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by M a n n y Patino a n d Jorge M o r e n o

Project Manager: Aaron Stang


Cover Art: Odalis Soto
Engraver: Andrew Parks Music Engraving
Technical Editor: Clyn Dryhurst
Photo on page 2 courtesy of J.F. Soto
Yamaha Bass courtesy of Jerry Andreas, Yamaha Corporation of America
Special Thanks to Gary and Abel Batista

© 1997 WARNER BROS. PUBLICATIONS


All Rights Reserved

Any duplication, adaptation or arrangement of the compositions


contained in this collection requires the written consent of the Publisher.
No part of this book may be photocopied or reproduced in any way without permission.
Unauthorized uses are an infringement of the U.S. Copyright Act and are punishable by law.
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS & DEDICATION
Special Thanks and Dedication From Manny
My deepest thanks and appreciation to:

God for giving me this opportunity and for allowing me to work and learn from great musicians, my wife Alexiys, and
my boys Manny and Ricky for being patient with me through the many hours I sat in my studio and for supporting me
always; I love you all, Ricardo Patino for piano grooves, programming and for your endless support as always; I love
you brother, Jorge Moreno, my other brother, for without his idea this wouldn't have been possible.

My appreciation and gratitude to all those musicians throughout the years that either created these grooves or in one way
or another influenced their evolution. God Bless you all.

I would like to dedicate this work to the memory of my parents Francisco and Adela Patino who gave me life and
gave me their love and support always. I love you mami y papi.

Special Thanks and Dedication from Jorge


I would like to thank:

My parents Magaly and Israel Moreno for always supporting me in all my endeavors, my wife Maritza and my kids
Alex, Amanda and Andrea for giving me their unconditional love and support; to my musical brother Manny Patino, for
always being there for me, without him this book would have never happened; to Rick Patino for his encouragement and
support to this project; to Gustavo Sala for his friendship throughout the years and for the immense talent he put into this
project.

To all the musicians I have worked with and learned from throughout the years; to almighty God for creating this
beautiful universe and allowing me to evolve and grow with it.

This book is dedicated to my children Alex, Amanda and Andrea. They inspire me daily to be a better human being.

Special Thanks From Manny & Jorge to:


Aaron Stang for believing in this project since the very beginning, Jose Arias for taking us to see "El Bol", Raul Artiles for
numerous consultations and support, Alfonso Afonso for percussion and photo touch-ups, Felix Gomez for piano
grooves and for being patient as always, Jackson Fondeur for Merengue piano tumbaos and Merengue history, Jorge
"Arana" Hernandez for Cuba's videos, Sandy Poltarack for suggestions and books, Guillermo "El Bol" Vivar for the
legend and history, Israel "Cachao" Lopez for the legend and for giving us the foundation and the Mambo, Giovanni
Gonzalez for "a lo maco" tambora and conga, Cesar Betances for double-checking our Merengue grooves, Alfredo
Alvarez for piano rumbaos, Rick Ramirez for photo touch-ups, Osbalclo Cesa for Merengue history and updates,
Francisco "Paquito" Hechavarria for the contagious piano turnbaos, Pablo Grajales for those Venomous' Colombian
CONTENTS

PACE* CD TRACK* PAGE* CD TRACK*

Foreword: Latin American Music 6 C7 Tumbao (Descargas) 44


Introduction 7 1 Example 23 44. ,.24
Los Tumbaos 8 Example 24 44. ,.25
The Clave 9 Example 25 45. .26
Intros and Endings 12 Songo 46
The History of Piano and Bass Tumbaos 14 Example 26 46. .27
Cross-Over Groove 16 Example 27 47. .28
Example 1 16 2 Example 28 48. .29
Guajira 18 Musica Afro-Cubana 49
Example 2 18 3 Example 29 49. .30
Examples 19 4 Example 30 49. .31
Example 4 19 5 Example 31 50. .32
Son Monlyno 20 Salsa 51
Example 5 20 6 Example 32 51. ..33
Example 6 21 7 Example 33 52. ..34
Example? 22 8 Example 34 53. ..35
Gisaguaec© 24 Example 35 54., ..36
Example 8 24 9 Example 36 56.. ..37
Example 9 26 10 Example 37 58.. ..38
Example 10 28 11 Example 38 SB- ..39
Mamibo ' 30 Example 39 60.. ..40
Example 11 30 12 Example 40 61.. ..41
Example 12 31 13 Example 41 62.. ..42
Example 13 31 14 Example 42 63.. ..43
Cha-cha-cha 32 Example 43 64.. ,.44
Example 14 32 15 Example 44 64.. ,.45
Example 15 32 16 latSn Jazz 66
Example 16, 32 17 Example 45 66.. ..46
IBoraba & Plena 34 Example 46 71.. ,.47
Example 17 ...34 18 Example 47 72.. .48
Example 18 35 19 Example 48 74.. .49
Mererague 36 Mixing fte Styles 76
Example 19 37 20 Conclusion 76
Example 20 38 21
Example 21 40 22
Example 22 ...42 23
tumbaos, Jesus "Gumby" Navedo for the Bomba & Plena percussion, Gilberto Garcia for the Cha-cha grooves, Abel
Pabon for the Bomba, Plena, & Latin Jazz tumbaos, Raul Gallimore for laying the piano grooves for the slap & tap bass,
Mario Marrero for history notes, Johnny Conga "JC" for history notes, Geraldo Pena for Merengue history notes, Ignacio
Berroa for the history of the Songo, and especially Gustavo "Cubiche" Sala for laying down the cowbells, bongos, and
timbal.

About the Authors


Manny PatiftO was born in Barranquilla, Colombia South America. His family moved to New York where he was
exposed to a variety of musical styles including, of course, American Pop and Jazz, as well as various types of ethnic
Latin music. He began playing a home-made "marimbula" bass ("box bass" used in early Afro-Cuban and Dominican
music) at the age of eight. He later picked-up drums, electric and upright bass as well as clarinet and saxophone. He
studied music at Miami-Dade Community College, University of Miami, and Florida International University.

Manny has recorded and performed throughout the world accompanying artists in various genres, including: Celia Cruz,
Andy Montanez, Pete "El Conde" Rodriguez, Ismael Miranda, Franky Ruiz, Cheo Feliciano, Willy Chirino, Hansel y
Raul, and Roberto Torres in the Salsa circuit; Nestor Torres, Dave Valentin, Mongo Santamaria, Patato Valdez, Ira
Sullivan, Othello Molineaux, and Roberto Perera in Jazz and Latin Jazz; and Selena, Barrio Boys, Gloria Estefan, Jose Luis
Rodriguez, Raphael, Braulio, Camilo Sesto, Raul Di Blasio, Manoela Torres, Emmanuel, and Ricardo Cocciante in Latin
Pop.

Manny currently works throughout South Florida and teaches Jazz Bass at Miami-Dade Community College. Most
recently, he worked on the published transcriptions for "Cachao's Masterpiece Vol. I".

Jorge Moreno arrived in the United States from Cuba in 1962. He began playing classical guitar at a very young age, a
family tradition started by his great-grandfather in Matanzas, Cuba. In high school he started playing upright bass and
electric bass guitar. At the age of sixteen he started playing local gigs and a year after that he recorded his first album. He
studied music at Miami-Dade Community College and the University of Miami and has studied arranging and
composition under Dr. Carlos Varela.

In addition to working with local artists and bands in Miami, North, South America and Europe, he has recorded
numerous albums and performed with such Latin music artists as Celia Cruz, Johnny Pacheco, Pete "El Conde"
Rodriguez, Charlie Palmieri, Carlos "Patato" Valdez, Jorge Dalto, Roberto Torres, Vicentico Valdez, Hector Lavoe, Spider
Martin, Charytin, La Lupe, and Andy Harlow.

Recently Jorge worked on the published transcription of "Cachao's Masterpiece Volume I" and for the past ten years has
been directing his own band "Casablanca".
FOREWORD: LATIN AMERICAN MUSIC

Latin American Music has experienced enormous influences from various parts of the world. It has a rich diversity in
styles that seem similar yet are conceptually different in their interpretation. Without elaborating too greatly on the effect
of cultures, religions, and customs on the evolution of this music, we will briefly touch upon those that have had the most
obvious influence in its formation.

The earliest and most dominant of these influences came from the European Conquistadors to the New World. From
Europe we inherited the instruments and harmonic functions of classical music along with its cultural dances and song
forms such as the Contra-Danza Francesa (country dance song), the Paso Doble (polka-like song), and the Rumba
Flamenca which is of Gypsy origin.

From Africa we inherited various complex rhythms derived from tribal religious rituals mainly of Nigerian and
Congolese descent. We also acquired a number of percussive instruments, i.e., yembe drum (conga-like drum), palitos
(sticks), guiros (scrapers), tambores bata' (bata' drums), chekere (shaker), sencerros (cowbells), and agogo bells among
other hand-held percussion instruments. Along with these, African tribes also brought us an immense repertoire of
polyrhythms so rich in sound and pitch that harmony and melody almost became secondary. Included in these varied
and diverse polyrhythms came the Clave*. And of course, like the field-haulers of North America the slaves brought
improvised singing.

The Aborigines of Latin America were influenced positively and negatively by both these cultures. In South America
notes were added to their existing pentatonic scales, and polyrhythms and percussion were incorporated in the music.
Adversely, some indigenous musical instruments, mantras, chants and rituals were abolished by the imposed doctrines
and philosophies of the Roman Catholic Church. In the Caribbean, unlike South America, the Spanish Conquistadors
exterminated all the inhabitants. This genocide made the music of Cuba and other Antilles Islands strictly an Afro-
European hybrid.

The United States also influenced the development of Latin music. Its influence has been more prominent in this century
with the advent of phonograph recordings, radio and television. The Big Band Era had a tremendous impact on Latin
bands like Beny More's Orchestra of Cuba. And Jazz harmonies, R & B and Rock & Roll beats have always had an
influence on Latin Music.

In summary, Latin American Music implies many things. It is music born of a Euro-Afro-American union enormously
rich in rhythms and colors. The spectrum of musical frequencies range from a poly-rhythmic percussion ensemble, or
comparsa, to an eloquent melodic Tango or harmonically rich Samba. It is music that was created by the intertwining of
cultures and religions that continues to evolve in itself.

•Pronounced klah-vay: An underlying osttnato rhythmic pattern (used in Afro-Cuban) music whereby all of the syncopations and accents of the
overlaying music must be strictly arranged in relation to this ostinato pattern (please see "The Clave").
CD

©
INTRODUCTION

This book will provide you with a solid understanding of the function of both the bass and piano within popular Latin
music. It is a collection of 'tumbaos' (grooves) that you can assimilate without sitting through recordings where the
tumbaos are sometimes obscured by the other instruments. It does not, in any way, replace the educational value of
listening and analyzing sound recordings or videos and actually seeing live groups perform this music. This book should
be used as a tool for learning the fundamentals of the grooves. It should serve as a stepping stone for the musician to
create his or her own tumbaos within the characteristics of each style.

This book is for those pianists and bassists who have always been intrigued by the complex polyrhythms and syncopated
patterns of Latin music. It is also for those who might want to increase their vocabulary of Latin grooves and for those
musicians who have had difficulty in finding "one" or just simply "feeling" the "time" in some Latin grooves.

The scope of Latin American music stretches from popular, well known styles to less known regional folk music. There
are many more rhythms that compose a good portion of the total spectrum. From Buenos Aires to the Caribbean there is a
prism of music that is impossible to fit within this writing. For this study we will be focusing mainly on Latin Afro-
Cuban dance music.

From the greater Antilles Islands of the Caribbean evolved most of the popular Latin dance music we hear today. From
the island country of Cuba we have inherited the vast majority of pop-dance rhythms like Rumba, Cha-cha, Mambo,
Songo, Guaracha, Bolero and many more. From Puerto Rico evolved la Plena and la Bomba. In addition, Puerto Rican
immigrants in New York elaborated on the Cuban Guaracha and produced a hybrid form called "Salsa". And from the
Dominican Republic the most notable contribution to Latin rnusic is of course, the Merengue.
LOS TUMI
(The Comping)

The most important thing in any pop-dance music is "time". Likewise in Afro-Cuban music. The most crucial element,
other than the Clave* which we will discuss soon, is being very conscious of the time/pulse and knowing at all times
where the beat is. Peripheral listening, constant adaptation and accommodating to the sounds of the other instruments is
very crucial for "locking in" with a real groove. What I mean is an adjustment of the volume, attack and sustain or decay
of each note being played in relation to what is "happening" around you. Of course, this interaction is limited when one
plays with a drum machine or sequencer (which, by the way, is very good practice for acquiring time).

In playing Afro-Cuban music it is essential that the rhythm section be close together. The section should run like a finely
tuned machine. Precision is the key in a music that has so much overlapping of rhythms. One note from any one of its
members, that is out of time, will de-tune the "mechanism". Of course, we're not talking about one note in a whole rune,
but rather one of the repetitive notes of a pattern that is constantly off. This can also mean an inconsistent time feel or a
dragging and/or rushing of one or more notes.

When playing these styles you will realize some similarities between them. Tempos, rhythmic patterns and chord
progressions will give each a different flavor. To the musician/listener who is first exposed to Afro-Cuban music it may
all sound the same. Long term exposure and careful listening will enable him/her to distinguish the differences.

Some measures in certain tumbaos** can be interchanged depending on the clave. The grooves can be embellished and/or edited
with discretion by the player as long as he keeps in mind the underlying accents of the respective clave. As mentioned earlier, the
"trick" is to keep your "ears" open at all times. Listen to what is going on around you and how it is relating to what you
are doing. If you're critical about your playing and about music in general you will feel the groove when it "locks".

"Clave (klah-vay): An underlying ostinato rhythmic pattern (used in Afro-Cuban) music whereby all of the syncopations and accents of the overlaying
music must be strictly arranged in relation to this ostinato pattern (please see "The Clave").

'"'tumbao (toom-ba-o): Groove, or comping a groove; vamping on a groove; usually a repetitive two bar rhythmic vamp played by the piano, bass, or
tres guitar that must be played in relation to the clave (see page "History Synopsis of Tumbaos").
ECLAVE

'La Clave' (klah-vay) is the most crucial element in Latin Afro-Caribbean Music. The clave is an underlying ostinato
rhythmic pattern on which the music is rhythmically based. This pattern is played on two wooden sticks about one inch
in diameter by eight inches in length called by the same name, "claves". It is also played on a woodblock. It is believed
the clave was born out of the 6/8 rhythms of the African tribes and that originally there were many claves that were used
by Nigerian and Congolese slaves.

Afro-Cuban Music, Salsa, Merengue and Bossa Novas all have a clave. Much like Jazz and Rock in which two and four
are the strong beats, clave is the underlying accent in these musics. They must be composed and performed with the
clave in mind. Afro-Cuban composers naturally write with an internalized knowledge of the clave. A musician, singer, or
writer well versed in this idiom automatically hears and feels if a melodic phrase or rhythmic pattern is "cruzado"
crossed or inverted with the clave pattern.

The clave used today is either "rumba/guaguanco clave" or "son clave". This rhythmic pattern encompasses a total of
four beats (two measures in 2/2 time, Illus. 1). Clave 3:2 means three accents followed by two. They can be inverted with
the "two-side" of the clave at the beginning of the phrase (two accents followed by three). Percussion patterns, piano and
bass tumbaos, melodies and any improvised riffs or solos must adhere to these accents.

Illustration 1
Son Clave 3:2
H
f> X • 1 < X X ~b x sr fr
1 1 c A

Rumba/Guaguanco Clave 3:2


3 2
" J " *•
T&rfh
, p_
n—

Son Clave 2:3 (Inverted)

/X It fl <7 3< X /? 5f • "X" ' " "if "X

«y
y g i>
yr —

Rumba/Guaguanco Clave 2:3 (Inverted)


2 3
• = n
/,< rtki ti « x o — sr: x • •x • 5? T
lff,r!\ S 1 rA i i i
jt= 1 F=«
10

As you study this concept of clave you will soon realize that there are certain rhythms and melodies that are more "in
clave" than others; meaning that the "feel" of the clave is more easily recognizable. You will also realize that a number of
patterns and melodic fragments can "be" in either 3:2 or 2:3 clave. There are also phrases that do not really outline or
identify the clave of a particular section of a piece, although the remaining rhythmic instruments will be outlining it in
their respective tumbaos.

Tunes that start on a given clave whether 3:2 or 2:3 must stay on that clave. There are cases where the melodic phrasing of
a section is in 2:3 and a subsequent section is in 3:2. In this case there must be at least two beats (one measure in 2/2 time)
added to the music or an odd number of measures in 2/2 time added before entering the subsequent section of the tune
(Illus. 2). In other words, the clave pattern must remain constant throughout.

litestratiom 2
Clave 2:3 (C Section) - Clave 3:2 (D Section)
C Ftn7 G7 Cm
-• %
T 1
_I\ \^~ NT —
7 a ^ i -H — 5
4— 7? Pr • I ~)— — r? 3? y p » • •
? 51— «U «.! i-J
-rE— zEta*J p_^.
~F~ — —|
!^4J
— <-"*
jf— -f—\— 1
•— 3rl
r
> f
3 2 \ X •
SV
z1° iu
-p^/ i\m
1 :< Jt
A.
i » X
1 1 t\— x ••; X• X^
• fX C C 0 _ ~V1

G7 Abmaj7 Bb7 Cm C7
fj „. .. :
FfeV^
:ra5 P • p » -^ p—1f
r
2 3 2
^"lX B V, -3=tW \7 , K , X ^
f)« 1 [1( <V x v: /; X • '*£ . ,t>. K
•^—b— u—!i^— B—'

i) Frri7 Bb 7 EbmajV Abmaj7 efc.


3uJ K K
—7

fis r— f
C"\'
1 f
t -P|— I 1
c I. E
__
-^ (
H — —1— —r=i—i—
A r> ^ _ i
- *^ 2 ''-1 •-!
J ^ d ^ ~S
3 2 3 2
<n \
E •. \ ^ >. V T

•, —I**- M X U 5^ X_« X X X g JX x 2
r^ —9- rA
I hM

A good exercise in determining a clave is to clap the clave pattern both ways (3:2 or 2:3) and listen to which one feels
better with what you're listening to. Try to find the beat in the tumbao that emphasizes the first accent of the "2 side" of
the clave or the second accent (bombo accent) on the "3 side". In some cases the "2 side" is a less busy melodic side.

Like any other music, in order to really understand the nuances that give each music its characterstics, one must do a lot
of listening and playing. The dynamics and accents are very crucial to obtaining a groove in any music. It is the tumbaos'
individual note accents and dynamics that give it the personalized groove. The same notes played by another player will
sound slightly different. Through time and practice the grooves will become more natural and you'll instinctively feel the
accents of the clave within each groove.
11

Cinquillo
Cinquillo (pronounced "SIN-KEY-YO") is a one bar rhythmic pattern that is found throughout Afro-Cuban percussive
and melodic phrases.

=£?
dgs
^—— — crrr _«< w •»«• —-.
' P

Cinquillo came into existence with Danzon* music in Cuba. This music was created by Miguel Failde-Perez in the
province of Matanzas in Cuba. In 1877 he wrote "Las Alturas de Simpson" (The Heights of Simpson) named for the town
of Simpson in the hills overlooking Matanzas.

The Cinquillo pattern is part of a two-bar vamp that is played on the timbales throughout a Danzon. This in turn has
filtered down to become an integral part of many other rhythmic patterns.

It is very important for you to remember this pattern when trying to determine the Clave of any tune. This pattern falls
on the "3" side of the Clave.

"El Mamkero'9 (The Peanut Vendor)


- Cinquillo Cinquillo -

Notice that the Cinquillos fall on the 2nd and 4th bars of the melody.

Of course the Cinquillos are not always as obvious as this one is. You will hear many examples of Cinquillos throughout
this book.

::"Danzon: Is the national dance music of Cuba since the late 1800's.
12

INTROS & ENDINGS


Intros and endings in Afro-Cuban music are for the most part dependent on the clave; although sometimes rules are
broken at the very end of a tune. As a rule of thumb, endings are played on the last accented note or notes of a phrase or
on a down beat. Many times one part or both sections of the clave are played as the ending of a tune (Example A).
Endings usually occur either on the last accent (quarter note) or the last two eighth notes of the "3" part of the clave
(Example B). Although it is not very commonly used, some endings occur on only the first quarter note of either measure
of the clave. A more commonly used first beat ending is two accented eighth notes (Example C). Some endings outline
part of the clave (Example D), while adding notes in between the accents (Example E). There are also endings that
partially outline the clave (Example F).

Example A

or

Example B
_

^?wJ ^ X • X ' " X B .-K X • X ' 'X ti) I'}


I/Gal! J . U
\J t 1

Example C
—|v
—j'i \
p—1— ?—-0-* r r r ? Kg -

D
A > >
3—7* x X <v 5? 5?
—j
X x 2
(^ p?—p e> ||
-to—* ! 1 p — —P- —

Cm Bb Cm

-i—. Fr F [^_p
i
e) h>— 3^

Example F
-j^ v . ^ .^.x ^ : c
1
rr-. aI b [
ol
I —^ —^j ^
9—T— '—
^
*
|
f
13

Intros for rhythm section players are treated much the same way as endings. For instance, in a Son Montuno where the
pianist might begin a tumbao by himself for four or eight measures, the rest of the rhythm section will enter on the last
quarter note of the "3" section of the clave (Example G). Intros can vary depending on a possible percussion break or a
melodic pick-up prior to beginning the groove (Example H). Some intros are simply down beats, but more often than not,
the intro usually accents a part of the clave (Example I).

Rhythm
section
Example G intro
C F G7 F C F G7 F here.

-$LJ— * p fc X 3? >
^==H=
5r: x /n"x m •' *•

Intro on Intro on
Example H downbeat downbeat
Percussion Break. here. Melodic Pick-up. here.
or
¥ E

Example I
etc.
14

HISTORY OF PIANO & BASS Tl


The word "tumbao" is slang for "tumbar" which means to knock down, to tumble, or to lie down. Tumbao is
synonymous with "guajeo" probably derived from the slang 'aguaje'. Aguaje means to fake something, hence guajeo
("comp" or fake harmonic changes). Another synonymous word is "montuneando" derived from "montuno"—the vamp
section where an improvised call and response takes place. Thus, the words tumbao (tumbando: doing a tumbao),
guajeo, and montuno (montuneando—doing a montuno) are the Latin versions of groove, comping a groove, or playing
an accompanying pattern or riff. For simplicity's sake, we will use only the word "tumbaos" when referring to the piano
or bass grooves.

A tumbao is a rhythmic clave-based groove or pattern that is played throughout a tune. It is a rhythmic pattern that
should be maintained with little or no variation. The tumbao/groove can be enhanced and/or modified at the beginning
of a new section within a tune. Drastic and abrupt rhythmic changes should not be made within a section although,
occasionally, a fill can be played within the groove. Unlike piano comping in Jazz, the piano tumbao in Afro-Cuban
Music should have a consistent unbroken groove once it has been established.

The first harmonic accompaniment tumbaos were performed on the lute (ancestor to the guitar) in the 1700's. The lute
was replaced by the tres in Cuba (a guitar with three sets of two strings placed close together as to be played
simultaneously) and the quatro in Puerto Rico (smaller than the tres with five sets of two strings). In the Merengue of the
Dominican Republic the harmonic as well as the melodic function was performed by an accordion in the "Perico Ripiao"
(ancestor to the modern merengue band; a small ensemble made up of guira [metal scraper], tambora [drum with two
heads played horizontally on the percussionist's lap], and accordion).

The music we are discussing here is, of course, folk music. Therefore, the piano was not available. The piano was only
used for classical music and to perform Contradances in Haiti and subsequently in Cuba the Contra-Danzas, Danza
Habaneras and Danzones in the high society. The rhythms of the lower classes were gradually accepted into the high i
society dances. In the early 1900's piano tumbaos were added to the Danzones in Cuba. And, orchestrated Merengues !

were played between Danzones in cultural dances in the Dominican Republic. At this time cultured music and folk music
began to mix.
i
Piano tumbaos eventually replaced the tres tumbaos in Cuba and the accordion accompaniment in the Dominican
Republic. In the modern Merengue the accordion is no longer an integral member and it is almost never used other than
in a historic setting. In salsa, the tres is rarely used except in some typical "sonoras" as a comping instrument along with
the piano. I
I
I
I
Through time the piano tumbaos evolved. They have expanded from typical two octave triadic patterns to a more I
elaborated voicing pattern. The jazz influence on some of today's tumbaos is obvious. Of course, the tumbaos still j
maintain a clave-based pattern which is the backbone of the music. The fundamental characteristics of the ostinato
patterns still remain. Although, in some "Salsa Sensual" or "Salsa Romantica" as it is termed, the piano will occasionally
play a non-tumbao (freely/ad-lib) accompaniment during the "head" of the tune giving it a ballad-like romantic feel.
I
The acoustic bass, being of European origins, was not incorporated into Afro-Cuban music until a much later date. The
first known instrument to be used to provide a bass sound for this music was called a "Botija". It is a large wine bottle
15

made of glass or ceramic which has a wide opening where the cork is placed. They used to blow air through this opening
to produce a bass sound. By adjusting the angle of their lips they would get different intonations.

Another bass sounding instrument that was used and can still be seen in use by some peasants is a "Marimbula". This is
a square wooden box with an opening on one side where thin metal shanks are placed directly over the opening and
these are then plucked by the player. The length and thickness of the shanks determines the notes they produce.

The first'Afro-Cuban music to use an established bass instrument was the "Danzon". It used the tuba for all bass parts in
an ensemble consisting of violins, trombone, cornet, clarinet, tuba and timpani.

The acoustic bass first emerged around the 1800's, when Danzon had become an acceptable form of dance music for the
high society and established orchestras began to play it.

In the 1950's the AMPEG musical instrument company based in New York started to produce the first upright electrical
bass called "The Baby Bass". The development of this instrument coincided with the "Mambo" dance craze that began in
New York and eventually swept the country, making New York the mecca of Latin music for the next three decades.

The "Baby Bass" was almost instantly adopted by a large number of the Latin bass players living in the New York area at
the time. The vast number of albums recorded and hits produced during this era using this particular bass sound, made
this "THE SOUND" of the industry.

In the 1970's some very well known bass players such as Bobby Valentin and Salvador Cuevas started using the bass
guitar. They played and recorded with one of the more famous musical organizations in recent Latin music history "The
Fania All Stars". This made the bass guitar accessible to large audiences and acceptable to record producers. It has
brought the bass guitar sound to the same level of importance as the "Baby Bass" and has opened a wide range of
playing styles and techniques that were not traditionally used in Latin music before.
16

CROSS-OVER GROOVE
Cross-Over is a term used in Latin music to indicate an artist and/or style of music that is accepted and enjoyed by a
vast majority of non-Spanish speaking audiences in the U.S. and world wide. The best example of this is Gloria Estefan
and the Miami Sound Machine.

In the early 1970's a number of groups from the Miami area started incorporating a drum set (which is not a traditional
instrument in Afro-Cuban dance music), electric bass and guitar to play traditional Cuban music. The industry started
calling this the Miami sound to differentiate it from the Salsa New York sound.

Gloria Estefan and the Miami Sound Machine took this a step further, and by adding American pop music overtones to
their music have created a very unique and successful sound.

In this next example we have chosen a very common four bar two chord piano vamp (tumbao), but by adding some
slap-bass tumbaos and drum parts it takes on a whole new feel.

CD

©
Clave 2:3
Piano Example 1
Em D7
-r>-' /~^
£- £L £3-

m i^M
r I r Id feNM
^
Em
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m I
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<t- '04--: 0-
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044-

T $p :r-
r

The Guajira style evolved from Cuban country music. The word Guajira literally means "peasant farmer." Guajira can
be traced to a form of Spanish music that goes back to medieval times called "Troubadour" music. It was played by
singer/poets of the era on a lute or guitar and was sung by rhyming words improvised as they went along.

This form of music was introduced in Cuba by the Spanish colonists that settled the island. It was later adapted by
Cuban peasant farmers who called it "punto guajiro" (Note the similarity in the words.) and it is still widely played in
Cuba.

Guajira was originally played in an ensemble consisting of a guitar and a tres (A Cuban guitar that is similar in sound
to a lute.), with minor percussion such as clave, guiro (scraper) and maracas.

The original chord progression of the "Punto Guajiro" is I-IV-V-V in 2/4 time. But this evolved in the Guajira to a
chord progession of I-IV-V-IV-I in a 2:3 clave pattern.

The examples here are in the format adapted by dance bands, where the piano plays vamps similar to those played by
the guitar and the tres.

If you wish to listen to more examples of Guajira we recommend recordings by Joseito Fernandez, Beny More, La
Sonora Matancera.

•'—7
CD
,-—-v

3
G
Clave 2:3
Piano Example 2
C G
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•^
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f ) ^-f •>• ,^' )
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ri—r —p—1
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5 - 2

Play 3 times
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3 F~n_
1
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s £

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G F C

L.
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19

CD

Clave 2:3
Piano Example 3
C D G F D Play 3 times
f >

QUAJIRA

C7 Bb m Fm Bbm C7 Fm
> >
"np____L_^
— r qrh« i»
p rz i toa —-*
T E E=—^;""' —i 0
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n. i . L . I
20

SON MONTUNO
SON MONTUNO or "SON" is a very popular form of Cuban dance music that originated primarily in the
mountainous province of Oriente.

The word SON derives from the Spanish word "Sonetas" which are poems set to music and MONTUNO from the
word "Montana" which means mountain. Son Montuno or "Songs from the Mountains" were played by the peasant
farmers of these regions since the 1800's.

Due to the development of railroads and other forms of public transportation in Cuba during the 1920's this music was
exposed to the bigger markets in the major cities. The most important band that popularized "SON" was a "Trio
Matamoros" led by Miguel Matamoros.

Son Montuno was originally played in an ensemble consisting of a guitar, a tres and clave.

The usual clave pattern of the Son Montuno is 2:3, but depending on the melody it can also be a 3:2 pattern.

Son Montuno was first adapted by dance bands in the 1920's played with an ensemble of guitar, tres, clave and adding
bongos, bass and a trumpet. Later with its growing popularity piano, congas and brass were added.

If you wish to listen to more examples of Son Montuno we recommend recordings by Trio Matamoro, Ignacio Pineiro y
El Septeto Nacional and La Sonora Matancera.

CD
s
Clave 2:3
Piano Example 5

'•x E if n /; x X tf s >c A X V i

QJ

ffS 1—'
ft '-'
y" ' Ih fu.

F6 C7 Bb

HV
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\—— = ^ ^ 1 ' • . -r-.J • ..J


21
CD

SONMONTUNO
X"

7
Clave 2:3
Piano Example 6
C

G7 G7 F
o £> i>

1. 1I2T
C G7
C G7
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22

CD

Clave 2:3
Piano Example 7
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fm
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PC?,

C7 Bb Bb Em7(b5) A7
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k—ib= ^=F =— - ' P 1

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23

Em7(b5) A7 Dm9 G13

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(Variations not transcribed)


Csusl C7/Bb F Bb C7 Bb
/-N

-p- -p- -p- Play 4 times


c=^
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Em7(b5) C7/Bb
24

Guaguanco is a style of music that originated in the Cuban province of Matanzas. During colonial times this part of
Cuba was the principal agricultural region, thus it was home to the largest slave population on the island. This created
a special mixture of African rhythms and Spanish folk music (flamenco).

Guaguanco was originally played with an array of conga drums and claves creating a rhythm pattern for call and
response type melodies. Also a small conga drum approximately six to eight inches wide called a quinto is used for
fill-in solos throughout.

This ensemble was later adapted by dance bands in the thirties and forties with richer melodies and arrangements and
was exposed to larger audiences throughout Cuba.

The examples that are presented here are in the dance band style.

Notice that guaguancos are played with the conga drum and the bass emphasizing a counterpoint against the
guaguanco clave.

If you wish to listen to other examples of Guaguanco we recommend recordings by Los Papines, Los Munequitos de
Matanzas and Patatos y Totico.

CD
^—-- GUAGUANCO
9
*- •

Clave Guaguanco 2:3


Piano Example 8
(Variations not transcribed)
Conga
r-44-r— f325! a/ N T
^ —i=r" 1 p^ =sps
1 ^= i^-/ ^j X X /
X
Clave Guaguanco
x1

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rl <7 BB a/ OH O ft
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X 1 L 1 1 ' 1£E1 r ' f —i— Kjam if P

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26

GUAGIIANCO
CD

Clave Guaguanco 2:3


Piano Example 9
(Variations not transcribed)
Conga
H£TJ f*8""! r *^S9

X X
| =53* p^=p^™

>< X
X.

1 Clave Guaguanco
/IT*. . v
l i r

-'y- ]>1 ftN -^—£-


ma «Y J ay
T

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Gm(maj7) Gm7 C7
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T

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27

D7 Gm Gm(maj7)
a

pif
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Gm7 C7 Am

Dh—^

II.-4.
Am(maj7) Am7 D7
r0- p—-HT 3 a
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2
2
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1 ^ U
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1
28

GUAGUANCO
Clave Guaguanco 2:3
Piano Example 10
(Variations not transcribed)
Conga
dbi—^ i—ri rr"^ ]—\ - i i i M i—rt~~~~~ - N n — --- **• -"S •"• x x
%-
,> X / 1 X
X x •" x 7 J ' -J J J >< J~
X X

Clave Guaguanco

~"^i
.-x^tir 2:3
o—J> s/ —
I/
n 53; / "1
i *J. 57
/ /
1 C
7 /

Am7 D7/A

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n> P >
f
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-61}£
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ij -ft—
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E9(b5)

Am? Ab7(b9)/A D7(b9,b5)


~\, U"
flR rO
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f> p^
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sr- !^.
p-
a, i -j—^—i
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Gmaj9 Bm9 E9(b5)


29

A m9 D (
•\j
py; A
o. p_
f3
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F^f& .F -ia.'' p.
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^

Gmaj7 Bm7

Am9 D13(b9)/A

Gmaj? Bm7

Am9 D13(b9)/A Gmaj7


30

MAMBO
When the word Mambo is mentioned the first name that comes to mind is the famous Perez Prado and his orchestra.
But Mambo has a very rich heritage in Cuba.

The first Mambo written was done by two brothers, Orestes and Israel "Cachao" Lopez, in the early 1930's. At the time
they were playing piano and bass in Jose Arcano's band "Arcanos y sus Estrellas" in Havana. This band strictly played
DANZON music which was the most popular form of Cuban dance music at the time.

The Lopez brothers created a vamp that was used as a bridge or a movement within a Danzon and called it Mambo.
Other Danzon bands of the era picked up on this and started to incorporate this new part in their Danzon
arrangements.

Later in the 1940's Perez Prado, who was a piano player with Danzon bands in Cuba, used this style to compose and
arrange his music.

In 1949 Perez Prado's recording of Mambo #5 became a hit in New York. This started one of the biggest dance crazes to
hit the United States and the whole world.

After this, Mambo music was greatly enhanced and developed by such artists as Machito, Tito Puente, Tito Rodriguez,
Desi Arnaz (of the Lucy and Desi show) to name a few.

The examples contained here are played in 2:3 clave, although depending on the melody of the song, it may also be
played in 3:2 clave.

If you wish to listen to other examples of Mambo we recommend recordings from Perez Prado y su Orquesta, Machito
y sus Afro-Cubans, Tito Puente and'Tito Rodriguez.

CD

©
Clave 2:3
Piano Example 11
C9 C9(b5) Csus9 C7 C9 C9(b5) Csus9 C7
(5 , *
rt Io —ii 9 — T— -4
£
"0 2 .^ f* P 0— ~T~
<-j — —k* —^"p^j—'—
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1
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p"l? ^ 4- LI ——
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Play 4 times
Fmaj? F6 Fmaj? FmajV F6 Fmaj7 F6
31
CD
MAMffO
©
Clave 2:3
Piano Example 12
Gm/C Gm(maj7)/C Gm7/C C7

1
36
m
FmajV F6 Frnaj? 6 times

CD
MAMEO
Clave 2:3
Piano Example 13
G7
r-6 1 i
QV
/
\W
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M
J
v j
S_1_—Fl
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A—53
7 "0 *n
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p
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/ / / ' r ' J
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/
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b
ay
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b

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im ' n ^ ' '
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t
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32

CHA-CHA-CHA
As the creator of this music Enrique Jorrin himself says: "I named this music Cha-cha-cha because that was the sound I
heard coming from the feet of the dancers dancing on those smooth Spanish tiles in Havana's dance halls."

Cha-cha-cha is always played in 4/4 time with an ensemble consisting of a rhythm section of piano, bass, conga,
timbales, guiro (scraper) together with string section of violins, cello and a flute.

Though it is in 4/4 time it must be played with a bouncy 2/4 feel.

Since Mr. Jorrin himself was a pianist, more so than in other styles that are in this book, the piano vamps in Cha-cha-
cha dictate the feel to the rest of the instruments. It is important to keep this in mind when practicing the examples.

Although Enrique Jorrin was the creator of this music, the great Cuban Charanga band "La Orquesta Aragon" has been
its most innovative contributor.

. With such Cha-cha-cha world-wide hits as "Calculadora", "El Bodeguero", "Los Tamalitos de Olga" and "La
Enganadora" just to name a few they are unquestionably the Kings of the Cha-cha-cha.

If you wish to listen to other examples of Cha-cha-cha we recommend recordings of La Orquesta Aragon, Jose Fajardo
y sus Estrellas and Enrique Jorrin.

'HA
Clave 2:3
Piano Example 14
Gmll C9/G Gmll

r^f
ft ft ft
?&
C9/G Gmll C9/G

7£t~£ *T& D »— -^ 53—aj» s?—af® r? p


<—ft—1'—'T^F=i
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faK *• ft— —to N ' 5 ' q— -* ' fi
n ' b
u ks^1
tJ P P l='a-" I I P K
u u
— /' L g ^
~i—^—i 3—2—n— t- / \ ' n ?
^

Gmll C9/G Play 4 times Gmll


33
CD
CHA-CHA-CHA
©
Clave 2:3
Piano Example 15
Gm7 C7 Gm7 C7 Fmaj7 Fmajl3 Fmaj7 Fmajl3
——
(ffl%j nn
r^" * r r; — , 1 ^ r a -T. 4 -B g
J ** 3 : g
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t —0 J
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f
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CHA-CHA-CHA
©
Clave 2:3
Piano Example 16
Am9 D13 Am9 D13
p. p. a. p.- 2. J2- 13L

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b 1-?

JL fi fl-
34

3 OMB'A & PLENA


Bomba & Plena — Folk music from Puerto Rico. These grooves are folk styles that emphasize rhythm more than
harmony. Although, they may include a "cuatro" (a small guitar native of Puerto Rico similar to the Cuban "tres") as
a harmonic accompaniment to the singing. The following musical examples illustrate how these styles would be
incorporated in a salsa arrangement.

Bomba: The Bomba is traditionally played on three wide barrel drums similar to the conga drums, guiro (scraper), and
cencerro (cowbell). Each barrel drum has its own rhythmic pattern. The "requinto" (high pitched drum) improvises
over the ostinato pattern the other two drums maintain. The ostinato patterns are one measure in length and do not
outline the clave. The piano "comps" a groove in either a 3:2 or 2:3 clave and the bass plays a basic syncopated pattern
that may or may not define the clave. Bombas are usually played by salsa ensembles as interludes or as specific
sections in a tune.

Plena: The Plena originated in Ponce, Puerto Rico. It is traditionally played on tunable panderetas (tambourine-like
drums without the rattles), guiro, and accordion. The piano outlines either clave (2:3 or 3:2) while the bass plays a basic
Merengue-like pattern with roots and fifths on the downbeats.

CD
BOMBA
©
Clave 3:2
Piano Example 17
F Bb B C7
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it n a/ r\/
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i -iy -M iJ i_ i

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35
ll.2.
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CD
PLENA
Clave 2:3
Piano Example 18
Am E7/B
V p P p; I ~ V 1—1 ffl
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36

MERENGUE
Merengue (merenge) — A sweet delicate candy made with whipped egg-whites and sugar. Popular dance rhythm native
of the Dominican Republic.

The merengue evolved from the "perico ripiao"; early folk music that is still played today. "Perico ripiao" was originally
played on a guira (cylindrical metal scraper), tambora (two-headed drum played horizontally on the player's lap), and a
diatonic button accordion. The marimbula bass* and alto sax were added later to enhance the existing ensemble.

Of course, this folk music could not be played in society dances where only contra-danzas, danzones, paso dobles and
waltzes were played. It was not until the 1940's that the "perico ripiao", now evolved into merengue, entered the
ballroom. It was obviously influenced by the big bands in the U.S. A large horn section was added, the piano replaced the
accordion, and the upright bass replaced the marimbula. Yet, the essential ingredients of the guira and tambora
remained.

There are basically three forms of Merengue:

1. "Merengue Tradicional" which can be played "a media" half of the accents in the tambora pattern, or
"corrido" the complete pattern.

2. "Merengue Pambiche" — a slower, easier to dance Merengue. The term comes from the independence war of
the Dominican Republic from Spain. The Merengue bands would play slower merengues for the Palm Beach,
Florida soldiers stationed in that country. They would play these "Merengues a lo Palm Beach"; hence the
word "pam-biche".

3. "Merengue a lo maco" — the most recent innovation to the tambora merengue pattern. A more simplified
pattern than the Merengue Tradicional and Merengue Pambiche. It is a one measure pattern that does not
outline the clave like the others do.

In the early merengues the piano would "comp" sustained chords during the "body" (A & B sections) of the tune and
would segue into a syncopated tumbao in the montuno (vamp) section. The sustained chords at the beginning of the
piece were gradually replaced by syncopated tumbaos throughout the whole tune. Eventually the syncopated tumbaos
then evolved from identical left and right patterns to a more contrapuntal pattern between the hands.

The primary pattern of the bass was and still is roots and fifths played on down beats. The slower Pambiche Merengue
bass also uses roots and fifths but are usually syncopated. The popular Merengue has various fills, glissandos, and
nuances added by the arranger or the player to embellish and spice-up the groove. Some of these embellishments
included melodic lines in unison with the horn section and staccato, root note down-beats to aid in locking tightly with
the bass drum (relatively new to the ensemble) and the rhythm section in general.

Note: Although the clave is not played in the merengues, it is nonetheless implied in the grooves.

If you wish to listen to other examples of merengue we recommend recordings of Johnny Ventura, Wilfrido Vargas, Los
Hermanos Rosario, Bony Cepeda, Cuco Valoy, Ramon Orlando, Juan Luis Guerra, Mily & Jocelin y Los Vecinos, J.
Esteban y La Patrulla 15, Fernando Villalona.

*see page 14: "History of Piano and Bass Tumbaos"


37

MERENGUE

CD

Implied 3:2 Clave


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41

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42

Implied 3:2 Clave


Piano Example 22

Rhythm intro

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44 C7 TIIMBAO
C7 ,»»taos , an oper^enaea van,p .nainly used today ta *,»*—> i- -ions, or as ,hey are called ta Utin

music "DESCARGAS".
Any 7th chord can be used, bu, the most commonly used ,K C7 and D7 chord,
H in the "montuno" section of the Danzon style songs in Cuba. Danzon mus.c, bang a
OriginaUy these van,ps were use Un*e -non ^ ^^ ^ ^ ^^ ve,y
descendant of ,he ^^ flu(e
Con,^ »*h ^ ^ ^ ^ «- «-. ^ ^
a 7«h chord Was chosen for its dynan* so«, an

The C7 tumbaos when used in this context are always played in 2:3 clave.

recordings

CD C7 TIIMBAO
(S)

Clave 2:3
Piano Example 23 Intro Conga

CD C7 TIIMBAO
Clave 2:3 Gm/C Gm(maj7)/C
Piano Example 24
45

Gm7/C C9 Gm Gm(maj7)/C Gm7/C C9 Gm Gm(maj7)/C


,. Jv«h

Gm7/C C9 Gm Gm(maj7)/C Gm7/C (:9 Grn/C


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CD

(8)
Clave 2:3
Piano Example 25

7M7~1F*1a 7 ™
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CM OH ra B, j
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Bass pick-up
Soli etc.
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46

Songo — style created and made popular by Los Van Van of Cuba. Juan Formel (bassist) formed the group Los Van
Van in 1970. Along with drummer "Blasito", Formel attempted to merge "Son" with American music. When drummer
"Blasito" left the band, Jose' Luis Quintana "Changuito" (conguero, timbalero, and drummer) joined as the new
drummer, he developed and elaborated on the style. The result of this endeavor of Los Van Van was named Songo.

The songo "groove" is made by the combination of patterns in the rhythm section. Note that the overall feel of the
rhythm section is different. The examples included here are a basic idea of a groove that is much freer and "ad-lib".
This groove incorporates a trap set along with bata drums, chekeres, and/or the standard congas, bongos and
timbales. The drummer that introduced this groove in the U.S. is Ignacio Berroa (drummer for many years with Dizzy
Gillespie). He recorded this groove for the first time in the U.S. with Batacumbele of Puerto Rico. (For a more in depth
study of the groove see Ignacio's video "Mastering The Art Of Afro-Cuban Drumming" available from WARNER
BROS. PUBLICATIONS.)

CD

©
Clave 3:2
Piano Example 26

D
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47

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CD

©
Clave 2:3
Piano Example 27
C Bb

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48

t CD

©
Clave 2:3
Piano Example 28
Eb Bb7

Eb7 Ebsus7 Eb Ab F7/C

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S =s ^3

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49

Although, the great majority of the grooves in this book are Afro-Cuban, this section includes one of the many grooves
that have been played by groups like N.G. La Banda, Adalberto y su son, and Orquesta Reve' among others. Some of
the bass and piano examples are more like obligate sections that usually segue into a more standard tumbao. Like the
majority of the groups in Cuba, a trap set is also used. And, like the Songo, parts could be and usually are more ad lib.
Among many other internationally known Cuban groups are: Irakere, Afro-Cuba, and Rumbavana.

CD
s^\

Clave 2:3
Piano Example 29
Gm Eb
pdp= P ^h (9 fl V S *j S
*
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II.-11. 12.
Ftfdim/C Gra Gm

CD
MIISICA AFRO-CUBANA
Clave 2:3
Piano Example 30 p Bb B C7 C#dim Dm
1 r^ ;"~r^
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50

-CUBANA
CD

©
Clave 3:2
Piano Example 31
Dtfdim

C#dim
Em

/ p i f

1.-5.
D7 Em Em
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51
SALSA
Salsa is a name that originated in New York City during the 1970's to describe the sound that had been evolving for a
number of decades. It is a mixture of many cultures, but mainly it is Afro-Cuban music, especially the "guaracha"
(descendant of the son) with Puerto Rican percussive additions and American Jazz harmonic enhancements.

It would be impossible to name all of the artists and musicians who influenced this music, but it would be helpful for
you to obtain some recordings of the following individuals, all of whom made significant impact on this music:

Ray Barreto, Justo Betancort, Wille Colon, Bobby Cruz, Celia Cruz, Larry Harlow, Hector La Voe, Ismael Miranda,
Johnny Pacheco, Eddie Palmieri, Charlie Palmieri, Richie Ray, Pete "El Conde" Rodriguez, Ismael Quintana and Bobby
Valentin.

The above mentioned artists primarily performed a hard-driving form of Salsa that was very danceable, but at the
same time gave the players a lot of room for improvisation.

In recent years a form of Salsa called "Salsa Sensual" has become very popular. This form of Salsa still maintains the
same rhythmic and clave patterns, but the arrangements are built around romantic ballads with the chords and
harmonies for a more mellow sound.

Lately the contributions of Venezuelan, Colombian and Panamanian musicians have given the music a different flavor.
Musicians like Oscar de Leon from Venezuela and El Grupo Niche from Columbia have added idiosyncracies in
tumbaos, mambos and overall song structures, and from Panama Ruben Blades' use of different instrumentation as
well as structure has elevated the music to newer heights.

Not to mention El Gran Combo and La Sonora Poncena from Puerto Rico whose Jazz influenced Papo Luca has given
the music a fresh new twist.

In the following examples you will hear both of these styles extensively.

CD SALSA
(33)

Clave 2:3
Piano Example 32
Ab Abm

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52

•ALSA
Clave 2:3
Piano Example 33
Dm9 G13(b9)

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Cmaj9 times
53

CD o j_/(^.rj. JL

©
Clav e 2:3 t
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54
CD SALSA
Clave 2:3
Piano Example 35
(Variations not transcribed)

Am7(b5) D7(b5,b9) Gra9 C9 Am7(b5) D7(b5,b9)

Gm9

Am7(b5) D7(b5,b9) Gm9 C9 Am7(b5) . D7(bl3,b9)


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Variations
Am7(l>5) D7(b5,b9) Gm9 C9 Am7(b5) D7(b5,b9) Gm9 C9
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II.
Am7(b5) D7(b5,b9) Gm9 C9 Am7(b5) D7(b5,b9)

Gm9 C9 Am7(b5) D7(b5,b9) Gm9

-X it.
56

CD
^—N
37
Clave 2:3
Piano Example 36
(Variations not transcribed)
Dm7 G9 Cmaj? F9 Bm?(b5) E7(b9,b5)
WL
=-4

Am? D9/E Dm? G9 Cmaj? F9


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58
CD
SALSA
Clave 2:3
Piano Example 37
Bm7 ]37
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SALSA
©
Clave 2:3
Piano Example 38
(Variations not transcribed)
Am9 D7(bl3,H9) Gm9
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60

CD
SALSA
Clave 2:3
Piano Example 39
(Variations not transcribed)
Dm6 E\>1 Dm6
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Eb7 Eb9 Dm6 Eb9

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61

SALSA
CD

Clave 3:2
Piano Example 40

Bass Dm?
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SALSA
CD

©
Clave 2:3
Piano Example 41
D6 G A7 A7 G
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63

SALSA
CD

©
Clave 2:3
Piano Example 42: This is the same piano part as Example 41 only with a variation in the slap bass part on
the accompanying CD.
A7 A7
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D6 A7 G

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SALSA
CD

44
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Clave 2:3
Piano Example 43
Gm Am7(b5)
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CD
SALSA

Clave 3:2
Piano Example 44
(Variations not transcribed) Dm7 G7

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Am7 A7(b 9) Dm7 G7


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Before the word Latin Jazz was used to describe this music it was called "Afro-Cuban Jazz" or as Dizzy Gillespie and
other musicians at the time amusingly called it, "CuBop". The first to play this was Mario Bauza, the arranger for Jose
"Machito" Grillo's band in the forties in New York.

Mario Bauza had played with such big bands as Chick Webb and Cab Galloway when he first got to the states from
Cuba in the 1930's. Here he created "Tanga", the first known composition that used a jazz melody and harmonies with
a Cuban clave feel and rhythm section. Later with his brother-in-law Machito's band and later on his own he continued
to compose and record numerous albums of Latin Jazz and dance music until his death in 1993.

Another important influence during the 1940's was Dizzy Gillespie's composition of "Manteca" which was composed
in conjunction with Chano Pozo, a Cuban percussionist introduced to Dizzy by Mario Bauza. By his love for
Afro-Cuban music and openly associating himself with this music Dizzy Gillespie attracted many other great Bebop
players of the era to it.

It is impossible for us to list all of the artists in this field, nevertheless we made a condensed list of the following: Mario
Bauza, Machito y su Orchesta, Tito Puente, Dizzy Gillespie, Mongo Santamaria, Cal Tjader, Ray Barreto, Grupo Irakere,
Poncho Sanchez and Gonzalo Rubalcaba.

- LATIN JAZZZ
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Styles in Afro-Cuban Music are sometimes mixed adding variety to the music. This creates a sort of tension and release
within a given tune. For example, a tune may start as a Bolero for sixteen or thirty-two measures and segue into Salsa.
Styles are interchanged with discretion. When done eloquently, the change is accepted naturally by the listener. Many
mixes are made as intros, interludes, verse or body of a tune, or as an ending section within a piece. Four, eight or
sometimes sixteen measures at a time are incorporated and usually done once or twice within a section to add some
spice.

A few common groove mixes include:


1. Salsa with a quasi-Samba section and/or ending
2. Bolero with a quasi-Samba or Bossa Nova ending
3. Salsa with a Bomba section
4. Merengue with a Bolero intro
5. Merengue with the conguero playing Puerto, Rican Plena (a mix within the style)
6. Bolero that segues into Salsa
7. Salsa with a Guaguanco intro and/or interlude
8. Salsa with 6/8 bata' drumming intro and/or interlude
9. Merengue with a Rap section
10. Salsa with other unnamed grooves created within the rhythm section i.e., caballo

CONCLUSION

We hope that you have enjoyed this study and have been able to use it in developing your own grooves. As mentioned in
the beginning, this book should be used as basis for studying the over-all concept of the styles. It is merely a brief survey
of the tip of an "iceberg" that continues to grow and develop with time. If you've studied and practiced these examples
thoroughly you should by now be able to tap the clave to the examples and create a tumbao over a set of changes that fit
the respective clave. We thank you for listening.

For suggestions and/or comments please E-Mail: Manny Patino at


patino@earthlink.net
SUGGESTED READINGS

If you wish to study more in depth and grasp some of the rich culture where all these musics evolved from, the following
listed books are recommended by the authors.

Aretz, Isabel (Relatora de 15 Libretos): America Latina En Su Musica Mexico: Siglo XXI Editores & Paris: Unesco, 1987

Gerard, Charley w/ Sheller, Marty: Salsa, The Rhythm of Latin Music Crown Point, IN: White Cliffs Media Company, 1989

Mouleon, Rebecca: Salsa Guidebook for Piano & Ensemble Sher Music Co. 1993

Roberts, John Storm: The Latin Tinge, The Impact of Latin American Music on the United States, New York: Oxford University
Press, 1979

Slonimsky, Nicolas: Music of Latin American, New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1945

- • • ' • • • • i- • n

For an excellent catalogue of CD's and videos of old as well as new recordings you can refer to the DESCARGA
Catalogue 328 Flatbush Ave. Suite 180 Brooklyn, NY 11238 (718) 693-2966.
Jorge Moreno with Casablanca Band playing the Ampeg "Baby Bass"
Co-author (Manny) with Celia Cruz at
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Oscar D' Leon Manny Patino Victor Victor

Co-author (Manny; age 8) sitting and


playing a marimbula bass.
Co-author (Manny) with pianist
Paquito Echevarria.

Co-author (Manny) with Celia Cruz and husband


Pedro on concert tour in Colombia. August 1994
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