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Hot dog

The hot dog[2][3] or dog (also spelled hotdog) is a grilled or steamed link-sausage
Hot dog
sandwich where the sausage is served in the slit of a partially sliced hot dog bun, a
bun of size and shape to hold the sausage.[4] It can also refer to the sausage (the
wurst or wörst) of its composition itself. The sausage used is the wiener (Vienna
sausage) or frankfurter (also frank). The names of these sausages also commonly
refer to their assembled sandwiches.[5] Typical condiments include mustard,
ketchup, mayonnaise, and relish, and common garnishes include onions, sauerkraut,
chili, cheese, coleslaw, and olives. Hot dog variants include the corn dog and pigs in
a blanket. The hot dog's cultural traditions include the Nathan's Hot Dog Eating
Contest and the Oscar Mayer Wienermobile. A cooked hot dog in a bun with
mustard, relish, and ketchup
These types of sausages and their sandwiches were culturally imported from
Alternative Frankfurter, frank,
Germany and became popular in the United States, where the "hot dog" became a names wiener, weenie, tube
working-class street food sold at hot dog stands and carts. The hot dog became
steak, sausage,
closely associated with baseball and American culture. Hot dog preparation and
condiments vary regionally in the US. Although particularly connected with New
York City and its cuisine, the hot dog eventually became ubiquitous throughout the Serving Hot
US during the 20th century, and emerged as an important part of other regional
Main Sausage made from
cuisines, including notably Chicago street cuisine.[6][7][8]
ingredients pork, beef, chicken,
turkey or
Contents thereof
History and a bun

Etymology Variations Multiple

General description Food energy 210[1] kcal
Ingredients (per serving)
Commercial preparation
Cookbook: Hot dog
Natural-casing hot dogs
Skinless hot dogs Media: Hot dog
Home consumption
Health effects
In the United States
Hot dog restaurants
In Canada
Outside North America
See also
External links
Claims about the invention of the hot dog are difficult to assess, as different stories
assert different origins for the distinction between hot dogs and other similar foods.
The history of the dish may begin with the creation of the sausage, with the placing
of the sausage on bread or a bun as finger food, with the popularization of the
existing dish, or with the application of the name "hot dog" to a sausage and bun
combination most commonly used with ketchup or mustard and sometimes relish.

The word "frankfurter" comes from Frankfurt, Germany, where pork sausages
similar to hot dogs originated.[9] These sausages, Frankfurter Würstchen, were
Play media known since the 13th century and given to the people on the event of imperial
A hot dog as served onConey Island
coronations, starting with the coronation of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor as
in 1940
King. "Wiener" refers to Vienna, Austria, whose German name is "Wien", home to a
sausage made of a mixture of pork and beef.[10] Johann Georg Lahner, an 18th/19th
century butcher from the Franconian city of Coburg, is said to have brought the Frankfurter Würstchen to Vienna, where he added
beef to the mixture and simply called it Frankfurter.[11] Nowadays, in German-speaking countries, except Austria, hot dog sausages
are called Wiener or Wiener Würstchen (Würstchen means "little sausage"), in differentiation to the original pork-only mixture from
Frankfurt. In Swiss German, it is called Wienerli, while in Austria the termsFrankfurter or Frankfurter Würstel are used.

Others are credited with first serving hot dogs on rolls. A German immigrant named
Feuchtwanger, from Frankfurt, in Hesse, allegedly pioneered the practice in the
American midwest; there are several versions of the story with varying details.
According to one account, Feuchtwanger's wife proposed the use of a bun in 1880:
Feuchtwanger sold hot dogs on the streets of St. Louis, Missouri, and provided
gloves to his customers so that they could handle the sausages without burning their
hands. Losing money when customers did not return the gloves, Feuchtwanger's Carts selling frankfurters in New York
wife suggested serving the sausages in a roll instead.[12] In another version, Antoine City, circa 1906. The price is listed as
Feuchtwanger, or Anton Ludwig Feuchtwanger, served sausages in rolls at the "3 cents each or 2 for 5 cents".
World's Fair – either at the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis,[13][14]
or, earlier, at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition, in Chicago[15] – again,
allegedly because the white gloves provided to customers to protect their hands were being kept as souvenirs.

Another possible origin for serving the sausages in rolls is the pieman Charles Feltman, at Coney Island in New York City. In 1867
he had a cart made with a stove on which to boil sausages, and a compartment to keep buns fresh in which they were served. In 1871
he leased land to build a permanent restaurant, and the business grew, selling far more than just the "Coney Island Red Hots" as they
were known.[17][18][19]

In 1916, a Polish American employee of Feltman's named Nathan Handwerker was encouraged by Eddie Cantor and Jimmy Durante,
both working as waiters/musicians, to go into business in competition with his former employer.[20] Handwerker undercut Feltman's
by charging five cents for a hot dog when his former employer was charging ten.[20]

At an earlier time in food regulation, when the hot dog was suspect, Handwerker made sure that men wearing surgeon's smocks were
seen eating at Nathan's Famous to reassure potential customers.[16]

The term dog has been used as a synonym for sausage since the 1800s, with one thought being that it came from accusations that
sausage makers used dog meat, starting in at least 1845.[21] In the early 20th century, consumption of dog meat in Germany was
common.[22][23] The suspicion that sausages contained dog meat was "occasionally justified".
An early use of hot dog in reference to sausage-meat appears in the Evansville
(Indiana) Daily Courier (September 14, 1884): "even the innocent 'wienerworst' man
will be barred from dispensing hot dog on the street corner".[25] It was used to mean
a sausage in casing in the Paterson (New Jersey) Daily Press (31 December 1892):
"the 'hot dog' was quickly inserted in a gash in a roll".[25] Subsequent uses include
the New Brunswick (New Jersey) Daily Times (May 20, 1893), the New York World
(May 26, 1893), and theKnoxville (Tennessee) Journal (September 28, 1893).[26]

According to a myth, the use of the complete phrase hot dog in reference to sausage
was coined by the newspaper cartoonist Thomas Aloysius "Tad" Dorgan around Play media
Dog Factory, a short film by Thomas
1900 in a cartoon recording the sale of hot dogs during a New York Giants baseball
Edison poking fun at what went into
game at the Polo Grounds.[21] However, Dorgan's earliest usage of hot dog was not
hot dogs in 1904
in reference to a baseball game at the Polo Grounds, but to a bicycle race at Madison
Square Garden, in The New York Evening Journal December 12, 1906, by which
time the term hot dog in reference to sausage was already in use.[21][26] In addition, no copy of the apocryphal cartoon has ever been

General description

Common hot dog sausage ingredients include:[28]

Meat trimmings and fat, e.g.mechanically separated meat, pink slime,

meat slurry
Flavorings, such as salt, garlic, andpaprika
Preservatives (cure) – typicallysodium erythorbate and sodium nitrite
Pork and beef are the traditional meats used in hot dogs. Less expensive hot dogs are
Grilled hot dogs
often made from chicken or turkey, using low-cost mechanically separated poultry.
Typical hot dogs contain sodium, saturated fat and nitrite, which when consumed in
excess have been linked to health problems. Changes in meat technology and dietary preferences have led manufacturers to use
turkey, chicken, vegetarian meat substitutes, and to lower the salt content.

Commercial preparation
Hot dogs are prepared commercially by mixing the ingredients (meats, spices,
binders and fillers) in vats where rapidly moving blades grind and mix the
ingredients in the same operation. This mixture is forced through tubes into casings
for cooking. Most hot dogs sold in the US are "skinless" rather than "natural casing"

Natural-casing hot dogs

As with most sausages, hot dogs must be in a casing to be cooked. raditional
T casing
Play media
is made from the small intestines of sheep. The products are known as "natural
Hormel hot dogs going into a smoker
casing" hot dogs or frankfurters.[29] These hot dogs have firmer texture and a "snap" (1964)
that releases juices and flavor when the product is bitten.

Kosher casings are expensive in commercial quantities in the US, so kosher hot dogs are usually skinless or made with reconstituted
collagen casings.[29]
Skinless hot dogs
"Skinless" hot dogs must use a casing for cooking, but the casing may be a long tube of thin cellulose that is removed between
[30] by Erwin O. Freund, founder ofVisking.[31]
cooking and packaging, a process invented in Chicago in 1925

The first skinless hot dog casings were produced by Freund's new company under the name "Nojax", short for "no jackets" and sold
to local Chicago sausage makers.

Skinless hot dogs vary in surface texture, but have a softer "bite" than with natural casing. Skinless hot dogs are more uniform in
shape and size and cheaper to make than natural casing hot dogs.

Home consumption
A hot dog sausage is prepared and served in various ways. It is reheated for safety by any means (boiled, grilled, fried, steamed,
broiled, baked, microwaved, toasted, etc).[32] Typically it is served in a hot-dog bun with prepared mustard and optional other
condiments. The sausage itself may be sliced and added, without bread, to other dishes.

Hot dog garnished with Hot dogs being grilled A hot dog bun toaster
ketchup and onions

Health effects
Hot dogs are cooked during manufacture and can be eaten as bought, although they
are usually warmed before serving.

Most hot dogs are high in fat and salt and have preservatives sodium nitrate and
nitrite, which are contributors to nitrate-containing chemicals classified as group 1
carcinogens by the World Health Organization,[33] although this has been
disputed.[34][35] These health concerns have resulted in manufacturers offering
alternative product lines made from turkey and chicken, and uncured, low-sodium,
and "all-natural" franks. Hot dogs have relatively low carcinogenic heterocyclic
amines (HCA) levels compared to other types ofready-to-eat meat products, because Play media
United States Department of
they are manufactured at low temperatures.[36]
Agriculture 1964 film on hot dog and
other meat inspection
An American Institute for Cancer Research(AICR) report found that consuming one
daily 50-gram serving of processed meat — about one hot dog — increases long-
term risk of colorectal cancer by 20 percent.[37] This is an increase due to eating a
hot dog every day of 1.2 percentage points in the probability of contracting colorectal cancer, from 5.8 percent to 7 percent. The
[35][38] The Cancer Project group filed a class-action lawsuit demanding
AICR's warning campaign has been criticised as "attack ads".
warning labels on packages and at sporting events.

Like many foods, hot dogs can cause illness if not heated properly to kill pathogens. An unopened package of franks contains
ingredients that have the potential for promoting the growth of Listeria bacteria. Listeria monocytogenes can also cause serious
infections in infants and pregnant women, and can be transmitted to an infant in utero or after birth. Adults with suppressed immune
systems can also be harmed.[40]

Due to their size, shape, and ubiquitous consumption, hot dogs present a significant choking risk, especially for children. A study in
the US found that 17% of food-related asphyxiations among children younger than 10 years of age were caused by hot dogs.[41] The
risk of choking on a hot dog sausage is eliminated by slicing it. It has been suggested that redesign of size, shape and texture would
reduce the risk.[42]

In the United States

In the US, the term "hot dog" refers to both the sausage by itself and the combination of
sausage and bun. Many nicknames applying to either have emerged over the years, including
frankfurter, frank, wiener, weenie, coney, and red hot. Annually, Americans consume 20
billion hot dogs.[43]

Hot dog restaurants

Hot dog stands and trucks sell hot dogs at street and highway locations. Wandering hot dog
vendors sell their product in baseball parks. At convenience stores, hot dogs are kept heated
on rotating grills. 7-Eleven sells the most grilled hot dogs in North America — 100 million
annually.[44] Hot dogs are also common on restaurants' children's menus.

A "home-cooked" hot dog

Condiments with ketchup, mustard, raw
onion, fried onion, artificial
Hot dogs are commonly served with one or bacon bits, and pickle relish
more condiments. In 2005, the US-based
National Hot Dog & Sausage Council (part
of the American Meat Institute) found mustard to be the most popular, preferred by
32% of respondents; 23% favored ketchup; 17% chili con carne; 9% pickle relish,
and 7% onions. Other toppings include sauerkraut, mayonnaise, lettuce, tomato,
A Coney Island hot dog with chili, cheese, and chili peppers.
onion, and mustard
Condiment preferences vary across the U.S.. Southerners showed the strongest
preference for chili, while Midwesterners showed the greatest affinity for

An endless list of hot dog variations has emerged. The original leader, known today as a "New York dog" or "New York style", is a
natural-casing all-beef frank topped with sauerkraut and spicy brown mustard, onions optional. Sauteed bell peppers, onions, and
potatoes find their way into New Jersey's deep-fried Italian hot dog. In the midwest, the Chicago-style hot dog reigns, served on a
poppyseed bun and topped with mustard, fresh tomatoes, onions, "sport peppers", bright green relish, dill pickles, and celery salt.
Many variations are named after regions other than the one in which they are popular. Meaty Michigan hot dogs are popular in
upstate New York (as are white hots), while beefy Coney Island hot dogs are popular in Michigan. Hot wieners, or weenies, are a
staple in Rhode Island where they are sold at restaurants with the misleading name "New York System."[46] Texas hot dogs are spicy
variants found in upstate New York and Pennsylvania (and as "all the way dogs" in New Jersey), but not eTxas.

Some baseball parks have signature hot dogs, such as Dodger Dogs at Dodger Stadium in Los Angeles, and Fenway Franks at
Fenway Park in Boston, which are boiled then grilled,and served on a New England-style bun.

In Canada
Skinner's Restaurant, inLockport, Manitoba is reputed to be Canada's oldest hot dog outlet in continuous operation, founded in 1929,
by Jim Skinner Sr.[47][48] Hotdogs served at Skinners are European style footlongs with natural casings, manufactured by Winnipeg
Old Country Sausage inWinnipeg, Manitoba.

The Half Moon Drive In, also in Lockport, Manitoba and located directly across the river from Skinners, was established in 1938 by
brothers Peter and Louie Kosowicz.[49] The original drive-in consisted of three wooden buildings shaped like semicircles—one was
for takeout, one was for dine-in, and the third was a dance hall and later an arcade.[49] The Half Moon also serves European-style
wieners manufactured by Winnipeg Old Country Sausage.[49] One of the most popular items is the Moon Dog, consisting of cheese,
bacon, fried onions, pickles and mustard, and the Half Moon serves about 2,000 on an average summer weekend day

Outside North America

In most of the world, "hot dog" is recognized as a sausage in a bun, but the type varies considerably. The name is often applied to
something that would not be described as a hot dog in North America. For example, in New Zealand a "hot dog" is a battered
sausage, often on a stick, which is known as acorn dog in North America; an "American hot dog" is the version in a bun.

Grilled sausages on sticks for Hot dog sushi Thai khanom Tokiao being
sale in Thailand prepared, a Thai style crêpe
with a hot dog sausage, at a
night market

Miniature hot dogs in Japan Long hot dog in bun

The world's longest hot dog created was 60 meters (197 ft), which rested within a 60.3-meter (198 ft) bun. The hot dog was prepared
by Shizuoka Meat Producers for the All-Japan Bread Association, which baked the bun and coordinated the event, including official
measurement for the world record. The hot dog and bun were the center of a media event in celebration of the Association's 50th
anniversary on August 4, 2006, at the Akasaka Prince Hotel, oTkyo, Japan.

On May 31, 2012, Guinness World Records certified the world record for most expensive hot dog at US$145.49. The "California
Capitol City Dawg", served at Capitol Dawg in Sacramento, California, features a grilled 460 mm (18 in) all-beef in natural casing
frank from Chicago, served on a fresh baked herb and oil focaccia roll, spread with white truffle butter, then grilled. It is topped with
a whole grain mustard from France, garlic and herb mayonnaise, sauteed chopped shallots, organic mixed baby greens, maple syrup
marinated/fruitwood smoked uncured bacon from New Hampshire, chopped tomato, expensive moose cheese from Sweden,
sweetened dried cranberries, basil olive oil/pear-cranberry-coconut balsamic vinaigrette, and ground peppercorn. Proceeds from the
sale of each 1.4 kg (3 lb) super dog are donated to theShriners Hospitals for Children.[50]
The world's longest hot dogstretched
60 meters.

See also
Advanced meat recovery
Hot dog variations
List of hot dogs
List of hot dog restaurants
Mechanically separated meat
Sausage bun
Sausage sandwich
Vienna sausage
Pigs in a blanket

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External links
Home page for a PBS documentary about hot dogs
USDA Fact Sheet on hot dogs

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