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HVAC Systems for Rail Vehicles Area to fit in a picture - facultative

March 8, 2011

Knorr-Bremse Group
Agenda

•Merak Overview 5 min

•Product Overview 10 min

•Overview of the design process 15 min

•Transit Industry specific requirements 30 min


•Mechanical
•Thermal

•Refrigerant Overview 15 min

Knorr-Bremse Group 2
The Knorr-Bremse Group

Knorr-Bremse Group
Knorr-Bremse at a glance

Founded 1905
Experience 100 years of Innovation
Independence Family owned
Employees 14.432*
Sales 2,761 Mrd. EUR*
R&D expenses 5,5 % vom Umsatz*
Investments 101 Mio. EUR*
Locations More than 65 locations in 25 countries
Two Main Divisions Systems for Rail Vehicles, Systems for Commercial Vehicles
Product portfolio Global market- and technological leader with two main pillars:
– Brake systems for rail vehicles + On-Board Systems
– Brake systems for commercial vehicles + torsional vibration damper

Knorr-Bremse Group *Source: Annual Report 2009 4


More than 65 Knorr-Bremse sites in over 25 countries

America Europe/Africa Asia/Pacific


Brazil Belgium Romania Australia
Canada Germany Sweden China
Mexico France Switzerland India
USA UK Spain Japan
Italy Czech Republic Russia
Netherlands Turkey South Korea
Austria Hungary
Poland South Africa

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Corporate Vision of Knorr-Bremse Systems for Rail Vehicles

Brake Systems Air Conditioning Systems

Worldwide
Worldwidesystem-partnership
system-partnership

Strong
Strongcommitment
commitmentto
toinnovation
innovation
Automatic Door Systems Other On-Board Systems (e.g.)
Broad,
Broad,safety
safetyrelated
relatedproduct
productrange
range
 Platform Screen Doors
Superior
Superiorservices
services
 Information Systems
“Best
“Bestin
inclass”
class”performance
performance

Knorr-Bremse Group 6
Knorr-Bremse the competent system supplier
(Example: Metro Madrid S 9000)

HVAC
HVAC Systems:
Systems: Power
Power Supply
Supply &
&
 Roof-mounted
Roof-mounted unit
unit Distribution:
Distribution:
 Contactors:
Contactors:
LTC250/1P
LTC250/1P
LTHS800/1P
LTHS800/1P
LTHS800/2P
LTHS800/2P

Door
Door Systems:
Systems: Brake
Brake Systems:
Systems:
 RLS
RLS E2
E2  Air
Air Supply
Supply
 Brake
Brake Control
Control
 Bogie
Bogie Equipment
Equipment

Knorr-Bremse Group 7
Knorr-Bremse the competent system supplier
(Example: High-Speed EMU CRH3)

HVAC
HVAC Systems:
Systems: Windscreen
Windscreen Wiper
Wiper
 Roof-mounted
Roof-mounted unit
unit

Door
Door Systems:
Systems: Brake
Brake Systems:
Systems:
 DET
DET  Air
Air Supply
Supply
 Brake
Brake Control
Control
 Bogie
Bogie Equipment
Equipment

Knorr-Bremse Group 8
Knorr-Bremse the competent system supplier
(Example: Alstom Citadis)

HVAC
HVAC Systems:
Systems: Power
Power Supply
Supply &
&
 Roof-mounted
Roof-mounted unit
unit Distribution:
Distribution:
 Contactors:
Contactors:
LTHS
LTHS
 Resistors
Resistors

Door
Door Systems:
Systems: Brake
Brake Systems:
Systems:
 RLS
RLS
 Hydraulic
Hydraulic
 Brake
Brake Control
Control
 Bogie
Bogie Equipment
Equipment

Knorr-Bremse Group 9
Applications

MT
Metros

Covering all types of vehicles


Madrid Stockholm Hong-Kong Singapore Fortaleza Guangzhou Porto

Commuters Tramways Cabins

More than 40.000 units running

LD More than 200 different designs


(NY M-7) CIVIA Train 2000 Oresund Citadis BCN Boston Porto Madrid

High Speed Double Decker

ICE-Velaro Lanzadera Korea T - 350 TGV Rio Tajo


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References in Metro Projects

 LIRR M7 (New York MTA)

Metro-North Railroad M7
(New York MTA)

 WMATA 2K, 3K, 5K, and 6K


Series (Washington, DC)

 CTA 2200 (Chicago)

CTA 2600 (Chicago)

CTA 5000 (Chicago)

 Vancouver

Knorr-Bremse Group 11
References in LRV Projects
 JFK (New York / USA)
 MBTA No. 8 Cars (Boston / USA)
 PAAC (Pittsburgh / USA)
 Vancouver BCT (Canada)
 Hiawatha (Minneapolis / USA)

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Product Overview
Merak
Merak is
isone
oneofofthe
theworld
world leading
leadingcompany
companyspecialized
specializedin
inthe
the
design,
design, manufacture
manufactureand
and maintenance
maintenanceof ofAir
Air Conditioning
Conditioning
Systems
Systems (HVAC)
(HVAC)only
onlyfor
for railway
railwayvehicles
vehicles
Focused on railways since more than 40 years

Covering all types of railways vehicles

HVAC units running in the 5 continents

Experts in every type of climate

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Main Components of Transit air conditioning system

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Duct work as necessary

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Exhaust air Unit
Exhaust air unit

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Overpressure protection damper system

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Overpressure protection damper system
Technical Development

Entering tunnel Closing dampers


Crossing tunnel Opening dampers
Leaving tunnel
at 200km/h
500
Outside pressure Inside pressure
400

300

200

100

-100

p (Pa)
-200

-300

-400

-500

-600

-700

-800
0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 5 5,5 6
t (s)

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Passenger area HVAC system

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Merak Overview – Design Process

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Transit Industry Requirements

Mechanical
Shock and Vibration Size and Weight
Mobile Environment

Environmental Maintainability
Sealing

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Mechanical Requirements

Shock and Vibration Requirements

-Direction of travel +/- 8 g’s


-Vertical Direction +/- 3 g’s

Roof mounted units must be able to support 250 lbs


- Covers must support workers

Roof mounted units on/in the roof


- Mounting for all accelerations
- Maintain sealing to the car
- Provide access for maintenance
- Quick removal and replacement of unit

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Example of Frame design

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FEM (Finite Element Modeling) – Stress Analysis

Static Calculation
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Requirements- Vibration Testing

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Acoustic Noise Testing

6m

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Transit Industry Requirements

Thermal
External Conditions Interior Conditions
105/120 F Temp, humidity

System Design

Passenger Loading Airflow and Control

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Transit Industry Requirements – Performance

External Conditions based on Transit Authority Specification

Specification usually considers modified ASHRAE Data for equipment


location

Additional requirements for the following:


 Tunnel Conditions
 Passenger load conditions
 Station stops and door configuration (fresh air infiltration)
 Internal Heat loads (lights, motors, electrical)
 Fresh air infiltration
 Tunnel conditions station stops and passenger loading

Specification typically dictates the HVAC unit rating conditions

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Transit Industry Requirements – Examples

“The control system shall be designed to automatically maintain the car interior
temperature, including both cabs, at the specified conditions, under any ambient
temperature from 22°F (-6°C) to 115°F (46°C), with a condenser air entering temperature
of up to 125°F (52°C), with or without variable internal heat loads such as passengers,
motors, lights and solar gain, when the auxiliary power supply (APS) is at its
nominal voltage”.

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Transit Industry Requirements – Examples

Washington Metro Requirements (WMATA)

The Heating, Ventilation, and Cooling system (HVAC) shall provide automatic
control of interior temperatures as required herein at any ambient temperature
from -18°F to +105°F at the specified wet bulb conditions, with or without solar
gain or variable internal heat loads such as passengers, miscellaneous electrical
apparatus, and lights. Unless otherwise specified herein, the HVAC shall be
powered by the Auxiliary Power System (APS) and shall start and operate within
the voltage and frequency ranges specified in Section 1.3 and Section 17.

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Introductions to Load Calculations

•Load calculations, used for equipment sizing


•Standard developed over years of experience
•Vehicle parameters (Transmission gain)
•Passenger heat gains
•Solar gain, window parameters
•Vehicle, ISO, and ASHRAE data used

•Company developed Software for Calculation


•Tailored for Rail Vehicles
•Verified with historical data
•Provides quick and effective method for calculations

•Results are used for equipment sizing (Coils, compressors, blowers)

Knorr-Bremse Group 31
Load Calculation Output - Overview

Parameter Inputs

Heat Gain Calculations


•Solar
•Transmission
•Occupants
•Internal equipment

Results

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Load Calculation - Overview

Outside:
Baseline: 41oC (11%RH) – Tucson Spec
Option 1: 41oC (25 %RH)
Option 2: 41oC (50% RH)
Passengers:
Baseline: 115 (AW2)
Option 1: 154 (AW3)

Knorr-Bremse Group 33
Load Calculation - Overview

Based on Vehicle
Parameters (LxWxH)

Transmission gains
from Data Base

Internal gains
115 Passengers
14 kW (50,000 BTU/hr)

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Load Calculation – Key Parameter Output

Total Cooling
Required per Total Airflow
Car (11 tons) per Car

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Load Calculation – Key Parameter Output

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Systems Design

System Overview - HVAC Design Parameters example


System Parameters
– Unit Capacity: 9 tons (108,000 BTUH)
– Condenser Inlet Temperature: 110°F (115°F max ambient air full capacity cooling)
– Fresh Air Inlet Temperature: 100 FDB / 75 FWB
– Return Air Temperature: 75 FDB, 62 FWB (50% RH)
– Evaporator Air Volume : 2400 ACFM (fresh air 600, return air 1800)

Operating Voltages
– Power : 208/3ph/60 Hz
– Control: 37.5 VDC nominal / 120 VAC (26 VDC – 42 VDC)

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System Overview - General Design Features – example
Design Features
– Unitized Roof mounted package
– Stainless steel support frame with aluminum walkable covers and access doors
– Refrigerant control compartment easily accessible from the inside of the vehicle
– Control Panel, pressure controls, gauge ports, sight glass within return air plenum
– Microprocessor control
– Cooling modes from 50°F to 125°F
– Refrigerant R-134a
– Hermetic Scroll Compressors
– PTE access through car locker

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Mechanical System Schematic – Piping

The design and selection of components begins!


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Transit Industry Requirements – Performance

Design performance will be verified in laboratory (chamber testing)

Performance based on “design point” conditions

Example based on Dallas Specification


“The control system shall be designed to automatically maintain the car interior
temperature, including both cabs, at the specified conditions, under any ambient
temperature from 22°F (-6°C) to 115°F (46°C), with a condenser air entering temperature
of up to 125°F (52°C), with or without variable internal heat loads such as passengers,
motors, lights and solar gain, when the auxiliary power supply (APS) is at its
nominal voltage”.

Note: Performance data will be established at 115°F !

Knorr-Bremse Group 40
Transit Industry Requirements

Electrical/software
Power and Power Train communication
supplies

Onboard Power
Rail Power

Diagnostics Inverter Power from


600 vdc

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Typical System Interface – Electrical
PTE

Air Conditioning Control Unit


ACCU
RS232

HVAC 208V AC / 37.5V DC / 24V AC


CN4
System Control Panel Logic

CN1 CN2 RS232

CN3 Car Cabinet

Power Supply HVAC


Floor Heater
280V AC 3Phase Fault Control Panel
Fresh Air
120V AC 1Phase Layover Heat
Floor Circuit
Thermostat
Heater Duct Air Return Air
Sensor Sensor

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Typical System Interface – Electrical

F- End F- End

230 Vac 3
Low (compressors,
Voltage blowers, fans)
700 Vdc
(control,
(OH sensors,
Heater) feedback)

HVAC Control Box


(electronics, contactors,
breakers, ect)
Train Lines,
Ethernet
700 Vdc in
230 Vac 3
Local Car Other Car Low Voltage In

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Transit Industry Requirements

Manuals, training
Full Manuals Parts Catalogs

Diagnostic tool Bench Test Equipment


(computer)

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Manuals

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Special Tools and Test Equipment

 Bench Test Equipment


– Off-car testing of ACCU boards
– Automatic test routine
– ACCU board testing and troubleshooting
– Verifies I/O and processing functions
– Displays fault information

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HVAC Technology and Innovation

CFD Computational Fluid Dynamics

Aerodynamic study of condenser air-flow

Knorr-Bremse Group 47
HVAC Technology and Innovation

CFD Computational Fluid Dynamics

1
y = 1,8 m Air discharge
y = 1,65 m 2

5 4 3
y=1m

Comfort parameters
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Merak test facilities

Test Facilities: Acoustic tools


Intensimetry Acoustic photography

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Merak test facilities

Test Facilities
Thermodynamic Laboratory
Airflow test (equipment & Mock-up) Extreme conditions testing

Refrigeration Cooling Capacity Test

Software de
de Control
Control
Diseñado
Diseñado por
por Merak
Merak en
en base
base aa la
la herramienta
herramienta LabView
LabView
Control
Control Equipo de Ensayo Humidificadores Cálculo de Capacidad:
- Método Entálpico
- Método de Potencia

Registro de Medidas
Temperatura aire seca y húmeda-Presión aire-Consumos eléctricos
Presión refrigerante-Temperatura refrigerante

Control Sala Interior


Consumos Eléctricos Control Sala Exterior

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Typical PTU Interface

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Transit Industry Requirements

Refrigerants
R- 22 R-134 a

R-407c Future ??

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Transit Industry Requirements

Refrigerants
Refrigerant Past Present Future

R-22

R-407c 
R-134a 
R-744 1

R-410a 2

HFO-1234yf 3

1. Under investigation, working pressures extremely high


2. Working pressures are high
3. Poor flammability characteristics

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Knorr-Bremse Group 54