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BRAKES Contents Introduction 1. General Description. 14 Master Cylinder, Vacuum Booster, and Brake Lines Disc Brakes Rear Drum Brakes Proportioning Valves Parking Brakes Brake Applications and Identification 2. Maintenance 3. Troubleshooting, aa 32 a3 Basic Troubleshooting Principles. Diagnostic Tests Brake Noise. 4, Brake System Service 4a 42 43 44 Brake Fluid Bleeding Brakes Pressure Bleeding ‘Vacuum Bleeding Manual Bleeding Replacing Brake Fluid Flushing the Brake System Master Cylinder and Vacuum Booster Removing and Instaling Master Cylinder. Removing and Instaling Vacuum Booster. Proportioning Valves Pressure Testing Proportioning Valves, 10 " " Section 11 5. Front Dise Brakes 5a 82 Checking Brake Pad Wear Reconditioning Front Disc Brakes Removing and Installing Brake Pads Removing, Reconditioning, and Installing Front Brake Rotors Calipers. 6. Rear Drum Brakes. 1 62 ‘Checking Brake Lining Wear Reconditioning Rear Drum Brakes Removing and Instaling Brake Shoes. Reconditioning Brake Drums Inspecting and Replacing Wheel Cyinder Parking Brake (Drum Brakes) ‘Adjusting Parking Brake Replacing Parking Brake Cables. 7. Rear Disc Brakes. 7a 72 73 (Checking Brake Pad Wear. Reconditioning Rear Disc Brakes Removing and Instaling Rear Brake Pads, Removing, Reconditioning, and Installing Rear Brake Rotors. Parking Brake (Disc Brakes) ‘Adjusting Parking Brake Replacing Parking Brake Cable. Calipers 8. Technical Data |. Tolerances, Wear Limits, and Settings IL. Tightening Torques " " " " 14 4 4 16 16 16 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 21 21 BRE BBR 11-2 BRAKES TABLES Brake Troubleshooting Brake Pressure Specifications. Front Rotor Reconditioning Specifications Brake Drum Reconditioning Specifications Rear Rotor Reconditioning Specifications eaege " 14 18 at Brakes 11-3 Brakes Introduction All cars covered by this manual are equipped either with front disc brakes and rear drum brakes, of with disc brakes at all four wheels. The brake system is a diagonal, dualcircut design, hydraulically actuated by the master cylinder, with a vacuum-powered booster to reduce braking effort. Proportioning valves help prevent the rear brakes from locking during heavy braking ‘A propery functioning brake system is essential to safe driving, if the red brake/parking ‘warning indicator lights up while driving, indicating low pressure in one of the brake circuits, then itis imperative that the system be given a thorough check, even if braking action stil seems satisfactory, The brakes should be regularly inspected, and all brake work must be done with extreme cleaniiness, careful attention to specifications, and proper working procedures. {Al information needed for performing routine inspection and maintenance is given here, ‘although some of the information may only be of value to the professional mechanic. H you lack the skis, the tools, or clean workplace for servicing the brake system, we suggest you leave these repairs to an authorized Volkswagen dealer or other qualified shop. We especially urge yyouto consult your authorized Volkswagen dealer before beginning repairs on a car which may be subject to Volkswagen warranty coverage.