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"Adverse Childhood Experiences. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.samhsa.


The substance abuse and mental services administration or SAMHSA is a website

about substance abuse and mental health. The attached article refers to ""Adverse

childhood experiences"" (ACE). These refer to experiences that a child has lived through

such as death, abuse, neglect, or substance abuse that have had a lasting effect on their

lives. The web page referenced a diagram that shows how ACE can have lasting effects

on the child's behavior and life span by going throughout the life from conception to

death and shows how one ACE can lead to cognitive impairment, then the adoption of

risky behavior finally leading to an early death. it also references the prevention of such

ACEs such as going to therapy sessions.

This article is helpful because it looks directly on how trauma can affect people

and that will tie in directly to the topic and looks at the effects of multiple experiences.


Sandtown-Winchester/Harlem Park]. (2017, September 6). Unpublished raw data.

This database contains the demographic information of the neighborhood

Sandtown-Winchester. It also contains the health statistics and the crime statistics. It then

compares the data to Baltimore as a whole. For example, 96.7% pf the neighborhood is

african american but only 62.8% of all of baltimore is african american. It then goes into

the school informations such as how 96.8% of people 20 years or older at most have a

high school diploma. The database also goes over different programs being implemented

by the city to try to alleviate some of these issues. Finally it goes over the mortality and

life expectancy of the citizens of the two areas of interest. The ranking for life expectancy
out of 55 is 44 with 1 being the best.

This source is very helpful because it clearly shows where there are issues in the

neighborhoods and where to focus if I am looking for sources of trauma."


Hill]. (2017, September 6). Unpublished raw data.

This database contains the demographic information of the neighborhood Penn-

North. It also contains the health statistics and the crime statistics. It then compares the

data to Baltimore as a whole. For example, 85% pf the neighborhood is african american

but only 62.8% of all of baltimore is african american. It then goes into the school

informations such as how 46.2% of people 20 years or older at most have a high school

diploma. The database also goes over different programs being implemented by the city

to try to alleviate some of these issues. Finally it goes over the mortality and life

expectancy of the citizens of the two areas of interest. The ranking for life expectancy out

of 55 is 36 with 1 being the best.

This source is very helpful because it clearly shows where there are issues in the

neighborhoods and where to focus if I am looking for sources of trauma."


(2017, September 6). Unpublished raw data.

This database contains the demographic information of the neighborhood Penn-

North. It also contains the health statistics and the crime statistics. It then compares the

data to Baltimore as a whole. For example, 85% pf the neighborhood is african american
but only 62.8% of all of baltimore is african american. It then goes into the school

informations such as how 46.2% of people 20 years or older at most have a high school

diploma. The database also goes over different programs being implemented by the city

to try to alleviate some of these issues. Finally it goes over the mortality and life

expectancy of the citizens of the two areas of interest The ranking for life expectancy out

of 55 is 51 with 1 being the best.

This source is very helpful because it clearly shows where there are issues in the

neighborhoods and where to focus if I am looking for sources of trauma."

"Chronic vs. acute trauma. (2018, August 14). Retrieved September 26, 2018, from Skywood

Recovery website: https://skywoodrecovery.com

This source defines the difference between acute trauma and chronic trauma.

Acute trauma is defined as “a single event that happens in one’s life.” while chronic

trauma is defined as “ incidents that have occurred over and over again in a person’s life”.

It goes through the symptoms of both and how they are different. It also goes through

what an example of each kind of trauma such as acute would be a car accident while

chronic would be abused. This is written to inform people about the different kind of

trauma and how each kind can affect a person's behavior.

This is useful for my research because it clearly defines the effects of chronic

trauma. Living in poverty is considered a chronic trauma and thus the people living in

poverty would be affected by the effects."

"Community Survey. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://promiseheights.org

The survey taken by Promise Heights looks at the factors that tie into the

community in baltimore such as reading, education, and public transport. This info was

taken from and average of 249 people from the Upton druid heights area. It addressed the

fact that only 1 in 5 kids eat a balanced meal or that 1 in 3 people are being treated for

mental illness. This will provide information about the community that can be useful to

people looking that the environment that people have to live in.

This is helpful for my research because it can give me some insight into what kind

of environment I am dealing with and what kind of disadvantages society has given


Crimmins, E. M., Kim, J. K., & Seeman, T. E. (2009). Poverty and Biological Risk: The Earlier

"Aging" of the Poor. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and

Medical Sciences,64A(2), 286-292. doi:10.1093/gerona/gln010

This article describes how poverty causes signs of aging to appear earlier in

people. It describes how factors such as disease increase with poverty while factors like

life expectancy decrease. The data reported onset of diseases and death 5–10 years earlier

for persons with lower socioeconomic status. To find the data, a combination of survey

data, laboratory analysis, and clinical exams for a representative sample of the U.S.

noninstitutionalized population of all ages. The data was cut off at 20 or older due to the

fact that that was the youngest that diseases started to show themselves. In order to ensure
that bias is not a defining factor in their research, the researchers used the NHANES data

from 1999–2004 to show current differentials in biological risk. These biological factors

include what percentage currently smoke, what percentage are heavy drinkers, what

percent do not exercise, and what percentage have high and low BMI. The NHANES has

been used to link biological risks to the National Death Index. It also includes a graph

that show the difference in the age of death in poor and non-poor families. Poor families

have more deaths in all age groups except in the 80+ group.

This article is useful to my research because it clearly shows the data that says

that low income families are at more of a risk for things like diseases.

"Diehm, R. (n.d.). Dr Rebecca Diehm MAPS MCCLP, Lecturer, School of Psychology, Deakin

University and Dr David Roland MAPS. Retrieved from https://www.psychology.org.au

This article explains the impact of secondary trauma. It explains how when

dealing with people who have experienced trauma, the person treating them whether it is

a social worker or a phycologist, take on some of that and as a result the doctor receives

second hand trauma. Second trauma comes from the effect that listening to the detailed

account of the original event has on the therapist. Some symptoms of second hand trauma

are intrusion, avoidance and hyperarousal, very similar to the original patients symptoms

but to a lesser extent. Another symptom is a feeling of “the world is not a safe place” this

comes from the therapist hearing multiple accounts of trauma and abuse. There is not a

lot of research that has gone into the treatment and prevention of second hand trauma.
This will be useful because it gives a basic overview of what second hand trauma

is and the effects it can have on a person. "

Dillmann, S. M. (2013, October 29). Healing from Trauma, Part I: Why Can't I Just Forget

About It? Retrieved from https://www.goodtherapy.org

This article describes the 3 steps for healing from a traumatic event. It describes

how healing does not mean forgetting and how it is important to understand that the event

happened and to have faith that the truma will heal and that it is not permanent. It goes

into detail about the first of three steps to healing from trauma. The first step is said to be

the hardest due to the fact that it requires people to change their lifestyle. The first step is

establishing external and internal safety. Establishing external safety entails having a

consistent job, securing one’s ability to move around in society (taking the bus, talking to

strangers) or even learning how to read situations so the person can escape if danger

arises. As long as the person is securing that they are in a safe place and have a secure

foothold in life than this step is fulfilled. Creating internal safety includes eating healthy

and working out, these will help keep the person in a healing mindset and help them

recover. It also includes avoiding self harming or addictive behavior such as cutting or

using drugs.

This article is helpful because it describes a way to heal from trauma using ways

that matches with HCE.

"Ginwright, S. (2018, May 31). The Future of Healing: Shifting From Trauma Informed Care to

Healing Centered Engagement. Retrieved from https://medium.com

The article is written by Shawn Ginwright. It describes a new way to treat trauma patients

and it is called “Healing centered engagement”. The article starts out by describing past

terms used in dealing with trauma patients such as Resiliency which is “the capacity to

adapt, navigate and bounce back from adverse and challenging life experiences”(source).

It the goes about describing how Ginwright came to the idea of Healing centered

engagement, he was in a therapy session with a group of young people and one of them

said “I am more than what happened to me, I’m not just my trauma”. This opened

Ginwright’s eyes to the downside of the previously used method, Trauma informed care,

and that was that it was a deficit based viewpoint. The article then goes about to describe

how Healing centered engagement (HCE) works. It describes how HCE focuses on

moving forward from the source of the trauma instead of focusing on it and using it to

explain every aspect of a person. The article also describes how it is more political than

clinical given that it focuses on having a group of people who have experienced the same

people instead of being a 1 on 1 therapy session. HCE also utilizes traits like culture,

sexual orientation or race, bu using these traits it creates a connection between all of the

participants other than the trauma that they went through. HCE also is better for the

people administering it due to the fact that an issue with Trauma informed care is that the

administrator is susceptible to second hand trauma and HCE alleviate that.

This article helps me by giving a basic understanding of HCE that I would need

for my research. It also gives me a lot of sources to follow up on to find out more on the
different ways that HCE can help people."

Homicide database: Mapping unsolved murders in major U.S. cities. (2018, July 24). Retrieved

from https://www.washingtonpost.com

This graphic shows the murder data for baltimore city and the statistics behind

them. Such as Out of 54,868 homicides in 55 cities over the past decade, 50 percent did

not result in an arrest. homicides with a white victim resulted in an arrest more often than

homicides with a minority victim. The site collected data on almost 55,000 criminal

homicides over the past decade in 55 of the largest American cities. The data included the

location of the killing, whether an arrest was made and, in most cases, basic demographic

information about each victim. A killing was considered a murder when the Baltimore

city police department reported it as such. In the past 11 years, there have been 2,827

murders in Baltimore city. That means that there is about 5 murders a day there.

This is helpful because it shows the rate in which people are being killed and

being exposed t those killings and thus trauma.

"Jersey, S. O. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.gov.je

This source looks at the many drugs and lists their effects on the body. It goes

through all different kinds of drugs from Amphetamines to NRG-1 and gives a short

description of the drug as well as what it's called on the street. For example, for cannabis,
it references it as marijuana, grass, dope, pot, puff, weed and then goes through how it

can cause things like hallucinations and euphoria.

This is useful for me because drugs are one of the biggest things that people in the

community complained about and so knowing both what drugs are most used but also

what effects they have on the people will give me an idea of how they affect the


Maria.fleitas. (2019, January 14). Trauma and Violence. Retrieved from


The article describes how trauma and violence are related. SAMHSA describes

trauma as “resulting from "an event, series of events, or set of circumstances that is

experienced by an individual as physically or emotionally harmful or life threatening and

that has lasting adverse effects on the individual’s functioning and mental, physical,

social, emotional, or spiritual well-being.". Truma is especially common among

communities with substance abuse issues. Seclusion and restraint were once perceived as

therapeutic practices in the treatment of people with mental and/or substance use

disorders. An old treatment option of trauma was seclusion and restraint. SAMHSA

defines seclusion as “the involuntary, solitary confinement of an individual”. SAMHSA

also defines restraints as “any method, physical or mechanical device, or material or

equipment that immobilizes or reduces an individual’s ability to freely move his or her

arms, legs, body, or head. A drug or medication also might be used to restrict behavior or
freedom of movement.” These procedures have been deemed to be traumatic in itself and

is only used in especially dangerous situations when the person is considered to be a

danger to themselves or others.

This article is useful because it gives some content as the ways trauma used to be




from https://www.melissainstitute.org

This article integrates healing from psychological damage with spirituality. It

starts by listing some statistics. Such as that over 90% of Americans believe in God or in

a higher power, 60% belong to a local religious group, 60% think that religious matters

are important or very important in how they conduct their lives, 40% attend religious

services almost weekly or more, 80% are interested in “growing spiritually”. It then goes

into how spirituality is used in times of need such as how 90% of people turned to prayer

after the september 11th terrorist attack. When faced with a natural disaster that destroyed

a church and killed children who were inside, the pastor said “Their faith is shaken, it is

not the same as losing it. Events like this only strengthen our faith… Our faith is an

anchor in a turbulent sea… Those who die inside a church will find the gates of heaven

open wide…. As long as we have faith, we are strong. No matter how dark it is, if I have

faith, I have a song in the night…. Our beliefs are trembled and bent, but they did not
break…. There is no reason. Our faith is not determined by reason. Our faith is

undergirded by belief, where there is no reason.” (Meichenbaum, 1994, p545). It then

goes into how using spirituality can deter bad habits such as negative thought or self

deprecating comments that can become self fulfilling prophecy.

This article is useful because spirituality is the first principle of Healing centred


"Phases of Trauma Recovery. (n.d.). Retrieved from


Recovery is the primary goal for those who have experienced a traumatic

experience. Recovery is defined as “the ability to live in the present without being

overwhelmed by the thoughts and feelings of the past.”. It is debated heavily if

remembering the traumatic experience is helpful or detrimental to recovery. There are 3

stages in recover. The first being safety and stability. A common feeling for trauma

victims is a feeling of being unsafe, therapists have to re-connect them to their

community in a controlled way. The second stage is remembrance and mourning. It is

important to accept that what happened happened. The third step is reconnection. They

work towards building a support network within the community s that they have a feeling

of security and safety.

This article will be helpful because it lists out the steps to currently treat trauma. This

shows what the current style is that HCE would replace."

Pinderhughes, H., Davis, R. A., & Williams, M. (n.d.). Adverse Community Experiences and


COMMUNITY TRAUMA,1-36. Retrieved from https://www.preventioninstitute.org

This article is written to describe trauma in the context of community. This article

goes through two main sections, the understanding of trauma and the effects of trauma on

the community. The first section includes the introduction of trauma and an explanation

of how trauma is invasive. The second section is based around trauma in the community.

This includes how in high, violence neighborhoods, it is widely accepted that everybody

in the neighborhood has experienced trauma.

This is very helpful because it finally draws that line between trauma and low

income neighborhood.

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Fact Sheet. (n.d.). Retrieved from


This website compiles statistics of trauma together. It starts with a quick look

section where there are very basic data points. “An estimated 70 percent of adults in the

United States have experienced a traumatic event at least once in their lives and up to 20

percent of these people go on to develop posttraumatic stress disorder, or PTSD.” “An

estimated 5 percent of Americans—more than 13 million people—have PTSD at any

given time.”. It then lists three clusters; Re-living the event (recurring nightmares or other

intrusive images that occur at any time), Avoiding reminders of the event (places, people,

thoughts, or other activities associated with the trauma), Being on guard or hyper-aroused

(irritable or sudden anger, having difficulty sleeping or a lack of concentration, being

overly alert or easily startled). These three clusters show how some people react to

trauma and gives and in depth look at them.

This article is helpful for shock factor statistics and getting a lot of data that will

boost my point.

"Psychological Trauma and Drug Addiction. (n.d.). Retrieved from


This article contains information about the connection between trauma/PTSD and

substance abuse. It starts by explaining what trauma is and how it can show itself. It also

brings up that there is evidence that trauma and effects from traumatic events can be

hereditary and have been observed being passed down through generations. According

the the article, roughly 7.7 million people suffer from trauma and some use drugs as a

coping device. This is due to the fact that a lot of drugs have calming effects that are

often amiss to a person who has experienced trauma. A common drug used is

benzodiazepines due to the fact that it helps with the anxiety that is a common symptom
of trauma. According to this source, nearly 25 percent of children under 18 have

experienced a traumatic event.

This article will help be because it gives me a broad idea of the connection

between trauma and substance abuse, which is a huge problem in the neighborhoods that

I'm focusing on."

"Signs and Symptoms of Trauma - Causes and Effects. (n.d.). Retrieved from


Trauma is defined here as “the emotional response someone has to an extremely

negative event” Having symptoms of trauma right after a traumatic event is normal but

when they start to interfere with the person's everyday life then it becomes a problem. A

tell tale sign of a person suffering from trauma is anxiety.Emotions are the most affected

aspect of a person. Trauma can make a person irritable and aggressive to the point of

violence. There are also some physical signs such as lethargy.

This article explains the different aspect of a person and how trauma affects them.

This is helpful to see what effects can be noticed in a person."

Taking care of yourself as a counselor. (2018, September 06). Retrieved from


The article describes the best way to perform self care. First it describes how if

one does not take care on oneself, it becomes a lot harder to help others. “If you’re
gasping for air, you can’t help other people,” says Rankin, who is also earning her

doctorate in health psychology from Walden University. Councillors have found it easy to

preach that self care is important but have trouble putting it into practice themselves. “We

are asked as professionals to provide a tremendous amount of empathy to our clients. We

often listen to very tragic and emotionally difficult stories. We are offering this empathy

to the client and offering a place to share these stories, yet our profession is not meant to

be a two-way street — the client is not there to provide us empathy. So, somehow, when

you do that work on a daily basis, you have to have an outlet to receive things back.

Otherwise, you end up depleting yourself and you don’t have anything more to give.”

(Stephanie Burns).

This article is helpful because self care is a very big part of HCE.

The Healing Power of Empathy. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com

This article focuses on how empathy is essential to healing emotional trauma.

Empathy is defined as “we reach our hearts out to others and put ourselves in their shoes.

It also means that we can be happy for others during their times of joy.” The article

describes how empathy can be a very useful tool but without any tools in place for some

self care, it can very easily overwhelm the person who is being empathetic. “The message

of empathy is always “I hear you” even if you don’t agree with someone’s reasoning.”

The article goes through how to find out if you are an “empath”. And empath is someone

who has a high number of “Mirror neurons” and are able to empathise with people at a

high levels than other people.

This article is very helpful because it describes what empathy is and gives me

more terms and topics to research in the future.

The Power of Community in Healing Trauma. (n.d.). Retrieved from


This article starts out by describing the morning after the Paris terrorist

attack. It describes how the therapist Sharon Korman went on her computer and posted

about how in this time, it was important to help each other and support each other. In

events such as this, clinicians have found that the best tool is not any therapy or sessions

but just to use the community to help heal itself. After the terrorist attack, there were

reports of students having symptoms of trauma but not feeling the need to try to inform

their therapist. “There’s a critical window of time in which traumatic memories begin to

crystallize in the moments following attacks, and there’s little substitute for the soothing

power of basic human touch and connection” (Bourgault). This just shows that the

community is a very useful tool when dealing with trauma.

This is very helpful because using the community to help treat trauma is one of

the important ideals of HCE.

"Trauma Informed Care vs. Trauma Specific Treatment. (n.d.). Retrieved from


This article describes what Trauma Informed care is and what it's principles are.
The 6

core principles of trauma informed care is 1. Understanding trauma-”through knowledge

and understanding trauma and stress we can act compassionately and take well-informed

steps towards wellness.”, 2. Safety and security-” increasing stability in our daily lives

and having core physical and emotional safety needs met can minimize our stress

reactions and allow us to focus our resources on wellness”, 3. Cultural humanity and

Responsiveness-”when we are open to understanding cultural differences and respond to

them sensitively, we make each other feel understood and wellness is enhanced.”, 4.

Compassion and dependability-”when we experience compassionate and dependable

relationships, we re-establish trusting connections with others that fosters mutual

wellness.”, 5. Collaboration and empowerment- “when we are prepared for and given real

opportunities to make choices for ourselves and our care, we feel empowered and can

promote our own wellness.”, 6. Resilience and recovery-”when we focus on our strengths

and clear steps we can take toward wellness, we are more likely to be resilient and

recover.”. The article then looks at common traits in systems that do not use trauma

informed care such as a misuse of power and disempowering consumers . It then looks at

the common traits of systems that use trauma informed care such as value consumer input

and Awareness of retraumatization.

This article is helpful because it gives me a basic idea of what the current

techniques are and what they vale, it also gives me a lot of new sources that I can use to

find more informations."

"Trauma-informed care in behavioral health services. (2014). Rockville, MD: U.S. Department
of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services

Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Treatment.

This article is made specifically to talk about trauma and its effects on children. It

goes through the many aspects of life that trauma can affect. This includes physical such

as bedwetting, developmental delays and motor skills getting worse. Emotional such as

having trouble connecting with people acting up. This goes through many actions that

kids who have experienced trauma have shown such as self harm and hiding food. This

article even goes as far as to show what the effects of trauma has on life leteron such as

more risky behavior or having trouble getting a job.

This article is helpful because it will explain why some of the issues that people

are reporting are being reported."

"Traumatic Events: Causes, Effects, and Management. (n.d.). Retrieved from


This article goes through a basic explanation of what trauma is and how it affects

people. It lists the different causes of trauma such as rape, violence, murder, accident, or

even jail time. It then goes over how to tell the difference between a person who is

shaken up by the incident verses someone who has PTSD. The difference is longitude, if

a person is still shaken up by the event and still shows signs such as anxiety, fear that the

event will occur again, long after the event, then they have PTSD. There a number of

treatments such as therapy and medication to treat the anxiety and fear. There is a section

that talks about what to look for in a child to see if they have ptsd, the symptoms are
emotional outbursts, aggressive behavior, withdrawal, persistent difficulty in sleeping,

continued obsession with the traumatic event, serious problems at school.

This is helpful because it gives another account on what to look for in a trauma