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OFFSHORE

INSTALLATION
OVERVIEW
PART 2 - PIPELINES

CONVENTIONAL OFFSHORE
INSTALLATION

C.MARGOT
SUMMARY

• PIPELAYING VESSELS 3
• PIPELAYING OPERATIONS 15
• BURIAL 74
• RISERS 81
• ABOVE WATER TIE-IN 88
• DIVING WORKS 97
• PRE-COMMISSIONING 123
• ANNEXES 163
Semac 1 production welding
SONSUB ROVs presentation
BELUGA animation

Offshore course 2
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PIPELAYING VESSELS

C. MARGOT
SAIPEM PIPELAYING VESSELS

• SAIPEM 7000 J-Lay + HLV


• SAIBOS FDS J-Lay
• SEMAC 1
• CASTORO 2 DLB
• CASTORO 6
• CASTORO 8 + HLV
• CASTORO 10
• CRAWLER DLB
• S 355
• SB 230

Offshore course 4
SAIPEM PIPELAYING VESSELS
SAIPEM 7000 J-Lay + HLV

Offshore course 5
SAIPEM PIPELAYING VESSELS
SAIBOS FDS J-Lay

Offshore course 6
SAIPEM PIPELAYING VESSELS
SEMAC 1

Offshore course 7
SAIPEM PIPELAYING VESSELS
CASTORO II DLB

Offshore course 8
SAIPEM PIPELAYING VESSELS
CASTORO 6

Offshore course 9
SAIPEM PIPELAYING VESSELS
CASTORO 8 + HLV

Offshore course 10
SAIPEM PIPELAYING VESSELS
CASTORO 10 + Postrenching

Offshore course 11
SAIPEM PIPELAYING VESSELS
CRAWLER DLB

Offshore course 12
SAIPEM PIPELAYING VESSELS
BOS 355

Offshore course 13
SAIPEM PIPELAYING VESSELS
SAIBOS 230

Offshore course 14
1: INSTALLATION OF PIPELINES AND
RISERS

O 1.1 Laying principles


There are several methods used for laying “rigid” steel pipelines:
“ S ” lay
“ J ” lay
“Reel” lay
“ Steep S ” lay
These methods are mainly depending on the water depth and
consequently on the tensioning capacity of the lay-barge.

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1: INSTALLATION OF PIPELINES ET RISERS

O 1.1 Laying principles


1.1.1 » S » lay
The “S” laying is carried out in so called shallow waters (max 400 - 700
m ) because of the maximum allowable stresses in the sag bend of the
pipeline. Most of the conventional lay-barges are laying pipelines
supplied in joints of 40’( single joint) or 80’(double joint) with a
maximum outside diameter up-to 60 / 72” . Castoro 8 experienced laying
in joint of 60’-18 m and 80’- 24 m.
The parameters to be carefully monitored during laying are the axial
tension, the over bend and sag bend stresses.
In order to minimize the sag and over bend stress , a stinger ( fixed or
floating ) is often used to better support the span . Eventually, buoyancy
tanks can also be used to reduce the span
Offshore weight.
course 16
Offshore course 17
PIPELAYING

Castoro 8 Articulated stinger part 1

Offshore course 18
PIPELAYING
SEMAC 1 Fixed STINGER

Offshore course 19
1: INSTALLATION OF PIPELINES ET RISERS

O 1.1 Laying principles


1.1.2 » Reel » lay
The “Reel” laying is also an“S” lay configuration but it use the pipe
coiled on reels of wide diameter thus avoiding all the welding / NDT /
FJC operations . The pipe is then laid while it is paid out from the reel.
The steel pipe leaving the reel and then getting the sag bend is working
under its plastic limit. The axial tension to the pipe is given by the
tensionners located at the falling section of the pipe.

Reel lay is generally used for steel pipes up-to 16” OD without concrete
coating.

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PIPE LAYING
Reel Lay

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1: INSTALLATION OF PIPELINES AND
RISERS

O 1.1 Laying Principles


1.1.3 « J » lay
J-laying is only used in deep waters from a minimum of 50/200 m up-to
3000 m with a maximum static tension of 240 Te for FDS and 525 T for
S7000 with a possibility of up-grading to 2000 Te. FDS can lay pipes
from 4” up-to 22”OD in quad-joints of 48/49 m while S7000 can lay
pipes in quad-joints from 4”up-to 32”OD.
1.1.4 Steep « S » lay
This method is also used for laying in deep waters. Pipes can be laid
either after being welded onto the barge, or coiled onto a reel or in a
carrousel.
The difference with regards to the « S » lay is that the tensionners are
located on the deck of the barge and the
Offshore « J » curve is guided by a22
course stinger
PIPE LAYING
J Type

S7000 FDS

Canyon express
12” OD
1” wt
2220 m WD

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PIPE LAYING
STEEP – S Lay

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1: INSTALLATION OF PIPELINES AND
RISERS

O 1.1 Laying principles


1.1.5 Lay-ramp (fire line ) description for « S » lay
A lay-barge like Castoro 8 is equipped with a laying ramp which consists
of the following:
1 Conveyor belt
1 Abandonment / recovery winch
1 Line-up system
5 Welding stations
3 Tensioners
1 NDT station
2 Coating stations
1 stinger ( 1 or 2 parts) .
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1: INSTALLATION OF PIPELINES AND
RISERS

O 1.1 Laying principles


1.1.5 Typical
5.1.4 Constitution
cycledof’une
pipeline
rampe fabrication
de pose en « S »
Une barge
*Receiving
de type Castoro
the pipe8joints
est équipée
delivered
d ’une
by cargo
rampebarge
de pose
or vessels.
constituée
comme *Unloading
de: 1 Convoyeur
by the deckde joints
cranes and stowing in racks
*Internal1 Treuil
cleaning d ’abandon
and beveling
/ reprise
of the pipes ends
*Conveying
1 Système
the joints
de mise
toward
à joint
the line-up station
*Line-up at the 1stde
5 Stations welding
soudure station and root welding + start of the
filling 3 Tensionneurs
After the line-up1 Station
and welding
de radiographie
at the station
(NdT)
1 (usually the most critical
station of the cycle),
2 Stations
the barge
d ’enrobage
moves forward on its anchors for the
length of one joint
1 stinger
(12.20m( 1 ou
average).
2 parties) .
*Next stations carry out their role (completion of the welding,
Ndt control, field joint coating,Offshore
anodecourse
installation) 26
Castoro 8 firing line

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Castoro 8 firing line

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Foxtrot Project

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12 / 4 inches bundle line-up on Foxtrot with Castoro 8

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WS 1 – Root & 1st pass with PASSO two bugs single torch

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Grinding of the weld

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Piggy-back saddle

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Offshore course 34
SCHEMATIC LAYING CYCLE WITH CASTRO 10

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CASTORO 10 - Pipe Construction Sequence

Plan View
CASTORO 10 - Pipe Construction Sequence
Loadout Barge and Tug.
AHT

Tug

Loadout Barge
CASTORO 10 - Pipe Construction Sequence
Pipe joints are lifted from the pipehaul vessel to pipe storage racks
on Castoro 10.

Loadout Barge Pipe Storage Racks


CASTORO 10 - Pipe Construction Sequence

Pipe joints lifted to bevelling station.

Bevelling Stations

Bevel Machine Pipe in Bevel Station Bevel Profile (12” Pipe)


CASTORO 10 - Pipe Construction Sequence
The 12” pipeline & 3” piggyback are constructed separately before
being banded together and exiting the vessel down the stinger.

3” Piggyback line

Normal Operating Sea Level

Banding Station
12” Pipeline

Side View
CASTORO 10 - Pipe Construction Sequence
Pipe joints enter the firing line from the bevelling stations at
Station No.1
Station No.1
Root / Hot Pass

Normal Operating Sea Level

Station No.1
Root / Hot Pass

Root / Hot Pass


CASTORO 10 - Pipe Construction Sequence
Station No.2 Station No.2
Cap

Station No.1
Root / Hot Pass

Normal Operating Sea Level

Station No.1
Root / Hot Pass

Station No.2
Fill
3

Weld Deposit
CASTORO 10 - Pipe Construction Sequence
Station No.3 Station No.2
Cap

Station No.3 Station No.1


AUT repair Root / Hot Pass

Normal Operating Sea Level

Station No.3 Station No.1


Cap Root / Hot Pass
5 Station No.2
Fill
3

Weld Cap
CASTORO 10 - Pipe Construction Sequence
Station No.4 Station No.2
Cap

Station No.3 Station No.1


AUT repair Root / Hot Pass

Normal Operating Sea Level

Station No.3 Station No.1


Cap Root / Hot Pass

Station No.4 Station No.2


AUT / Repair Fill

Automated Ultrasonic Testing


CASTORO 10 - Pipe Construction Sequence
Station No.5 Station No.2
Cap

Station No.5 Station No.3 Station No.1


FBE coating AUT repair Root / Hot Pass

Normal Operating Sea Level

Station No.3 Station No.1


Cap Root / Hot Pass

Station No.4 Station No.2


AUT / Repair Fill

Automated Ultrasonic Testing


CASTORO 10 - Pipe Construction Sequence
Station No.6 Station No.2
Cap

Station No.5 Station No.3 Station No.1


FBE coating AUT repair Root / Hot Pass

Normal Operating Sea Level

Station No.3 Station No.1


Cap Root / Hot Pass

Station No.6 Station No.4 Station No.2


FBE coating AUT / Repair Fill
CASTORO 10 - Pipe Construction Sequence
Station No.7 Station No.2
Cap

Station No.5 Station No.3 Station No.1


FBE coating AUT repair Root / Hot Pass

Normal Operating Sea Level

Station No.7 Station No.3 Station No.1


Foam Infill Cap Root / Hot Pass

Station No.6 Station No.4 Station No.2


FBE coating AUT / Repair Fill
CASTORO 10 - Pipe Construction Sequence
3”piggyback line is attached to Station No.2
12”pipeline, and anodes attached Cap

Piggyback banding Station No.5 Station No.3 Station No.1


& anode continuity
welding FBE coating AUT repair Root / Hot Pass

6m

Normal Operating Sea Level

Station No.7 Station No.3 Station No.1


Foam Infill Cap Root / Hot Pass

Station No.6 Station No.4 Station No.2


FBE coating AUT / Repair Fill
1: INSTALLATION OF PIPELINES AND
RISERS

O 1.2 Types of lines - Contexts


Traditional pipelines can be distinguished based on the environment
where there are to be installed.
*Line between two platforms (riser at each end).Intra-field line
*Line between the coast and a platform (shore approach on one side,
riser on the other)
*Line between a platform and a buoy or FSO (riser on one side, PLEM
spool on the other)
*Line between the coast and a buoy or FSO (shore approach on one side,
PLEM spool on the other)
*Line between the coast and...nothing (shore approach on one side,
diffuser or collector on the other) for, sewage outlet or water intake…
Offshore course 49
1: INSTALLATION OF PIPELINES AND
RISERS

O 1.3 Start of pipelaying activity (Initiation)


1.3.1 To start laying from the coast
Shore approaches, See chapter 1.4

1.3.2 To start laying in open sea


This type of initiation is performed by means of a dead-man anchor
placed in a pre-determined position and fitted with a wire cable reaching
the surface and connected to the head of the pipe at the stern of the Lay-
Barge.

1.3.3 To start from a platform.


Several different methods can be used, the most frequent are:
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1: INSTALLATION OF PIPELINES AND
RISERS

O 1.3 Start of pipelaying activity (Initiation)


* Bow string
One bow string (wire cable sling) is installed and connected between the
upper and the lower level of the jacket. Another sling is installed
between the head of the pipe on the stern of the barge and the bow string
wire using a shackle.

* Taut wire
One wire cable sling is installed from the surface and connected to the
mid-level of the jacket. The upper eye of this wire is connected to the
head of the pipe on the stern of the barge.

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1: INSTALLATION OF PIPELINES AND
RISERS

O 1.3 Start of the pipelaying activity (Initiation)

* Launched riser

In some cases in shallow waters ( < 30 m), it is possible to pre-install the


riser held by the crane onto the pipe extremity at the barge stern and to
pull it (riser+ pipe) up-to the riser clamps on the jacket. In that case an
air winch is pre-installed on the platform with its wire cable passing
through one return sheave placed on the bottom of the jacket leg and
connected in surface to the pipe/riser bottom at the stern of the barge.
Once the riser is secured onto the jacket, the barge starts the normal
laying.

Offshore course 52
1: INSTALLATION OF PIPELINES AND
RISERS

O 1.4 Interface onshore / offshore

Offshore pipelines have very often an interface with the onshore works.
This interface consists to built the pipeline transition through the shore
crossing and the surf zone generally called shore approach.

1.4.1 Shore approach by pulling


This procedure is the most commonly used. The pipe is generally
produced by the lay barge, anchored in a water depth suitable to her
draught and pulled ashore by means of a land based winch.
Or the length of the pipe necessary to cover the distance coast/barge, is
prefabricated onshore onto rollers and pulled towards the sea by means
of the barge or pontoon mountedOffshore course
winch. 53
In order to minimize the pulling
32” shore pull completion using a 300 t winch

Offshore course 54
CPC shore pull with S355

Offshore course 55
Pipeline Pulling Activities

Offshore course 56
CPC shore pull

Offshore course 57
1: INSTALLATION OF PIPELINES AND
RISERS

O 1.4 Interface onshore/offshore


1.4.2 Wharf / jetty

It is possible also to ensure the onshore/offshore transition of a pipeline


above water via a wharf / jetty or by means of pre-installed supports
(Djeno or FTIP). In this case the head of the pipe needs to be brought as
close as possible to the jetty, either by a direct pull with an onshore based
winch, or by pulling with an anchor line of the barge through one return
sheave fixed either onshore or on the jetty. The junction to the onshore
pipe is performed via a riser. The aim of this solution is to avoid the
burial of the pipe in the shore crossing and surf zone.

Offshore course 58
FTIP

DJENO

Offshore course 59
Djeno warf

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1: INSTALLATION OF PIPELINES AND
RISERS

O 1.4 Interface onshore/offshore


1.4.3 Dredging / Pre-trenching

In case of shallow water not sufficient to bring the Barge to a reasonable


distance to the shore line (in order to minimize the pulling length), or
when the depth of the required pipe burial is greater to the one that can
be performed in post-trenching, or when burial is mandatory in the shore
crossing and surf zone, then pre-trenching by dredging is applied.
Once the pre-trenching is performed, the pipe is pulled/laid on the trench
bottom until reaching the shore.

Offshore course 61
1: INSTALLATION OF PIPELINES AND
RISERS

O 1.4 Interface onshore/offshore


1.4.4 Cofferdam/sheet piling.
In order to maintain the trench depth in the shore crossing/surf zone, a
cofferdam/sheet piling is often required. This cofferdam shall be
removed at the end of the works.
This solution consists in the construction of at least two sheet-pile walls
across the beach and surfing area in order to pull the pipe in between
after the excavation of the internal part of the cofferdam to the required
burial depth.

Offshore course 62
GAMBA – West Africa

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Pipeline Pulling Activities

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Pipeline Pulling Activities

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1: INSTALLATION OF PIPELINES AND
RISERS

O 1.4 Interface onshore/offshore


1.4.5 Horizontal Directional Drilling -HDD.

In case the configuration of the coast does not allow a standard shore
approach (cliffs, rocky coast, extreme slope) or in case the client requires
a very important burial depth at the shore crossing and near shore, one
solution consists in a HDD which could be more economical that a long
cofferdam.
The most common method for HDD briefly consists in drilling from
shore towards the sea side a pilot hole then to perform a back reaming
while injecting bentonite to maintain the hole against collaps. Once the
hole is completed, the drill pipe is connected onto the pre-laid pipeline
string and then pulled through Offshore
the holecourse
using the drilling rig. 68
Schematic River crossing by HDD

Offshore course 69
1: INSTALLATION OF PIPELINES AND
RISERS

O 1.5 Mechanical protection


There are different ways to protect a pipeline:

*Concrete coating (protects the steel and the anti-corrosion coating from
shocks and increases the submerged weight for stability purpose.
*Burial / backfilling (to protect the pipe from shocks , strong current and
waves effects)
*Rock dumping ( when the soil is too hard to proceed with the burial
below seabed.
*Bitumen or concrete mattress. Generally used on the risers dog-leg or
on crossings.

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1: INSTALLATION OF PIPELINES AND
RISERS

O 1.6 Burial by post-trenching


There are different ways to post-trench a pipeline,
The most common are:
Jetting alone.
Jetting / trenching and eduction.
Trenching and eduction.
Plowing.
The choice of the equipment is function of the soil characteristics and
required depth / cover.

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PIPELAYING

PLOWING

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PIPELAYING

TRENCHING

Offshore course 79
PIPELAYING

TRENCHING

Offshore course 80
1: INSTALLATION OF PIPELINES AND
RISERS

O 1.7 Risers
The connection of a pipeline to a platform is made via a riser.
These risers can be pre-installed on a jacket during fabrication or field
installed afterwards.
In case the riser is pre-installed, the junction pipeline / riser can be
executed only by installing a subsea spool. This spool is generally fixed
by means of flanges, but can also be welded in place using hyperbaric
welding (most costly solution).
In case the riser is installed after the installation of the jacket, it can be
either welded at the extremity of the pipe during initiation (launched
riser) or after pipe installation (riser stalk-on) with pipe lifting to the
surface by means of davits.
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Riser at TUNU- Kalimatan

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Offshore course 83
RISER 32” TTM – CKR
Castoro 2

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ABOVE WATER
TIE IN
12” SIRRI-IRAN
S355

C. MARGOT
Offshore course 89
Offshore course 90
ABOVE WATER
TIE IN

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Offshore course 96
1: INSTALLATION OF PIPELINES AND
RISERS

O 1.7 Pre-commissioning
Once a pipeline has been laid and its risers connected to the platforms,
the pre-commissioning operations can start.

First is the pigging operation (flooding, cleaning and gauging) using


generally filtered sea water. Pigs running / displacement speed is
generally between 0.5m/s (1 knot) and 1 m/s (2 knots) what ever is the
pipeline diameter. The flooding pumps shall be selected accordingly.
During gauging (buckle detection), chemicals (biocide, anti-bactericide
and oxygen-scavenger) are injected into the pipeline to protect it against
moisture and corrosion.

Offshore course 97
1: INSTALLATION OF PIPELINES AND
RISERS

O 1.7 Pre-commissioning
Then, if the gauging plate inspection is satisfactory, the pressure test of
the entire pipeline is carried out at 1.5 times its operating pressure or
1.25 time the design pressure and shall be held 8, 24 or 48 hours without
pressure drop, with a permanent monitoring and recording of all
parameters. After the successful test, the line is depressurized and if
required, dewatered, dried and purged.

Offshore course 98
Next:
SEMAC 1 PRODUCTION WELDING
ROVs PRESENTATION
BELUGA

C.MARGOT