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INTRODUCTION

Description of database tables

admin_login:

user_id: Stores user id of administrator(s).PROJECT DESCRIPTION

Introduction

Student Results Management System can be used by education institutes to maintain the
records of students easily. Achieving this objective is difficult using a manual system as the
information is scattered, can be redundant and collecting relevant information may be very time
consuming.

Perspective:

The website Student Results System is aimed towards recording a considerable number
of student records and needs online assistance for managing records of students. Website should
be user-friendly, ‘quick to learn’ and reliable website for the above purpose.

Student Results System is intended to be a stand-alone product and should not depend on
the availability of other website. The system will also have an administrator who has full-fledged
rights with regards to performing all actions related to control and management of the website.
All these problems are solved using this project

The directory structure of the project is as follows:

Description of root directory contents

Images Directory: This directory contains the images uploaded by the students during
registration process.Supported formats are the .jpg and .gif files.

Resume Directory: This Directory Contains resumes of students uploaded during


registration process of students.Files in this folder can be of .doc,.txt or .pdf format.
Admin_Edit_Student_Info.php : Admin page for editing information of astudent.The
administrator can change details of a student in this page.Thoughfacility of changing the image
and resume are not yet provided but will beprovided in future versions of the project.

Admin_Edit_Student_Info_Handler.php : Page handler for handling


theAdmin_Edit_Student_Info.php file.It writes the edited values in the databaseon the server.

Admin_Header.php : Header file for pages accessible to administrator only.

Admin_Home.php : Home page for administrator after logging in process.

Admin_Login.php: Login page for administrator access.Shows appropriatemessage for wrong


username and/or password.

Admin_Login_handler.php : Page handler for Admin_Login.php page.Itchecks the values


provided with the values in the database.

Admin_Student_View_Info.php : Page to display student information to theadministrator.

Connect.php : Page for database connectivity.It is used whenever databasevalues are required
on the page.

DisplayAll.php : Page to display all registered students to the administrator.This facility is only
available to the administrator.

Enable_Disable_handler.php : Handler page for enabling/disabling of students account


facility.This functionality is only available to the administrator.

Footer.php : Footer file for all pages.

Header.php : Header file for login page and homepage of the site.

Index.php : Homepage of the website.

Logout.php : Logout handler page.It Destroys all session variables thusending user session.

Search.php : Search page to search students.It can only be used byadministrator.Students can be
searched using different fields such as userid,account status etc.
Search_Result.php : Page to display search results to the administrator.

Search_View_Result.php : Page to display student Results for anyselected search result.

Student_Edit.php : Page to edit student information.It can be accessed bystudents.

Student_Edit_Handler.php : Page handler for Student_Edit.php.

Student_Header.php : Header file for student pages.

Student_Home.php : Home page for students after they log into their respective accounts.

Student_login.php : Login Page for student login. Appropriate message is displayed if the login
is unsuccessful.

Student_login_handler.php : Page handler for Student_Login.php.It checksthe values provided


with that in th the database.

Student_Registration.php : Student Registration page.The students enters various details here


for registration.

Student_Registration_handler.php : Page Handler for handling the file


Student_registration.php.It adds value to the student_ Results table thus creating a new user.

Student_Reset_Password.php : Page for resetting password.It can be used only by


students.Administrator password can be changed only by changing the values in the table
directly.

Student_Reset_Password_Handler.php : Page handler for handling page


Student_Reset_Password.php.

Student_View.php : Page to display student profile with all the details of the student.

Style.css : Stylesheet for the whole site design.


Validation.js : Javascript validations used for validation of form values. Various form entries are
validated at the client side using this file only.

 password : Stores password of the administrator(s).

 last_login_date : Stores the last login date of the administrator(s).

Student_information :

 student_id : Stores user id of the student(s)

 student_password : Stores password of the student(s)

 first_name : Stores first name of the student(s)

 last_name : Stores last name of the student(s)

 registration_date : Stores the registration date of the student(s).

 gender : Stores the gender of the student(s).

 date_of_birth : Stores the date of birth of the student(s).

 student_status : Stores the current status of the student account(s).

 contact_no : Stores the contact number of the student(s).

 qualification : Stores student(s) qualification.

 city : Stores the city in which the student(s) lives.

 email1 : Stores primary email of the student(s).

 email2 : Stores secondary email of the student(s).

 address : Stores the address of the student(s).

 description : Stores description of the student(s).


 resume : Stores resume of students(s).

 image : Stores image of the student(s).

 last_login_date : Strores last login date of the student(s).

Features

The Website provides following functionalities to the users :

Administrator :

 Login/Logout

 View student Results

 Edit Student Results

 Enable/disable student accounts

 Search students

Student :

 Login/Logout

 View profile

 Edit profile

 Change password

 Register new profile

Functions :

There are two different users who will be using this product:
 Administrator who can view and edit the details of any students.

 Students who can view their details as well as they can edit their details.

The features that are available to the Administrator are:

 An Administrator can login into the system and perform any of the available operations.

 Can enable/disable student.

 Can edit student Results to the database.

 Can make search for a specific student.

 Can access all the details of the student.

The features that are available to the student are:

 Student can login into the system and can perform any of the available options.

 Can view his/her personal details.

 Can edit his/her personal details

 Can upload his/her resume.

 Can upload his/her image.

User Classes and Characteristics :

There are mainly two kinds of users for the product.

The users include:

 Administrator

 Student
Operating Environment :

The product can run on any browser.

Constraints :

 Every user must be comfortable using computer.

 All operations are in English so user must have basic knowledge of English.

USE CASE MODEL :

Administrator: Responsible for managing student records.

 Login into the website

 Update student details

 Search student details

 Display student details

 Enable/Disable student

Student: Has the access rights to view and edit their personal details.

 Login into the website

 Display student details

 Edit their details

 Upload their images

 Upload their resumes

Assumptions & dependencies

 Administrator is created in the system already.

 Roles and tasks are predefined.


Specific Requirements :

Use Case Reports

Administrator: Responsible for managing student details.

Use-case: Login into the website

Goal in context: Gain access to the website

Brief Description: This use case is used when the administrator wants to access the website to
enable/disable/update the personal details of the student.

Preconditions: The Administrator must be logged onto the website in order for this use case to
begin.

Basic Flow:

 The Website prompts the administrator for the user name and password.

 The Administrator enters the user name and password.

 The Website verifies the password and sets the user’s authorization.

 The Administrator is given access to the Website to perform his tasks.

Alternative Flow:

 The administrator enters invalid username and password then he will not be allowed to
enter the website.

Post conditions: The website state is unchanged by this use case.

Use Case Report- Login into the website

Use Case : Display student details

Goal in context: View the details of a student


Brief Description: This use case is used when the administrator wants to view the personal
details of the students already existing in the database on the screen.

Preconditions:

 The Administrator must be logged into the system in order for this use case to begin

 The details of the student must pre-exist in the database

 The student id must be entered correctly.

Basic Flow:

The Administrator logs onto the System.

 The Administrator search the student from following keys:-

 Student id

 First/last name

 Registration date status

 The System prompts for the student detail from one of the above keys.

 The student details are displayed on the screen.


Alternative Flow:

Student Not Found,If in the Display a student sub-flows, a student with the specified id
number does not exist, The system displays an error message. The Administrator can then enter a
different id number or cancel the operation, at which point the use case ends.

Post conditions:

The student details are displayed on the screen already existing in the system. The state of the
system remains unchanged.

Use Case : Edit student details

Goal in context: Edit the details of a student

Brief Description: This use case is used when the administrator wants to edit the personal details
of the himself/herself already existing in the database.

Preconditions:

 The Administrator must be logged into the system in order for this use case to begin.

 The details of the student must pre-exist in the database

Basic Flow:

 The Administrator logs onto the System.

The Administrator can edit following keys:-

 First/last name

 Gender

 DOB

 Contact no
 Qualification

 City

 Emailid

 Address

 Description

 The Website updates the database according to edited details.

 The student details are edited in the database.

Alternative Flow:

There is no alternative flow of this use case diagram.

Post conditions:

 The student details get updated in the database.

 Use Case Report- Edit student detail into the website

2. Student

Use Case : student registration

Goal in context: Registration of a student

Brief Description: This use case is used when the student register himself/herself in the database
online.

Preconditions:

 The Student must accessed the website in order for this use case to begin.

 The user id must be unique and entered correctly.

Basic Flow:
 The Student enters into the website.

 The student fill his/her details from the following keys:-

 Student id

 Password

 First/last name

 Status

 Gender

 DOB

 Contact no

 Qualification

 City

 Email

 Address

 Description

 Resume

 Image

 The System details are added to the database.

 The student details are displayed on the screen.


Alternative Flow:

User ID not unique: if the user id entered is not unique then it will show an error
message.

Post conditions:

The student get registered on the website and to login into that particular the
administrator must enable it.

Use Case Report- Register student on website

Use-case: Login into the website

Goal in context: Gain access to the website

Brief Description: This use case is used when the student wants toaccess the website

Preconditions: The Administrator must enabled the particular student onto the website in order
for this use case to begin.

Basic Flow:

 The website prompts the student for the user name and password.

 The Student enters the user name and password.

 The website verifies the password and sets the user’s authorization.

 The Student is given access to the website to perform his tasks.

Alternative Flow:

The Student enters invalid username and password then he will not be allowed to enter
the website.
Post conditions: The website state is unchanged by this use case.

Use Case Report- Login into the system

Use Case : Edit student details

Goal in context: Edit the details of a student

Brief Description: This use case is used when the student wants to edit the personal details of the
himself/herself already existing in thedatabase.

Preconditions:

 The Student must be logged into the system in order for this use case to begin.

 The details of the student must pre-exist in the database

 The student must be enabled by administrator.

Basic Flow:

 The Student logs onto the System.

The Student can edit following keys:-

 First/last name

 Gender

 DOB

 Contact no

 Qualification

 City

 Email1
 Email2

 Address

 Description

 The Website updates the database according to edited details.

 The student details are edited in the database.

Alternative Flow:

There is no alternative flow of this use case diagram.

Post conditions:

The student details get updated in the database.Use Case Report- Edit Student Details Into
Databas

Functional Requirements :

 The Administrator will be given more powers (enable/disable/ update) than other users.

 It will be ensured that the information entered is of the correct format. Forexample name
cannot contain numbers. In case if incorrect form ofinformation is added, the user will be
asked to fill the information again.

 The system can be accessed anytime.

Performance Requirements:

The proposed system that we are going to develop will be used as theChief performance
system for providing help to the organization inmanaging the whole database of the student
studying in the organisation.Therefore, it is expected that the database would perform
functionally allthe requirements that are specified.

Safety Requirements:
The database may get crashed at any certain time due to virus or operatingsystem failure.
Therefore, it is required to take the database backup.

Security Requirements:

We are going to develop a secured database. There are different categories of users
namely Administartor ,Student who will be viewing either all or some specific information form
the database. Depending upon the category of user the access rights are decided. It means if the
user is an administrator then he can be able to modify the data, append etc. All other users only
have the rights to retrieve the information about database.

A database is your best choice for storing data in your web application, and the MySQL
database server has always been the most popular choice among PHP developers. It's supported
by almost any hosting company offering PHP, which makes it easy to get started with, and you
can even download and install it on your own computer, for testing.

MySQL uses the SQL (Structured Query Language) programming language to work with
the data, and PHP interacts with MySQL by simply passing SQL code through a set of MySQL
functions to the MySQL server, which then returns a result that PHP can interpret. It can seem a
bit scary to have to learn a second language to interact with databases, but fortunately SQL is a
fairly simple language, which looks a lot like the English language and we will provide you with
some good SQL examples, allowing you to do the most common tasks.

In the following chapters we will work with the MySQL database and make it do various
things for us. To do it properly, we need some common test data, which you will need to add to a
database for which you have access to. The easiest way to do this is to use one of the many
MySQL tools, with the most popular one being phpMyAdmin, which is installed on most servers
offering PHP and MySQL. If you don't have access to phpMyAdmin, you can install it, use one
of the many downloadable applications or use the MySQL prompt. Whatever you choose, you
should execute the following SQL code against your database. In phpMyAdmin, this is done by
clicking the button labelled "SQL":
SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATION

Hardware Specification

For a system to be used efficiently and accurately, all computer software needs
certain hardware components or other software resources to be present on a computer. These
prerequisites are known as (computer hardware specification) and are often used as a guideline
as opposed to an absolute rule. Most software defines two sets of system requirements: minimum
and recommended. With increasing demand for higher processing power and resources in newer
versions of software, system requirements tend to increase over time. Industry analysts suggest
that this trend plays a bigger part in driving upgrades to existing computer systems than
technological advancements. A second meaning of the term of System requirements is a
generalization of this first definition, giving the requirements to be met in the design of a system
or sub-system.

Typically an organization starts with a set of Business requirements and then


derives the System requirements from there. The most common set of requirements defined by
any operating system or software application is the physical computer resources, also known as
hardware, A hardware requirements list is often accompanied by a hardware compatibility list
(HCL), especially in case of operating systems. An HCL lists tested, compatible, and sometimes
incompatible hardware devices for a particular operating system or application.

The following sub-sections discuss the various aspects of hardware requirements


for this application software

The hardware required includes the following:

Hardware Requirements:
 PC with Pentium IV processor.

 512 MB RAM or above.

 40 GB Hard Disk or above.

 VGA COLOR MONITOR

 KEYBOARD

 MOUSE

Software Specification

This are requirements specification for a software system, is a description of the behavior
of a system to be developed and may include a set of use cases that describe interactions the
users will have with the software. In addition it also contains non-functional requirements.Non-
functional requirements impose constraints on the design or implementation such as performance
engineering requirements, quality standards Software requirements specification establishes the
basis for agreement between customers and contractors or suppliers (in market-driven projects,
these roles may be played by the marketing and development divisions) on what the software
product is to do as well as what it is not expected to do. Software requirements specification
permits a rigorous assessment of requirements before design can begin and reduces later
redesign. It should also provide a realistic basis for estimating product costs, risks, and
schedules.

The software requirements specification document enlists enough and necessary


requirements that are required for the project development. To derive the requirements we need
to have clear and thorough understanding of the products to be developed or being developed.
This is achieved and refined with detailed and continuous communications with the project team
and customer till the completion of the software.

The software components used for this project are listed below:

Software Requirements:

 Web Technologies :PH/MySQL


 Language : PHP

 Database : SQL SERVER 2000,05

 Web Server : LOCALHOST

 Operating System : WINDOWS XP

FEASIBILITY STUDY

The feasibility study proposes one or more conceptual solution to the problem set of the
project. In fact, it is an evaluation of whether it is worthwhile to proceed with project or not.

Easibility analysis usually considers a number of project alternatives, one that is chosen
as the most satisfactory solution. These alternatives also need to be evaluated in a broad way
without committing too many resources. Various steps involved in feasibility analysis are:

 To propose a set of solution that can realize the project goal. These solutions are
usually descriptions of what the new system should look like.

 Evaluation of feasibility of such solutions. Such evaluation often indicates


shortcomings in the initial goals. This step is repeated as the goals are adjusted and
the alternative solutions are evaluated.

Economic Feasibility:

An evaluation of development cost weighed against the ultimate income of benefit


derived from the development system of product. In economic feasibility, cost benefit analysis is
done in which expected cost and benefits are evaluated.

Technical feasibility:
Technical feasibility centers on the existing computer system. (Hardware/software) and
to what extent it can support the proposed addition also the organization already has sufficient
high-end machines to serve the processing requirements of the proposed system. So there is no
need to purchase new software as the organization has necessary software i.e.tomcat5.0, j2ee1.4,
Microsoft SQL Server or hardware to support the proposed system

Operational Feasibility:

Operational feasibility is mainly concerned with issues like whether the system will be
used if it is developed and implemented. Whether there will be resistance from users that will
effect the possible application benefits? The essential questions that help in testing the technical
feasibility of a system are following:

 Does management support the project?

 Are the users not happy with current business practices? Will it reduce the time
considerably? If yes, then they will welcome the change and the new system.

 Have the users involved in the planning and development of the project? Early
involvement reduced the probability of resistance towards the new system.

 Will the proposed system really benefit the organization? Does the overall response
increase? Will accessibility of information be lost? Will the system effect the customers
in considerable way?

Legal Feasibility:

A determination of any infringement, violation, or liability that could result from


development of the system. Legal feasibility tells that the software used in the project should be
original purchased from the legal authorities and they have the license to use it or the software
are pirated.

Behavioral feasibility:

People are inherently resistant to change and computers have been known to
facilitate change. There is always some reluctance among the users against the introduction of
new system but they were told that this system would eliminate the unnecessary overhead of
database migration and conversion, which presently had to be carried out on daily basis to
facilitate transactions between the different departments. The objective this feasibility phase is to
take the operational staff into confidence

TECHNOLOGY
USED
PHP
Introduction
PHP is now officially known as “PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor”. It is a server-side
scripting language usually written in an HTML context. Unlike an ordinary HTML page, a PHP
script is not sent directly to a client by the server; instead, it is parsed by the PHP binary or
module, which is server-side installed. HTML elements in the script are left alone, but PHP code
is interpreted and executed. PHP code in a script can query databases, create images, read and
write files, talk to remote servers – the possibilities is endless. The output from PHP code is
combined with the HTML in the script and the result sent to the user’s web-browser, therefore it
can never tell the user whether the web-server uses PHP or not, because the entire browser sees
is HTML.

PHP’s support for Apache and MySQL further increases its popularity. Apache is now
the most-used web-server in the world, and PHP can be compiled as an Apache module. MySQL
is a powerful free SQL database, and PHP provides a comprehensive set of functions for working
with it. The combination of Apache, MySQL and PHP is all but unbeatable.

That doesn’t mean that PHP cannot work in other environments or with other tools. In
fact, PHP supports an extensive list of databases and web-servers. While in the mid-1990s it was
ok to build sites, even relatively large sites, with hundreds of individual hard-coded HTML
pages, today’s webmasters are making the most of the power of databases to manage their
content more effectively and to personalize their sites according to individual user preferences.
Reasons for using PHP

There are some indisputable great reasons to work with PHP. As an open source
product, PHP is well supported by a talented production team and a committed user community.
Furthermore, PHP can be run on all the major operating systems with most servers.

a) Learning PHP is easy


Basic is easy any interpreted language should be easy to learn. Since you are isolated
from the system (no pointers to use, no memory to allocate). The other advantage that all modern
interpreted languages share is good associative array constructs.

b) Its Performance
While we can build an application that serves millions of pages a day on a server, when
we really look at the performance of the language it sucks. We are still orders of magnitude from
real performance. Not only that, but since PHP is designed around a single process model our
ability to share data structures or connection pool resources is left to native code libraries.

The low cost

There are many languages which are available at very less cost. There are some
languages which are available at very less cost like below:

 PHP

 C

 C++ etc

d) It’s Open Source, We can modify it

We can modify it if you need a hole in your head! Technically the point is that it’s an
open source project and they release patches often. You’re point is that the community is actively
working out the bugs. So, what any active language is doing this...
Unfortunately C, C++ and Perl have all “died” at this point and will pretty much remain
static at their current functionality.

It’s Portability

C is portable; it’s just the OS bits that aren’t. A lot PHP isn’t portable to Windows since
people don’t use the OS abstractions to avoid some problems.

It has interfaces to a large variety of database systems

PHP supports a large variety of the database.

Support available

Online Support is available for using PHP.

e) PHP Syntax

You cannot view the PHP source code by selecting “View source” in the browser – you
will only see the output from the PHP file, which is plain HTML. This is because the scripts are
executed on the server before the result is sent back to the browser.

Basic PHP Syntax

A PHP scripting block always starts with <? php and ends with ?>. A PHP scripting
block can be placed anywhere in the document. On servers with shorthand support enabled
you can start a scripting block with <? And end with ?>. However, for maximum compatibility,
we recommend that you use the standard form (<?php) rather than the shorthand form.

A PHP file normally contains HTML tags, just like an HTML file, and some PHP
scripting code.

Server Application Development


Server-side applications in the managed world are implemented through runtime hosts.
Unmanaged applications host the common language runtime, which allows your custom
managed code to control the behavior of the server. This model provides you with all the features
of the common language runtime and class library while gaining the performance and scalability
of the host server.

The following illustration shows a basic network schema with managed code running in
different server environments. Servers such SQL Server can perform standard operations while
your application logic executes through the managed code.

Server-side managed code

PHP is the hosting environment that enables developers to use the PHP Framework to
target Web-based applications. However, PHPis more than just a runtime host; it is a complete
architecture for developing Web sites and Internet-distributed objects using managed code. Both
Web Forms and XML Web services use IIS and PHP as the publishing mechanism for
applications, and both have a collection of supporting classes in the PHP Framework.

XML Web services, an important evolution in Web-based technology, are distributed,


server-side application components similar to common Web sites. However, unlike Web-based
applications, XML Web services components have no UI and are not targeted for browsers such
as Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator. Instead, XML Web services consist of reusable
software components designed to be consumed by other applications, such as traditional client
applications, Web-based applications, or even other XML Web services. As a result, XML Web
services technology is rapidly moving application development and deployment into the highly
distributed environment of the Internet.

If you have used earlier versions of Php technology, you will immediately notice the
improvements that Php and Web Forms offers. For example, you can develop Web Forms pages
in any language that supports the PHP Framework. In addition, your code no longer needs to
share the same file with your HTTP text (although it can continue to do so if you prefer).

Web Forms pages execute in native machine language because, like any other managed
application, they take full advantage of the runtime. In contrast, unmanaged php pages are
always scripted and interpreted. PHP pages are faster, more functional, and easier to develop
than unmanaged php pages because they interact with the runtime like any managed application.

HTML
HTML or Hyper Text Markup Language is the standard markup language used to
create web pages.

HTML was created in 1991 by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN in Switzerland. It was


designed to allow scientists to display and share their research.

HTML is written in the form of HTML elements consisting of tags enclosed in angle
brackets(like <html>). HTML tags most commonly come in pairs like <h1> and </h1>, although
some tags represent empty elements and so are unpaired, for example <img>. The first tag in a
pair is the start tag, and the second tag is the end tag (they are also called opening tags and
closing tags).

The purpose of a web browser is to read HTML documents and compose them into
visible or audible web pages. The browser does not display the HTML tags, but uses the tags to
interpret the content of the page. HTML describes the structure of a website semantically along
with cues for presentation, making it a markup language rather than a programming language.
HTML elements form the building blocks of all websites. HTML allows images and
objects to be embedded and can be used to create interactive forms. It provides a means to create
structured documents by denoting structural semantics for text such as headings, paragraphs,
lists, links, quotes and other items. It can embed scripts written in languages such as Java Script
which affect the behaviour of HTML web pages.

HTML is descriptive markup language. Library of various markup languages is defined


in various browsers.

a) HTML Images - The <img> Tag and the Src Attribute

In HTML, images are defined with the <img> tag.

The <img> tag is empty, which means that it contains attributes only, and has no closing
tag.

To display an image on a page, you need to use the src attribute. Src stands for
"source". The value of the src attribute is the URL of the image you want to display.

Syntax for defining an image:

<imgsrc="url" alt="some_text">

b) HTML FORMS

Creating a form usually involves two independent steps: Creating the layout for the form
itself and then writing a script program on the server side to process the formation you get back
from a form.

To create a form, You use the <FORM> tag. Inside the opening and closing FORM tags
are each of the individual form elements plus any other HTML content to create a layout for that
form.
The opening tag of the FORM element usually includes the attributes: METHOD and
ACTION. The METHOD attributes can be either GET or POST which determines how your
form data is sent to the script to process it.

The ACTION attribute is a pointer to the script that processes the form on the server side.
The ACTION can be included by a relative path or by a full URL to a script on your server or
somewhere else. For example, the following <FORM> tag would call a script called form-name
in cgi-bin directory on server www.myservser.com

METHOD ATTRIBUTE:

The other required attribute for the <form> tag sets the methods by which the browser
form’s data to the server for processing. There are two ways: the POST method and GET
method. With POST method, the browser sends the data in two steps: the browser first contacts
the form-processing server specified in the action attributes, and once contact is made, sends the
data.

c) Image tag (<img>) :

To add an image to an HTML document, we just need to include an <IMG> tag with a
reference to the desired image. The <IMG> tag is an empty element i.e. it doesn’t require a
closing tag and we can use it to include from small icons to large images.

Syntax: <imgsrc=”URL” alt=”alternative text”>

d) HTML Lists :

An ordered list: An unordered list:

 The first list item  List item

 The second list item  List item

 The third list item  List item


HTML 5

HTML5 will be the new standard for HTML. The previous version of HTML,
HTML 4.01, came in 1999. The web has changed a lot since then. HTML5 is still a work in
progress.

However, the major browsers support many of the new HTML5 elements and
APIs.

HTML5 is cooperation between the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and
the Web

Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG).

WHATWG was working with web forms and applications, and W3C was working
with XHTML 2.0. In 2006, they decided to cooperate and create a new version of HTML.

Some rules for HTML5 were established:

a) New features should be based on HTML, CSS, DOM, and JavaScript

b) Reduce the need for external plug-ins (like Flash)

c) Better error handling

d) More markup to replace scripting

e) HTML5 should be device independent

f) The development process should be visible to the public

WHY TO USE HTML


Website is a collection of pages, publications, and documents that reside on web
server. While these pages publications and a document as a formatted in a single format, you
should use HTML for home page and all primary pages in the site. This will enable the millions
of web users can easily access and to take advantage of your website.

HTML is considered first for formatting any new material you plan to publish on the
web. HTML documents are platform independent, meaning that they don’t confirm to any
standard. If they are created properly you can move home page to any server platform or you can
access them with any complaint www browser.

STRUCTURE OF HTML

HTML elements perform a defined task. HTML uses two types of elements

 Empty Tags

 Container Tags

These tags differ because of what they represent. Empty tags represent formatting
constricts such as line breaks and horizontal rules. Container tags define a section of text,
formats and dot all of the selected text. A container tag has both a beginning and an ending.

HTML LAYOUT:

An HTML document consists of text, which comprises the content of the document and
tags, which, defines the structure, and appearance of the document. The structure of an HTML
document is simple, consists of outer.

<HTML>tag enclosing the document header and body

<HTML>

<HEAD>

<TITLE>the title of HTML document</TITLE>


</HEAD>

<BODY>

This is where the actual HTML documents

Text lies, which is displayed in the browser

</BODY>

</HTML>

Each document has a head and body delimited by the <HEAD> and <BODY> tag. The
head is where you give your HTML document a title and where you indicate other parameters
the browser may use when displaying the document. This includes the text for displaying the
text. Tag also references special and indicates the hot spots that link your document to other
documents.

CSS

CSS tutorial or CSS 3 tutorial provides basic and advanced concepts of CSS
technology. Our CSS tutorial is developed for beginners and professionals. The major points of
CSS are given below:

 CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheet.

 CSS is used to design HTML tags.

 CSS is a widely used language on the web.


 HTML, CSS and JavaScript are used for web designing. It helps the web designers to apply
style on HTML tags.

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS):

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used for describing the look and
formatting of a document written in a markup language. While most often used to style web
pages and user interfaces written in HTML and XHTML, the language can be applied to any
kind of XML document, including plain XML, SVG and XUL. CSS is a cornerstone
specification of the web and almost all web pages use CSS style sheets to describe their
presentation.

CSS is designed primarily to enable the separation of document content from


document presentation, including elements such as the layout, colors, and fonts. This separation
can improve content accessibility, provide more flexibility and control in the specification of
presentation characteristics, enable multiple pages to share formatting, and reduce complexity
and repetition in the structural content (such as by allowing for table less web design).

CSS can also allow the same markup page to be presented in different styles for
different rendering methods, such as on-screen, in print, by voice (when read out by a speech-
based browser or screen reader) and on Braille-based, tactile devices. It can also be used to allow
the web page to display differently depending on the screen size or device on which it is being
viewed. While the author of a document typically links that document to a CSS file, readers can
use a different style sheet, perhaps one on their own computer, to override the one the author has
specified.

With plain HTML you define the colors and sizes of text and tables throughout
your pages. If you want to change a certain element you will therefore have to work your way
through the document and change it. With CSS you define the colors and sizes in "styles". Then
as you write your documents you refer to the styles. Therefore: if you change a certain style it
will change the look of your entire site. Another big advantage is that CSS offers much more
detailed attributes than plain HTML for defining the look and feel of your site.
Another kind of client application is the traditional ActiveX control (now replaced by the
managed Windows Forms control) deployed over the Internet as a Web page. This application is
much like other client applications: it is executed natively, has access to local resources, and
includes graphical elements.

JAVASCRIPT

JavaScript (JS) is a dynamic computer programming language. It is most commonly


used as part of web browsers, whose implementations allow client-side scripts to interact with
the user, control the browser, communicate asynchronously, and alter the document content that
is displayed. It is also being used in server-side network programming (with Node.js), game
development and the creation of desktop and mobile applications.

JavaScript is a prototype-based scripting language with dynamic typing and has first-
class functions. Its syntax was influenced by C. JavaScript copies many names and naming
conventions from Java, but the two languages are otherwise unrelated and have very different
semantics. The key design principles within JavaScript are taken from the Self and Scheme
programming languages. It is a multi-paradigm language, supporting object-oriented, imperative,
and functional programming styles.

The application of JavaScript in use outside of web pages—for example, in PDF


documents, site-specific browsers, and desktop widgets—is also significant. Newer and faster
JavaScript VMs and platforms built upon them (notably Node.js) have also increased the
popularity of JavaScript for server-side web applications. On the client side, JavaScript was
traditionally implemented as an interpreted language but just-in-time compilation is now
performed by recent (post-2012) browsers.
JavaScript was formalized in the ECMA Script language standard and is primarily used
as part of a web browser (client-side JavaScript). This enables programmatic access to objects
within a host environment.

JavaScript is the most popular programming language in the world.

It is the language for HTML, for the Web, for computers, servers, laptops, tablets, smart
phones, and more.

You can use JavaScript to:

 Change HTML elements

 Delete HTML elements

 Create new HTML elements

 Copy and clone HTML elements

About Back End

In a previous blog, we talked about how web programmers are concerned with launching
websites, updates, and maintenance, among other things. All of that works to support the front-
end of the website. The back-end has three parts to it: server, application, and database.

To better explain how all of this works, let’s use the example of a customer trying
to purchase a plane ticket using a website. Everything that the customer sees on the webpage is
the front-end, as we have explained before, but once that customer enters all of his or her
information, ssssuch as their name, billing address, destination, etc, the web application stores
the information in a database that was created previously on the server in which the website is
calling for information.

The web application creates, deletes, changes, renames, etc items in the database. For
example, when a customer purchases a ticket, that creates an item in the database, but when they
have a change in their order or they wish to cancel, the item in the database is changed.
In short, when a customer wants to buy a ticket, the backend operation is the web
application communicating with the server to make a change in a database stored on said server.
Technologies like PHP, Ruby, Python, and others are the ones backend programmers use to
make this communication work smoothly, allowing the customer to purchase his or her ticket
with ease.

Difference between java and Java Script

Although the names are almost the same Java is not the same as Java Script. These are
two different techniques for Internet programming. Java is programming language. JavaScript is
a scripting language as the name implies. The difference is that we can create real programs with
java. But java script in not real programming. Java Script is meant to be easy to understand and
easy to use. JavaScript authors should not have to care too much about programming. We could
say that Java Script is rather an extension to HTML than a separate computer language. Of
course this is not the official definition but it makes it easier to understand the difference
between java and java script.

How can Java Script scripts run

The first browser to support java script was the Netscape Navigator 2.0 of course the
higher versions do have java script as well. You might know that java does not run on all
Netscape Navigators 2.0 (or higher versions) versions. But this is not true for java script -
although there are some problems with the different versions.

The Mac version for example seems to have many bugs. In the near future there are
going to be some other browsers, which support java script. The Microsoft Internet explorer 3.0
is going to support java script. JavaScript enabled browsers are going to spread soon - it is worth
learning this new technique now. You might realize that is really easy to write Java Script
scripts. We have to know is some basic techniques and some work-around for problems you
might encounter. Of course we need a basic. Understanding HTML before reading this tutorial
you can find many really good online resources about HTML. Best you make an online search
about ‘html’ at yahoo if you want to get informed about HTML. Now I want to show some
small scripts so you can learn how they are implemented into HTML-documents and to show
which possibilities you have with the new scripting language..

If you are using a java script enabled-browser at the moment then you will have the
possibility to see this script working. If your browser doesn’t support Java Script then this output
might be some kind of strange…

 This is a normal HTML document

 This is java script!

 Back in HTML again.

My Sql

Introduction:

The database has become an integral part of almost every human's life. Without it, many
things we do would become very tedious, perhaps impossible tasks. Banks, universities, and
libraries are three examples of organizations that depend heavily on some sort of database
system. On the Internet, search engines, online shopping, and even the website naming
convention would be impossible without the use of a database. A database that is implemented
and interfaced on a computer is often termed a database server.

One of the fastest SQL (Structured Query Language) database servers currently on the
market is the MySQL server, developed by T.c.X. DataKonsultAB. MySQL, available for
download at www.mysql.com, offers the database programmer with an array of options and
capabilities rarely seen in other database servers. MySQL is free of charge for those wishing to
use it for private and commercial use. Those wishing to develop applications specifically using
MySQL should consult MySQL's licensing section, as there is charge for licensing the product.

These capabilities range across a number of topics, including the following:

a) Ability to handle an unlimited number of simultaneous users.

b) Capacity to handle 50,000,000+ records.

Very fast command execution, perhaps the fastest to be found on


the market.

d)Easy and efficient user privilege system.

However, perhaps the most interesting characteristic of all is the fact that it's free. That's
right, T.c.X offers MySQL as a free product to the general public.

Reasons to Use MySQL

a) Scalability and Flexibility

The MySQL database server provides the ultimate in scalability, sporting the capacity to
handle deeply embedded applications with a footprint of only 1MB to running massive data
warehouses holding terabytes of information. Platform flexibility is a stalwart feature of MySQL
with all flavors of Linux, UNIX, and Windows being supported.

b) High Performance

A unique storage-engine architecture allows database professionals to configure the


MySQL database server specifically for particular applications, with the end result being
amazing performance results.
C) High Availability

Rock-solid reliability and constant availability are hallmarks of MySQL, with customers
relying on MySQL to guarantee around-the-clock uptime. MySQL offers a variety of high-
availability options from high-speed master/slave replication configurations, to specialized
Cluster servers offering instant failover, to third party vendors offering unique high-availability
solutions for the MySQL database server.

d) Robust Transactional Support

MySQL offers one of the most powerful transactional database engines on the market.
Features include complete ACID (atomic, consistent, isolated, durable) transaction support,
unlimited row-level locking, distributed transaction capability, and multi-version transaction
support where readers never block writers and vice-versa.

e) Web and Data Warehouse Strengths

MySQL is the de-facto standard for high-traffic web sites because of its high-
performance query engine, tremendously fast data inserts capability, and strong support for
specialized web functions like fast full text searches.

f) Strong Data Protection

Because guarding the data assets of corporations is the number one job of database
professionals, MySQL offers exceptional security features that ensure absolute data protection.
In terms of database authentication, MySQL provides powerful mechanisms for ensuring only
authorized users have entry to the database server, with the ability to block users down to the
client machine level being possible.

g) Management Ease

MySQL offers exceptional quick-start capability with the average time from software
download to installation completion being less than fifteen minutes. This rule holds true whether
the platform is Microsoft Windows, Linux, Macintosh, or UNIX.

PHP Main Features of MySQL


 Tested with a broad range of different compilers.

 Works on many different platforms.

 The MySQL Server design is multi-layered with independent modules.

 Fully multi-threaded using kernel threads. It can easily use multiple CPUs if they are
available.

 Provides transactional and non-transactional storage engines.

 Uses very fast B-tree disk tables with index compression.

 Relatively easy to add other storage engines. This is useful if you want to provide an SQL
interface for an in-house database.

 A very fast thread-based memory allocation system.

 Very fast joins using an optimized one-sweep multi-join.

 In-memory hash tables, which are used as temporary tables.

 SQL functions are implemented using a highly optimized class library and should be as fast
as possible. Usually there is no memory allocation at all after query initialization.

 The server is available as a separate program for use in a client/server networked


environment.

Data Adapters (PHP/MySQL)

The Data Adapter object works as a bridge between the Dataset and the source data.
Using the provider-specific SqlDataAdapter (along with its associated SqlCommand and
SqlConnection) can increase overall performance when working with a Microsoft SQL Server
databases. For other OLE DB-supported databases, you would use the OleDbDataAdapter object
and its associated OleDbCommand and OleDbConnection objects. The Data Adapter object uses
commands to update the data source after changes have been made to the Dataset. Using the Fill
method of the Data Adapter calls the SELECT command; using the Update method calls the
INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE command for each changed row. You can explicitly set these
commands in order to control the statements used at runtime to resolve changes, including the
use of stored procedures. For ad-hoc scenarios, a Command Builder object can generate these at
run-time based upon a select statement. However, this run-time generation requires an extra
round-trip to the server in order to gather required metadata, so explicitly providing the INSERT,
UPDATE, and DELETE commands at design time will result in better run-time performance.

Application System Development – A Life cycle Approach

Although there are a growing number of applications (such as decision support


systems) that should be developed using an experimental process strategy such as prototyping, a
significant amount of new development work continue to involve major operational applications
of broad scope. The application systems are large highly structured. User task comprehension
and developer task proficiency is usually high. These factors suggest a linear or iterative
assurance strategy. The most common method for this stage class of problems is a system
development life cycle modal in which each stage of development is well defined and has
straightforward requirements for deliverables, feedback and sign off. The system development
life cycle is described in detail since it continues to be an appropriate methodology for a
significant part of new development work.

The basic idea of the system development life cycle is that there is a well-defined
process by which an application is conceived and developed and implemented. The life cycle
gives structure to a creative process. In order to manage and control the development effort, it is
necessary to know what should have been done, what has been done, and what has yet to be
accomplished. The phrases in the system development life cycle provide a basis for management
and control because they define segments of the flow of work, which can be identified for
managerial purposes and specifies the documents or other deliverables to be produced in each
phase.
The phases in the life cycle for information system development are described differently
by different writers, but the differences are primarily in the amount of necessity and manner of
categorization. There is a general agreement on the flow of development steps and the necessity
for control procedures at each stage.

The information system development cycle for an application consists of three major
stages.

 Definition.

 Development.

Installation and operation.

The first stage of the process, which defines the information requirements for a feasible
cost effective system. The requirements are then translated into a physical system of forms,
procedures, programs etc., by the system design, computer programming and procedure
development. The resulting system is test and put into operation. No system is perfect so there is
always a need for maintenance changes. To complete the cycle, there should be a post audit of
the system to evaluate how well it performs and how well it meets the cost and performance
specifications. The stages of definition, development and installation and operation can therefore
be divided into smaller steps or phrases as follows.

Definition

Proposed definition : preparation of request for proposed

applications.

Feasibility assessment : evaluation of feasibility and cost benefit of proposed system.

Information requirement analysis : determination of information needed.

Design

Conceptual design : User-oriented design of application development.


Physical system design : Detailed design of flows and processes in applications processing
system and preparation of program specification.

Development

Program development : coding and testing of computer programs.

Procedure development : design of procedures and preparation of user instructions.

Installation and operation

Conversion : final system test and conversion.

Operation and maintenance : Month to month operation and maintenance

Post audit : Evaluation of development process,application system and results of


use at the completion of the each phase, formal approval sign-off is required from the users as
well as from the manager of the pro

SYSTEM DESIGN
AND IMPLIMENTATION
SYSTEM DESIGN
`

A process of converting user originated inputs to a computer-based format. Input design is an


important part of development process since inaccurate input data are the most common cause of errors in
data processing. Erroneous entries can be controlled by input design. It consists of developing
specifications and procedures for entering data into a system and must be in simple format. The goal of
input data design is to make data entry as easy, logical and free from errors as possible. In input data
design, we design the source document that capture the data and then select the media used to enter them
into the computer.

There are two major approaches for entering data in to the computer. They are

 Menus.

 Dialog Boxes.

Menus
A menu is a selection list that simplifies computer data access or entry. Instead of remembering
what to enter, the user chooses from a list of options. A menu limits a user choice of response but reduce
the chances for error in data entry.
Dialog Box
Dialog boxes are windows and these windows are mainly popup, which appear in response to
certain conditions that occur when a program is run. It allows the display of bitmaps and pictures. It can
have various controls like buttons, text boxes, list boxes and combo boxes. Using these controls we can
make a ‘dialog’ with the program.

The proposed system has three major inputs. They are Machine Registration, Machine Scheduling
and Request Form.

Process Design
Process design plays an important role in project development. In order to understand

the working procedure, process design is necessary. Data Flow Diagram and System Flow chart are the
tools used for process design.

System Flow Chart is a graphical representation of the system showing the overall flow
of control in processing at the job level; specifies what activities must be done to convert from a
physical to logical model.

Data Flow Diagram is the logical representation of the data flow of the project. The DFD
is drawn using various symbols. It has a source and a destination. The process is represented
using circles and source and destination are represented using squares. The data flow is
represented using arrows.

One reader can easily get the idea about the project through Data Flow Diagram.

ER Notation

There is no standard for representing data objects in ER diagrams. Each modeling


methodology uses its own notation. The original notation used by Chen is widely used in
academics texts and journals but rarely seen in either CASE tools or publications by non-
academics. Today, there are a number of notations used, among the more common are Bachman,
crow's foot, and IDEFIX.
All notational styles represent entities as rectangular boxes and relationships as lines
connecting boxes. Each style uses a special set of symbols to represent the cardinality of a
connection. The notation used in this document is from Martin. The symbols used for the basic
ER constructs are:

 entities are represented by labeled rectangles. The label is the name of the entity. Entity
names should be singular nouns.

 relationships are represented by a solid line connecting two entities. The name of the
relationship is written above the line. Relationship names should be verbs

 attributes, when included, are listed inside the entity rectangle. Attributes which are
identifiers are underlined. Attribute names should be singular nouns.

 cardinality of many is represented by a line ending in a crow's foot. If the crow's foot is
omitted, the cardinality is one.

 existence is represented by placing a circle or a perpendicular bar on the line. Mandatory


existence is shown by the bar (looks like a 1) next to the entity for an instance is required.
Optional existence is shown by placing a circle next to the entity that is optiona

DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS:

The DFD takes an input-process-output view of a system i.e. data objects flow into the
software, are transformed by processing elements, and resultant data objects flow out of the
software.

Data objects represented by labeled arrows and transformation are represented by circles
also called as bubbles. DFD is presented in a hierarchical fashion i.e. the first data flow model
represents the system as a whole. Subsequent DFD refine the context diagram (level 0 DFD),
providing increasing details with each subsequent level.

The DFD enables the software engineer to develop models of the information domain &
functional domain at the same time. As the DFD is refined into greater levels of details, the
analyst perform an implicit functional decomposition of the system. At the same time, the DFD
refinement results in a corresponding refinement of the data as it moves through the process that
embody the applications.

A context-level DFD for the system the primary external entities produce information for
use by the system and consume information generated by the system. The labeled arrow
represents data objects or object hierarchy

RULES FOR DFD:

 Fix the scope of the system by means of context diagrams.

 Organize the DFD so that the main sequence of the actions

 Reads left to right and top to bottom.

 Identify all inputs and outputs.

 Identify and label each process internal to the system with Rounded circles.

 A process is required for all the data transformation and Transfers. Therefore, never
connect a data store to a data Source or the destinations or another data store with just
a Data flow arrow.

 Do not indicate hardware and ignore control information.

 Make sure the names of the processes accurately convey everything the process is
done.
 There must not be unnamed process.

 Indicate external sources and destinations of the data, with Squares.

 Number each occurrence of repeated external entities.

 Identify all data flows for each process step, except simple Record retrievals.

 Label data flow on each arrow.

 Use details flow on each arrow

 Use the details flow arrow to indicate data movements.

Sailent Features Of DFD’S

1. The DFD shows flow of data, not of control loops and decision are controlled considerations
do not appear on a DFD.
2. The DFD does not indicate the time factor involved in any process whether the dataflow take
place daily, weekly, monthly or yearly.
3. The sequence of events is not brought out on the DFD.

Activity Diagram displays a special state diagram where most of the states are action states and
most of the transitions are triggered by completion of the actions in the source states. This
diagram focuses on flows driven by internal processing.

Physical Diagrams:

Component Diagram displays the high level packaged structure of the code itself.
Dependencies among components are shown; include source code components, binary code
components, and executable components. Some components exist at compile time, at link time,
at run times well as at more than one time.

Deployment Diagram displays the configuration of run-time processing elements and the
software components, processes, and objects that live on them. Software component instances
represent run-time manifestations of code units.

DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS

USER

STUDENT

MARKS
ADMINISTATOR
State Diagram displays the sequence of states that an object of an interaction goes through
during its life in response to received stimuli, together with its responses and actions.
Sequence Diagram displays the time sequence of the objects participating in the interaction. This
consists of the vertical dimension (time) and horizontal dimension (different objects).
Implementation

Implementation is the stage where the theoretical design is turned into a working system.
The most crucial stage in achieving a new successful system and in giving confidence on the new
system for the users that it will work efficiently and effectively.

The system can be implemented only after thorough testing is done and if it is found to
work according to the specification.

It involves careful planning, investigation of the current system and its constraints on
implementation, design of methods to achieve the change over and an evaluation of change over
methods a part from planning. Two major tasks of preparing the implementation are education
and training of the users and testing of the system.

The more complex the system being implemented, the more involved will be the systems
analysis and design effort required just for implementation.

The implementation phase comprises of several activities. The required hardware and
software acquisition is carried out. The system may require some software to be developed. For
this, programs are written and tested. The user then changes over to his new fully tested system
and the old system is discontinued.
OUTPUTS
AND
TESTING
OUT PUT NAME

Fig 1.1

Out pue name


Fig 1.2

Out put name

Fig 1.3

Out put name


Fig 1.4

Out put name

Fig 1.5

Out put name


Fig 1.7

Output name

Fig 1.7

Out put name


Fig 1.8

Out put name

Fig 1.9

Out put name


Fig 1.10

Out put name

Fig 1.11

Out put name


Fig 1.2

Out put name

Fig 1.13
Testing
Testing is a process of executing a program with the indent of finding an error. Testing is
a crucial element of software quality assurance and presents ultimate review of specification,
design and coding.

System Testing is an important phase. Testing represents an interesting anomaly for the
software. Thus a series of testing are performed for the proposed system before the system is
ready for user acceptance testing.

A good test case is one that has a high probability of finding an as undiscovered error. A
successful test is one that uncovers an as undiscovered error.

Testing Objectives:

 Testing is a process of executing a program with the intent of finding an error


 A good test case is one that has a probability of finding an as yet undiscovered error
 A successful test is one that uncovers an undiscovered error

Testing Principles:

 All tests should be traceable to end user requirements

 Tests should be planned long before testing begins

 Testing should begin on a small scale and progress towards testing in large

 Exhaustive testing is not possible

 To be most effective testing should be conducted by a independent third party


The primary objective for test case design is to derive a set of tests that has the highest
livelihood for uncovering defects in software. To accomplish this objective two different
categories of test case design techniques are used. They are

 White box testing.

 Black box testing.

White-box testing:

White box testing focus on the program control structure. Test cases are derived to ensure
that all statements in the program have been executed at least once during testing and that all
logical conditions have been executed.

Block-box testing:

Black box testing is designed to validate functional requirements without regard to the
internal workings of a program. Black box testing mainly focuses on the information domain of
the software, deriving test cases by partitioning input and output in a manner that provides
through test coverage. Incorrect and missing functions, interface errors, errors in data structures,
error in functional logic are the errors falling in this category.

Testing strategies:

A strategy for software testing must accommodate low-level tests that are necessary to
verify that all small source code segment has been correctly implemented as well as high-level
tests that validate major system functions against customer requirements.

Testing fundamentals:

Testing is a process of executing program with the intent of finding error. A good test
case is one that has high probability of finding an undiscovered error. If testing is conducted
successfully it uncovers the errors in the software. Testing cannot show the absence of defects, it
can only show that software defects present.

Testing Information flow:


Information flow for testing flows the pattern. Two class of input provided to test the
process. The software configuration includes a software requirements specification, a design
specification and source code.

Test configuration includes test plan and test cases and test tools. Tests are conducted and
all the results are evaluated. That is test results are compared with expected results. When
erroneous data are uncovered, an error is implied and debugging commences.

Unit testing:

Unit testing is essential for the verification of the code produced during the coding phase
and hence the goal is to test the internal logic of the modules. Using the detailed design
description as a guide, important paths are tested to uncover errors with in the boundary of the
modules. These tests were carried out during the programming stage itself. All units of Vienna
SQL were successfully tested.

Integration testing :

Integration testing focuses on unit tested modules and build the program structure that is
dictated by the design phase.

System testing:

System testing tests the integration of each module in the system. It also tests to find
discrepancies between the system and it’s original objective, current specification and system
documentation. The primary concern is the compatibility of individual modules. Entire system is
working properly or not will be tested here, and specified path ODBC connection will correct or
not, and giving output or not are tested here these verifications and validations are done by
giving input values to the system and by comparing with expected output. Top-down testing
implementing here.
Acceptance Testing:

This testing is done to verify the readiness of the system for the implementation.
Acceptance testing begins when the system is complete. Its purpose is to provide the end user
with the confidence that the system is ready for use. It involves planning and execution of
functional tests, performance tests and stress tests in order to demonstrate that the implemented
system satisfies its requirements..

Test Cases:

Test cases are derived to ensure that all statements in the program have been executed at
least once during testing and that all logical conditions have been executed.

Using White-Box testing methods, the software engineer can drive test cases that

 Guarantee that logical decisions on their true and false sides.


 Exercise all logical decisions on their true and false sides.
 Execute all loops at their boundaries and with in their operational bounds.
 Exercise internal data structure to assure their validity.
The test case specification for system testing has to be submitted for review before system
testing commences.
CONCLUSION
CONCLUSION
This thesis has attempted the improvement of the teaching-learning process in higher
educational institutions by using knowledge management. The unique feature in this project is
that it covers almost every part of an educational organization which is very important to
improve the quality of education. In this work almost all the methods have been used to extract
the knowledge from the contributors, who are related to the educational organizations. Implicit
knowledge is the backbone of the knowledge portal; so, this knowledge has been managed very
well in this portal.

In conclusion, the author suggests that higher educational institutions or universities that
put into practice, a knowledge portal in their organizations can get a more friendly knowledge
community. A more informed knowledge community with a strong sense of skills may enhance
its own success. This research is a starting attempt to analyze, evaluate and improve the
performance of faculty members and students, to enhance the quality of higher education and the
higher educational system.

The results discussed show that there is a commendable improvement in the knowledge
management system, student performance improvement system and faculty performance,
designed from the knowledge collected and stored in the knowledge portal. The higher
educational institutions can use such systems to enhance their overall performance. Knowledge
management systems in 122 institutions can improve their policies, enhance their strategies, and
improve the quality of the management system. A knowledge society is achievable once the
Knowledge portal and knowledge management systems are implemented in all the higher
educational institutions.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIBLIOGRAPHY
 www.members.tripod.com

 www.project-download.com

 www.associatedcontent.com

 www.google.com

 www.KCPWhole.com

 www.sourcecodestar.com