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4.1 Develop Project î Project statement of î Expert judgmentV î Project CharterV ÃnitiatingV Sponsor initiates the charter; charter
Charter which formally work includes
authorizes a project or a î Business case 1) Project purpose or justification
phase and documenting î Contract 2) Measurable project objectives
initial requirement that î Enterprise and related success criteria
satisfy the stakeholder¶s Environment factors 3) High level requirements
need and expectationV î Organizational 4) High level project description
process assets 5) High level risks
V 6) Summary milestone schedule
7) Summary budget
8) Project approval requirements
(what constitutes project success,
who decides the project is
successful, who signs off on the
project)
9) Assigned project manager,
responsibility and authority level
10) Name and authority of the
sponsor or other person(s)
authorizing the project charter
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4.2 Develop Project î Project charterV î Expert judgementV î Project PlanningV Plan includes
Management Plan that î Outputs from management planV 1) processes selected
documents what is planning processesV 2) level of implementation
needed to define, prepare, î Enterprise 3) tools to be used
integrate & coordinate all environmental 4) interactions
subsidiary plansV factorsV 5) how to execute work
î Organizational 6) how to control changes
process assetsV 7) how to do configuration mgmt
8) baselines use
V 9) communication needs
10) project phases
11) key mgmt issues
V
4.4 Direct & Manage î Project î Expert judgmentV î DeliverablesV ExecutingV Actions include
Project Execution by management planV î Project î Work performance 1) perform activities
executing the work î Approved change management informationV 2) spend money
defined in the project requestsV information systemV î Change requestsV 3) train staff
management plan to meet î Enterprise î Project 4) manage vendors
requirements defined in Environment factorsV management plan 5) implement standards
the scope statementV î Organizational updatesV 6) create, control & validate
process assetsV î Project document deliverables
updatesV 7) manage risk & risk response
activities
8) adapt scope changes as needed
9) manage communications
10) collect project data including cost
& milestones
11) collect & document lessons
learned and process improvement
actions
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4.5 Monitor & Control î Project î Expert judgmentV î Change requestsV Monitor & Actions include
Project Work is the management planV î Project ControlV 1) compare actual vs. plan
process of tracking, î Performance reportsV management plan 2) determine corrective actions needed
reviewing, and regulating î Enterprise updatesV 3) analyze risks & ensure corrective
the progress to meet the environment factorsV î Project document actions taken
performance objectives î Organizational updatesV 4) maintain information base
defined in the project process assetsV 5) status reporting
management planV 6) forecasting

V
4.6 Ãntegrated Change î Project î Expert judgmentV î Change request Monitor & Change control is needed because
Control is the process of management planV î Change control status updatesV ControlV projects seldom run according to
reviewing all change î Work performance meetingV î Project plan. Changes must be managed; also
requests, approving informationV management plan includes documenting changes and
changes and managing î Change requestsV updatesV only releasing approved
changes to the î Enterprise î Project document changes. Defect repair must be
deliverables, environment factorsV updatesV validated and quality controlled.V
organizational process î Organizational î VV V
assets, project documents process assetsV Configuration management also
and the project occurs ± identify changes, determine if
management planV changes have been implemented, and
verify changes after complete.V
V
Every documented change must either
be accepted or rejected by some
authority.

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4.7 Close Project  î Project î Expert judgmentV î Final product, ClosingV Updates after project completion
finalizing all activities management planV service, or result include
across all of the project î Accepted transitionV 1) formal acceptance documentation
process groups to formally deliverablesV î Organizational (written)
close the projectV î Organizational process assets 2) project files updated
process assetsV updatesV 3) project closure documents prepared
(even for projects halted before
completion)
4) historical information is used to
update the ³lessons learned´ databaseV

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5.1 Collect Requirements is î Project charterV î ÃnterviewsV î Requirements PlanningV V
the process of defining and î Stakeholder registerV î Focus groupsV DocumentationV
documenting stakeholders¶ î Facilitated î Requirements
needs to meet the project workshopsV Management PlanV
objectives î Group creativity î Requirements
V techniquesV Traceability MatrixV
î Group decision
making techniquesV
p A  V
p ñV
p c  V
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 V
î Questionnaires and
surveysV
î ObservationsV
î PrototypesV
V
V
5.2 Define Scope by î Project charterV î Expert judgment V î Project scope PlanningV Project Scope statement is critical to
developing a detailed î Requirements î Product analysisV statementV the project success. Ãncludes
description of the project DocumentationV î Alternatives î Project document 1) Product scope description
and productV î Organizational identificationV updatesV 2) Product acceptance criteria
process assetsV î Facilitated 3) Project deliverables
workshopsV 4) Project exclusions
5) Project constraints
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5.3 Create Work î Project scope î DecompositionV î WBSV PlanningV Decomposition divides work into
Breakdown Structure statementV î WBS dictionaryV smaller elements by
(WBS) is the process of î Requirements î Scope baselineV 1) identify deliverables
subdividing project documentationV î Project document 2) structure and organize WBS
deliverables and project î Organizational updatesV 3) decomposing upper WBS into lower
work into smaller, more process assetsV level detailed components
manageable components. 4) assign ÃD codes to WBS
The WBS is a deliverable- components
oriented hierarchical 5) verifying that degree of
decomposition of the work decomposition is sufficient.V
to be executed by the V
project team to accomplish Each component must be assigned,
the project objectives and and defined in terms of how the project
create the required will actually be executed and
deliverables, with each controlled.V
descending level of WBS
representing an
increasingly detailed
definition of the project work
V
5.4 Verify scope is the î Project î ÃnspectionV î Accepted Monitor Scope verification is primarily
process f formalizing management planV deliverablesV & ControlV concerned with acceptance of the
acceptance of the î Requirements î Change requestsV scope by stakeholdersV
completed project documentationV î Project document
deliverables. Verifying î Requirements updatesV
scope includes reviewing traceability matrixV
deliverables with the î Validated
customer or sponsor to deliverablesV
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ensure that they are
completed satisfactory and
obtaining formal
acceptance of deliverables
by the customer or sponsor
V
5.5 Control Scope is the î Project î Variance analysisV î Work performance Monitor Uncontrolled changes called ³scope
process of monitoring the management planV measurementsV & ControlV creep´. Change is inevitable, thus this
status of the project and î Work performance î Organizational process is neededV
product scope and informationV process assets
managing changes to the î Requirements updatesV
scope baseline. Controlling documentationV î Change requestsV
the project scope ensures î Requirements î Project
all requested changes and traceability matrixV management plan
recommended corrective or î Organizational updatesV
preventative actions are process assetsV î Project document
processed through the updatesV
Perform Ãntegrated Change
Control ProcessV
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6.1 Define Activities is the î Scope baselineV î DecompositionV î Activity listV PlanningV The activity list does not include any
process of identifying the î Enterprise î Rolling wave î Activity attributesV schedule activities that are not
specific actions to be environmental planningV î Milestone listV required as part of the project scope. V
performed to produce the factorsV î TemplatesV
project deliverables. î Organizational î Expert judgmentV
Project work packages process assetsV
are typically decomposed
into smaller components
called activities that
represent the work
necessary to complete
the work package
V
6.2 Sequence Activity is î Activity listV î Precedence î Project schedule PlanningV 3 types of dependencies - mandatory,
the process of identifying î Activity attributesV diagramming network diagramsV discretionary (best practices) and
and documenting î Milestone listV method (PDM)V î Project document external.V
relationships among the î Project scope î Dependency updatesV
project activities. statementV determinationV
Activities are sequenced î Organizational î Applying leads and
using logical relationshipV process assetsV lagsV
V î Schedule network
templatesV
6.3 Estimate Activity î Activity listV î Expert judgmentV î Activity resource PlanningV V
Resource is the process î Activity attributes V î Alternative analysisV requirementsV
of estimating the tye and î Resource calendarsV î Published î Resource
quantities of material, î Enterprise estimating dataV breakdown
people, equipment or environmental î Bottom-up structureV
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supplies required to factorsV estimatingV î Project document
perform each activityV î Organizational î Project updatesV
process assetsV management
softwareV
6.4 Estimate Activity î Activity listV î Expert judgmentV î Activity duration PlanningV Variance = Pessimistic ± Optimistic
Durations is the process î Activity attributesV î Analogous estimatesV divided by 6, squared
of approximating the î Activity resource estimatingV î Project document
number of work periods requirementsV î Parametric updatesV Standard Deviation = Pessimistic ±
needed to complete î Resource calendarsV estimatingV Optimistic divided by 6V
individual activities with î Project scope î Three point
estimated resources.V statementV estimatesV
î Enterprise î Reserve analysisV
environmental
factorsV
î Organizational
process assetsV
6.5 Develop Schedule is î Activity listV î Schedule network î Project scheduleV PlanningV Critical Path is the longest path
the process of analyzing î Activity attributesV analysisV î Schedule baselineV through a network diagram and shows
activity sequences, î Project schedule î Critical path methodV î Schedule dataV earliest completion of a project. V
durations, resource network diagramsV î Critical chain î Project document V
requirements and î Activity resource methodV updatesV CPM uses the most likely estimate to
schedule constraints to requirementsV î Resource levelingV calculate the float to determine project
create the project î Resource calendarsV î What-if scenario duration and scheduling flexibility.V
scheduleV î Activity duration analysisV V
estimatesV î Applying leads and Critical chain modifies schedule to
î Project scope lagsV account for limited resources. Define
statementV î Schedule critical path, then apply resources ±
î Enterprise compressionV often path changes. V
environmental î Scheduling toolV V
factorsV Schedule can be showed as a network
î Organizational diagram, bar chart (gantt), or milestone
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process assetsV chart.

Schedule compression :-
1. Crashing ± adding additional
resource to shorten the
durationV
2. Fast tracking ± Perform
sequence activities in parallel
etc.V
V
6.6 Control Schedule ± is î Project î Performance î Work performance Monitor Key measures include Schedule
the process of monitoring management planV reviewsV measurementsV & ControlV Variance (SV) and Schedule
the status of the project to î Project scheduleV î Variance analysisV î Organizational Performance Ãndex (SPÃ).V
update project progress î Work performance î Project process assets V
and manage changes to informationV management updatesV Progress reporting includes actual
the schedule baseline. î Organizational softwareV î Change requestsV start and finished dates, and remaining
Schedule control is process assetsV î Resource levelingV î Project durations for unfinished activities..V
concern with : î What-if scenario management plan V
î ¦   V V  V analysisV updatesV Schedule revisions are a special


V V V  V î Adjusting leads and î Project document category of schedule updates ±

 V lagsV updatesV generally incorporated in response to
î Ã   V V  
V î Schedule V approved change requests. The
 V   V
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V î Scheduling toolV are saved to prevent loss of data.V
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7.1 Estimate Cost is the î Scope baselineV î Expert judgmentV î Activity cost PlanningV Top down / analogous estimating is
process of developing an î Project scheduleV î Analogous estimatesV generally less costly and less accurate
approximation of the î Human resource estimatingV î Basis of estimatesV than other techniques.V
monetary resources planV î Parametric î Project document Bottom-up estimating accuracy is
needed to complete î Risk registerV estimatingV updatesV driven by size of work items being
project activitiesV î Enterprise î Bottom-up estimated. Reserve analysis includes
environmental estimatingV ³known unknowns´.V
factorsV î Three-point Project in initiation phase as
î Organizational estimatesV rough order of Magnitude (ROM) of ±
process assetsV î Reserve analysisV 50/+100%, later could go to ±
î Cost of qualityV 10%/+15%V
î Project
management
estimating softwareV
î Vendor bid analysisV
V
7.2 Determine Budget is î Activity cost î Cost aggregationV î Cost performance PlanningV Cost baseline is a time-phased budget
the process of estimatesV î Reserve analysisV baselineV to measure and monitor cost
aggregating the estimated î Basis of estimatesV î Expert judgmentV î Project funding performance.V
costs of individual î Scope baselineV î Historical requirementsV V
activities or work î Project scheduleV relationshipsV î Project document Reserve are budgeted for unplanned,
packages to establish an î Resource calendarV î Funding limit updatesV but potentially required, changes to
authorized cost baselineV î ContractsV reconciliationV project scope and cost ± not part of the
î Organizational project cost baseline or earned value.V
process assetsV V
Project funding requirements are
derived from the cost baseline.V
7.3 Control Cost is the î Project î Earned value î Work performance Monitor î PV - Planned Value (also Budget
process of monitoring the management planV managementV measurementsV & ControlV at Completion BAC)V
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status of the project to î Project funding î Earned value î Budget forecastsV î EV - Earned ValueV
update the project budget requirementsV managementV î Organizational î AC - Actual CostV
and managing changes to î Work performance î Forecasting V process assets î ETC ± Estimate to CompleteV
the cost baselineV informationV î To-complete updatesV î EAC ± Estimate at CompletionV
î Organizational performance indexV î Change requestsV î Formulas to remember:V
process assetsV î Performance î Project Schedule Variance = EV-PV V
reviewsV management plan î Cost Variance = EV-AC V
î Variance analysisV updatesV î Schedule Performance Ãndex =
î Project î Project document EV/PV V
management updatesV î Cost Performance Ãndex =
softwareV EV/AC (<1.0 overrun, 1.0 on
budget, > 1.0 underrun)V
î SPÃ, CPÃ used to forecast
completion date and project cost
projectionV
î 3 methods of getting EAC V
p EAC forecast for ETC work
performed at the budgeted
rate, EAC = AC + BAC ± EVV
p EAC forecast for ETC work
performed at the present CPÃ,
EAC = BAC/CPÃV
p EAC forecast for ETC work
considering both SPÃ & CPÃ
factors, EAC=AC + (BAC-
EV)/(CPÃ SPÃ)V
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8.1 Plan Quality is the î Scope baselineV î Cost-benefit î Quality PlanningV  
V
V! VV V
VV VV
process of identifying î Stakeholder registerV analysisV management planV
 V 

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quality requirements î Cost performance î Cost of qualityV î Quality metricsV 
 "V
and/or standards for the baselineV î Control chartsV î Quality checklistsV #V
VV V
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project and product, and î Schedule baselineV î BenchmarkingV î Process   VV
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documenting how the î Risk registerV î Design of improvement planV  
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project will demonstrate î Enterprise experimentsV î Project document  

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complianceV environmental î Statistical samplingV updatesV V
factorsV î FlowchartingV 

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î Organizational î Proprietary quality  V  VV  V
process assetsV management V V
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methodologiesV $ VV  V V V
î Additional quality  V
V VV V V  V  V
planning toolsV V

%  V&

: Conformance
to requirements, specifications, and
fitness for use.V

Quality is planned in, not inspected in.V

Cost of quality is total cost of all efforts


related to quality. Project may not
reap benefits since they are later in
product lifecycle (i.e. lower returns)V
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8.2 Perform Quality î Project î Plan Quality and î Organizational ExecutingV Deming: Plan, Do, Check, ActV
Assurance is the process management planV Perform Quality process assets
ë
V'%
  V   (:
of auditing the quality î Quality metricsV Control tools and updatesV
Small improvements in products or
requirements and the î Work performance techniquesV î Change requestsV
processes to reduce costs and ensure
results from quality informationV î Quality auditsV î Project
consistency of products or services.V
control measurements to î Quality control î Process analysisV management plan
ensure appropriate quality measurementsV updatesV &)V*+++: An international standard
standards and operational î Project document that
 a recommended quality
definitions are used. updatesV system. Does not include quality
Perform Quality V procedures or forms.V
Assurance is an [ 

 is a rule of thumb (e.g. Rule
execution process that of Seven)V
uses data created during
Perform Quality Control.

Perform Quality
Assurance also provides
an umbrella for continous
process improvement,
which is an iterative
means for improving the
quality of all processes.
Continuous process
improvement reduces
waste and eliminates
activities that do not add
value. This allows
processes to operate at
increased levels of
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efficiency and
effectivenessV

8.3 Perform Quality î Project î Cause and effect î Quality control Monitor & î +/- 1 sigma = 68.26%V
Control is the process of management planV diagramsV measurementV ControlV î +/- 2 sigma = 95.46%V
monitoring and recording î Quality metricsV î Control chartsV î Validated changesV î +/- 3 sigma = 99.73%V
results of executing the î Quality checklistsV î FlowchartingV î Validated î +/- 6 sigma = 99.99 %V
quality activities to assess î Work performance î HistogramV deliverablesV
m
, % 

Vto be
performance and measurementsV î Pareto chartV î Organizational
measured (e.g. size, shape)V
recommended necessary î Approved change î Run chartV process assets
$ 
 , The measurement (e.g.
changesV requestsV î Scatter diagramV updatesV
inches, pounds)V
î DeliverablesV î Statistical samplingV î Change RequestsV
& 

V , The
î Organizational î ÃnspectionV î Project
probability of 1 event occurring does
process assetsV î Approved change management plan
not affect the probability of another
requests reviewV updatesV
event occurring.V
î Project document
updatesV

Deming definition of quality is ³continous improvement´

Juran ± for quality to improve, we must resolve ³sporadic´ (short term problems) and ³chronic´ (require scientific breakthrough) problems.

Juran suggests that cost of quality includes both conformance and nonconformance costs, whereas Crosby sugges that cost of quality includes the nonconformance costs because
he argues that quality is free and conformance cost of prevention and appraisal are cost of doing business

Deming Juran Crosby

Definition of quality Continuous improvement Fitness for use Conformance to requirements

Application Manufacturing-driven companies Technology driven companies People drive companies

Target audience Workers Management Workers


Emphasis on Tools / System Measurement Motivation (behavioral)

Type of tools Statistical process control Analytical, decision-making and Minimal use

Cost of quality

Use of goals and targets Not used Used for breakthrough projects Posted goals for workers

Taguchi¶s concepts :-

1. Quality should be designed into the product and not inspected into itV

2. Quality is best achieved by minimizing the deviation from the target. The product should be designed that it is immune to uncontrollable environmental factorsV

3. The cost of quality should be measured as a function of deviation from the standard and the losses should be measured system-wideV

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9.1 Develop Human î Activity resource î Organization charts î Human Resource PlanningV
Staff management plan includes 1)
Resource Plan by requirementsV and position PlanV
staff acquisition 2) timetable 3) release
identifying, documenting î Enterprise descriptionsV
criteria 4) training needs 5) recognition
project roles, environmental î Networking V
& rewards 6) compliance 7) safetyV
responsibilities, required factorsV î Organizational
skills, reporting î Organizational theoryV
relationships as well as process assetsV
creating the staffing
management planV
9.2 Acquire Project Team î Project î Pre-assignmentV î Project staff ExecutingV Conflict Resolution Techniques:V
is the process of management planV î NegotiationV assignmentsV î Problem Solving (Address
confirming human î Enterprise î AcquisitionV î Resource interests)V
resource availability and environmental î Virtual teamsV calendarsV î Compromising (Middle ground)V
obtaining the team factorsV V î Project î Forcing (Ãmpose judgement)V
necessary to complete î Organizational management plan î Withdrawal (Avoidance)V
project assignments.V process assetsV updatesV î Smoothing (Peace keeping)V

PMÃ recommends Problem Solving as


best choice followed by
compromising. Forcing is last.V
9.3 Develop Project Team î Project staff î Ãnterpersonal î Team ExecutingV Maslow¶s Hierarchy of Needs (in
is the process of assignmentsV skillsV performance order):V
improving the î Project î TrainingV assessmentsV î Physiological (Lowest)V
competencies, team management planV î Team building î Enterprise î SafetyV
interaction, and the î Resource activitiesV environmental î SocialV
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overall team environment calendarsV î Ground rulesV factors updatesV î EsteemV
to enhance project î Co-locationV î Self-Actualization (Highest)V
performance. Project î Recognition and
MacGregor¶s Theory X ± People must
managers should acquire rewardsV
be constantly watched. They are
skills to identify, build, V
incapable, avoid responsibility, and
maintain, motivate, lead
avoid work.V
and inspire project teams
MacGregor¶s Theory Y ± People are
to achieve high team
willing to work without supervision and
performance and to meet
want to achieve.V
the project¶s objectives.V
Ouchi's Theory Z - People work
effectively when secure, consulted and
held collectively responsible.V
9.4 Manage Project Team î Project staff î Observation and î Enterprise Monitor & Lessons learned documentation can
is the process of tracking assignmentsV conversationV environmental ControlV include 1) org charts as templates 2)
team member î Project î Project performance factors updatesV rules or techniques that were
performance, providing management planV appraisalsV î Organizational particularly successful 3) virtual teams,
feedback, resolving î Team performance î Conflict process assets location items that were successful 4)
issues, and managing assessmentsV managementV updatesV special skills discovered during the
changes to optimize î Performance reportsV î Ãssue logV î Change requestsV projectV
project performance.V î Organizational î Ãnterpersonal skillsV î Project
process assetsV management plan
updatesV
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10.1 Ãdentify î Project charterV î Stakeholder î Stakeholder ÃnitiatingV Communication Methods:V
Stakeholders is the î Procurement analysisV registerV ¨ Formal Written ± Project
process of identifying all documentsV î Expert judgmentV î Stakeholder Plans/ChartersV
people or organizations î Enterprise management ¨ Formal Verbal ± Presentations,
impacted by the project, environmental strategyV SpeechesV
and documenting relevant factorsV ¨ Ãnformal Written ± Memos, e-mailV
information regarding î Organizational ¨ Ãnformal Verbal ± Meetings,
their interests, process assetsV ConversationsV
involvement, and impact
Comm. Channels: N(N-1)/2 where N
on project successV
is equal to the number of people.

A salience model is a stakeholder


classification that ranks stakeholders
based on their power, urgency, and
legitimacy in the projectV

V
10.2 Plan î Stakeholder registerV î Communication î Communications PlanningV
PM should spend 70 - 90% of their
Communications is the î Stakeholder requirement management planV
time communicating.V
process of determining management analysisV î Project document
the project stakeholder strategyV î Communication updatesV Basic elements of communication:V
information needs and î Enterprise technologyV ¨ Sender (or encoder)V
defining a communication environmental î Communication ¨ Message.V
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approachV factorsV modelsV ¨ Receiver (or decoder)
î Organizational î Communication
î About 55% of all communication is
process assetsV methodsV
nonverbal. Oral Message account for
7% of the message, The tonality of the
message account for 38% of the
message.

î Paralingual ± Pitch and tone of voice


also help to convey a messageV

î Communication methods ± Ãnteractive


communication, Push communication,
Pull communicationV

î V

V
10.3 Distribute î Project î Communication î Organizational ExecutionV Performance Reporting Tools:V
information is the process management planV methodsV process assets ¨ Status ReportV
of making relevant î Performance reportsV î Ãnformation updatesV ¨ Progress ReportV
information available to î Organizational distribution toolsV ¨ Trend ReportV
project stakeholders as process assetsV ¨ Forecasting ReportV
planned. ¨ Variance ReportV
The focus here is mainly ¨ Earned Value V
in the execution process,
which includes
implementing the
communications
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management plan, as
well as responding to
unexpected requests for
information.V
10.4 Manage Stakeholder î Stakeholder registerV î Communication î Organizational ExecutionV V
Expectations is the î Stakeholder methodsV process assets
process of management î Ãnterpersonal skillsV updatesV
communicating and strategyV î Management skillsV î Change requestsV
working with stakeholders î Project î Project
to meet their needs and management planV management plan
addressing issues as they î Ãssue logV updatesV
occurV î Change logV î Project document
î Organizational updatesV
process assetsV
10.5 Report î Project î Variance analysis î Performance Monitoring
Performance is the management plan î Forecasting reports and
process of collecting and î Work performance methods î Organizational Controlling
distributing performance information î Communication process assets
information, including î Work performance methods updates
status reports, progress measurements î Reporting systems î Change requests
measurements, and î Budget forecasts
forecasts î Organizational
process assets
The performance
reporting process
involves the periodic
collection and analysis of
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baseline versus actual
data to understand and
communicate the project
progress and
performance as well as
forecast the project
results

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11.1 Risk Management - Project scope - Planning - Risk Management Plan PlanningV Risk = f(probability, consequence)
Planning by deciding statementV Meetings and p Risk Management
how to approach, plan - Cost analysisV Methodology Tolerance of risk :
& execute the risk management p Risk roles and Risk averter/avoider,
management activities planV responsibility risk neutral,
for a project - Schedule p Risk budget and risk taker or risk seeker.
Management schedule
aVVV PlanV p Tolerances, threshold, Expected Payoff for a strategy =
 
VV - Communication and authority sum of (payoff element X
 
VV Management p Risk categories probability)

V PlanV V

VV - Enterprise Risk management plan includes

 
V  VV Environment methodology, roles,
 VV


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 VV ¨ OrganizationalV
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11.2 Risk Ãdentification - Risk management - Documentation - Risk register V PlanningV Risk Components:V
by determining which planV reviewsV p RiskV ¨ Risk eventV
risks might affect the - Activity cost - Ãnformation p Risk ownerV ¨ Risk event probabilityV
project and estimatesV gathering p Risk categoryV ¨ Risk event consequenceV
documenting their - Activity duration techniquesV p Risk causeV ¨ Risk event statusV
characteristicsV estimatesV - Checklist p Potential responseV
- Scope baselineV analysisV p ÃmpactV
- Stakeholder registerV - Assumptions p ProbabilityV
- Cost management analysisV p Symptons/Warning
planV - Diagramming signsV
- Schedule techniquesV p Risk scoreV
management planV - SWOT analysisV p Risk ranking / priorityV
- Quality - Expert judgementV p Risk responseV
management planV p Risk response
- Project documentsV responsibilitiesV
- Enterprise p Secondary risksV
environment factorsV p Risk response budgetV
V p Risk response
V scheduleV
V p Contingency planV
V p Fallback planV
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11.3 Qualitative Risk - Risk register V - Risk probability - Risk register (updates)V PlanningV Use of low precision data may lead
Analysis by prioritizing - Risk management and impact to faulty analysis.V
risks for further analysis planV assessmentV
Risks calculated as high or
or action by assessing - Project scope - Probability and
moderate would be prime
& combining their statementV impact matrixV
candidates for further analysis.V
probability of -  #  V - Risk data quality
occurrence & impact 

V


V assessmentV
- Risk
categorizationV
- Risk urgency
assessmentV
- Expert judgmentV
- V

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11.4 Quantitative Risk - Risk register - Data gathering - Risk register (updates) PlanningV Quantitative analysis follows
Analysis through - Risk management and including 1) probabilistic qualitative analysis. V
numerically analyzing planV representation analysis of the project for
Objectives include:V
the effect on overall - Cost management techniquesV schedule & cost outcomes 2)
¨ Determine probability of
project objectives of plan - Quantitative risk prioritized list of quantified
reaching project objectivesV
identified risksV - Schedule analysis and risks 3) trends in quantitative
¨ Determine size of contingency
management plan modeling risk results)V
neededV
- Organizational techniques
¨ Ãdentify risks requiring most
process assets (sensitivity
attention based on their priorityV
V analysis,
¨ Ãdentify realistic cost and
expected
scope targetsV
monetary value
analysis, and
decision tree
analysis,
modeling &
simulation)V
- Expert judgmentV

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11.5 Risk Response - Risk register - Strategies for - Risk register (updates)V PlanningV %
V is a
Planning by developing - Risk management negative risk or - Risk-related contractual management plan that identifies
options & actions to planV threats (avoid, agreementsV alternative strategies to be used to
enhance opportunities V transfer or - Project management plan ensure project success if specified
& reduce threats to mitigate)V (updates)V risk events occur.V
project objectives - Strategies for - Project document updatesV
Fallback plan is a management
positive risks or V
plan that identifies alternative
Response Option for opportunities
project approaches if the risk has
risk include (exploit, share or
high impact, or if the strategy might
acceptance, avoidance, enhance)V
not be fully effective. V
mitigation (control) and - Strategy for both
transfer risks and Contingency Reserve accounts for
opportunities known risks that have been
Response Option for (accept and accepted.V
opportunity include contigent)V Secondary risks arise from
acceptance, enhance, - Contingency implementing the contingency
exploit and shareV response plan. V
strategyV
- Expert judgmentV
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11.6 Risk Monitoring - Risk registerV - Risk - Risk register (updates)V Monitor Purpose of Risk Monitoring is to
and Control by keeping - Project reassessmentV - Organizational process assets & determine if:V
track of identified risks, management plan - Risk auditsV updatesV ControlV ¨ Risk responses implemented
monitoring residual - Work performance - Variance and - Change request
V as plannedV
risks and identifying information trend analysisV - Project management plan ¨ Risk response actions were as
new risks, executing - Performance - Technical (updates)V effective as plannedV
risk response plans and reports performance - Project document updatesV ¨ Project assumptions are still
evaluating their measurementV validV
effectiveness - Reserve analysisV ¨ Risk trigger has occurredV
throughout the project - Status meetingsV ¨ Risk exposure has changedV
life cycleV V

 

Hurwicz criterion ± optimistic and go by maximize profit by go-for-broke strategy ± maximax criterion
Wald criterion ± maximin criterion ± how much can afford to lose
Savage ± minimize the maximum regret ± minimax criterion ± minimize the maximum regret
Laplace ± attempt to transform decision making under uncertainty to decision making under risk

Expected monetary value (EMV) is the cost or benefit of an uncertain event


EMV =

Reserve ± Contingency reserve (known unknowns) and management reserve (unknown)




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12.1 Plan Procurements î Scope baselineV î Make-or-buy î Procurement PlanningV Contract Type:V
is the process of î Requirements analysisV management planV î FP ± Fixed Price or Lump
documenting project documentV î Expert judgmentV î Procurement sum. (Simplest form is PO) ±
purchasing decisions, î Teaming î Contract typesV statement of workV risk on sellerV
specifying the approach, requirementsV î Make-or-buy p *V*$ Vc V   
V**cV
and identifying potential î Risk registerV decisionsV p *$ Vc VÃ  V* V
sellers. Ãt identifies those î Risk-related contract î Procurement   
V*cÃ*V
project needs which can decisionsV documentsV p *$ Vc V V   Vc V
best be, or must be, met î Activity resource î Source selection 
 V   
V*ccV
by acquiring products, requirementsV criteriaV î CR ± Cost Reimbursable (cost
services, or results î Project scheduleV î Change requestsV plus fee, cost plus fixed fee or
outside of the project î Activity cost cost plus incentive fee, cost plus
organization, versus estimatesV award fee contracts) ± place risk
those project needs î Cost performance on buyerV
which can be baselineV î T&M ± Time and Materials
accomplished by the î Enterprise (aspects of FP and CR
project team environmental contracts) - Moderate cost risk
V factorsV to buyer.)V
î Organizational
V
process assetsV

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12.2 Conduct î Project î Bidder conferencesV î Selected sellersV PlanningV
Procurement management plan can
Procurements is the management planV î Proposal evaluation î Procurement
include 1) type of contract 2)
process of obtaining î Procurement techniquesV contract awardV
independent estimates 3) standardized
seller responses, documentsV î Ãndependent î Resource
procurement documents 4) constraints
selecting a seller, and î Source selection estimatesV calendarsV
& assumptions 5) lead times for
awarding a contract. Ãn criteriaV î Expert judgmentV î Change requestsV
contracting coordination 6) make-or-
this process, the team will î Qualified seller listV î AdvertisingV î Project
buy documentation 7) scheduled dates
receive bids or proposals î Seller proposalsV î Ãnternet searchV management planV
in contracts 8) performance metrics for
and will apply previously î Project documentsV î Procurement  
V
managing contracts
defined selection criteria î Make-or-buy negotiationsV î c V  V
to select one or more decisionV  
V
sellers who are qualified î Teaming All bidders conference Q&A should be
to perform the work and agreementsV put in writing and issued to all potential
acceptable as a sellerV î Organizational sellers as an addendum to the
process assetsV procurement docs.
V

V
12.3Administer î Procurement î Contract change î Procurement ExecutingV V
Procurements is the documentsV control systemV documentationV
process of managing î Project î Procurement î Organizational
procurement relationship, management planV performance process assets
monitoring contract î ContractV reviewsV updatesV
performance, and making î Performance reportsV î Ãnspection and î Change requestsV
changes and corrections î Approved change auditsV î Project
as needed. Both the requestsV î Performance management plan
buyer and seller will î Work performance reportingV updatesV
administer the informationV î Payment systemsV
procurement contract for î Claims
similar purposes administrationV
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12.4 Close î Project î Procurement auditsV î Closed ExecutingV
V
Procurements is the management planV î Negotiated procurementsV
process of completing î Procurement settlementsV î Organizational
each project documentationV î Records process assets
procurement. Ãt supports management updatesV
the Close Project or systemV
Phase process, since it
involves verification that
all work and deliverables
were acceptable.V
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