5)
W= + ∑ F= + 1.78 = 50.78 J/kg
gc 1

W = 50.78 J/kg (26.25 kg/s)

W = 1282.70 W

Using 70% efficiency for pump:

1282.70
Wactual = = 1832.43 Watts
0.70

For Water Treatment Plant

Pump 1 (From Deep well to raw water storage)

Data:

Mass flow rate: 58,301 kg/hr = 16.19 kg/s

Viscosity: 1x10-3 Pa-s

Density: 1000 kg/m3

16.19 m3
Volumetric flow rate: = 0.02
1000 s

Mechanical Energy Balance:

v22 -v21 g∆z ∆ρ


W= 2gc α
+ gc
+ ρ
+∑F

Assume negligible velocity at point 1 and 2, and P1 = P2 = atmospheric pressure

g∆z
W= + ∑F
gc

From Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers by Max S. Peters et al.,

Optimum Diameter is given by the following expression:

m3 kg
Di =0.363 m0.45
v ρ
0.13
where mv ( s ) and ρ= m3

Di =0.363(0.02)0.45 (1000)0.13
147

Di = 0.15 m

0.02 m
v= π = 1.13
( 4 )(0.15)2 s

∑ F= ∑ Flength + ∑ Ffittings

2fLv2
∑ Flength =
Dgc

Dvρ (0.15)(1.13)(1000)
NRe = = = 169500 ≈ Turbulent flow
μ 1x 10 − 3

From Table 6-1 PCEH 8th

ϵ (commercial steel)= 0.0457 mm

ε 0.0457×10-3
= = 1.99x10-4
D 0.15

From Fig. 6-9 PCEH 8th


ϵ
@NRe =169500 and D = 1.99x10-4

f = 0.0045

2(0.0045)(6)(1.13)2
∑ Flength = = 0.08 J/kg
0.15

Fittings: 2 – 90o elbow, standard

From Table 6-4 PCEH 8th

Kf (90o ell, standard) = 0.75

Kf (gate valve, open) = 0.17

v2
∑ Ffittings = ∑ Kf ( )
2g c

[2(0.75)+0.17)](1.13)2
∑ Ffittings = =1.07 J/kg
2

∑ F = 0.08 + 1.07 = 1.15 J/kg


148

g∆z 9.8(5)
W= + ∑ F= + 1..50 = 50.50 J/kg
gc 1

W = 50.20 J/kg (16.19 kg/s)

W = 817.60 Watts

Using 70% efficiency for pump:

817.60
Wactual = = 1168 Watts
0.70

Pump 2 (From Raw water storage to clarifier)

Data:

Mass flow rate: 183,010 kg/hr = 50.84 kg/s

Viscosity: 1x10-3 Pa-s

Density: 1000 kg/m3

50.84 m3
Volumetric flow rate: = 0.05|
1000 s

Mechanical Energy Balance:

v22 -v21 g∆z ∆ρ


W= + + +∑F
2gc α gc ρ

Assume negligible velocity at point 1 and 2, and P1 = P2 = atmospheric pressure

g∆z
W= + ∑F
gc

From Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers by Max S. Peters et al.,

Optimum Diameter is given by the following expression:

m3 kg
Di =0.363 m0.45
v ρ
0.13
where mv ( ) and ρ=
s m3

Di =0.363(0.05)0.45 (1000)0.13

Di = 0.23 m
149

0.05 m
v= π = 1.20
( 4 )(0.23)2 s

∑ F= ∑ Flength + ∑ Ffittings e

2fLv2
∑ Flength =
Dgc

Dvρ (0.23)(1.20)(1000)
NRe = = = 276000 ≈ Turbulent flow
μ 1 x 10 − 3

From Table 6-1 PCEH 8th

ϵ (commercial steel)= 0.0457 mm

ε 0.0457×10-3
= = 1.99x10-4
D 0.23

From Fig. 6-9 PCEH 8th


ϵ
@NRe = and D = x10-4

f = 0.004

2(0.004)(8)(1.20)2
∑ Flength = = 0.40 J/kg
0.23

Fittings: 2 – 90o elbow, standard

From Table 6-4 PCEH 8th

Kf (90o ell, standard) = 0.75

Kf (gate valve, open) = 0.17

v2
∑ Ffittings = ∑ Kf ( )
2g c

[2(0.75)+0.17)](1.12)2
∑ Ffittings = =1.05 J/kg
2

∑ F = 1.05+ 0.40 = 1.45 J/kg

g∆z 9.8(5)
W= + ∑ F= + 1.45= 50.45 J/kg
gc 1
150

W = 50.45 J/kg ( 50.84kg/s)

W = 2564.88 Watts

Using 70% efficiency for pump:

2564.88
Wactual = = 3664.11 Watts
0.70

Pump 3 (From Activated Carbon filter to raw water storage)

Data:

Mass flow rate: 20,000 kg/hr = 5.56 kg/s

Viscosity: 1x10-3 Pa-s

Density: 1,000 kg/m3

5.56 m3
Volumetric flow rate: 1000 = 5.56x10^-3 s

Mechanical Energy Balance:

v22 -v21 g∆z ∆ρ


W= + + +∑F
2gc α gc ρ

Assume negligible velocity at point 1 and 2, and P1 = P2 = atmospheric pressure

g∆z
W= gc
+ ∑F

From Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers by Max S. Peters et al.,

Optimum Diameter is given by the following expression:

m3 kg
Di =0.363 m0.45
v ρ
0.13
where mv ( s ) and ρ= m3

Di = 0.363(5.56x10^-3 )0.45 (1000)0.13

Di = 0.086m

5.56𝑥10 − 3 m
v= π = 0.96
( 4 )(0.086)2 s
151

∑ F= ∑ Flength + ∑ Ffittings e

2fLv2
∑ Flength =
Dgc

Dvρ (0.086)(0.96)(1000)
NRe = = = 82560 ≈ Turbulent flow
μ 1x 10 − 3

From Table 6-1 PCEH 8th

ϵ (commercial steel)= 0.0457 mm

ε 0.0457×10-3
= = 5.31x10^-4
D 0.086

From Fig. 6-9 PCEH 8th

f = 0.005

2(0.005)(8)(0.96)2
∑ Flength = = 0.86 J/kg
0.086

Fittings: 2 – 90o elbow, standard

From Table 6-4 PCEH 8th

Kf (90o ell, standard) = 0.75

Kf (gate valve, open) = 0.17

v2
∑ Ffittings = ∑ Kf ( )
2gc

[2(0.75)+0.17)](0.96)2
∑ Ffittings = = 0.77 J/kg
2

∑ F = 0.77 + 0.86= 1.63 J/kg

g∆z 9.8(5)
W= + ∑ F= + 1.63 = 50.63 J/kg
gc 1

W = 50.63 J/kg (5.56kg/s)

W = 281.50 Watts

Using 70% efficiency for pump:


152

281.50
Wactual = = 402.14 Watts
0.70

Pump 4 (From Distillation to cooling tower)

Data:

Mass flow rate: =828 kg/hr=0.23 kg/s

Viscosity: 1x10-3 Pa-s

Density: 1,000 kg/m3

0.23 m3
Volumetric flow rate: 1000 = 2.3x10-4 s

Mechanical Energy Balance:

v22 -v21 g∆z ∆ρ


W= + + +∑F
2gc α gc ρ

Assume negligible velocity at point 1 and 2, and P1 = P2 = atmospheric pressure

g∆z
W= + ∑F
gc

From Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers by Max S. Peters et al.,

Optimum Diameter is given by the following expression:

m3 kg
Di =0.363 m0.45
v ρ
0.13
where mv ( s ) and ρ= m3

Di =0.363(2.3x10^-4)0.45 (1000)0.13

Di = 0.02 m

2.3𝑥10−4 m
v= π = 0.73
( 4 )(0.02)2 s

∑ F= ∑ Flength + ∑ Ffittings e

2fLv2
∑ Flength =
Dgc
153

Dvρ (0.02)(0.73)(1000)
NRe = = = 14,600 ≈ Turbulent flow
μ 1 x 10 − 3

From Table 6-1 PCEH 8th

ϵ (commercial steel)= 0.0457 mm

ε 0.0457×10-3
= = 5.897x10-4
D 0.02

From Fig. 6-9 PCEH 8th


ϵ
@NRe =22,985 and D = 5.897x10-4

f = 0.008

2(0.008)(8)(0.73)2
∑ Flength = = 0.88 J/kg
0.0775

Fittings: 2 – 90o elbow, standard

From Table 6-4 PCEH 8th

Kf (90o ell, standard) = 0.75

Kf (gate valve, open) = 0.17

v2
∑ Ffittings = ∑ Kf ( )
2gc

[2(0.75)+0.17)](0.72)2
∑ Ffittings = = 0.43 J/kg
2

∑ F = 0.43+0.88 = 1.31 J/kg

g∆z 9.8(5)
W= + ∑ F= + 1.31 = 50.31 J/kg
gc 1

W = 50.31 J/kg (0.23 kg/s)

W = 11.57 Watts

Using 70% efficiency for pump:

11.57
Wactual = = 16.53Watts
0.70
154

Pump 5 (From Reboiler and boiler to cooling tower)

Data:

Mass flow rate: 123,881kg/hr = 34.41 kg/s

Viscosity: 1 x 10-3 Pa-s

Density: 1000 kg/m3

34.41 m3
Volumetric flow rate: = 0.03
1000 s

Mechanical Energy Balance:

v22 -v21 g∆z ∆ρ


W= + + +∑F
2gc α gc ρ

Assume negligible velocity at point 1 and 2, and P1 = P2 = atmospheric pressure

g∆z
W= + ∑F
gc

From Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers by Max S. Peters et al.,

Optimum Diameter is given by the following expression:

m3 kg
Di =0.363 m0.45
v ρ
0.13
where mv ( s ) and ρ= m3

Di =0.363(0.03)0.45 (1000)0.13

Di = 0.18 m

0.03 m
v= π = 1.18
( 4 )(0.18)2 s

∑ F= ∑ Flength + ∑ Ffittings e

2fLv2
∑ Flength =
Dgc

Dvρ (0.18)(1.18)(1000)
NRe = = = 212400 ≈ Turbulent flow
μ 1 x 10 − 3

From Table 6-1 PCEH 8th


155

ϵ (commercial steel)= 0.0457 mm

ε 0.0457×10-3
= = 2.54x10-4
D 0.18

From Fig. 6-9 PCEH 8th

f = 0.004

2(0.004)(8)(1.18)2
∑ Flength = = 0.50 J/kg
0.18

Fittings: 2 – 90o elbow, standard

From Table 6-4 PCEH 8th

Kf (90o ell, standard) = 0.75

Kf (gate valve, open) = 0.17

v2
∑ Ffittings = ∑ Kf ( )
2g c

[2(0.75)+0.17)](1.18)2
∑ Ffittings = =1.16 J/kg
2

∑ F = 0.50 + 1.16 = 1.66 J/kg

g∆z 9.8(5)
W= + ∑ F= + 1.66 = 50.66 J/kg
gc 1

W = 50.66 J/kg (14.41 kg/s)

W = 1743.21 Watts

Using 70% efficiency for pump:

1743.21
Wactual = = 2490.3 Watts
0.70

Total Power requirement

P=7741.08 W
156

Conveyors

Conveyor 1 & 2 (Entering to Breaking Rolls & Sieving)

Type: Belt Conveyor 45o Troughed

With Safety factor of 30%:


𝑇𝑜𝑛𝑠
Capacity = 50.28 ℎ𝑟

Belt width = 18 in = 0.46 m

Length = 6 m = 19.68 ft

Velocity = 90 m/hr

PowerTotal= Phorizontal +PVertical +Pempty

𝐿 𝐶𝑎𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦
𝑃ℎ𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑧𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 0.4 + ( )( )
300 100

19.68 50.28
𝑃ℎ𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑧𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 0.4 + ( )( )
300 100

𝑃ℎ𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑧𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 0.43 ℎ𝑝

𝑃𝑉𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 = 0.001(𝐻)(𝐶𝑎𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦)

𝑃𝑉𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 = 0.001(4.92)(50.28)

𝑃𝑉𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 = 0 ℎ𝑝

From Table 5.5 C, Chemical Process Equipment by Walas

𝑃𝐸𝑚𝑝𝑡𝑦 = 0.4ℎ𝑝

𝑃𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 0.43 + 0 + 0.4

𝑃𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 0.83 ℎ𝑝 = 𝟎. 𝟔𝟐 𝒌𝑾

Conveyor 3 (Entering to Rotary Dryer)

Type: Belt Conveyor 45o Troughed


157

𝑇𝑜𝑛𝑠
Capacity = 20.12 ℎ𝑟

Approximately:

Belt width = 11 in = 0.30 m

Length = 5 m = 16.40 ft

Height (lift) = 1.5 m = 4.92 ft

Velocity = 90 m/hr

PowerTotal= Phorizontal +PVertical +Pempty

𝐿 𝐶𝑎𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦
𝑃ℎ𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑧𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 0.4 + ( )( )
300 100

16.40 20.12
𝑃ℎ𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑧𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 0.4 + ( )( )
300 100

𝑃ℎ𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑧𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 0.41 ℎ𝑝

𝑃𝑉𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 = 0.001(𝐻)(𝐶𝑎𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦)

𝑃𝑉𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 = 0.001(4.92)(20.12)

𝑃𝑉𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 = 0.10 ℎ𝑝

From Table 5.5 C, Chemical Process Equipment by Walas

𝑃𝐸𝑚𝑝𝑡𝑦 = 0.4ℎ𝑝

𝑃𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 0.41 + 0.10 + 0.4

𝑃𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 0.91 ℎ𝑝 = 𝟎. 𝟔𝟖𝒌𝑾

Conveyor 4 (From Sieving)


𝑇𝑜𝑛𝑠
Capacity = 30.17 ℎ𝑟

Belt width = 14.41 in = 0.37 m

Length = 4 m = 13.21 ft
158

Velocity = 90 m/hr

PowerTotal= Phorizontal +PVertical +Pempty

𝐿 𝐶𝑎𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦
𝑃ℎ𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑧𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 0.4 + ( )( )
300 100

13.21 30.17
𝑃ℎ𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑧𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 0.4 + ( )( )
300 100

𝑃ℎ𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑧𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 0.41 ℎ𝑝

𝑃𝑉𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 = 0 hp

From Table 5.5 C, Chemical Process Equipment by Walas

𝑃𝐸𝑚𝑝𝑡𝑦 = 0.4ℎ𝑝

𝑃𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 0.41 + 0 + 0.4

𝑃𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 0.81 ℎ𝑝 = 𝟎. 𝟔𝟎 𝒌𝑾

Conveyor 5 (From Rotary dryer to Mill)

Type: Belt Conveyor 45o Troughed


𝑇𝑜𝑛𝑠
Capacity = 17.92 ℎ𝑟

Belt width = 12.12 in = 0.31 m

Length = 5 m = 16.4 ft

Velocity = 90 m/hr

PowerTotal= Phorizontal +PVertical +Pempty

𝐿 𝐶𝑎𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦
𝑃ℎ𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑧𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 0.4 + ( )( )
300 100

16.4 17.92
𝑃ℎ𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑧𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 0.4 + ( )( )
300 100

𝑃ℎ𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑧𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 0.41 ℎ𝑝
159

𝑃𝑉𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 = 0 hp

From Table 5.5 C, Chemical Process Equipment by Walas

𝑃𝐸𝑚𝑝𝑡𝑦 = 0.4ℎ𝑝

𝑃𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 0.41 + 0 + 0.4

𝑃𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 0.81 ℎ𝑝 = 𝟎. 𝟔𝟎𝟒 𝒌𝑾


160

Appendix C

Equipment and Design Calculations

Conveyors

Conveyor 1 & 2 (Entering to Breaking Rolls & Sieving)

Type: Belt Conveyor 45o Troughed

Tons 𝑇𝑜𝑛𝑠
Capacity: 928.43 = 38.64
day ℎ𝑟

With Safety factor of 30%:

Tons 𝑇𝑜𝑛𝑠
Capacity = 38.68 (1.30) = 50.28
hr ℎ𝑟

From Chemical Process Equipment by Walas, Table 5.5

@ 0o Inclination (horizontal)

Belt Width Capacity

(in) (Tons/hr

16 38.70

? 50.28

18 51

Approximately:

Belt width = 18 in = 0.46 m

Length = 6 m = 19.68 ft

Velocity = 90 m/hr

Conveyor 3 (Entering to Rotary Dryer )

Type: Belt Conveyor 45o Troughed

Tons 𝑇𝑜𝑛𝑠
Capacity: 371.37 = 15.47
day ℎ𝑟
161

With Safety factor of 30%:

Tons 𝑇𝑜𝑛𝑠
Capacity = 15.47 (1.30) = 20.12
hr ℎ𝑟

From Chemical Process Equipment by Walas, Table 5.5

@ 20o Inclination

Belt Width Capacity

(in) (Tons/hr

? 20.12

14 38.40

16 52.50

Approximately:

Belt width = 11 in = 0.30 m

Length = 5 m = 16.40 ft

Height (lift) = 1.5 m = 4.92 ft

Velocity = 90 m/hr

Conveyor 4 (From Sieving)

Type: Belt Conveyor 45o Troughed

Tons 𝑇𝑜𝑛𝑠
Capacity: 557.06 = 23.21
day ℎ𝑟

With Safety factor of 30%:

Tons 𝑇𝑜𝑛𝑠
Capacity = 23.21 (1.30) = 30.17
hr ℎ𝑟

From Chemical Process Equipment by Walas, Table 5.5

@ 0o Inclination (horizontal)
162

Belt Width Capacity

(in) (Tons/hr

14 27.99

? 30.17

16 38.70

Approximately:

Belt width = 14.41 in = 0.37 m

Length = 4 m = 13.21 ft

Velocity = 90 m/hr

Conveyor 5 (From Rotary dryer to Mill)

Type: Belt Conveyor 45o Troughed

Tons 𝑇𝑜𝑛𝑠
Capacity: 330.84 = 13.78
day ℎ𝑟

With Safety factor of 30%:

Tons 𝑇𝑜𝑛𝑠
Capacity = 13.78 (1.30) = 17.92
hr ℎ𝑟

From Chemical Process Equipment by Walas, Table 5.5

@ 0o Inclination (horizontal)

Belt Width Capacity

(in) (Tons/hr

? 17.92

14 27.99

16 38.70
163

Approximately:

Belt width = 12.12 in = 0.31 m

Length = 5 m = 16.4 ft

Velocity = 90 m/hr

Rolling Mill (Ready Made)

Solving for Torque

𝑃 50 33000
T= = = 0.0612ℎ𝑝 × = 2020.04 𝑙𝑏 𝑓𝑡
2𝜋𝑁 2𝜋(130) 1

Where:
P= 50 hp
N= 130 rpm

Solving for Force required

𝑇 2020.04𝑙𝑏 𝑓𝑡
𝐹= = = 1539.28 𝑙𝑏 = 6 845.81 N
𝑟 1.31234 𝑓𝑡

Dryer (by Feeco International Inc.)

Process Conditions

Feed Air

Component Mango Kernel H2O

Mass Flow rate 4,301.73 kg/hr 3435.20 kg/hr 147,23.34 kg/hr

Inlet temperature 30 °C 105 °C

Outlet Temperature 50 °C 50 °C
164

Heating System: Steam-heated air

Gas Flow Pattern in Dryer: Co-current gas flow

Feed to the dryer:

Initial moisture = 0.444

Desired final moisture = 0.12

1 𝑑𝑎𝑦 1000 𝑘𝑔
557.05899 𝑡/𝑑𝑎𝑦 ( ) ( 1 𝑡𝑜𝑛 ) 𝑘𝑔
24 ℎ𝑟𝑠
Feed = = 7,736.93
3 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑠 ℎ𝑟

Water removed by the dryer = 2,848.60 kg/hr

Water in product = 586.60 kg/hr

Condition of inlet air:

Ambient air temperature = 30°C

RH = 79.0% (The average annual percentage of humidity in Cebu, Philippines,

2019)

Humidity = 0.0213 kg H2O/ kg dry air (From Psychometric chart of Perry’s

Handbook)

Calculation of heat duty:

Using Ambient Temperature of 30 °C and RH = 79.0% From Psychometric chart

of Perry’s Handbook: Humidity = 0.0213 kg of water per kg of dry air Taking the humid

heat of Air:
165

𝐶𝑠 = 1.005 + 1.88𝐻 = 1.005 + 1.88(0.0213)

𝑘𝐽
𝐶𝑠 = 1.045
𝑘𝑔 𝐾

Calculating for the amount of air needed:

𝑞𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 7,691,698.20 (from appendix B) 𝑘𝑔


𝑀𝑎 = = = 133,821.22
𝐶𝑠∆𝑇 1.045 ×(105−50) ℎ

Allotting an allowance of 10%, for the possible heat losses and due to startup,

shutdown and cleaning. (van’t Land, 2012)

𝑀𝑎 = (1.10)(133,821.22)

𝑘𝑔
𝑀𝑎 = 147,203.34
ℎ𝑟

Calculation of Inside Diameter & Length

The allowable mass velocity of the air ranges from 2000 kg/hr-m2 up to 25,000 kg/hr-m2

(McCabe, Harriot, & Smith, 1993). Assuming that the mass velocity of air =24,000

kg/hr-m2 Then, the area of dryer,

𝑀𝑎 147,203.34
𝐴= = = 6.13 𝑚2
𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑖𝑟 24,000

𝜋
5.2 = (𝐷)2
4

𝐷 = 2.80 𝑚

Drying diameter ranges from 1 to 3 m (McCabe, Harriot, & Smith, 1993), thus the

computed drying diameter is accepted.


166

The following empirical equation is used to calculate for the overall heat transfer

coefficient from Perry’s Handbook with the index n = 0.67 (McCormick, 1962). The k

value falls in the range 3.75 ≤ k ≤ 5.25 as suggested by AICHE for SI unit (van’t Land,

2012). Assuming k = 4.5

𝑘𝐺 𝑛
𝑈𝑎 =
𝐷

4.75(24,000)0.67
𝑈𝑎 =
2.80

𝑘𝐽
𝑈𝑎 = 1385.63
ℎ𝑟 − 𝑚3 − 𝐾

For the calculation of wet bulb temperature, the most economical operation of rotary

dryer can be achieved for Nt is in general between 1.5 and 2.5 (Mujumdar, 2014).

Assuming the value of Nt = 1.5

378.15 − 𝑇𝑤𝑏
1.5 = ln ( )
323.15 − 𝑇𝑤𝑏

𝑇𝑤𝑏 = 307.35 𝐾

Calculating the logarithmic mean temperature difference:


167

(378.15 − 307.35) − (323.15 − 307.35)


∆𝑇 =
443.15 − 367.98
ln
378.15 − 367.980

∆𝑇 = 36.67 𝐾

To calculate the length of the drier:

𝑄 = 𝑈𝑎 𝐴𝐿(∆𝑇)𝑙𝑚

𝑄 7,691,698.197
𝐿= = = 24.68 𝑚
𝑈𝑎 𝐴(∆𝑇)𝑙𝑚 1,385.65 (6.13)(36.67)

Checking L/D ratio:

𝐿 24.68
= = 8.814
𝐷 2.8

L/D ratio is most efficient between 4 and 10 for industrial dryers (Mujumdar, 2014),

therefore the above diameter and length can be accepted

Calculation of RPM and Flight Design

Speed values ranges 0.1 to 0.5 m/s (van’t Land, 2012). Assuming the peripheral speed of

rotation to be 0.18 m/s.

To calculate the speed of rotation of the drier:


𝑚 60𝑠
𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑝ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑙 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 0.18 ×
𝑠 𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝑅𝑃𝑀 = = = 3.86 𝑟𝑝𝑚
𝐷𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 2.8 𝑚

The revolution of a drier varies between 2-5 rpm. Therefore, the above value can be

accepted.

Flight Design:

𝑁𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑙𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡𝑠 = 3𝐷, (𝐷 𝑖𝑛 𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑡)


168

3.28 𝑓𝑡
𝑁𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑙𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡𝑠 = 3 (2.8𝑚 × ) = 27.5 ≈ 28
1𝑚

Flight Depth:

𝐷 2.8 𝑚
𝐹𝑑 = = = 0.35 𝑚
8 8

Using the following empirical equation for the residence time (in minutes) in dryer as

recommended by AICHE (van’t Land, 2012):

Calculation of Residence Time

From (Banerjee et.al., 2016)

Drying time: 4hrs

(initial moisture content) Xi=0.545 (critical moisture content) Xc=0.34

(equilibrium moisture content) Xe=0.02 (final moisture content) Xf=0.075

Figure: Conventional hot air drying of mango kernels (D denotes drying temperature in

°C)
169

𝑀𝑠 4ℎ𝑟𝑠
=
𝐴𝑅𝑐 (0.545 − 0.34 + (0.34 − 0.02) ln 0.34 − 0.02 )
0.075 − 0.02

𝑀𝑠
= 5.205
𝐴𝑅𝑐

Time to dry from 44.4% to 12% moisture

𝑀𝑠 𝑑𝑥
𝑅=
𝐴 𝑑𝜃𝑡

𝑅 = 𝑅𝑐

𝜃𝑐
𝑀𝑠
𝑅 ∫ 𝑑𝜃 = − (𝑋𝑐 − 𝑋𝑖)
0 𝐴𝑅𝑐

𝜃 = −5.205(0.12 − 0.444)

𝜃𝑡 = 1.69 ℎ𝑟𝑠

1st Stage Acid Hydrolysis

Operating Temperature: 121 oC

Mass Flow Rate: 744,395.4 kg/day = 31,016.475 kg/hr

Operating time: 30 mins.

Density: 990.53 kg/m3

(31,016.475 kg/hr)(0.5 hr)


V= = 15.657 m3
990.53 kg/m3

Using 30% safety factor

V = (15.657 m3)(1.3) = 20.3541 m3

πD2i (1.5Di )
V=
4

H(height)
=1.5
Di (inside diameter)
170

πD2i (1.5Di )
20.3541=
4

Di = 2.585 m

H = 3.8775 m

Solving for maximum allowable pressure to get the wall thickness:

ρgH
Static Pressure, Ps =
1000

990.53×9.81×3.8775
Ps = = 37.678 kPa
1000

Working pressure is equal to 137.895 kPa

For total pressure, Pt = Ps + working pressure

Pt = 37.678 kPa + 137.895 kPa

Pt = 175.573 kPa

Using 1.33 as to measure the maximum allowable pressure:

Maximum allowable pressure, P = 175.573 (1.33) = 233.512 kPa

Using data from Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers by McGraw-Hill.

Working Stress, S, at 121 oC is equal to 94,458.175 kPa

Assume to have a joit efficiency, εf = 0.85 and corrosion allowance equals to 0.002

P (ri )
Thickness, tw = + Cc
Sεf-0.6P
171

2.585
(233.512) (
tw = 2 ) + 0.002
(94,458.175×0.85)-(0.6×233.512)

tw = 5.7656x10-3 m

Outside diameter, Dt = 2.585 + 5.7656x10-3 = 2.591 m

Agitator Design

From Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by McCabe, Smith and Harriot (7th ed.),

page 247

Dt 2.585
Da = = = 0.862 m
3 3

Ha = Da ; Ha =0.862 m

Da 0.862
L= = = 0.2155 m
4 4
Da 0.862
W= = =0.1724 m
5 5

Dt 2.585
J= = = 0.2154 m
12 12

From Chemical Process Equipment Selection and Design by Stanley Walas, page 288,

having a maximum level H/Dt approximately equal to 1.6, the number of impellers is

equal to 2.

Upper clearance = (2/3)H = (2/3)(3.8775) = 2.585 m

Lower clearance = Dt/3 = 2.585/3 = 0.862 m

2nd Stage Acid Hydrolysis

Operating Temperature: 121 oC


172

Mass Flow Rate: 253,901.97 kg/day = 10,579.25 kg/hr

Operating time: 30 mins

Density: 1000 kg/m3

(10,579.25 kg/hr)(0.5 hr)


V= =5.2896 m3
1000 kg/m3

Using 30% safety factor

V = (5.2896 m3)(1.3) = 6.876 m3

πD2i (1.5Di )
V=
4

H(height)
=1.5
Di (inside diameter)

πD2i (1.5Di )
6.876 =
4

Di = 1.8 m

H = 2.7 m

Solving for maximum allowable pressure to get the wall thickness:

ρgH
Static Pressure, Ps =
1000

1000×9.81×2.7
Ps = = 26.487 kPa
1000

Working pressure is equal to 137.895 kPa

For total pressure, Pt = Ps + working pressure

Pt = 26.487 kPa + 137.895 kPa


173

Pt = 164. 382 kPa

Using 1.33 as to measure the maximum allowable pressure:

Maximum allowable pressure, P = 164.382 (1.33) = 218.628 kPa

Using data from Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers by McGraw-Hill.

Working Stress, S, at 121 oC is equal to 94,458.175 kPa

Assume to have a joit efficiency, εf = 0.85 and corrosion allowance equals to 0.002

P (ri )
Thickness, tw = + Cc
Sεf-0.6P

1.8
(218.628) (
tw = 2) + 0.002
(94,458.175×0.85)-(0.6×218.628)

tw = 4.4547x10-3 m

Outside diameter, Dt = 1.8 + 4.4547x10-3 = 1.804 m

Agitator Design

From Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by McCabe, Smith and Harriot (7th ed.),

page 247

Dt 1.8
Da = = = 0.6 m
3 3

Ha = Da ; Ha =0.6 m

Da 0.6
L= = = 0.15 m
4 4
Da 0.6
W= = =0.12 m
5 5
174

Dt 1.8
J= = = 0.15 m
12 12

From Chemical Process Equipment Selection and Design by Stanley Walas, page 288,

having a maximum level H/Dt approximately equal to 1.6, the number of impellers is

equal to 2.

Upper clearance = (2/3)H = (2/3)(2.7) = 1.8 m

Lower clearance = Dt/3 = 1.8/3 = 0.6 m

Nomenclature

V = volume of the tank

Di = inside diameter

H = height of the tank

Ps = static pressure

Pt = total pressure

tw = thickness

Dt = outside diameter

Da = impeller diameter

W = width of impeller blade

L = length of impeller blade

Ha = height of impeller from ground

J = width of baffle
175

Neutralization

Capacity = 450,074.5 + 12,619.78 = 462,694.28

Volume of tank (V) = 462.6943 m3 (1.20) = 555.2331 m3

H = height of tank

D = Diameter of the tank

𝜋𝐷 2 𝐻
V= H=D
4

𝜋𝐷 2 𝐻
555.2331m3 = 4

D = 8.9083m

H = 8.9083m

From the Unit process in Chemical Engineering by McCabe, Smith and Hariott

Da = Impeller Diameter

Ha = Impeller height above the vessel floor

L = Impeller blade length

W = Width of the impeller blade

J = Width of the baffle


𝐷𝑡 8.9083 𝑚
Da = = = 𝟐. 𝟗𝟔𝟗𝟒 𝒎
3 3

Ha = Da = 2.9694 m
𝐷𝑡 8.9083 𝑚
L= = = 2.2271 m
4 4

𝐷𝑡 8.9083 𝑚
W= = = 1.7817 m
5 5

𝐷 8.9083 𝑚
J = 12𝑡 = = 0.7424 m
12
176

Cooling Jacket for neutralization

Cooling Fluid : Water

Jacket Height is to be at 8.55 m of the height of the tank

Inlet temperature of the cooling water is assumed to be 20 C and the outlet temperature is

28 C.

∆𝑇1 − ∆𝑇2
∆𝑇𝑚 =
∆𝑇
ln ∆𝑇1
2

∆𝑇1 = 30 − 10 = 10℃

∆𝑇2 = 30 − 28 = 2℃

10 − 2
∆𝑇𝑚 = = 4.97 𝐾
10
ln
2

Mass flow rate = 546.92 kg/hr

Using formula from Towler and Sinnot 5th edition:

Diameter of the pipe used for coils,

𝐷𝑣 (𝑣𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑙 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟) 8.9083 𝑚


Dp = = = 0.2969 m
30 30

Pitch = 2Dp

Pitch = 2(0.2969) = 0.5938 m

𝐻𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑗𝑎𝑐𝑘𝑒𝑡
No. of Spiral = 𝑃𝑖𝑡𝑐ℎ

8.9083 𝑚
No. of Spiral = 0.5938 𝑚 = 14.90 approx 15

Spacing between jacket vessel wall for large vessel is equal to 0.3m

Cross Sectional area of channel = spacing * pitch

Cross Sectional area of channel = 0.3m * 0.5938m

Cross Sectional area of channel = 0.17814m2


177

Length of channel = 14 * 𝜋 * 8.9083

Length of channel = 391.807 m

Fermenter

Operating Temperature: 32OC

Working Pressure: 180 kPa

Density of the feed is assumed to be the density of the water at 32OC, from Perry’s

Chemical Engineers’ Handbook 8th Edition, Table 2-32:

Density of the feed= 998.8489 kg/m3

1,262,088.4 𝑘𝑔 1 𝑑𝑎𝑦 52,587.02 𝑘𝑔


Mass flow rate: ( ) ( 24 ℎ𝑟 ) = ( )
1 𝑑𝑎𝑦 ℎ𝑟

Yeast + Urea + DAP= 55,140.4 + 1262.0884 + 21,039.01313

𝑘𝑔 1 𝑑𝑎𝑦
= 77,471.5 𝑑𝑎𝑦 ( 24 ℎ𝑟 ) = 3,227.98 kg/hr

Overall Mass flow rate: 52,587.02 + 3,227.98 = 55,815 kg/hr


55,815 𝑘𝑔
𝑥 52 ℎ𝑟
ℎ𝑟
Working Volume: (998.8489 )= 2905.72 m3
𝑘𝑔/𝑚3

Since the working volume is too large, it will be divided into five fermenters
2905.72 m3
( ) = 581.14 m3
5

From Chemical Process Engineering Design and Economics by Harry Silla, a safety

factor 30% will be used, 30% of the volume as the free space in the fermenter

Vfinal= 581.14 (1.3)

= 755.49 m3

From Chemical Process Equipment Selection and Design by Stanley Walas, the

approximate height to diameter ratio is 2:1


178

𝑉 = 𝜋(𝐷2 /4)(𝐻)

But, H/D = 2

𝑉 = 𝜋(𝐷2 /4)(2𝐷)

755.49 = 𝜋(𝐷2 /4)(2𝐷)

D= 7.83 m

H= 2(7.83) = 15.66 m

Height of the Dished Bottom (from literature) = 1 meter

Total Height= 15.66 + 1 = 16.66 m

Mechanical Design:

Total Pressure at base: Ps(static pressure) + Pw(working pressure)

= (998.8489 x 9.81 x 15.66)/1000 + 180 kPa

= 153.45 kPa + 180 kPa

= 333.45 kPa

Maximum Allowable Pressure = 1.33 (333.45 kPa)

= 443.49 kPa

Working Pressure (Carbon Steel) = 94, 408 kPa

Assumed joint efficiency is 0.85 and corrosion allowance of 2 mm


7.83
443.49( )
2
tw= (94,408(0.85)−0.6(443.49)) + 0.002 𝑚

= 0.0217 + 0.002

= 0.0237 m

Therefore,

Outside diameter, Do = 7.83 + 2(0.0237) = 7.877 m


179

For reactor head, torispherical will be used since operating pressure of the vessel

is less than 150 psi or less than approximately 1034 kPa.

1.104𝑃𝐷
th= (2Ɛ𝑆−0.2𝑃) + 𝐶

1.104(443.49)(7.83)
= (2(0.85)(94408)−0.2(443.49)) + 0.002 m

= 0.0259 m

Agitator Design:

𝐷𝑡 7.83
Impeller Diameter, Da= ( 3 ) = ( ) = 2.61 m
3

Impeller Height above Vessel Floor, Ha= Da = 2.61 m

Da 2.063
Length of Impeller Blade, L = ( )= ( ) = 0.6525 m
4 4

Da 2.063
Width of Impeller Blade, W= ( )= ( ) = 0.522 m
5 5

𝐷𝑡 7.83
Width of Baffles, J= ( 12 ) = ( ) = 0.6525 m
12

From Chemical Process Equipment Selection and Design by Stanley Walas,

Maximum Level Number of Impeller Clearance

H/Dt Impellers Lower Upper

1.4 1 H/3

2.1 2 Dt/3 (2/3)H

0.8 1 H/3

1.6 2 Dt/3 (2/3)H

𝐻 16.66
( )=( ) = 2.13
𝐷𝑡 7.83

Based from the table above, the number of impellers is 2.


180

Impeller clearance:

𝐷𝑡 7.83
Lower: ( 3 ) = ( ) = 2.61 m
3

2 2
Upper: (3 𝐻) = (3 𝑥16.66) = 11.11 m

No. of Baffles = 4

Height of baffle = 15.66 m

Pre fermenters

V(pre-fermenter) = 0.1V(fermenter)

= 0.1(755.49)

= 75.55 m3

But, H/D = 2

𝑉(𝑝𝑟𝑒 − 𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟) = 𝜋(𝐷2 /4)(2𝐷)

75.55 𝑚3 = 𝜋(𝐷2 /4)(2𝐷)

D= 3.64 m

H= 2(3.64) = 7.28 m
3.64
443.49( )
2
tw= (94,408(0.85)−0.6(443.49)) + 0.002 𝑚

= 0.0121 m

Outside Diameter: Do= 3.64 + 2(0.0121) = 3.6642 m

Height of the dished bottom (from literature) = 1 m

Total Height= 7.28 + 1 = 8.28 m

Agitator Design:

From Unit processes in Chemical Engineering by Mccabe, Smith and Harriot


181

𝐷𝑡 3.64
Impeller Diameter, Da= ( 3 ) = ( ) = 1.213 m
3

Impeller Height above Vessel Floor, Ha= Da = 1.213 m

Da 1.213
Length of Impeller Blade, L = ( )= ( ) = 0.3033 m
4 4

Da 1.213
Width of Impeller Blade, W= ( )= ( ) = 0.2426 m
5 5

𝐷𝑡 3.64
Width of Baffles, J= ( 12 ) = ( ) = 0.3033 m
12

𝐻 8.28
( )=( ) = 2.27
𝐷𝑡 3.64

Number of impellers = 2

Impeller clearance:

𝐷𝑡 3.64
Lower: ( ) = ( ) = 1.2133 m
3 3

2 2
Upper: (3 𝐻) = (3 𝑥8.28) = 5.52 m

No. of Baffles = 4

Height of baffle = 7.28 m

Culture Vessels

3rd

Vcv3=Vpf =75.55 m3

But, H/D=2

V(cv3)= 𝜋(𝐷2 /4)(𝐻)

V(cv3)= 𝜋(𝐷2 /4)(2𝐷)

75.55 m3= 𝜋(𝐷2 /4)(2𝐷)

D=3.64 m
182

H= 2(3.64) = 7.28 m

2nd and 1st

V(cv1)=Vcv2 = 0.1(75.55 m3) = 7.56 m3

V(cv2)= 𝜋(𝐷2 /4)(𝐻)

V(cv2)= 𝜋(𝐷2 /4)(2𝐷)

7.56 m3= 𝜋(𝐷2 /4)(2𝐷)

D= 1.69 m

Distillation

At 95% (v/v) Ethanol

Converting mass flowrate to molar flowrate:

Average molecular weight from Appendix A(Material Balance):

kg
MWF =18.5936 kmol

𝑘𝑔
MWD =41.88 𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙

kg
MWB = 18.189 kmol

kg 𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙
𝐹 = 1.2175 x 106 day = 65.4781 x 106 xF = 0.0212
𝑑𝑎𝑦

kg 𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙
𝐷 = 48, 580.8 day = 1.16x 106 xD = 0.8529
𝑑𝑎𝑦

kg 𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙
𝐵 = 1.1699 x 106 day = 64.3181 x 106 xB = 0.0062
𝑑𝑎𝑦

From McCabe 7th ed Appendix 15

@ T=78 °C = 351.15 K

𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝐽
Cp = 1.014 𝑔 𝐾 =195.446 𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐾
183

q-line:
𝑞 𝐹𝑥
𝑦= 𝑥 − 𝑞−1
𝑞−1

Cp(𝑇𝐵 −𝑇𝐹 )
q = 1+ 𝜆𝐹

TB = Boiling Temperature of F

TF = Temperature of F

𝜆𝐹 = Latent heat of Vaporization

From Ethanol and water Diagram

@ x = 0.0212

TB = 94.98°C =368.13K

TF = 80°C

Cp(𝑇𝐵 −𝑇𝐹 )
q = 1+ 𝜆𝐹

𝜆F = XF(Hv Ethanol) + (1-XF)(Hv Water)

Hv = Heat of Vaporization

From Table 2-141 and 2-150 of perry’s chemical engineering Handbook (PCEH) 8th ed

Water Ethanol

Tc 647.096 K 514 K

Tb 373.15 K 353. 15K

Tr=Tb / Tc 0.5766 0.6871

Hv 40799.91 J / mol 38919.20 J / mol


184

𝜆F = 0.0293(40,799.91) + (1-0.0293) (38919.2)

𝐽
𝜆F = 38,974.30 𝑚𝑜𝑙

Solving for q:
𝐽
195.446 (94.98−80)K
𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐾
q = 1+ 𝐽 = 1.0751
38,974.30
𝑚𝑜𝑙

Solving for slope:

𝑞 1.0751
𝑚= = = 14.31
𝑞−1 0.0751

𝐹 𝑥 0.0212
Y intercept = 𝑞−1 = 0.0751 = 0.28

q line equation : 𝑦 = 14.31𝑥 − 0.28

By graphing :

Pinch Points (0.04, 0.31) = (xp, yp)

By graphing :

Pinch Points (0.04, 0.31) = (xp, yp)

Minimun Reflux Ratio (Rm)

𝑅𝑚 𝑥𝐷 −𝑦𝑝 0.8529−0.31
=𝑥 =0.8529−0.04
𝑅𝑚+1 𝐷 −𝑥𝑝

Rm = 2.01

Ropt= 1.5(2.33) = 3.02

Calculating the Minimum number of stage

By Frenske Equation

𝑥𝐷 1−𝑥𝐵
ln( )
1−𝑥𝐷 𝑥𝐵
𝑁𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 𝑙𝑛∝
185

𝑃𝐸𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑙
∝=
𝑃𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟

From the Table 13-4 Perry’s ChE Handbook

Using the Antoine Equation:


𝐵
log 𝑃𝑠𝑎𝑡 = 𝐴 − 𝑇+𝐶

@T=78.5 C

A B C

Ethanol 8.11220 1592.864 226.184

Water 8.07131 1730.630 233.426

PEthanol= 765.73 mmHg

Pwater= 333.50 mmHg

765.74
∝= = 2.30
333.50

Substituting to the frenske Eqn:


0.8529 1−0.0212
ln( )
1−0.8529 0.0212
𝑁𝑚𝑖𝑛 = ln(2.30)

𝑁𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 6.71 ≈ 7 𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒𝑠

𝑁𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 7 + 1 = 𝟖 𝑺𝒕𝒂𝒈𝒆𝒔 𝒘𝒊𝒕𝒉 𝒓𝒆𝒃𝒐𝒊𝒍𝒆𝒓

From Sinnott Towler (5th ed), Efficiency of 70% can be assumed


8
𝑁𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑜 = 0.70 = 11.43 ≈ 𝟏𝟏 𝑺𝒕𝒂𝒈𝒆𝒔

Using Kirkbride Eq’n

𝑁𝑅 1−𝑥𝐹 𝑥 𝐵 0.206
=( (1−𝑥𝐵 ) 𝐷)
𝑁𝑠 𝑥𝐹 𝐷
186

𝑚𝑜𝑙 0.206
𝑁𝑅 1−0.0212 0.0062 2.68×106
ℎ𝑟
=( (1−0.8529) 𝑚𝑜𝑙 )
𝑁𝑠 0.0212 48,333.33
ℎ𝑟

𝑁𝑅
= 2.62 (Eq. 1)
𝑁𝑠

𝑁𝑅 + 𝑁𝑠 = 13 (Eq. 2)

Solving Simultaneously:

𝑁𝑅 = 9.40

𝑁𝑠 = 3.59

Feed entry:

𝑁𝑅 − 1 = 9 − 1 = 𝟖𝒕𝒉 𝒔𝒕𝒂𝒈𝒆 𝒆𝒏𝒕𝒓𝒚

@ TDistillation=78.5°C

From Perry’s HB 8th ed

𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑚𝑜𝑙
𝜌𝑉 𝐸𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑙 = 15.960 𝜌𝐿 𝐸𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑙 = 0.04223
𝐿 𝐿

𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑚𝑜𝑙
𝜌𝑉 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 = 55.359 𝜌𝐿 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 = 0.01771
𝐿 𝐿

Average MW of D:

𝑘𝑔
𝑀𝑊𝑎𝑣𝑒 𝐷 = (0.8529) (46.068 𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙) + (1 − 0.8529)(18.015)

𝑘𝑔
𝑀𝑊𝑎𝑣𝑒 𝐷 = 41.935 𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙

𝑚𝑜𝑙
𝜌𝐿 = [(0.95) (15.960 )+
𝐿

𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑘𝑔 𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙 1000𝐿


(0.05) (54.359 )] (41.935 𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙) (1000𝑚𝑜𝑙) ( 1𝑚3 )
𝐿

𝑘𝑔
𝜌𝐿 = 749.71 𝑚3

𝑚𝑜𝑙
𝜌𝑉 = [(0.95) (0.04223 )+
𝐿

𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑘𝑔 𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙 1000𝐿


(0.05) (0.0177 )] (41.935 𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙) (1000𝑚𝑜𝑙) ( 1𝑚3 )
𝐿
187

𝑘𝑔
𝜌𝐿 = 1.7221 𝑚3

From Towler and Sinott 5th ed

Plate Spacing =0.5 m


𝜌𝐿 −𝜌𝑣 0.5
𝑢̂𝑣 = [−0.17𝑙𝑡2 + 0.27𝑙𝑡 − 0.047]( )
𝜌𝑣

749.71−1.7221 0.5
𝑢̂𝑣 = [−0.17(0.5𝑚)2 + 0.27(0.5𝑚) − 0.047]( )
1.7221

𝑚
𝑢̂𝑣 = 0.915 𝑠

For column diameter:

̂
4𝑉
Dc = √𝜋𝜌 𝑤𝑢̂
𝑉 𝑣

𝐿
= 2.02
𝐷

𝑘𝑔
𝑉̂𝑤 = 𝐿 + 1 = 2.02 + 1 = 3.02 𝑠 (𝑚𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑣𝑎𝑝𝑜𝑟 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒)

𝑘𝑔
4(3.02 )
𝑠
Dc = √ 𝑘𝑔 𝑚 = 1.56 𝑚
𝜋(1.7221 3 )(0.915 )
𝑚 𝑠

For 20% safety factor:

Dc = (1.2)(1.56m)

Dc = 1.87 m

Height of the column:

Taking H to D ratio as 15 (Towler and Sinnott 5th ed)


𝐻
= 15
𝐷

𝐻 = 𝐷15 = 1.87(15𝑚)

𝑯 = 𝟐𝟖. 𝟎𝟓 𝒎
188

Condenser:

Based on coulon, Richardson, Sinnott 3rd ed

q = mwCp∆T

Assuming ∆T = 25°C

𝑘𝐽 kJ
9.89𝑥106 ℎ𝑟 = 𝑚𝑤 (4.186 kg K)(25K)

𝒌𝒈
𝒎𝒘 = 𝟗𝟒, 𝟓𝟎𝟓 𝒉𝒓

from table 12.1 of Coulson, Richardson, Sinnott (4th ed):

For Condensers:

𝑊
𝑈 = 1000
𝑚2 °𝐶

Temperature ratio,
𝑇 −𝑇
R = 𝑡1−𝑡2
2 1

78.5−50
R= 50−25

R = 1.14

For one shell pass, two tube pass, Ft = 0.8

(78.5−50)−(50−25)
∆𝑇m = [ 78.5−50 ] 0.8
𝑙𝑛
50−25

∆𝑇m = 21.37°C

𝑞
A = 𝑈∆𝑇
𝑚

𝑘𝐽 1000𝐽 1ℎ𝑟
9.89𝑥106 ( )( )
ℎ𝑟 𝑘𝐽 3600𝑠
A= 𝑊
1000 2 (21.37°C)
𝑚 𝐾
189

A = 128.55 m2

From Table 11.12 of Perry’s Handbook (8th ed)


7
OD = 8 𝑖𝑛 =22.23mm

ID = 0.652 in = 16.56mm

Using L = 8m,

Surface area of one tube = (22.23x10-3 m)(𝜋)(8m)

Surface area of one tube = 0.5587 m2

128.55 m2
# of tubes = 0.5587 𝑚2 = 230.08 ≈ 𝟐𝟑𝟎 𝑻𝒖𝒃𝒆𝒔

Using square pinch

Pt = 1.25(22.23mm)

Pt = 27.79 mm

Tube bundle Diameter


1
𝑁 𝑛
Db = do((𝐾1 ) 1
1

From Sinnott and Towler (5thed.)

Using 2 Passes:

K1 = 0.156

n1= 2.291
1
230 2.291
Db = 22.23 (0.156)

Db = 537.04 mm

Number of tubes in a row:

𝐷𝑏 537.04 𝑚𝑚
NT = =
𝑃𝑡 27.79 𝑚𝑚
190

NT = 19.32

NT ≅ 19

Reboiler (Kette Type)

From Coulson, Richardson, Sinnot (3rd ed)

@ Xw = 0.0062, Tw = 95.91 deg C

𝑘𝐽
qr= 1.87 × 106 ℎ

Ts in = 120 deg C

Ts out = 90 deg C

qs=ms(Cp∆𝑇+𝜆)

For Steam:

KJ
Cp = 1.88 kg K

𝜆 = 2202 kJ / kg

qr = qs

𝑘𝐽 𝑘𝐽 𝑘𝐽
1.87 × 106 ℎ𝑟 = ms ((1.88 𝑘𝑔 𝐾)(120-90)K + (2202𝑘𝑔))

𝒌𝒈
ms =828.02 𝒉𝒓

From Table 12.1 of Coulson, Richardson, Sinnott (3rd ed).


𝑊
U = 1000𝑚2 °𝐶
191

∆𝑇m = (120-95) °𝐶=25°𝐶

qr= UA∆𝑇m

𝑘𝐽 1000𝐽 1ℎ𝑟 𝑊
1.87 × 106 ℎ𝑟 ( )(3600𝑠)= 1000𝑚2 °𝐶(A)(24.09°𝐶)
1𝑘𝐽

A =21.56 m2

Select 50 mm outside diameter, 45 mm inside diameter, plain U Tubes

Nominal length 3 m (One U Tube)

21.56 m2
# of U – Tubes = 50
(𝜋)(3)
1000

# of U – Tubes = 45.75 = 46 tubes

Using square pitch arrangement:

Pitch = 1.25Do

Pitch = 1.25(50mm) = 62.5 mm

Bundle Diameter:
1
𝑁 𝑛1
Db = do((𝐾1 )
1

For 4 tube Passes

K1=0.158

N1=2(U-tubes)

n1= 2.263
1
2(46) 2.617
Db = 50mm (0.158)

Db = 569.60 mm = 0.57m

Shell Diameter = 2Db = 1.14m

Liquid Level as 1m from base,


192

Freeboard = 1.14m -1 =0.14m

𝑘𝑔
ms= 828.02 ℎ𝑟

𝑘𝐽
C p=1.8837 𝑘𝑔 𝐾

∆𝑇m = (120-95.91)=24.99 deg C

Power Requirement = msCp∆𝑇m

𝑘𝑔 1ℎ𝑟 𝑘𝐽
Power Requirement = 828.02 ℎ𝑟 (3600 𝑠) (1.8837 ) (24.99𝐾)
𝑘𝑔 𝐾

Power Requirement = 10.83kW

Dehydration

The fermented solution undergoes distillation process to remove the water present

on it but water removal of the distillation process has a limit which requires the use of an

additional process before it blends with pure ethanol with gasoline due to the ethanol-

water azeotrope. In contrast, use of adsorption decreases the amount of energy

consumption incurred by the distillation process. Adhesion of liquid molecules to the

surface can be achieved in a column packed with adsorbents (zeolite 3A).

The Langmuir adsorption isotherm suffice the equilibrium relation of the

adsorption system. Zeolite 3A as the adsorbent and equilibrium model of water-vapor

ethanol mixture is used.

Table 1. Thermodynamic Constants for Zeolite 3A as a Function of Temperature

Temperature Q(g H2O/ g absorbent) K(g soln/ g adsorbent)

25 0.249 0.317

40 0.238 0.153
193

50 0.220 0.090

60 0.200 0.052

Source: Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering

The Arrhenius equation explains the variation of Langmuir equation isotherm constant

with respect to the temperature:


∆𝐻
K= 𝐾𝐿 𝑅𝑇

Linearizing the equation, in the form of y=mx+b

∆𝐻 1
ln|K| = (𝑅𝑇 ) (𝑇) + 𝑙𝑛 |𝐾𝐿 | (eq.1)

Where:

y= ln|K|

∆𝐻
m= (𝑅𝑇 )

1
x= (𝑇)

b= 𝑙𝑛 |𝐾𝐿 |

Table 2. Langmuir Constants with varying temperature

Temperature Temperature 1 Q K ln|K|


𝑇
(oC) (K)

25 298.15 0.003354 0.249 0.317 -1.14885

40 313.15 0.003193 0.238 0.153 -1.87732

50 323.15 0.003095 0.220 0.090 -2.40795

60 333.15 0.003002 0.200 0.052 -2.99573

Plotting using MS Excel, 1/T vs ln|K|


194

1/T vs. ln|K|


0
0.00295 0.003 0.00305 0.0031 0.00315 0.0032 0.00325 0.0033 0.00335 0.0034
-0.5

-1

-1.5

-2

-2.5

-3

-3.5

Obtaining the slope using linear regression:

∆𝐻
m= (𝑅𝑇 ) = 5204.5867

b= 𝑙𝑛 |𝐾𝐿 | = −18.5592

𝐾𝐿 = 8.7064x 10-9

Finding the operating K if ethanol-water vapour mixture superheated at 80oC or 353.15 K


∆𝐻 (5204.5867)
𝐾𝑜𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 = 𝐾𝐿 𝑅𝑇 = (8.7064x 10-9)𝑒 353.15 = 0.02189

Taking a linear relationship between Q and T in Kelvin:

m= -0.001

b= 0.670

Q(T)= (-0.001)(80 + 273.15K)= 0.317

Using Langmuir Model:

(𝑄)(𝐾)(𝐶∗)
q*= + Kc*
1

(0.317)(0.0218)(𝐶∗)
q*= + 0.0218c*
1
195

At equilibrium, partial pressures can be expressed as mole fractions. The molecules of A

adsorbed on the surface are in equilibrium with those in the gas phase is:
6.9106x10−3𝑃
q*= + 0.0218P
1

Concentration of the adsorbed phase can be calculated using zeolite 3A to purify 95mol%

ethanol to 99.99mol% in a two bed pressure swing adsorption process with feed gas and

off gas at 25 atm and 2 atm, respectively. Adsorption time is 300 seconds and beds are

85% loaded at the end of adsorption step (based from literature)

Partial Pressures of Water:

In feed (25 atm) = (25)(0.1469) = 3.67 atm

Off-gas (2 atm)= 2(0.95) = 1.9 atm

In feed:

(3.852x10−3)(3.67)
Molecules of A adsorbed on the surface = 1+(0.02189𝑥3.67)

𝑔 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟
= 0.0131 𝑔 𝑎𝑑𝑠𝑜𝑟𝑏𝑒𝑛𝑡

Off-gas:

(3.852x10−3)(1.9)
Molecules of A adsorbed on the surface = 1+(0.02189𝑥1.9)

𝑔 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟
= 0.00703 𝑔 𝑎𝑑𝑠𝑜𝑟𝑏𝑒𝑛𝑡

(F1y1 – F2y2)Mwta= (m1-m2)MafL

300
[(48.3333x0.1471)-( 48.3333x0.0001)](18.015)( (3600) = (0.0131 − 0.00703)Ma(0.85)

Ma=2067.33 kg

Bulk density of the adsorbent= 779.5811 kg/m3


196

2067.33
Volume of adsorbent bed= (779.5811) = 2.65 m3

By 20% safety factor,

(1.2)(2.65) = 3.182 m3

Assumption, based on Shell’s “Basic design rules and operational requirements of

molecular sieve units”, L/D ratio of the vessel should not be below 2. Therefore, an

assumption of L/D ratio of 4 is made.

L/D=4

3.182= 𝝅(𝑫𝟐 /𝟒)(𝟒𝑫)

D= 1.00 m

H= 4.00 m

Depth of Dished Bottom: 1 meter

Final H= 4.00-1=3.00 m

Ethanol Storage Tank

Number of units: 3

Basis: 1 week operation

L 7 days
Capacity of each tank=58,000 ( ) =406,000 L/wk
day 1 week

Multiplying the volume by 30% safety factor

1 m3 1.30
V=406,000 L ( )( ) =175.933 m3 /unit
1000 L 3

πD2 H
V= (1)
4
197

2H = 5D

5
πD2 ( 2 D)
175.933 =
4

D = 4.47 m

H = 11.175 m

Hydrolysate Storage Tank

No of units: 1

1 𝑚3
Capacity = 91,045.61 kg/day (1000 𝑘𝑔)

= 91.05 m3

Multiplying the volume by 30% safety factor,

V= 91.05(1.3) = 118.36 m3

𝑉 = 𝜋(𝐷2 /4)(𝐻)

But, 3H=5D

118.36 = 𝜋(𝐷2 /4)(5/3𝐷)

D= 4.49 m

H= 7.48 m

70% H2SO4 Storage Tank

Number of Units: 1

Density: 1127 kg/m3

Capacity: (413,553 kg/day) / (1127 kg/m3)

= 366.9503 m3/day
198

Multiplying volume by 30% safety factor,

V= 366.95 (1.3)= 477.035 m3

𝑉 = 𝜋(𝐷2 /4)(𝐻)

With a basis of, 3H=5D

477.035 = 𝜋(𝐷2 /4)(5/3𝐷)

D= 7.14 m

H= 11.9 m

30% H2SO4 Storage Tank

Number of Units: 1

Density: 1127 kg/m3

Capacity: (141,056.65kg/day) / (1127 kg/m3)

= 125.1611 m3/day

Multiplying volume by 30% safety factor,

V= 125.1611 (1.3)= 162.71 m3

𝑉 = 𝜋(𝐷2 /4)(𝐻)

With a basis of, 3H=5D

162.71= 𝜋(𝐷2 /4)(5/3𝐷)

D= 4.99 m

H= 8.32 m

H2SO4 Recovery Tank

No. of Units: 1
199

1 𝑚3
Capacity = 315,213.9 kg/day ((1127 𝑘𝑔) = 279.69 m3/day

Multiplying the volume by 30% safety factor,

V = 279.69(1.3) = 363.6 m3

𝑉 = 𝜋(𝐷2 /4)(𝐻)

But, 3H=5D

363.6 = 𝜋(𝐷2 /4)(5/3𝐷)

D= 6.52 m

H= 10.87 m

Anaerobic Digester

Number of Units: 5

V= 1500 m3

Multiplying the volume by 30% safety factor

1.3
V= 1500 (5 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑠) = 390 m3

𝑉 = 𝜋(𝐷2 /4)(𝐻)

But 3D=2H,

𝜋(𝐷 2 ) 3
390 = [(2) 𝐷]
4

D= 6.92 m

H= 10.38 m

Agitator Design

From Unit Process in Chemical Engineering by Mccabe, Smith and Hanott (7th ed) p.247

𝐷𝑡 6.92
Impeller Diameter, Da= ( 3 ) = ( ) = 2.31 m
3
200

Impeller Height above Vessel Floor, Ha= Da = 2.31 m

Da 2.31
Length of Impeller Blade, L = ( )= ( ) = 0.5775 m
4 4

Da 2.31
Width of Impeller Blade, W= ( )= ( ) = 0.462 m
5 5

𝐷𝑡 6.92
Width of Baffles, J= ( 12 ) = ( ) = 0.58 m
12

From Chemical Process Equipment Selection and Design by Stanley Walas,

Maximum Level Number of Impeller Clearance

H/Dt Impellers Lower Upper

1.4 1 H/3

2.1 2 Dt/3 (2/3)H

0.8 1 H/3

1.6 2 Dt/3 (2/3)H

𝐻 10.38
( )=( ) = 1.5
𝐷𝑡 6.92

Using H/D = 1.6, the number of impellers is 2.

Impeller clearance:

𝐷𝑡 6.92
Lower: ( 3 ) = ( ) = 2.31 m
3

2 2
Upper: (3 𝐻) = (3 𝑥10.38) = 6.92 m

Wastewater Treatment Plant

Requirements

From Demineralized Water Tank to Boiler: 94,505 kg/hr


201

From Softened Water to Condenser: 828 kg/hr

From Softened Water Tank to process: 40,000 kg/hr

From Processed Water Tank to Fermentation: 33,313 kg/hr

From Raw Water Tank and Processed Water Tank to utilities: 20,000 kg/h

Raw Water Tank

Basis: 1 hr

Volume: 190 m3

Using 20% safety factor:

V= 190 (1.2) = 228 m3

H=2D

𝑉 = 𝜋(𝐷2 /4)(𝐻)

228= 𝜋(𝐷2 /4)(2𝐷)

D= 5.26 m

H= 10.51 m

Process Water Tank

Basis: 1 hr

Volume: 55 m3

Using 20% safety factor,

V= 55 (1.2) = 66 m3

𝑉 = 𝜋(𝐷2 /4)(𝐻)

But, H=2D
202

66 = 𝜋(𝐷2 /4)(2𝐷)

D=3.48 m

H= 6.95 m

Softened Water Tank

Basis: 1 hr

Volume: 45 m3

Using 20% safety factor,

V=45(1.2) = 54 m3

But, H=2D

𝑉 = 𝜋(𝐷2 /4)(𝐻)

54 = 𝜋(𝐷2 /4)(2𝐷)

D=3.25 m

H= 6.5 m

Demineralized Water Tank

Material of Construction: Carbon Steel

Basis: 1 hour

Volume: 95 m3

Using 20% safety factor,

V= 95(1.2) = 114 m3

But, H=2D

95 = 𝜋(𝐷2 /4)(2𝐷)
203

D= 3.93 m

H= 7.85 m
204

Appendix D

Power Requirement

Pumps

PTotal=340.61+91.74+118.87+658.66+237.54+237.54+1288+2338+1708+1609.6

1+66.61+261.13+14.92+1832.43+66.27+1168+3664.11+402.14+16.53+24.903

PT=16,145.61 W = 16.15 kW

Conveyor

Conveyor 1=0.62

Conveyor 2=0.62

Conveyor 3=0.68

Conveyor 4=0.60

Conveyor 5=0.60

Ptotal= 3.12 kW

Roll Crusher

0.746kW
𝑃 = 7.1hp ( )
hp

𝑷 = 𝟓. 𝟑𝟎𝐤𝐖

Sieving

0.746kW
𝑃 = 60.35hp ( )
hp
205

𝑷 = 𝟒𝟓. 𝟎𝟐𝐤𝐖

Dryer

𝑘𝐽 1ℎ𝑟
𝑃 = 7,691,698.197 ( )
ℎ𝑟 3600𝑠

𝑷 = 𝟐𝟏𝟑𝟔. 𝟓𝟖𝐤𝐖

Mill

0.746kW
𝑃 = 300hp ( )
hp

𝑷 = 𝟐𝟐𝟑. 𝟖𝐤𝐖

Electrodialysis:

𝑷 = 𝟐𝟒𝐤𝐖

1st Stage hydrolysis

ft
D = 3.246 m (3.28 1m) = 10.65 ft

𝑃 3.8ℎ𝑝
=
𝑉 1000𝑔𝑎𝑙

3.8ℎ𝑝 1𝑔𝑎𝑙 1000𝐿 0.746kW


𝑃 = 1000𝑔𝑎𝑙 ∗ 3.78𝐿 ∗ ∗ 31.008 m3 ∗
1𝑚3 1hp

𝑷 = 𝟐𝟑. 𝟐𝟔𝒌𝑾

2nd Stage hydrolysis

ft
D = 2.48 m (3.28 1m) = 8.13 ft
206

𝑃 4.7ℎ𝑝
= 1000𝑔𝑎𝑙
𝑉

4.7ℎ𝑝 1𝑔𝑎𝑙 1000𝐿 0.746kW


𝑃 = 1000𝑔𝑎𝑙 ∗ 3.78𝐿 ∗ ∗ 13.82 m3 ∗
1𝑚3 1hp

𝑷 = 𝟏𝟐. 𝟖𝟐𝒌𝑾

Main Fermenter

ft
D = 7.83 m (3.28 1m) = 25.68 ft

𝑃 1.7ℎ𝑝
=
𝑉 1000𝑔𝑎𝑙

1.7ℎ𝑝 1𝑔𝑎𝑙 1000𝐿 0.746kW


𝑃 = 1000𝑔𝑎𝑙 ∗ 3.78𝐿 ∗ ∗ 755.49 m3 ∗ ∗5
1𝑚3 1hp

𝑷 = 𝟏𝟐𝟔𝟕. 𝟑𝟒𝒌𝑾

Pre-Fermenter

ft
D = 3.64 m (3.28 1m) = 11.94 ft

𝑃 3.8ℎ𝑝
= 1000𝑔𝑎𝑙
𝑉

3.8ℎ𝑝 1𝑔𝑎𝑙 1000𝐿 0.746kW


𝑃 = 1000𝑔𝑎𝑙 ∗ 3.78𝐿 ∗ ∗ 75.55 m3 ∗ ∗3
1𝑚3 1hp

𝑷 = 𝟏𝟔𝟗. 𝟗𝟖𝒌𝑾

Neutralization

ft
D = 8.91 m (3.28 1m) = 29.22 ft

𝑃 1.3ℎ𝑝
= 1000𝑔𝑎𝑙
𝑉

1.3ℎ𝑝 1𝑔𝑎𝑙 1000𝐿 0.746kW


𝑃 = 1000𝑔𝑎𝑙 ∗ 3.78𝐿 ∗ ∗ 555.2331 m3 ∗
1𝑚3 1hp
207

𝑷 = 𝟏𝟒𝟐. 𝟒𝟓𝒌𝑾

Centrifuge

𝑷 = 𝟔𝟎𝐤𝐖

Cooling Tower

P=35.16 kW

Reboiler

𝑘𝐽 1ℎ𝑟
𝑃 = 1.87 × 106 (3600𝑠)

𝑷 = 𝟓𝟏𝟗. 𝟒𝟒𝐤𝐖

Total Power Requirement = 16.15 + 3.12+ 5.30 + 45.02 +2136.58 + 223.80 + 24+ 23.26

+ 12.82 + 1267.34 +169.98 + 142.45 + 60 + 519.44 +36.16+35.16

Total Power Requirement = 4,720.48 kW =4.72 MW


208
209

Appendix E

Bund Area

Ethanol Storage Tank


V =175.933 m3 /unit
D = 4.47 m

H = 11.175 m

Net Capacity of the Bund = 175.933 m3 x 1.33 = 233.99 m3


Bund area:
𝜋
AB = 4 𝐷2 x 3 units
𝜋
AB = 4 (4.47)2 x 3 = 47.08 m2

Area for Expansion:


AE= 2AB
AE=2(47.08)= 94.16 m2
Total area = Tank Area + Operational Allowances
= 94.16 + 2
Total Area = 96.16 m2
Height of the Bund area = Bund Capacity / Total Area
= 233.99 / 96.16 = 2.43 m

Acid Storage tank


70% H2SO4:
V= 477.035 m3
H= 11.9 m
D= 7.14 m
Net Capacity of the Bund = 477.035 m3 x 1.33 = 634.46 m3
Bund area:
210

𝜋
AB = 4 𝐷2
𝜋
AB = 4 (7.14)2 = 40.04 m2

Area for Expansion:


AE= 2AB
AE=2(40.04)= 80.08 m2
Total area = Tank Area + Operational Allowances
= 80.08 + 2
Total Area = 82.08 m2
Height of the Bund area = Bund Capacity / Total Area
= 634.46 / 82.08 = 7.84 m

30% H2SO4:
V= 162.71 m3
H= 8.32 m
D= 4.99 m
Net Capacity of the Bund = 162.71 m3 x 1.33 = 216.40 m3
Bund area:
𝜋
AB = 4 𝐷2
𝜋
AB = 4 (4.99)2 = 19.56 m2

Area for Expansion:


AE= 2AB
AE=2(19.56)= 39.12 m2
Total area = Tank Area + Operational Allowances
= 216.40 + 2
Total Area = 218.40 m2
Height of the Bund area = Bund Capacity / Total Area
= 216.40 / 218.40 = 0.99 m
211

H2SO4 Recovery Tank


V= 363.6 m3
H= 10.87 m
D= 6.52 m
Net Capacity of the Bund = 363.6 m3 x 1.33 = 483.59 m3
Bund area:
𝜋
AB = 4 𝐷2
𝜋
AB = 4 (6.52)2 = 33.39 m2

Area for Expansion:


AE= 2AB
AE=2(33.39)= 66.78 m2
Total area = Tank Area + Operational Allowances
= 66.78 + 2
Total Area = 68.78 m2
Height of the Bund area = Bund Capacity / Total Area
= 483.59 / 68.78 = 7.03 m

Hydrolysate Storage Tank


V= 118.36 m3
H= 7.48 m
D= 4.99 m
Net Capacity of the Bund = 118.36 m3 x 1.33 = 157.42 m3
Bund area:
𝜋
AB = 4 𝐷2
𝜋
AB = 4 (4.99)2 = 19.56 m2

Area for Expansion:


AE= 2AB
212

AE=2(19.56)= 39.12 m2
Total area = Tank Area + Operational Allowances
= 39.12 + 2
Total Area = 41.12 m2
Height of the Bund area = Bund Capacity / Total Area
= 157.42 / 41.12 = 3.83 m

Raw water Tank


V= 288 m3
H= 10.51 m
D= 5.26 m
Net Capacity of the Bund = 288 m3 x 1.33 = 383.04 m3
Bund area:
𝜋
AB = 4 𝐷2
𝜋
AB = 4 (5.26)2 = 21.73 m2

Area for Expansion:


AE= 2AB
AE=2(21.73)= 43.46 m2
Total area = Tank Area + Operational Allowances
= 43.46 + 2
Total Area = 45.46 m2
Height of the Bund area = Bund Capacity / Total Area
= 383.04 / 45.46 = 8.43 m

Processed Water Tank


V= 66 m3
H= 10.51 m
D= 3.48 m
213

Net Capacity of the Bund = 66 m3 x 1.33 = 87.78 m3


Bund area:
𝜋
AB = 4 𝐷2
𝜋
AB = 4 (3.48)2 =9.51 m2

Area for Expansion:


AE= 2AB
AE=2(9.51)= 19.02 m2
Total area = Tank Area + Operational Allowances
= 19.02 + 2
Total Area = 21.02 m2
Height of the Bund area = Bund Capacity / Total Area
= 87.78 / 21.02 = 4.18 m

Softened Water Tank


V= 54 m3
H= 3.25 m
D= 6.5 m
Net Capacity of the Bund = 54 m3 x 1.33 =71.82 m3
Bund area:
𝜋
AB = 4 𝐷2
𝜋
AB = 4 (6.5)2 =33.18 m2

Area for Expansion:


AE= 2AB
AE=2(33.18)= 66.36 m2
Total area = Tank Area + Operational Allowances
= 66.36 + 2
Total Area = 68.36 m2
214

Height of the Bund area = Bund Capacity / Total Area


= 66.86 / 71.82 = 0.93 m

Demineralized water Tank


V= 114 m3
H= 7.85 m
D= 3.93 m
Net Capacity of the Bund = 114 m3 x 1.33 =151.62 m3
Bund area:
𝜋
AB = 4 𝐷2
𝜋
AB = 4 (3.93)2 =12.13 m2

Area for Expansion:


AE= 2AB
AE=2(12.13)= 24.26 m2
Total area = Tank Area + Operational Allowances
= 24.26 + 2
Total Area = 26.26 m2
Height of the Bund area = Bund Capacity / Total Area
= 151.62 / 26.26 = 5.77 m
215

Appendix F

Supporting Tables and Schedules

Schedule 1. Purchased Equipment Cost


Machinery No. of Units Cost per unit Freight Cost Subtotal
Production
Conveyor 5.00 1,337,245.79 267,449.16 8,023,474.74
Rolling Mill 3.00 1,950,000.00 390,000.00 7,020,000.00
Sieving 3.00 1,168,082.30 233,616.46 4,205,096.28
Rotary Drum
3.00 2,044,797.90 408,959.58 7,361,272.44
Dryer
Pin Mill 3.00 1,559,041.15 311,808.23 5,612,548.14
Hydrolysis
Tank Reactor 1.00 1,470,000.00 294,000.00 1,764,000.00
(1st Stage)
Hydrolysis
Tank Reactor 1.00 1,127,000.00 225,400.00 1,352,400.00
(2st Stage)
Hydrolysate
1.00 3,321,685.00 664,337.00 3,986,022.00
Storage Tank
Electrodialysis 1.00 4,546,777.00 909,355.40 5,456,132.40
Main Fermenter 5.00 13,276,882.03 2,655,376.41 79,661,292.18
Pre-fermenter 3.00 3,527,688.20 705,537.64 12,699,677.52
Culture Vessel
1.00 450,075.00 90,015.00 540,090.00
(3rd)
Culture Vessle
1.00 235,300.00 47,060.00 282,360.00
(1st and 2nd)
Cooling Tower 1.00 270,071.93 54,014.39 324,086.32
BD-95 Disk
Stack 1.00 490,000.00 98,000.00 588,000.00
Centrifuge
Neutralization
1.00 2,818,220.00 563,644.00 3,381,864.00
Tank Reactor
Distilling
1.00 8,366,540.00 1,673,308.00 10,039,848.00
Column
Condenser 1.00 1,070,174.00 214,034.80 1,284,208.80
Reboiler 1.00 1,502,580.00 300,516.00 1,803,096.00
Molecular
Sieve 1.00 2,042,200.00 408,440.00 2,450,640.00
Dehydrator
Anaerobic
3.00 15,534,840.00 3,106,968.00 55,925,424.00
Digester
216

Decanter
1.00 990,000.00 198,000.00 1,188,000.00
Centrifuge
Rotary Vacuum
1.00 1,300,000.00 260,000.00 1,560,000.00
Centrifuge
Subtotal: 219,377,532.82
Storage Tank
Ethanol Storage
3.00 3,390,065.00 678,013.00 12,204,234.00
Tank
Sulfuric Acid
1.00 3,026,133.50 605,226.70 3,631,360.20
Recovery Tank
70% Sulfuric
Acid Storage 1.00 3,222,296.00 644,459.20 3,866,755.20
Tank
30% Sulfuric
Acid Storage 1.00 2,829,971.00 565,994.20 3,395,965.20
Tank
Lime Storage
1.00 3,800,130.00 760,026.00 4,560,156.00
Tank
Subtotal: 27,658,470.60
Power Plant
Furnace 1.00 501,000.00 100,200.00 601,200.00
Turbine 1.00 2,025,600.13 405,120.03 2,430,720.16
Boiler 1.00 1,690,000.00 338,000.00 2,028,000.00
Subtotal: 5,059,920.16
Water Treatment Plant
Raw Water
1.00 609,802.44 121,960.49 731,762.93
Tank
Processed
1.00 400,135.00 80,027.00 480,162.00
Water Tank
Softened Water
1.00 360,200.30 72,040.06 432,240.36
Tank
Demineralized
1.00 280,220.00 56,044.00 336,264.00
Water Tank
Clarified Water
1.00 388,700.00 77,740.00 466,440.00
Tank
Clarifier 1.00 350,200.00 70,040.00 420,240.00
Degasser 2.00 208,716.90 41,743.38 500,920.56
Activated
1.00 350,089.00 70,017.80 420,106.80
Carbon Filter
Dual Media
1.00 350,089.00 70,017.80 420,106.80
Filter
Reverse
1.00 239,777.00 47,955.40 287,732.40
Osmosis
Softening Unit 1.00 280,500.28 56,100.06 336,600.34
217

Subtotal: 4,832,576.18

Raw Material Cold Storage


MSK Powder
2.00 313,860.00 62,772.00 753,264.00
Storage
TOTAL: 257,681,763.76

Table 1. Direct Cost


Percentage
Purchased Equipment Cost (Php)
(%)
Purchased
Equipment 257,681,763.76 30 77,304,529.13
Installation
Instrumentation and
257,681,763.76 30 77,304,529.13
Control
Pipings 257,681,763.76 40 103,072,705.50
Electrical
Equipment 257,681,763.76 10 25,768,176.38
Installation
Buildings and
257,681,763.76 18 46,382,717.48
Structures
Land Improvement 257,681,763.76 3 7,730,452.91
Service Facilities 257,681,763.76 20 51,536,352.75
TOTAL DIRECT COST: 389,099,463.28

Table 2. Land Cost


Land Area (m2) Cost per sq. m Total Cost
(Php)
Land 200,219.38 120 24,026,325.60

Table 3. Indirect Cost


Purchased
Equipment Cost Percentage (%) Cost (Php)
(Php)
Engineering and
257,681,763.76 20 51,536,352.75
Supervision
Construction Fee 257,681,763.76 9 23,191,358.74
218

Contractor Fee 257,681,763.76 5 12,884,088.19


Contingency 257,681,763.76 10 25,768,176.38
TOTAL INDIRECT COST: 113,379,976.05
Note. From “General Process Plant Cost Estimating (Engineering Guideline)” by K.
Kolmetz, 2014

Schedule 2. Office and Transportation Equipment


Equipment/Item No. of Unit Unit Cost (Php) Total Cost (Php)
Fire Truck 1 ₱1,000,536.00 ₱ 1,000,536.00
Ambulance and
1 ₱1,550,000.00 ₱ 1,550,000.00
Medical Equipment
Service Vehicle 1 ₱620,000.00 ₱ 620,000.00
Forklift 3 ₱70,000.00 ₱ 210,000.00
Delivery Truck 1 ₱1,000,000.00 ₱ 1,000,000.00
Computer Units 6 ₱15,000.00 ₱ 90,000.00
Air Conditioner 5 ₱25,000.00 ₱ 125,000.00
LCD Projector 2 ₱20,000.00 ₱ 40,000.00
Fire Extinguisher 20 ₱650.00 ₱ 13,000.00
Office Table Chair 15 ₱12,000.00 ₱ 180,000.00
Water Dispenser 4 ₱1,500.00 ₱ 6,000.00
Telephone and
4 ₱1,500.00 ₱ 6,000.00
Internet
Two way Radio 2 ₱750.00 ₱ 1,500.00

Schedule 3. Cost of Sales


Total Cost of Raw Materials
(Schedule 4)
Direct Labor Salaries (Schedule 6) 7,554,384
SSS Contribution –ER (Schedule 8) 556,758.1
PhilHealth Contribution – ER (Schedule
103,872.8
9)
HealthCare (Schedule 10) 536,000
Accident Insurance (Schedule 11) 16,750
13th Month Pay (Schedule 12) 629,532
Total Direct Labor 9,397,297
Manufacturing Overhead
Fuel (Schedule 13) 26,963,649
Indirect Materials (Schedule 14) 331,750,401.00
Indirect Labor (Schedule 6) 1 ,353,024
SSS Contribution –ER (Schedule 8) 99,717.86
219

PhilHealth Contribution – ER (Schedule


18,604.08
9)
HealthCare (Schedule 10) 96,000
Accident Insurance (Schedule 11) 3,000
13th Month Pay (Schedule 12) 112,752
Repair and Maintenance 5,153,635.28
Depreciation of Equipment, Buildings and 8,890,020.85
Service Facilities (Schedule 15)
Total Manufacturing Overload 374,440,804
TOTAL COST OF SALES: 383,838,101

Schedule 4. Raw Material Cost


Quantity Price/Unit Total
1st Year 6,684,696.00 725 4,846,404,600.00
2nd Year 6,684,696.00 735.875 4,919,100,669.00
3rd Year 6,684,696.00 746.913125 4,992,887,179.04
4th Year 6,684,696.00 758.1168219 5,067,780,486.72
5th Year 6,684,696.00 769.4885742 5,143,797,194.02
Total: 24,969,970,128.78
220

Table 4. Five Year Projection of Cost of Sales


1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th Year 5th Year
Total of Raw
4,846,404,600.00 4,919,100,669.00 4,992,887,179.04 5,067,780,486.72 5,143,797,194.02
Material
Labor Salaries
7,554,384 7,781,015.52 8,007,647.04 8,234,278.56 8,460,910.08
(Table 6)
SSS Contribution
556,758.1 573,460.84 590,163.6 606,866.3 623,569.1
(Table 8)
PhilHealth
Contribution 103,872.8 106,989 110,105.2 113,221.4 116,337.5
(Table 9)
Health Insurance
536,000 552,080 568,160 584,240 600,320
(Schedule 10)
Accident
Insurance 16,750 17,252.5 17,755 18,257.5 18,760
(Schedule 11)
13th Month Pay
629,532 648,418 667,303.9 686,189.9 705,075.8
(Schedule 12)
TOTAL DIRECT
9,397,297 9,679,215.86 9,961,134.74 10,243,053.66 10,524,972.48
LABOR
Manufacturing
Overhead
Fuel (Schedule
26,963,649 26,963,649 26,963,649 26,963,649 26,963,649
13)
Indirect Materials
(Schedule 14) 331,750,401.00 341,702,913.03 351,954,000.42 362,512,620.43 373,387,999.05
Indirect Labor
1,353,024 1,393,614.72 1,434,205.44 1,474,796.16 1,515,386.88
(Table 6)
SSS Contribution
99,717.86 102,709.40 105,700.9 108,692.5 111,684
(Table 8)
221

PhilHealth
Contribution 18,604.08 19,162.2 19,720.32 20,278.45 20,836.57
(Table 9)
Health Insurance
96,000 98,880 101,760 104,640 107,520
(Schedule 10)
Accident
Insurance 3,000 3,090 3,180 3,270 3,360
(Schedule 11)
13th Month Pay
112,752 116,134.6 119,517.1 122,899.7 126,282.2
(Schedule 12)
Repair and
5,153,635 5,308,244 5,462,853 5,617,462 5,772,072
Maintenance
Depreciation of
8,890,020.85 9,156,721 9,423,422 9,690,123 9,956,823
Equipment
Total
Manufacturing 374,440,804 384,865,118 395,588,008 406,618,431 417,965,613
Overhead
TOTAL COST
383,838,101 394,544,334 405,549,143 416,861,485 428,490,585
OF SALES
222

Schedule 5. Annual Product Sales


Product Annual Production Unit Price Total (Php)
Anhydrous Alcohol (L) 17,400,000.00 45.00 783,000,000.00
CO2 13,320.00 500.00 6,660,000.00
Gypsum 8,735.25 2,000 17,470,500.00
TOTAL PRODUCT SALES: 805,822,500.00

Table 5. Five Year Projection of Product Sales


1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th Year 5th Year
Anhydrous
Alcohol 783,000,000.00 814,320,000.00 846,892,800.00 880,768,512.00 915,999,252.48
(L)
CO2 5,352,000.00 5,566,080.00 5,788,723.20 6,020,272.13 6,261,083.01

Gypsum 17,470,500.00 18,169,320.00 18,896,092.80 19,651,936.51 20,438,013.97

Total: 805,822,500.00 838,055,400.00 871,577,616.00 906,440,720.64 942,698,349.47

Schedule 6. Salaries and Wages


Salary/
No. of
Department Position Month/ Annual Salary
Personnel
Employee
Direct Labor
Production
Production 15 9,396.00 1,691,280
Helper
Operator 24 9,396.00 2,706,048
Drivers 7 9,396.00 789,264
Security Guard 12 9,396.00 1,353,024
WWTP Operators 6 9,396.00 676,512
Instrumentation Operators 3 9,396.00 338,256
Subtotal: 67 7, 554, 384
Indirect Labor
Powerplant
6 9,396.00 676,512
Operator
Maintenance
6 9,396.00 676,512
Staff
Subtotal: 12 1,353,024
Administration
223

Plant Manager 1 50,000 600,000


Administrative
1 30,000 360,000
Head
Human
1 25,000 300000
Resource Head
Human
1 9,396.00 112,752
Resource Staff
Administration
Physician 1 20,000 240,000
Nurse 3 9,396.00 338,256
Accounting
and Finance 1 25,000 300,000
Head
Accounting and Accounting
Finance and Finance 2 9,396.00 225,504
Staff
Sales and
Marketing 1 25,000 300,000
Head
Sales and Sales and
Marketing Marketing 1 9,396.00 112,752
Staff
Logistics and
Purchasing 1 25,000 300,000
Logistics and Head
Purchasing Logistics and
Purchasing 3 9,396.00 338,256
Staff
Engineering
1 46,224.00 554,688
Head
Engineering
Powerplant
3 25,000 900,000
Supervisor
Maintenance
1 46,224.00 554,688
Head
Maintenance
Maintenance
3 25,000 900,000
Supervisor
Quality
1 25,000 300,000
Control Officer
Quality
Control 6 9,396.00 676,512
Analysts
Quality Control
Laboratory
6 9,396.00 676,512
Sampler
Production
1 46,224.00 554,688
Head
Production Production
3 25,000 900,000
Supervisors
224

Electrical Supervisor 3 25,000 900,000


Instrumentation Supervisor 3 25,000 900,000
Pollution
Pollution 1 15,000 180,000
Control Officer
Control/ Safety
Safety Officer 1 15,000 180,000
Subtotal: 50 11,704,608
TOTAL 129 20,612,016
Source: nwpc.dole.gov.ph

Table 6. Five Year Projection of Salaries and Wages


1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th Year 5th Year
Direct Labor 7 554 384 7 781 015.52 8 007 647.04 8 234 28.56 8 460 910.08
Indirect Labor 1 353 024 1 393 614.72 1 434 205.44 1 474 796.16 1 515 386.88
Administration 11 704 428 12055560.84 12406693.68 12757826.52 13108959.36
TOTAL: 20,611,836 21,230,191.08 21,848,546.16 15,056,051.24 23,085,256.32

Schedule 7. SSS Contribution (Employee)


No. of Salary/
Monthly Annual
Department Position Perso Month/
Contribution Contribution
nnel Employee
Direct Labor
Production
Production 15 9,396.00 5 116.12 61 393.44
Helper
Operator 24 9,396.00 8 185.8 98 229.6
Drivers 7 9,396.00 2 387.52 28 650.24
Security Guard 12 9,396.00 4 092.9 49 114.8
WWTP Operators 6 9,396.00 2 046.45 24 557.4
Instrumentation Operators 3 9,396.00 1 023.22 12 278.64
Subtotal: 67 274 224.12
Indirect Labor
Powerplant
6 9,396.00 2 046.45 24 557.4
Operator
Maintenance
6 9,396.00 2 046.45 24 557.4
Staff
Subtotal: 12 49 114.8
Administration
Plant Manager 1 50,000 1 815 21 780
225

Administrative
1 30,000 1 089 13 068
Head
Human
1 25,000 907.5 10 890
Resource Head
Administration Human
1 9,396.00 341.07 4 092.9
Resource Staff
Physician 1 20,000 726 8 712
Nurse 3 9,396.00 1 023.22 12 278.7
Accounting
and Finance 1 25,000 907.5 10890
Head
Accounting and Accounting
Finance and Finance 2 9,396.00 341.0748 8185.795
Staff
Sales and
Marketing 1 25,000 907.5 10890
Head
Sales and Sales and
Marketing Marketing 1 9,396.00 341.0748 4092.898
Staff
Logistics and
Purchasing 1 25,000 907.5 10890
Logistics and Head
Purchasing Logistics and
Purchasing 3 9,396.00 341.0748 12278.69
Staff
Engineering
1 46,224.00 1677.931 20135.17
Head
Engineering
Powerplant
3 25,000 907.5 32670
Supervisor
Maintenance
1 46,224.00 1677.931 20135.17
Head
Maintenance
Maintenance
3 25,000 907.5 32670
Supervisor
Quality
1 25,000 907.5 10890
Control Officer
Quality
Control 6 9,396.00 341.0748 24557.39
Analysts
Quality Control
Laboratory
6 9,396.00 341.0748 24557.39
Sampler
Production
1 46,224.00 1677.931 20135.17
Head
Production Production
3 25,000 907.5 32670
Supervisors
Electrical Supervisor 3 25,000 907.5 32670
226

Instrumentation Supervisor 3 25,000 907.5 32670


Pollution
Pollution 1 15,000 544.5 6534
Control Officer
Control/ Safety
Safety Officer 1 15,000 544.5 6534
Subtotal: 50 424 877.3
TOTAL: 129 748216.22

Table 7. Five Year Projection of SSS Contribution


1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th Year 5th Year
Direct Labor 274 224.12 282 450.84 290 677.57 298 904.29 307 131.01
Indirect Labor 49 114.8 50 588.24 52 061.69 53 535.13 55 008.58
Administration 424 877.3 437 623.62 450 369.94 463 116.26 475 862.58
TOTAL: 748216.22 770662.7 793109.2 815555.68 838002.17

Schedule 8. PhilHealth Contribution (Employer)


Salary/
No. of Monthly Annual
Department Position Month/
Personnel Contribution Contribution
Employee
Direct Labor
Production
Production 15 9,396.00 1937.925 23255.1
Helper
Operator 24 9,396.00 3100.68 37208.16
Drivers 7 9,396.00 904.365 10852.38
Security Guard 12 9,396.00 1550.34 18604.08
WWTP Operators 6 9,396.00 775.17 9302.04
Instrumentation Operators 3 9,396.00 387.585 4651.02
Subtotal: 67 103872.8
Indirect Labor
Powerplant
6 9,396.00 775.17 9302.04
Operator
Maintenance
6 9,396.00 775.17 9302.04
Staff
Subtotal: 12 18 604.08
Administration
Plant Manager 1 50,000 687.5 8250
Administrative
1 30,000 412.5 4950
Head
Human
1 25,000 343.75 4125
Resource Head
227

Administration Human
1 9,396.00 129.195 1550.34
Resource Staff
Physician 1 20,000 275 3300
Nurse 3 9,396.00 387.585 4651.02
Accounting and
1 25,000 343.75 4125
Finance Head
Accounting and Accounting and
2 9,396.00 258.39 3100.68
Finance Finance Staff
Sales and
1 25,000 343.75 4125
Marketing Head
Sales and Sales and
1 9,396.00 129.195 1550.34
Marketing Marketing Staff
Logistics and
Purchasing 1 25,000 343.75 4125
Logistics and
Head
Purchasing
Logistics and
3 9,396.00 387.585 4651.02
Purchasing Staff
Engineering
1 46,224.00 635.58 7626.96
Head
Engineering
Powerplant
3 25,000 1031.25 12375
Supervisor
Maintenance
1 46,224.00 635.58 7626.96
Head
Maintenance
Maintenance
3 25,000 1031.25 12375
Supervisor
Quality Control
1 25,000 343.75 4125
Officer
Quality Control
6 9,396.00 775.17 9302.04
Analysts
Quality Control Laboratory
6 9,396.00 775.17 9302.04
Sampler
Production
1 46,224.00 635.58 7626.96
Head
Production Production
3 25,000 1031.25 12375
Supervisors
Electrical Supervisor 3 25,000 687.5 8250
Instrumentation Supervisor 3 25,000 412.5 4950
Pollution
Pollution 1 15,000 343.75 4125
Control Officer
Control/ Safety
Safety Officer 1 15,000 129.195 1550.34
Subtotal: 50 131238.4
TOTAL 129 253 715.28
228

Table 8. Five Year Projection of Philhealth Contribution


1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th Year 5th Year
Direct Labor 103872.8 106989 110105.2 113221.4 116337.5
Indirect Labor 18 604.08 19162.2 19720.32 20278.45 20836.57
Administration 131238.4 135175.6 139112.7 143049.9 146987
TOTAL: 235111.2 261326.8 268938.22 276549.8 284161.1

Schedule 9. Health Insurance


No. of
Department Position Monthly Annual
Personnel
Direct Labor
Production
Production 15 8,000 120000
Helper
Operator 24 8,000 192000
Drivers 7 8,000 56000
Security
12 8,000 96000
Guard
WWTP Operators 6 8,000 48000
Instrumentation Operators 3 8,000 24000
Subtotal: 67 536,000
Indirect Labor
Powerplant
6 8,000 48000
Operator
Maintenance
6 8,000 48000
Staff
Subtotal: 12 96 000
Administration
Plant
1 8,000 8000
Manager
Administrativ
1 8,000 8000
e Head
Human
Resource 1 8,000 24000
Head
Human
Administration Resource 1 8,000 8000
Staff
Physician 1 8,000 16000
Nurse 3 8,000 8000
229

Accounting
and Finance 1 8,000 8000
Head
Accounting and Accounting
Finance and Finance 2 8,000 8000
Staff
Sales and
Marketing 1 8,000 24000
Head
Sales and Sales and
Marketing Marketing 1 8,000 8000
Staff
Logistics and
Purchasing 1 8,000 24000
Logistics and Head
Purchasing Logistics and
Purchasing 3 8,000 8000
Staff
Engineering
1 8,000 24000
Head
Engineering
Powerplant
3 8,000 8000
Supervisor
Maintenance
1 8,000 48000
Head
Maintenance
Maintenance
3 8,000 48000
Supervisor
Quality
Control 1 8,000 8000
Officer
Quality
Control 6 8,000 24000
Quality Control Analysts
Laboratory
6 8,000 24000
Sampler
Production
1 8,000 24000
Head
Production Production
3 8,000 8000
Supervisors
Electrical Supervisor 3 8,000 8000
Instrumentation Supervisor 3 8,000 24000
Pollution
Pollution Control 1 8,000 8000
Control/ Safety Officer
Safety Officer 1 8,000 16000
Subtotal: 50 384000
TOTAL: 129 1 016 000
230

Schedule 10. Accident Insurance


No. of
Department Position Monthly Annual
Personnel
Direct Labor
Production
Production 15 250 3750
Helper
Operator 24 250 6000
Drivers 7 250 1750
Security Guard 12 250 3000
WWTP Operators 6 250 1500
Instrumentation Operators 3 250 750
Subtotal: 67 16,750
Indirect Labor
Powerplant
6 250 1500
Operator
Maintenance
6 250 1500
Staff
Subtotal: 12 3 000
Administration
Plant Manager 1 250 250
Administrative
1 250 250
Head
Human
1 250 250
Resource Head
Human
1 250 250
Resource Staff
Administration
Physician 1 250 250
Nurse 3 250 750
Accounting
and Finance 1 250 250
Head
Accounting and Accounting
Finance and Finance 2 250 500
Staff
Sales and
Marketing 1 250 250
Head
Sales and Sales and
Marketing Marketing 1 250 250
Staff
Logistics and
Logistics and
Purchasing 1 250 250
Purchasing
Head
231

Logistics and
Purchasing 3 250 750
Staff
Engineering
1 250 250
Head
Engineering
Powerplant
3 250 750
Supervisor
Maintenance
1 250 250
Head
Maintenance
Maintenance
3 250 750
Supervisor
Quality
1 250 250
Control Officer
Quality
Control 6 250 1500
Analysts
Quality Control
Laboratory
6 250 1500
Sampler
Production
1 250 250
Head
Production Production
3 250 750
Supervisors
Electrical Supervisor 3 250 750
Instrumentation Supervisor 3 250 750
Pollution
Pollution 1 250 250
Control Officer
Control/ Safety
Safety Officer 1 250 250
Subtotal: 50 12000
TOTAL 129 31 750

Schedule 11. 13th Month Pay


No. of 13th Month Pay /
Department Position Total
Personnel Employee
Direct Labor
Production
Production 15 9,396.00 140940
Helper
Operator 24 9,396.00 225504
Drivers 7 9,396.00 65772
Security Guard 12 9,396.00 112752
WWTP Operators 6 9,396.00 56376
Instrumentation Operators 3 9,396.00 28188
Subtotal: 67 629532
Indirect Labor
232

Powerplant
6 9,396.00 56 376
Operator
Maintenance
6 9,396.00 56 376
Staff
Subtotal: 12 112 752
Administration
Plant Manager 1 50,000 50000
Administrative
1 30,000 30000
Head
Human
1 25,000 25000
Administration Resource Head
Human
1 9,396.00 9396
Resource Staff
Physician 1 20,000 20000
Nurse 3 9,396.00 28188
Accounting
and Finance 1 25,000 25000
Accounting and Head
Finance Accounting
and Finance 2 9,396.00 18792
Staff
Sales and
Marketing 1 25,000 25000
Sales and Head
Marketing Sales and
Marketing 1 9,396.00 9396
Staff
Logistics and
Purchasing 1 25,000 25000
Logistics and Head
Purchasing Logistics and
Purchasing 3 9,396.00 28188
Staff
Engineering
1 46,224.00 46224
Head
Engineering
Powerplant
3 25,000 75000
Supervisor
Maintenance
1 46,224.00 46224
Head
Maintenance
Maintenance
3 25,000 75000
Supervisor
Quality
1 25,000 25000
Control Officer
Quality Control Quality
Control 6 9,396.00 56376
Analysts
233

Laboratory
6 9,396.00 56376
Sampler
Production
1 46,224.00 46224
Head
Production
Production
3 25,000 75000
Supervisors
Electrical Supervisor 3 25,000 75000
Instrumentation Supervisor 3 25,000 75000
Pollution
Pollution 1 15,000 15000
Control Officer
Control/ Safety
Safety Officer 1 15,000 15000
Subtotal: 50 975384
TOTAL 129 1 717 668

Table 9. Five Year Projection of 13th Month Bonus


1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th Year 5th Year
Direct Labor 629532 648418 667303.9 686189.9 705075.8
Indirect Labor 112 752 116134.6 1393615 122899.7 126282.2
Administration 975384 1004646 12055746 1063169 1092430
TOTAL: 1604916 1769199 14116664.9 1872259 1923788

Schedule 12. Fuel


Amount/Year Unit Price/ton Total Cost
Fuel
Napier Grass 59919.22 ₱450.00 ₱26,963,649.00 59919.22
TOTAL: 59919.22
234

Schedule 13. Cost of Indirect Materials

Indirect Amount Price per


Unit Total Cost
Materials per Year Ton

Year 2021 Year 2022 Year 2023 Year 2024 Year 2025

Sulfuric
Acid 35,904 Ton 4900 175,929,600.00 181,207,488.00 186,643,712.64 192,243,024.02 198,010,314.74

Lime 3,759.00 Ton 4,000 15,036,000.00 15,487,080.00 15,951,692.40 16,430,243.17 16,923,150.47


Yeast 16,542.12 Ton 5,300 87,673,236.00 90,303,433.08 93,012,536.07 95,802,912.15 98,676,999.52
DAP 378.63 Ton 4,500.00 1,703,835.00 1,754,950.05 1,807,598.55 1,861,826.51 1,917,681.30

Urea 6,311.70 Ton 4,500.00 28,402,650.00 29,254,729.50 30,132,371.39 31,036,342.53 31,967,432.80


Calcium
Hydroxide 3,759.00 Ton 6120 23,005,080.00 23,695,232.40 24,406,089.37 25,138,272.05 25,892,420.21

Total 331,750,401.00 341,702,913.03 351,954,000.42 362,512,620.43 373,387,999.05


235

Schedule 14. Property, Plant and Equipment


A. Land
TOTAL: 24,026,325.60
B. Building, Structures, and Land Improvement
Cost of Buildings and Structures 46,382,717.48
Engineering and Supervisions 51,536,352.75
Construction Fee 23,191,358.74
Contractor's Fee 12,884,088.19
Land Improvement 7,730,452.91
TOTAL: 141,724,970.07
C. Office & Transportation Equipment
TOTAL: 4,842,036.00
D. Total Cost of Equipment & Machiniers 257,681,763.76
Purchased Equipment Machineries 77,304,529.13
Installation Cost 77,304,529.13
Instrumentation and Controls 103,072,705.50
Pipes 25,768,176.38
Electrical Equipment Installations 257,681,763.76
TOTAL: 541,131,703.89
E. Service Facilities
TOTAL: 51,536,352.75

Schedule 15. Depreciation


Salvage Value Service Depreciable Cost
Assets Fixed Cost (Php)
(Php) Life (Php)
Buildings,
Structures, and
141,724,970.07 14,172,497.01 30 4,251,749.10
Land
Improvement
Office &
Transportation 4,842,036.00 484,203.60 10 435,783.24
Equipment
Purchased
Factory
541,131,703.89 54,113,170.39 15 32,467,902.23
Equipment and
Machineries
Service Facility 51,536,352.75 5,153,635.28 10 4,638,271.75
TOTAL DEPRECIATION: 41,793,706.32

P-S
Depreciation=
n
P = Actual Cost; S = Salvage Value; n = # of years
236

Table 10. Five Year Projection (Depreciation)


Pre-Operational Operational Phase
Depreciable Cost Year 1 Year 2 1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th Year 5th Year

Buildings,
Structures, and 4,251,749.10 4,251,749.10 4,251,749.10 4,251,749.10 4,251,749.10 4,251,749.10 4,251,749.10
Land Improvement

Office &
Transportation - - 435,783.24 435,783.24 435,783.24 435,783.24 435,783.24
Equipment

Purchased Factory
Equipment and - - 32,467,902.23 32,467,902.23 32,467,902.23 32,467,902.23 32,467,902.23
Machineries

Service Facility 4,638,271.75 4,638,271.75 4,638,271.75 4,638,271.75 4,638,271.75 4,638,271.75 4,638,271.75


TOTAL
8,890,020.85 8,890,020.85 41,793,706.32 41,793,706.32 41,793,706.32 41,793,706.32 41,793,706.32
DEPRECIATION:
237

Table 11. Five Year Projection (Accumulated Depreciation)


Pre-Operational Operational Phase
Depreciable Cost Year 1 Year 2 1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th Year 5th Year

Buildings,
Structures, and 4,251,749.10 8,503,498.20 12,755,247.31 17,006,996.41 21,258,745.51 25,510,494.61 29,762,243.71
Land Improvement

Office &
Transportation - - 435,783.24 871,566.48 1,307,349.72 1,743,132.96 2,178,916.20
Equipment
Purchased Factory
Equipment and - - 32,467,902.23 64,935,804.47 97,403,706.70 129,871,608.93 162,339,511.17
Machineries

Service Facility 4,638,271.75 9,276,543.50 13,914,815.24 18,553,086.99 23,191,358.74 27,829,630.49 32,467,902.23

TOTAL
8,890,020.85 17,780,041.70 (41,793,705.95) (83,587,412.67) (125,381,118.59) (167,174,825.11) (208,968,531.23)
DEPRECIATION:
238

Schedule 16. Operating Expenses

Depreciation (Schedule 15) 8,890,020.85

Salaries (Schedule 6) 11,704,428

SSS Contribution –ER (Schedule 8) 637,107.6

PhilHealth Contribution (Schedule 9) 131,238.4

HealthCare (Schedule 10) 384,000

Accident Insurance (Schedule 11) 12,000

13th Month Pay (Schedule 12) 975,384

TOTAL OPERATING EXPENSES: 22,734,178.85


239

Table 12. Five Year Projection of Operating Expenses


Pre-operation Phase Operational Phase
Year 1 Year 2 st
1 Year nd
2 Year 3rd Year 4th Year 5th Year
Administrative Expenses
Depreciation 8,890,020.85 8,890,020.85 41,793,706.32 41,793,706.32 41,793,706.32 41,793,706.32 41,793,706.32

Salaries - - 11,704,428.00 12,055,560.84 12,406,693.68 12,757,826.52 13,108,959.36


SSS
- - 637,107.60 656,220.83 675,334.10 694,447.30 713,560.50
Contribution
Phil Health
- - 131,238.40 135,175.60 139,112.70 143,049.90 146,987.00
Contribution
Health Care - - 384,000.00 384,000.00 384,000.00 384,000.00 384,000.00
Accident
- - 12,000.00 12,000.00 12,000.00 12,000.00 12,000.00
Insurance
13th month
- - 975,384.00 1,004,646.00 12,055,746.00 1,063,169.00 1,092,430.00
pay
Total Admin
8,890,020.85 8,890,020.85 55,637,864.32 56,041,309.59 67,466,592.80 56,848,199.04 57,251,643.18
Expenses:
Selling Expenses
Advertising & - - 500,000.00 475,000.00 451,250.00 428,687.50 407,253.13
Total Selling
- - 500,000.00 475,000.00 451,250.00 428,687.50 407,253.13
Expenses:
TOTAL
OPERATING 8,890,020.85 8,890,020.85 56,137,864.32 56,516,309.59 67,917,842.80 57,276,886.54 57,658,896.31
EXPENSES:
240

Schedule 17. Amortization Table

Year Annuity Principal Interest Balance

1 48,485,388 22,458,432 26,026,956 302,882,468.5

2 48,485,388 24,254,815 24,230,573 278,627,653.1

3 48,485,388 26,195,201 22,290,187 252,432,452.5

4 48,485,388 28,290,758 20,194,630 224,141,694.3

5 48,485,388 30,554,019 17,931,369 193,587,675.5

6 48,485,388 32,998,340 15,487,048 160,589,335.1

7 48,485,388 35,638,208 12,847,180 124,951,127.5

8 48,485,388 38,489,264 9,996,124 86,461,863.23

9 48,485,388 41,568,405 6,916,983 44,893,878

10 48,485,388 44,893,878 3,591,510 0

i(1+i)n
Annuity=P (
(1+i)n -1
P = Money loaned from the bank at t = 0
i = interest
n = # of years to pay the loan
241

Appendix G
Financial Ratios

Test of Liquidity

Current Assets
Current Ratio=
Current Liabilities

394,931,276.57
Current Ratioyear 1 = = 3.97
99,525,120.3
656,694,103.46
Current Ratioyear 2 = = 6.41
102,510,873.9
925,288,529.7
Current Ratioyear 3 = = 8.76
105,586,200.1
1,217,515,765.79
Current Ratioyear 4 = = 11.20
108,753,786.1
1,517,736,523.13
Current Ratioyear 5 = = 13.55
112,016,399.7

Test of Profitability

Gross Profit
Gross Profit Margin =
Sales

421,984,399
Gross Profit Marginyear 1 = = 0.52
805,822,500
443,511,066
Gross Profit Marginyear 2 = = 0.53
838,055,400
466,028,473
Gross Profit Marginyear 3 = = 0.53
871,577,616
242

489,579,235.64
Gross Profit Marginyear 4 = = 0.54
906,440,720.64
514,207,764.47
Gross Profit Marginyear 5 = = 0.55
942,698,349.47

Income Before Taxes


Pre - Tax Profit Margin =
Sales
339,819,578.68
Pre - Tax Profit Marginyear 1 = = 0.42
805,822,500
362,764,183.41
Pre - Tax Profit Marginyear 2 = = 0.43
838,055,400
375,820,443.2
Pre - Tax Profit Marginyear 3 = = 0.43
871,577,616
414,370,980.1
Pre - Tax Profit Marginyear 4 = = 0.46
906,440,720.64
429,651,814.16
Pre - Tax Profit Marginyear 5 = = 0.46
942,698,349.47

Income Before Taxes


Return on Assets =
Total Assets
339,819,578.68
Return on Assestsyear 1 = = 0.30
1,116,398,958.93
362,764,183.41
Return on Assestsyear 2 = = 0.27
1,336,368,079.10
375,820,443.20
Return on Assestsyear 3 = = 0.24
1,563,168,799.42
414,370,980.10
Return on Assestsyear 4 = = 0.23
1,813,602,328.99
429,651,814.16
Return on Assestsyear 5 = = 0.21
2,072,029,380.21
243

Income Before Taxes


Return on Equity =
Equity
339,819,578.68
Return on Equityyear 1 = = 0.70
488,011,350.30
362,764,183.41
Return on Equityyear 2 = = 0.74
488,011,350.30
375,820,443.20
Return on Equityyear 3 = = 0.77
488,011,350.30
414,370,980.10
Return on Equityyear 4 = = 0.85
488,011,350.30
429,651,814.16
Return on Equityyear 5 = = 0.88
488,011,350.30

Sales
Sales to Assets =
Total Assets
805,822,500
STAyear 1 = = 0.73
1,096,515,780.26
838,055,400
STAyear 2 = = 0.63
1,330,006,657.04
871,577,616
STAyear 3 = = 0.55
1,572,662,412.25
906,440,720.64
STAyear 4 = = 0.49
1, 840,023,498.98
942,698,349.47
STAyear 5 = = 0.44
2,125,609,678.4

Payback Period

72,880,076.94
Payback Period = 3 + = 3.24 (operation phase only)
298,407,875.89
244

Breakeven point analysis

Breakeven point for Year 1:


82,164,820.32
BEP in liters = = 4,810,197.81
(45-27.92)

Breakeven point for Year 2:


80,746,882.59
BEP in liters = = 4,518,449.83
(46.8-28.93)

Breakeven point for Year 3:


90,208,029.80
BEP in liters = = 4,777,230.05
(48.67-29.79)

Breakeven point for Year 4:


75,208,255.54
BEP in liters = = 3,853,253.82
(50.62-31.10)

Breakeven point for Year 5:


84,555,950.31
BEP in liters = = 4,103,399.99
(52.64-32.03)
245

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