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Introductions!

Polynomials are one of the


most frequently studied
objects in mathematics.
Sometimes, people think its
hard to solve problems
regarding polynomials.This
module will make you
understand polynomials
easier.
Definition

In algebra, polynomial long


division is an algorithm for
dividing a polynomial by
another polynomial of the
same or lower degree, a
generalised version of the
familiar arithmetic technique
called long division. It can be
done easily by hand, because
it separates an otherwise
complex division problem
into smaller ones.
Lesson

In the same way as


multiplication was the same
for rational expressions as
for rational numbers so is the
division of rational
expressions the same as
division of rational numbers.
Remember that division of
fractions of rational numbers
is the same as multiplication
by the reciprocal of the
divisor.
Example 1

𝟒𝒙 𝟕𝒚 𝟒𝒙 𝟐
÷ = ∙
𝟑 𝟐 𝟑 𝟕𝒚
𝟖𝒙
=
𝟐𝟏𝒚
A polynomial divided by a
monomial or a polynomial is
also an example of a rational
expression and it is of course
possible to divide
polynomials as well. When
you divide a polynomial with
a monomial you divide each
term of the polynomial with
the monomial.
Example 2

𝑎𝑥 + 𝑏 𝑎𝑥 𝑏
= +
𝑐 𝑐 𝑐
When you divide polynomials
you may have to factor your
polynomials to find a
common factor between the
numerator and the
denominator

𝒙𝟐 − 𝟒𝒙 + 𝟑
𝒙−𝟑
(𝒙 − 𝟑)(𝒙 − 𝟏)
=
𝒙−𝟑
=𝒙−𝟏
When there are no common
factors between the
numerator and the
denominator or if you can't
find the factors you can use a
longer division process to
simplify the expression.

Example 3
7𝑥 2 + 𝑥 − 8
𝑥−1
You begin by dividing the first
term of the dividend (𝟕𝒙𝟐 )
with the first term of the
divisor (x) to find the first
term of the quotient (7x) and
then you multiply the quotient
term with the divisor and
subtract.
To find the next term of the
quotient you just divide the
first term of the remaining
dividend (8x - 8) with the first
term of the divisor (x)
This means that:

𝟕𝒙𝟐 + 𝒙 − 𝟖
= 𝟕𝒙 + 𝟖
𝒙−𝟏
Activity:
Divide the following
polynomials and write your
the whole solution.

𝒙𝟑 −𝟒𝒙𝟐 + 𝟐𝒙+𝟓
1.
𝒙−𝟐
𝟐𝒙𝟑 +𝟒𝒙𝟐 −𝟓
2.
𝒙+𝟑
𝟐𝒙𝟑 −𝟒𝒙+𝟕𝒙𝟐 +𝟕
3.
𝒙𝟐 +𝟐𝒙−𝟏
𝟒𝒙𝟑 −𝟐𝒙𝟐 −𝟑
4.
𝟐𝒙𝟐 −𝟏
𝟏𝟐𝒙𝟑 −𝟏𝟏𝒙𝟐 +𝟗𝒙+𝟏𝟖
5.
𝟒𝒙+𝟑
𝟑𝒙𝟑 +𝟒𝒙+𝟏𝟏
6.
𝒙𝟐 −𝟑𝒙+𝟐
Answer Keys:

𝟏
1. 𝒙𝟐 − 𝟐𝒙 − 𝟐 +
𝒙−𝟐
𝟐𝟑
2. 𝟐𝒙𝟐 − 𝟐𝒙 + 𝟔 −
𝒙+𝟑
−𝟖+𝟏𝟎
3. 𝟐𝒙 + 𝟑 +
𝒙𝟐 +𝟐𝒙−𝟏
𝟐𝒙−𝟒
4. 𝟐𝒙 − 𝟏 +
𝟐𝒙𝟐 −𝟏
5. 𝟑𝒙𝟐 − 𝟓𝒙 + 𝟔
𝟐𝟓𝒙−𝟕
6. 𝟑𝒙 + 𝟗 +
𝒙𝟐 +𝟑𝒙+𝟐
Complete Solutions:

1. Divide:
2. Divide:
3. Divide:
4. Divide:
5. Divide:
6. Divide: