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Glossary of Industrial Terms

Index Page

Glossary of
Industrial Terms

Index Page

A Adhesive fabric: A fabric with a surface treat-

ment which will bond two
Abraded: Worn away by friction. surfaces together when inter-
posed between them.
Abrasion: Wearing away by friction.
Aftercure: A continuation of the process of
Abrasion test: Determination of the rate of vulcanization after the cure has
wearing away by friction. been carried to the desired
degree and the source of heat
Abrasion tester: removed.
Accelerated aging:
Intensive exposure to operating Afterglow: In fire resistance testing, the
conditions to obtain an early red glow persisting after extinc-
change in physical properties tion of the flame.
of an elastomer.
Aging: To undergo changes in physical
Accelerated life test: properties with age or lapse of
A method designed to approxi- time.
mate in a short time the dete-
riorating effects obtained under Air bomb aging:
normal service conditions. A means of accelerating
changes in the physical proper-
Across the line starting tension: ties of material by exposing
Tension developed in a belt them to the action of air at
when full electrical power is elevated temperature and
applied to the drive system. pressure.

Adhesion: Basically, the adhering, cling- Air checks: The surface markings or de-
ing, bonding or sticking of two pressions which occur due to
material surfaces to one an- air trapped between the mate-
other, such as rubber to rubber, rial and the mold or press
rubber to metal, rubber to surface.
wood, rubber to fabric.
Air curing: The vulcanization of a rubber
Adhesion failure: product in air as distinguished
The separation of two adjoining from vulcanizing in a press or
surfaces due to service condi- steam vulcanizer.
Air oven aging: A means of accelerating a
Adhesive: A material which, when applied, change in the physical proper-
will cause two surfaces in ties of rubber compounds by
contact with each other to stick exposing them to the action of
together. air at an elevated temperature
at atmospheric pressure.
Adhesive coating:
A coating applied to a surface Air trap: See air checks.
to increase its bond to an
adjoining surface.

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Ambient temperature: Armored belt: A conveyor belt with crosswise

The environment temperature insertions in the cover such as
surrounding the object under steel cables to minimize goug-
consideration. ing or tearing of the cover by
sharp objects.
Angle of repose:
The angle to the horizontal Army duck: See duck.
which a material will naturally
assume when dropped in a Artificial weathering:
pile. Exposure to cyclic laboratory
conditions involving changes in
Angle of slide: The angle at which material temperature, relative humidity,
begins to slide down an in- and radiant energy, with or
clined surface. without direct water spray,
attempting to produce changes
ANSI: American National Standards in the material similar to that
Institute observed after long-term
continuous outdoor exposure.
Anti-backdrop: See backstop.
ASME: American Society of Mechani-
Anti-static: See static conductive. cal Engineers.

Antioxidant: A compounding ingredient ASTM: American Society for Testing

used to retard deterioration and Materials.
caused by oxygen.
Atmospheric cracking:
Antiozonant: A compounding ingredient Small fissures in the surface of
used to retard deterioration a belt cover caused by expo-
caused by ozone. sure to atmospheric conditions.

Antislip surface: Automatic take-up:

A specially treated surface to A mechanical device to main-
obtain greater than normal tain proper tension in a belt
traction. automatically compensating for
belt stretch or shrinkage in
Apron feed: An intermediate feed system. service.

Arc of contact: (1) The portion of a curved Average modulus:

surface which is engaged. (2) The total change of stress
In belts, it refers to the portion divided by the total change of
of a pulley which is engaged by strain.
the belt and is usually ex-
pressed in degrees.

Back cover: See bottom cover.

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Backstop: A mechanical device for pre- Bead rubber: An extruded polymeric com-
venting a loaded, inclined pound used to fill the void
conveyor or elevator belt from between butted joint of two
running backwards after the pieces of fabric.
belt has been stopped.
Bed: A continuous surface over
Banbury mixer: A specific type of internal mixer which a conveyor belt may
used to incorporate filler and slide.
other ingredients in rubber or
plastic operations. Belt: A flexible reinforced band
placed around two or more
Bare back: The textile face of an article pulleys to carry materials from
which is free of any treatment one place to another.
or covering.
Belt carcass: See carcass.
Bare duck: The duck surface of a fabri-
cated article wherein the Belt clamp: Beams or metal plates secured
exposed duck surface is free of transversely on both sides of
any covering. belt ends to hold the ends in a
desired position.
Bare duck belt: A belt in which at least one
side has the exposed duck Belt cleaning device:
surface free of any covering. A scraper or rotating device
pressed against the belt sur-
Bare pulley: A pulley whose face surface is face to remove material stuck
not covered or lagged. to the belt.

Bareback surface: Belt conveyor: A mechanical system com-

A belt surface where the textile posed of suitable head, tail,
surface is without any coating. bend pulleys and belt idlers or
a slider bed to handle bulk
Base belt: The portion of a closed belt in materials, packages, or other
a closed belt conveyor which objects placed directly upon it.
remains flat and provides the
necessary tensile strength. Belt drive: An assembly of power-driven
pulley(s) used to transmit
Basic tension bearing yarns: motion to a conveyor or eleva-
One of the two warp systems in tor belt.
a straight warp fabric where the
warp yarns are substantially Belt duck: An open weave duck made
without crimp and provide the from plied yarns with strength
tensile strength for the belt. predominately in the warp
direction. Used primarily in the
Basket weave: A fabric with ends of yarn side manufacture of belts.
by side in both the warp and
filling in a plain weave con- Belt fastener: A device for holding the ends of
struction. belt together.

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Belt fleet: The lateral movement of a Belting deflector:

conveyor belt to either side of A mechanism which deflects the
its intended path. conveyed material off of the belt
at specific points along the
Belt grade: A classification of belting conveyor.
according to the quality and
properties of the belt cover. Belting, flat conveyor:
See flat belt.
Belt modulus: The ratio of stress to strain.
Bench test: A modified service test in which
Belt pitch line: See pitch line. the service conditions are
approximated in the laboratory.
Belt sag: The amount of vertical deflec-
tion of a conveyor belt from a Bend pulley: A pulley used to change direc-
straight line between idlers, tion of belt run.
usually expressed as a per-
centage of the center to center Bending force: The force required to bend a
spacing of the idlers. belt under prescribed condi-
Belt slip: The action that takes place,
causing a differential move- Bending modulus:
ment between the pulley That force required to induce
surface and the belt. bending around a specified
radius and, hence, a measure
Belt slope tension: of stiffness.
See tension, slope.
Bias angle: The smaller included angle
Belt surface finish: between the warp yarns of a
Final surface condition of belt. fabric and the diagonal line
across the warp yarns.
Belt tracking switch:
A limit switch actuated by the Bias cut: A cut of a textile material made
edge of a conveyor belt when diagonally at an angle less than
the belt moves abnormally to 90 degrees to the longitudinal
either side of its centered path. axis.

Belt training idler: Bias laid: Material laid on or wrapped

An idler having a belt-actuated around so the warp yarns are at
swivel mechanism to control an angle less than 90 degrees
the side runout of a conveyor to the longitudinal direction.
Bias seam: The seam at which bias cut
Belt turnover: A system of pulleys arranged to fabrics are joined together.
turn a belt over. Frequently
used to prevent building-up on Binder warp yarn:
return idlers by turning the dirty One of the warp systems in a
side (carrying side) up. See straight warp fabric interlaced
also twist. with the filling yarn to provide
the strength to hold mechanical
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Bite: See nip Bottom cover: The protective rubber cover on

the surface contacting the
Bleeding: Migration to the surface of driving mechanism of a con-
plasticizer, waxes or similar veyor belt.
materials to form a film or
beads. See also Bloom. Bow: (1) Curvature from flat plane in
the surface. (2) The deviation
Blemish: A mark, deformity, or injury from the straight line of the fill
which impairs the appearance. yarn in a fabric. (3) The devia-
tion from the straight line of a
Blisters: A raised spot on the surface or product when unrolled and laid
a separation between layers on a flat surface.
usually forming a void or air-
filled space in the vulcanized Brand: A mark or symbol identifying or
article. describing a product and/or
manufacturer: may be either
Bloom: A discoloration or change in embossed, inlaid, or printed.
appearance of the surface of a
rubber product caused by the Breaker ply: An open weave fabric used
migration of a liquid or solid to next to the carcass fabric and/
the surface. Examples: sulfur or in the cover to improve the
bloom, wax bloom. Not to be attachment of the cover to the
confused with dust on the carcass and to improve cover
surface from external sources. cut and gouge resistance.

Blow-up: A blister between plies of an Breaking strength:

article. The tensile which a textile yarn
or cable, a steel cord, or a belt
Bolted plate hinge fastener: is at rupture.
Steel plates both sides and
both ends of two belt ends to Brushed finish: The mechanical removal of any
be fastened together (secured surface impregnation or coating
to the belt with bolts with the from the belt fabric.
ends of the plates constructed
into a circular hole for accept- Bucket: One of the cups on an elevator
ing a hinge pin to secure the belt.
two ends of the belt(s) together.
Bucket cover: The cover of an elevator belt
Bond: See Adhesion. next to the carrying buckets.

Boot: Enclosure for the loading end

of a bucket elevator belt. Bucket elevator: Belt with buckets attached.

Bootlegging: (1) Progressive ply delamina- Bucket projection:

tion. (2) The separation of plies The distance the bucket pro-
in belting due to flexing. trudes beyond an elevator belt.

Buckled ply: A deformed ply, usually the

result of a fold or wrinkle, which
distorts it from its normal plane.
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Buffing marks: The characteristic surface Calendered “rubber” sheets:

condition after a buffing opera- Continuous film of uncured
tion. elastomer produced from a
Bumping: In the operation of a flat press,
the alternative application and Camber: The curvature of a belt relative
release of ram pressure to vent to the center line (see bow).
trapped air and gases.
Capacity: The maximum number of
Butt seam: A seam made by placing the pieces, volume, or weight of
two pieces to be joined edge to material a belt conveyor can
edge. handle in a given time interval
and belt speed.
Butt strap joint: The connection of elevator belt
ends with a piece of belting the Capped edge: A rubber protective edge placed
width of the elevator belt around a product internally
placed over the butted belt reinforced with textile or other
ends, usually extending under material.
at least two buckets and se-
cured with bolts to the belt. Capped end: A belt end covered with an
elastomer to protect the car-
cass end.
Carcass: The fabric, cord and/or metal
reinforcing section of any
Cable yarn: Two or more plied yarns rubber product such as a belt,
twisted together. as distinguished from the
rubber cover.
Calculated center distance:
In belt drives, the distance Carcass break: A ply or plies of fabric ruptured
between two shaft centers by impact or gouging.
calculated from pulley diam-
eters and belt length being Carcass tear strength: The resistance of a belt
used. against tearing.

Calender: A machine with three or more Carcass tear test: The determination of the
internally heated or cooled tension at which a belt may be
cylinders used to (1) continu- torn.
ously sheet out polymeric
compound or fused PVC (2) to Carrier: See idler (2).
wipe polymeric compound into
the interstices of a fabric Carry (or carrying) side cover: See top cover.
leaving a small portion of it on
the surface of the fabric, or (3) Carrying roller: See carrying idler.
to lay a continuous sheet of
compound on a fabric. Carrying run: The portion of a conveyor that
carries the load between the
loading and discharge points.

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Carrying surface: Centrifugal bucket elevator:

The outward face or side of the A type of bucket elevator
belt which carries the conveyed having a belt which travels at
material. sufficient speed to discharge
material from the buckets by
Castfilm: A film made by depositing a centrifugal force.
layer of plastic, either molten,
in solution, or in a dispersion Chafer duck: A relatively open weave duck of
onto a surface, solidifying and approximately square woven
removing the film from the construction made with single
surface. or ply yarn.

Catenary idler: A type of flexible belt-carrying Chalking: Formation of a powdery sur-

idler with ends supported in face condition due to disinte-
pivoted stands. The tube or gration of surface binder or
rollers sag under the weight of elastomer due in turn to weath-
the load to form trough. ering or other destructive
CEMA: Conveyor Equipment Manufac-
turers Association. Checking: Short shallow cracks on the
surface generally due to effect
Cement: A mixture of polymeric com- of destructive action of environ-
pound or elastomer used as an mental conditions.
adhesive or sealant. Chevron: A ridge or profile arranged in a
Vee shaped configuration on a
Cemented edge: belt carrying cover to stabilize
An application of cement material carried up an incline.
around the edge of a fabricated
product with or without internal Chute lining: Highly abrasion resistant
reinforcement for protection or elastomeric lining in a chute to
adhesion. (A form of Capped protect the metal chute from
Edge.) abrasion wear.

Cemented end: A belt end sealed with the Chute slope: Angle relative to the horizontal
application of elastomeric a chute is inclined.
Cleated belt: Transverse raised sections on a
Center roll: The horizontal roll between the conveyor belt to stabilize
side troughing rolls. material carried up an incline.

The distance between the
center of two pulleys or idlers.
Also called centers or center

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Closed belt conveyor: Cold splice/bond:

A moving, endless conveyor Usually the joining of two or
belt formed into a tubular more sub-straits together, using
shape by joining its edges a two-part cement that is
while carrying material, and chemically cured without using
opening the edges while in supplemental heat from an
motion to receive and dis- external source.
charge material.
“Cold bond cement”
Cloth impression: Usually is an uncured mixture
See fabric impression. of varied elastomers, chemi-
cals, and solvents that will not
Cluster end: A flat disc idler with several self-cure or vulcanize until
discs adjacent to each other at mixed with an activator to
the ends of the idler. create a chemical vulcanization
(usually exo-thermic).
Coefficient of friction:
The ratio of the force required Commercially smooth:
to move a package across a A degree of smoothness of an
belt surface to the weight of the article which is acceptable in
package. accordance with industry
Cog: A tooth on the rim of a wheel or
rubber product. Compound: A mixture of a polymer(s) and
other materials to give the
Cogged V-belt: A V-belt cut or produced with a desired chemical and physical
series of evenly spaced V- properties in the elastomeric
shaped indentations in the components of a belt.
inner face.
Compression member:
Cohesive: Tendency of a material to stick The portion of a belt beneath
to itself. the pitch line as the belt bends
around a pulley.
Cold feed: The introduction of plastic
pellets into processing equip- Compression set:
ment without milling. The deformation in a material
remaining after it has been
Cold flex: See low temperature flexing. subjected to and released from
a compressive force.
Cold flexibility: The relative ease of bending
following exposure to low Conductivity: Quality of power of conducting
temperature. or transmitting heat or electric-
Cold flow: Continued deformation under
stress. See Creep. Contact stain: When staining occurs on the
area of an object directly in
contact with the rubber article it
is known as “contact stain”.

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Continuous bucket elevator: Cord: Several strands of yarn twisted

A bucket elevator belt that together.
discharges by gravity over the
inverted bottom of the preced- Cord belt: A belt with textile or steel cords
ing bucket on the descending for the longitudinal tension-
side of the elevator. bearing member.

Control: A material or a product of Cord fabric: A fabric with plied or cabled

known characteristics included yarns in the warp direction and
in a series of tests to provide a a light weight filling yarn
basis for evaluation of other spaced only sufficiently to
products. process the fabric.

Conveyor: A system for the continuous Cotton: A natural fiber of high cellulosic
movement or transport of bulk content.
materials, packages or objects
along a predetermined path. Count: In fabric, the number of warp
ends, the number of filling
Conveyor belt: A belt that carries materials picks, or both in a square inch
from one place to another of fabric.

Conveyor belt package deflector: Counter weight:

A mechanical diverter placed at In conveyor belting, the weight
an angle across the belt to applied to the take-up assem-
deflect packages off the belt at bly to maintain proper belt
specific locations. tension.

Conveyor belt stretch: Cover: The outer component of a belt.

The increase in belt length
which takes place when tension Cover seam: See cover splice.
is imposed. Stretch is either
elastic or permanent. Elastic Cover splice: The transverse joint formed by
stretch is a temporary change connecting two lengths of cover
in length which varies directly stock.
with the pull. Permanent stretch
is the residual change in length Cover surface profile:
after tension has been re- A cross-sectional view of the
moved; it generally accumu- cover surface.
lates over a period of time.
Cover wear: The loss of material during use
Conveyor width: due to abrasion, cutting, or
In belt conveyors, the width of a gouging.
Cracking: A sharp break or fissure in the
Copolymer: A substance consisting of surface. Generally due to
molecules characterized by the excessive strain.
repetition of two or more types
of monomeric units. Crater: A small shallow surface imper-

Index Page

Crazing: A cover surface with many Crystallization: A change in physical properties

fissures. resulting from the crystalline
reorientation caused by tem-
Creep: (1) The deformation occurring perature.
with the lapse of time in both
cured and uncured rubber, in a Cure: The act of vulcanization.
body under stress in addition to
the immediate elastic deforma- Cure time: Time required, at a given
tion. Some related terms and temperature, to produce opti-
properties are stress-relax- mum physical properties in an
ation, hysteresis, damping, elastomer.
flow, compression set and
viscosity. See Cold Flow. (2) In Curing temperature:
belts, the action of a belt The temperature at which the
alternately losing speed on the rubber product is vulcanized.
driving pulley and gaining
speed on the driven pulley. Curl: The action of the edges of a
belt bending upward on the
Creeper drive: An auxiliary drive, usually carrying run and downward on
consisting of a small motor and the return run. Also called
speed reducer, used to keep a cupping.
belt conveyor in motion at a
very low speed during non- Cushion breaker:
operating periods in extremely A leno or cord breaker imbed-
cold weather. It is used to ded in a belt cover.
prevent freezing of a belt and
other components. Cut belts: See cut edge.

Crimp: (1) The waviness of the yarn in Cut edge: The uncovered edge of a
a woven fabric. (2) The differ- laminated product, such a belt,
ence in distance between two created by cutting after vulcani-
points on a yarn as it lies in a zation.
fabric and the same two points
when the yarn has been re- Cut resistance: The ability of a belt cover to
moved and straightened. withstand the cutting action of
Expressed as a percentage of sharp objects.
the distance between the two
points as the yarn lies in the
fabric. D
Crown: The difference between the Data code: Any combination of numbers,
diameter at the center and at letters, symbols, or other meth-
the edges of a pulley or a roll. ods used by a manufacturer to
identify the date of manufac-
Crowned pulley: ture.
A pulley with a greater diameter
at the center, or other points, Decking: A protective covering over the
than at the edges. return run of a belt conveyor.

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Deflector: A board or plate at an angle Dipped fabric: Coated with rubber compound
across the path of a belt by passing through a rubber
traveling over a flat surface to solution and drying.
transfer material off the belt.
Discharge: Removal of material from a
Deformation: Any change of form or shape belt.
produced in a body by a stress.
Dog leg: A bending from a straight line.
Degradation: A deleterious change in the
chemical structure of a mate- Double plate bolt fastener:
rial. Two ends of belting joined
together with a plate on both
Delamination: The separation of layers of sides across both ends of the
material in a laminate. joint.

Denier: A yarn sizing system for con- Drive: An assembly of electrical and
tinuous filament synthetic mechanical parts that provide
fibers on the basis of the motive power to a belt.
weight in grams of 9000
meters of the yarn. Drive, dual: See dual drive.

Density: The ratio of the mass of a body Drive factor: A numerical factor used for
to its volume or the mass per calculating the belt minimum
unit volume of the substance. slack side tension required for
For ordinary practical pur- a given driving condition and or
poses, density and specific configuration.
gravity may be regarded as
equivalent. Drive, head-tail: See head-tail drive.

Diameter: The length of a straight line Drive pulley: A pulley mounted on a drive
passing through the geometric shaft which transmits power to
center to the periphery of an the belt.
Drive, single: A one-pulley drive.
Dielectric strength:
The measure of electric poten- Drive snubbed pulley:
tial strength of a rubber prod- An undriven pulley located
uct. Measure of its ability as an close to the drive pulley to
insulating compound to resist provide a greater arc of contact
passage of a disruptive dis- around the drive pulley.
charge produced by an electric
stress. Measured as volts per Drive, tandem: See tandem drive.
mil of thickness.
Drive-on hinged fastener:
Dip coat: A thin coat on a surface ob- Two ends of belting joined
tained by dipping the material together with a pre-packaged
to be coated into the coating fastener assembly having
materials. prongs for driving through the
belt end.

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Drive-on plate fastener: Dutchman: A short section of belting

Two ends of belting joined with mechanically spliced into a
a single plate, across the top length of belting and removed
cover joint, with rivets or sharp when the take-up allowance is
teeth clinched over on the exceeded.
bottom cover side of the belt-
ing. Dynamic fatigue:
Loss in properties of a material
Drop ply: The omission of a reinforcing when continually subjected to
ply for a specified distance flexing and or cyclic stress.
from each edge. Usually the
bottom or next to bottom ply in Dynamometer: An apparatus capable of
flat conveyor belting. inducing various loads for
evaluation of dynamic belting
Dry blend: A free-flowering dry compound properties.
prepared without fluxing.

Dual drive: A belt driving system employing E

two adjacent pulleys each
powered with its own motor.
Edge wear: Damage to the edge of a belt
Duck: A term applied to a wide range by abrasion.
of medium and heavyweight
fabrics, commonly made of Effective tension:
cotton, including the heaviest Difference between the tight
and strongest of all single- side and the slack side tension
woven fabrics. There are three at the drive pulley providing the
main types: number duck, necessary pull to move the
army-type duck and flat duck. load.

Dumbbell: A test specimen with lesser Elastic limit: The limiting extent to which a
width at the middle of its length material may be deformed and
than at its ends. yet return to approximately its
original shape after removal of
Durometer: An instrument for measuring the deforming force.
the hardness of rubber. Mea-
sures the resistance to the Elasticity: The property of an article which
penetration of an indentor point tends to return it to its original
into the surface of rubber. shape after deformation.

Durometer hardness: Elastomer: An elastic rubber-like sub-

An arbitrary numerical value stance, such as natural or
which measures the resistance synthetic rubber.
to penetration of the indentor
point of the durometer. Value Elastomeric properties:
may be taken immediately or The chemical and physical
after a very short specified properties of an elastomer.

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Elevator belt: A belt that raises material Extrusion: A process whereby heated or
vertically in buckets attached to unheated plastic forced through
the belt. a shaping orifice becomes a
continuously formed piece.
Elongation: Increase in length expressed
numerically as a fraction or
percentage of initial length. F
Embossing: Operation of transferring a
design to a rubber or rubber- Fabric: A planar structure produced by
like surface. nonwoven or interwoven yarns,
fibers, or filaments.
Endless belt: A belt made endless without a
joint. Fabric count: The number of warp ends per
inch and the number of filling
Ends: See fabric count. picks per inch.

Equivalent free fall: Fabric design: The combination of size and

The calculated vertical distance numbers of fibers or yarns, in
material falls from the dis- both warp and filling, and the
charge point to end of a belt. manner in which they ar pro-
Exposed fabric: An area of a belt where the
fabric reinforcement shows due Fabric finish: See fabric impression.
to lack of cover.
Fabric impression:
Extensibility: The capability of increased A pattern in the cover of a belt
center distance in a belt con- formed by contact with a fabric
veyor. during processing.

Extensible conveyor: Fabric picks/inch:

An adjustable conveyor system The number of filling (weft)
with a loop of belting between yarns per inch.
the carrying idlers and the
return idlers for changing the Fabric rating: The maximum tension per ply
center distance. of fabric a belt should be
operated under ideal condi-
Extraction test: A test in which certain compo- tions.
nents are separated from a
solid by dissolving them in a Face: The outer surface of a pulley or
liquid solvent under suitable belt.
Face cover: See top cover.
Extruded: Forced through die of tubing
machine in either solid or Fastener: See belt fastener.
hollow cross section.
Fatigue: The weakening or deterioration
of a material caused by a
repetition of stress or strain.

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Feeder belt: A belt that discharges material Flame performance:

onto another conveyor belt. The manner in which belting
after being ignited will burn and/
Fiber: A unit of matter having a length or self extinguish.
at least 100 times its diameter
and which can be spun into a Flame retardance:
yarn. Intensity of flame diminished by
fire retardant ingredient(s) in
Filament: A continuous fiber of extreme the plastic compound.
Flame test: A means, under specific condi-
Filler: A material mixed with a poly- tion, for establishing the flame
mer to improve quality or lower performance of a belt. This will
cost of a compound. not indicate the performance of
the belt in any fire in which the
Filler seam: Extruded polymeric compound belt may be involved.
used to fill the void between
two pieces of belt cover or Flange: A raised edge on a plastic
fabric. article.

Filling threads: The yarns in a fabric running at Flanged edge: In conveyor belting, an edge
right angle to the warp. built up to prevent spillage.

Filling yarns: The transverse yarns in a Flanged pulley: A pulley with a raised rim at the
fabric. edges for the purpose of keep-
ing the belt on the pulley.
Film: A sheet of plastic not greater
then 0.010" in thickness. Flash: Material protruding from the
surface of a molded part,
Finger splice: Belt ends cut into mating appearing at the mold parting
fingers. line or mold vent points.

Finish, fabric: See fabric impression. Flat belt: (1) A belt the cross section of
which is in the general form of a
Finish, plate: See plate finish. rectangle; (2) A belt which
operates on a smooth flat bed
Finish, platen: See platen finish. or straight idlers or rollers.

Fire resistance: See flame retardance. Flat press: A belt finishing press with flat
platens, between which the belt
Fire resistant: Retards the burning action of is heated and compressed.
fire or flame.
Flat spots: Thin spots on a conveyor belt
Fisheye: A small globule that has not surface stored on a flat surface
blended completely into the for a long time.
surrounding material.
Flat wire braid: Flattened braided wire, fre-
quently used for armoring the

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Fleet: The lateral movement of a Folded-edge: (1) A belt construction wherein

conveyor belt to either side of the inner carcass is enclosed in
its intended path. an envelope ply or plies. (2) An
edge where an outer covering
Flex cracking: A surface cracking induced by has been wrapped around a
repeated bending or flexing. carcass and folded over the
edge so that the carcass is
Flex life: The relative ability of a rubber closed on the edges.
article to withstand dynamic
bending stresses. FPM: Abbreviation for “Feet per
Flex life test: A laboratory method used to
determine the life of a plastic Frequency factor:
product when subjected to The duration of time in minutes
dynamic bending stresses. required for one complete cycle
of a conveyor belt.
Flexibility: The ability to be bent repeat-
edly without cracking. Friction: (1) The resistance to motion of
a belt due to the contact be-
Flexing: The bending of a belt. tween two surfaces.
(2) Improperly used to indicate
Flight: (1) One of a series of belt the bond between two sur-
conveyors discharging one to faces.
another. (2) A series of cleats
or profiles on a belt. Friction coat: An impregnation of rubber
material calendered by friction
Floating breaker: motion to a fabric so that the
A leno or cord breaker embed- material is forced into the
ded in a belt cover with a weave of the fabric.
distinct layer of elastomer
separating the breaker from the Friction, coefficient of:
carcass. The ration between the force
pressing the surfaces together
Floating idler pulley: and the force required to move
See take-up pulley. it.

Flow crack: A surface imperfection caused Friction, kinetic:

by improper flow and failure of The force which is required to
a compound to blend with itself keep a body sliding at a uni-
during the molding operation. form rate. Also called “friction
of motion”.
Flow line: See flow mark.
Friction pull: See adhesion.
Flow mark: A surface imperfection similar
to a flow crack, but with a minor Friction, static: The force which is required to
depression. start a body sliding.

Index Page

Friction surface: Gouging: The effect of sharp heavy

The exposed portion of a belt material falling onto a conveyor
finished with a layer of impreg- belt cover to loosen or tear out
nated plastic as distinguished pieces of the cover.
from being completely covered
with a layer of plastic. Grab test: A tensile test for woven fabric
using specimens considerably
Frictioned fabric: wider than the jaws holding the
Coated with rubber compound ends of the test specimen.
on a friction (uneven speed)
calender. Grade: The ration of incline or decline
of a conveyor expressed a s
Frosting: Light scattering surface resem- percent of the vertical height to
bling fine crystals. the horizontal distance.

Full rated tension: Grade of belting:

See rating. The quality of belting cover on
the basis or gouge, cut, and
Fungicide: An agent that destroys fungi or abrasion resistance.
inhibits their growth.
Gravity take-up: A mechanical system that
Fusion: An irreversible process during adjusts for the stretch or shrink-
which a PVC compound or ing of a conveyor belt automati-
platisol undergoes a physical cally by a weighted pulley in the
change and becomes a homo- system.
geneous mixture by the mutual
solvation of the PVC resin and Grooved lagging:
the plasticizer in the com- Lagging with round or angular
pound, as result of heating to grooves to minimize material
an appropriate temperature. buildup on the pulley.

Ground finish: Surface produced by grinding

G or buffing. See Buffing.

Gauge: The measure of thickness of H

the individual elements making
up a rubber product.
Hammock belt idler:
Gel: The initial semi-solid stage that See catenary idler.
develops during the solvation
of a resin by a plasticizer. Hank: A length of 840 yards of a yarn.

Gel point: The stage at which a liquid Hardening: An increase in resistance to

begins to exhibit pseudo-elastic indentation.

Glass fiber: Glass extruded through a die

with many fine holes into
continuous filaments.
Index Page

Hardness: Property or extent of being Hinge pin: A cable or rod to join together
hard. Measured by extent of hinged fasteners.
failure of the indentor point of
any one of a number of stan- Hinged fastener:
dard hardness testing instru- A fastener attached indepen-
ments to penetrate the product. dently to each of the belt ends
designed with an opening in
Haze: The cloudy appearance of an the end of the fastener to
otherwise transparent film. accept a pin through the open-
ing to complete the joint.
Hazing: A dull finish.
Hold back: See backstop.
Head: The delivery end of a conveyor
belt. Holland cloth: A filled sheeting (usually starch
filled) with a smooth, glossy
Head pulley: The terminal pulley at the finish on both sides, used as
discharge end of the conveyor. separating medium.

Head-tail drive: A belt driving system using one Homogenous: Of uniform composition
or more powered pulleys at or throughout.
near both the head and tail
pulleys with each pulley inde- Horizontal belt curve:
pendently driven. The portion of a conveyor
system which deviates from a
Heat degradation: straight line in the same hori-
Change in chemical and/or zontal plane as the rest of the
physical properties due to system.
excessive exposure to heat.
Horsepower: A unit of power equal to 33,000
Heat mark: Extremely shallow depression foot-pounds per minute (746
or groove in the surface of a watts).
plastic visible because of a
sharply defined rim or rough- Horseshoe: A fold in a surface in a definite
ened surface. U-shaped pattern. Particularly
used in describing squeezed-
Heavy weight belt: out blisters in a belt cover. Also
A belt with a rated maximum called ring blisters, dog ears
working tension equal to or and pig ears. Colloquial.
greater than 160 pounds per
inch width, when operating Hot air cure: Vulcanization by using heated
under ideal conditions. air, with or without pressure.

Herringbone weave: Hugger belt conveyor:

The longitudinal appearance of Two belt conveyors whose
a row of parallel lines slanting conveying surfaces combine to
at an angle in the opposite convey loads up steep inclines
direction to another row of or vertically.
slanting parallel lines.

Index Page

Hysteresis: A loss of energy due to succes- Impact energy: The effective combination of
sive deformation and relax- force (weight of the body and
ation. A measurement of the height) when one body falls on
area between the deformation another.
and relaxation stress-strain
curves. Impact force: The energy power of impact.

Hysteresis loop: The configuration of the Impact idler: A belt idler having a resilient roll
graphical plot of stress and covering, resilient molded
strain from the initial application elastomer rings, pneumatic
of stress to some reduced tires, springs or other means of
stress. The measure of hyster- absorbing impact energy at or
esis is the area under stress- close to the place where mate-
strain curves of increasing and rial contacts the belt.
decreasing stress.
Impact rating: The maximum rating of a belt
Hysteresis loss A loss of mechanical energy construction based on the
due to successive deformation fabric, impact rolls, design of
and relaxation. It is measured loading, size of material falling
by the area between the defor- on the belt, relative speed of
mation and relaxation stress- the material and the belt, etc. to
strain curves. withstand the energy of impact

I Impact resistance:
The relative ability of a con-
veyor belt assembly to absorb
Idler: (1) A nonpowered pulley impact loading without damage
around which a belt travels (2) to the belt.
a nonpowered roll or rolls
supporting a belt. Impregnated: Fabric interstices filled and/or
yarns saturated with plastic
Idler pulley: See idler. compound.

Idler stand: The mechanical system that Impregnation: To fill the interstices of an article
supports an idler pulley. with a rubber compound.
Generally applies to treatment
Immediate set: The amount of deformation of textile fabrics, yarns and
measured immediately after cords.
removal of the load causing the
deformation. Impression: Design formed during vulcani-
zation in the surface of any
Impact: The single instantaneous rubber article by a method of
stroke or contact of a moving transfer, such as fabric impres-
body with another either mov- sion or molded impression.
ing or at rest, such as a large
lump of material dropping on a Impulse: An application of force in a
conveyor belt. manner to produce sudden
strain or motion.

Index Page

Indentation: (1) The extent of deformation J

by the indentor point of any one
of a number of standard hard-
ness testing instruments; (2) A Jaws: Clamps to hold a specimen
recess in the surface of a belt when applying stress to the
cover. specimen for certain tests.

Inside length: A belt length measured along Joint: The area where two ends of a
its inside circumference. belt are fastened together,
either by heat and pressure or
Installation allowance: mechanical means. See also
The amount by which the splice.
center distance can be ad-
justed so a belt can be installed
without damaging. K
Instantaneous modulus:
The ratio of stress to strain at a Kinking: A temporary or permanent
single point on the stress-strain distortion of belting caused by
curve. doubling the belt on itself.

Interstice: A small opening, such as Knitted Ply: Spirally interlaced loops of yarn
between fibers in a cord or forming a continuous tubular
threads in a woven or braided structure.
Knuckles: Raised loops of a woven textile
Interstice of fabric: structure.
Spaces between the yarns or
cord of a woven fabric.

Interwoven conveyor belt: L

A type of conveyor belt con-
struction similar to that of a
solid woven belt, with plies Lagged drive pulley:
interwoven such that it is See lagged pulley.
impossible to separate them.
Lagged pulley: A pulley having its surface
Irons: Strips of metal at the edges of covered with lagging.
a belt in a flat press to confine
the edge elastomer for making Lagging: A smooth or embossed cover-
a molded edge or to obtain ing on a pulley to increase
uniform thickness of the edges friction between belt and pulley.
of a slit edge belt near its
edges. Laminate: A product made by bonding
together two or more layers of
ISO: The abbreviation for the Inter- material.
national Organization for
Standardization. Laminated: Build up from thinner layers.

Index Page

Lap joint: An elevator joint where one end Light weight belt:
of the belt laps over the other A belt with a rated maximum
end with the leading edge on working tension of less than
the bucket side. 160 pounds per inch width.

Lap: A part that extends over itself or Lined bolt holes:

a like part. Bolt holes which have been
given a protective coating to
Lap seam: A seam made by placing the cover the exposed carcass.
edge of one piece of material
extending flat over the edge of Liner: A separator, usually cloth,
the second piece of material. plastic film, or paper, used to
prevent adjacent layers of
Lateral: Coming from the side. material from sticking together.

Lateral misalignment: Live roller conveyor:

Offset of pulleys, idlers, or A roller bed conveyor system
structure from a design longitu- with frequently placed rollers
dinal reference line. above and in contact with the
belt so the powered belt turns-
Leno breaker: An open-mesh fabric made makes “alive”-the rollers above
from coarse ply yarns, with a the belt. The packages, etc.
leno weave. A leno weave is are conveyed on the rollers
one in which certain warp above the belt.
threads-termed doup or cross-
ing threads-are passed from Live rolls: A series of rolls over which
side to side of one or more objects are moved by applica-
ends-termed standard threads tion of power to all or some of
and are found in by the filling in the rolls.
this position. Where the
crossed interlacing occurs an Live storage: (1) The storage of objects on a
open, perforated structure is conveyor belt having a low
formed. coefficient of friction surface or
on live rollers so the objects
Leno weave: An open mesh fabric in which can accumulate while they are
the warp yarns are held by the added to or removed at different
filling yarns with the filling yarns rates (2) The storage of mate-
twisted around alternating warp rial in a silo while material is
yarns in opposite direction. being discharged or poured in
at the same time (3) An exten-
Life test: A laboratory procedure used to sible conveyor with a loop of
determine the resistance of belting between the carrying
rubber article to a specific set of and return idlers where the
destructive forces or conditions. length of the loop is continu-
ously decreased as the equip-
Lift: The net vertical distance mate- ment at the mining face is
rial is moved by a conveyor or advanced.
bucket elevator.

Index Page

Load support: The ability of a fully loaded Low temperature flexing:

conveyor belt to bridge the idler The act of bending a product
gap without creasing into the under conditions of a cold
idler gap and carry material environment.
without excessive sag between
the carrying idler pulleys. Lump size: The size of larger material on a
conveyor belt.
Load weight: The weight of material per unit
of time.

Loading angle: The angle to the horizontal at M

which material is loaded onto a
conveyor belt.
Masterbatch: A preliminary mixture of two or
Loading impact: more compound ingredients for
The energy with which material purposes of more thorough
is loaded onto a conveyor belt. dispersion or better processing,
and which will later become
Longitudinal: A lengthwise direction. part of the final compound in a
subsequent mixing operation.
Longitudinal seam:
A seam joining two materials in Maximum horsepower:
the length of the finished The highest power requirement.
Maximum ply: (1) The maximum number of
Loop edge: A selvage formed by having the plies permissible that will permit
filling loop around a catch cord for satisfactory troughability; (2)
or wire, which is later with- The maximum number of plies
drawn, leaving small loops permissible to satisfactorily
along the edge of the cloth. operate around a pulley of a
given diameter.
Loose cover: A separation of the cover from
the carcass or textile reinforce- Maximum safe working stress:
ment. The greatest tension at which a
belt should be operated.
Loose edge: An edge which has separated
from a textile carcass. Maximum tension:
See tension, maximum.
Loose ply: A separation between adjacent
plies of fabric. Mechanical fastener:
Any mechanical device used to
Low spot: A depression below the general join the ends of belting.
surface of an object.
Migration: The transfer of an ingredient in
Low temperature flexibility: a rubber compound from one
The ability of belting to be bent layer to an adjacent layer or to
or flexed at low temperatures the surface.
without loss of serviceability.

Index Page

Migration stain: When staining occurs on the Mix: See compound

area of an object adjacent to
the rubber article it is known as Modified grab test:
“migration stain”. A tensile test for woven fabric
using specimens wider than the
Mildew: Growth on organic matter jaws holding the specimen cut
produced by fungi, generally in midway between the jaws to
textile components of rubber the warp yarns held by the
articles. Usually causes deterio- jaws. Minimizes warp yarn
ration. popout experienced by raveled
specimen test.
Mildew inhibited:
The article contains material to Modulus: (1) A coefficient or numerical
prevent or retard mildew. measure of some property.
(2) In rubber, modulus usually
Mill: A machine with two horizontal refers to one of several mea-
rolls revolving in opposite surements of stiffness or resis-
directions used for the mastica- tance to deformation. The use
tion or mixing of rubber. of the word without modifying
terms may be confusing and
Minimum accelerating time: such use should not be encour-
The least time allowed to aged. Modulus in rubber may
accelerate a conveyor belt from be either static or dynamic;
rest to normal speed without static moduli are subdivided
exceeding its maximum safe into tagent, chord, and
working stress. compounder’s. Compounder’s
modulus is always in tension,
Minimum braking time: but all the others may be in
The least time allowed to shear, compression or tension.
decelerate a conveyor belt from Other terms used in connection
normal speed to rest without with “modulus” are elasticity,
exceeding the maximum safe rigidity, Young’s tangent, and
working stress or causing the elongation.
belt to double up on itself. (3) All elastic moduli in rubber
(except compounder’s) are
Minimum ply: The least number of plies that ratios of stress to the strain
will support the load on a belt produced by that stress, the
without damaging deformation. stress, usually p.s.i.

Minimum pulley diameter: Modulus, belt: The force per unit width of belt
The smallest pulley diameter required to produce a stated
around which a belt is recom- percentage of elongation.
mended to operate.
Modulus of elasticity:
Minimum tension: The force divided by the per-
See tension, minimum. cent elongation (divided by
100) to cause the elongation.
Mirror finish: A bright, polished surface

Index Page

Moisture regain: N
The reabsorption of water by a
Narrow disc idler:
Mold edge: A belt edge formed during A flat pulley with discs attached
vulcanization by curing in a around the pulley at certain
mold or against edge irons. intervals across the pulley.

Mold lubricant: The material used to coat the Necking down: A localized decrease in the
surfaces of a mold to prevent cross-sectional area of a
the rubber adhering to the product.
metal during vulcanization.
Needle punched:
Mold mark: An indentation or embossment Nonwoven fabric punched with
on the surface of a molded a hack latched needle to
product caused by irregularities improve its strength and stabil-
in the mold surface. ity.

Mold register: The means used to align the Net endless length:
parts of a mold. The manufactured length
necessary to provide proper
Mold release: See mold lubricant. initial fit and tensioning of a belt
on a specified drive.
Monofilament: A single extruded strand of
material. Nicks: Cuts in the surface or edge of
Monomer: A relatively simple compound
which can react to form a Nip: The clearance between two
polymer. rolls of a calender.

Mooney viscosity: Nitrile: Common name for nitrile-

A measure of the plasticity of a butadiene polymer.
polymeric compound deter-
mined in a Mooney shearing Nominal: An approximate amount.
disc viscometer.
Nonblooming: The absence of bloom.
MSHA: Abbreviation for Mine Safety
and Health Administration. Nonwoven fabric:
A mat of nonaligned fiber
MSHA flame retardant test: bonded together.
Flame procedure for under-
ground conveyor belting pre- Norway type elevator bolt:
scribed by the Mine Safety & Flat top, squared shoulder bolt
Health Administration of the for attaching elevator buckets
U.S. Department of Labor. to elevator belts.

Mulitifilament: Many extruded fine strands of NR: Abbreviation for isoprene

material grouped together. polymer.

Index Page

Numbered duck: Operating tensions:

Fabric weight designated by The tension of longitudinal
numbers based on linear yard sections of a belt system (tight
of cloth 22" in width. side and slack side) when
moving material, as distin-
Nylon: Common name for polyamide guished from tension when the
fiber. belt is running empty.

Optimum cure: The time, temperature and

O compression of vulcanization or
of fusion at which a desired
combination of properties is
Offset idler: The center carrying roller which attained in an elastomer.
is offset and transversely
lapping the troughing idlers. Organosol: A suspension of a finely divided
plastic in a plasticizer with a
Oil proof: Not adversely affected by volatile organic solvent.
exposure to oil.
Outside diameter eccentricity:
Oil resistant: Withstands the deterioration The degree a pulley is out-of-
effect of oil (generally refers to round with respect to is central
petroleum) on the physical axis.
Oven: A low pressure hot air chamber
Oil swell: The change in volume of a used for the purpose of heat-
rubber article due to absorption ing, drying, baking or vulcaniz-
of oil. ing rubber products. See Aging.

Oil well splice: Two ends of a belt each bent Oxidation: The reaction of oxygen on a
90 degrees around a steel form rubber product, usually de-
and bolted together through the tected by a change in the
belt and steel form. appearance or feel of the
surface or by a change in
Oligomer: A polymer consisting of only a physical properties.
few monomer units such as in
dimer, a trimer, a tetramer etc. Oxygen bomb: A chamber capable of holding
& their mixtures. oxygen at an elevated pressure
which can be heated to an
One side: Pertains to one of the two elevated temperature. Used
outward faces or surfaces of a for an accelerated aging test.
conveyor belt (not the edges of
the belt). Oxygen bomb aging:
A means of accelerating
Open seam: A seam whose edges do not change in the physical proper-
meet creating a void. ties of rubber compounds by
exposing them to the action of
oxygen at an elevated tem-
perature and pressure.

Index Page

Ozone cracking: Picking idler: A short-sided troughing idler for

Belt cover cracks or crazing readily removing material by
caused by exposure to ozone hand from a belt.
in the atmosphere.
Pierce tape: A woven mesh of steel wire or
Ozone resistant: cord.
Withstands the deteriorating
effects of ozone (generally Pimple: A small sharp or conical eleva-
cracking). tion on the surface of a prod-

P Pit: A small crater in the surface of

a product with width about the
same as its depth.
Package conveyor:
A conveyor which transports Pitch line: The plane within a belt which
packaged, boxed, or bagged undergoes neither stretching
material. nor compression when the belt
rounds the pulley, i.e., the
Package deflector: neutral plane of the belt struc-
See conveyor belt package ture.
Plain weave: The simplest type of weave
Packed material: with both adjacent warp and
Material on belting compacted filling yarns crossing over and
as the belting moves along the under each other.
Planished cover:
Performance test: An irregular coated surface
See service test. transformed into a smooth
surface by some means.
Permanent set: The amount by which an elastic
material fails to return to its Planished finish:
original form after deformation. See planished cover.

Permanent stretch: Plastic: A material that contains as an

Elongation permanently re- essential ingredient one or
moved from belting when it is more organic polymeric sub-
first used. stances of large molecular
weight, is solid in its finished
Permeability: The quality or condition of state, can be shaped by flow.
allowing passage of liquids or
gases through a rubber layer. Plasticity: (1) A measure of the resistance
to shear of an unvulcanized
Physical properties: elastomer;
A measure of mechanical (2) a measurement of resis-
characteristics of a material. tance to shear with heat his-
Pick: An individual filling yarn of a
Index Page

Plasticizer: A compounding ingredient Porosity: The condition of containing

which can change the physical numerous small holes or voids.
and chemical properties and
processibility of a polymeric Portable conveyor:
compound. A conveyor system readily
moved from one place to
Plastisol: A despersion of a powderous another.
polymer in a plasticizer.
Portable vulcanizer:
Plate finish: A finish resulting from contact A vulcanizer readily moved
with commercially smooth but from one place to another,
not polished press platens. usually used for making field
splices and repairs.
Plied yarn: A yarn made by twisting to-
gether two or more single Pot life: The period of time during which
yarns. a reacting polymeric compound
remains suitable for its in-
Plows: Plates across a belt to remove tended use after having been
material lying on or sticking to mixed with a reaction-initiating
the belt. agent.

Ply: A layer of rubberized fabric. Powered roller conveyor:

A term used by the U.S. Postal
Ply adhesion: The force required to separate Service to mean a live roller
two adjoining strength reinforc- conveyor. See live roller
ing members in a rubber conveyor.
Press: A machine consisting of two or
Ply separation: Lack of adhesion between more heated plates which can
plies. be brought together and sepa-
rated by hydraulic pressure or
Ply tensile: The ultimate breaking strength mechanical action.
of a belt expressed in force per
inch width per ply. Press cold ends:
The area of reduced tempera-
Polymer: A macromolecular material ture at the press platen end.
formed by the chemical combi-
nation of monomers having Press lap: The area of overlap of one
either the same or different press cure length on the next.
chemical composition.
Press length: The length of a belt which can
Polymerization: The process that converts be pressed at one time.
monomers into polymers.
Press marks: Irregularities in the surface of a
Polyvinyl chloride: vulcanized product caused by
A polymer prepared by the the press ends or by corre-
polymerization of vinyl chloride sponding irregularities in the
as the sole monomer. press surface.

Index Page

Press, rotary: See rotary press. Pure gum compound:

A natural rubber or isoprene
Pricker marks: Small marks in the cover of a compound containing only the
vulcanized belt where a roll ingredients necessary to
with sharp needles had pen- process it, to protect it from
etrated the uncured belt to aging, and to cause vulcaniza-
allow trapped air in the uncured tion.
belt composite to escape.
PVC cover: Cover using a PVC compound.
Processing: The operations in the manufac-
ture of a belt. PVC impregnated:
Impregnated with PVC com-
Profile top cover: pound.
Belt surface having a series of
continuous or interrupted, Qualification conformance inspection:
straight or curved ridges, The examination of samples
across the belt at regular from a production run to deter-
intervals to enhance the belts mine conformance to a given
ability to move materials up specification.
inclines or down declines.

Prong: The sharp point of a mechani- Q

cal fastener that penetrates the
Qualification inspection test:
Pulley: A cylinder, mounted on a The examination of samples
central axis rod. from a typical production run to
determine conformance to a
Pulley cover: See bottom cover. given specification for approval
to become a supplier.
Pulley lagging: See lagging.
Quarter turn drive:
Pulley projection: A belt system in which the axes
The amount a pulley face width of the adjacent pulleys are at
extends beyond belt edge. right angles to each other to
cause a 90 degree twist in the
Pulley wear cover: belt about its longitudinal axis.
(1) Elastomeric material at-
tached to the pulley to minimize
pulley surface wear (2) Addi- R
tional belt bottom cover thick-
ness where extraordinary wear
is anticipated. RAC: Abbreviation for The Rubber
Association of Canada.
Pulley wrap: See arc of contact.
Raised cover center:
A belt cover with increased
thickness along the center
portion of the belt.

Index Page

Raised edge: A flanged edge conveyor belt to Repose angle: See angle of repose.
minimize spillage.
Resin: Certain materials produced by
Raised rib belt: A belt with transverse or diago- chemical synthesis.
nal bars or cleats on the top
cover. Resistance: The property or ability of matter
to withstand the effects of
Rated conveyor belt: force, pressure, heat or chemi-
The manufacturer’s recom- cal action.
mended maximum working
tension for a conveyor belt. Return idler: A roll(s) that supports a belt on
its return run.
Rated working tension:
See rating. Return run: The part of a conveyor system
where the belt returns to the
Rating: The normal working tension tail.
recommended for a belt.
Reversion: (1) The change which occurs in
Raw edge: The uncovered square edge of vulcanized rubber as the result
a belt created by cutting after of aging or overcuring in the
vulcanization. presence of air or oxygen
usually resulting in a semi-
Recovery: The degree an elastomeric plastic mass. (2) It is the basis
material returns to its original of rubber reclaiming processes
dimensions after being and is aided by the use of
stressed. swelling solvents, chemical
plasticizer and mechanical
Reefed: A belt folded back and forth on disintegration to obtain a
itself. workable mass.

Reinforcement: The textile strengthening Ribbon blender:A type of internal mixer used to
member of a belt. See also mix powders and liquids into a
carcass. dry powderous viscous or liquid
Reinforcement agent:
An ingredient in a polymeric Ribs: Transverse configurations on
compound not basic to its the carrying side of a belt to
vulcanization used to increase facilitate carrying material on
its chemical and physical an incline.
Riveted plate joint:
Reinforcing element: A mechanical fastener with
The strengthening members of rivets projecting through a plate
a belt. on both sides of the belt.

Repair: The area of new material RMA: Abbreviation for The Rubber
replacing damaged material in Manufacturers Association, Inc.
a belt.

Index Page

RMBT: Abbreviation for Rated Manu- Safety factor: The ratio of the maximum
facturers Belt Tension. stress that a belt or a belt
splice can withstand to the
Roll belting: Belting made to ordered width maximum stress recommended
but of nominal lengths for for it by the manufacturer. The
cutting later into shorter ratio of breaking strength to
lengths. rated working tension.

Roller bed conveyor: Safe working strength:

A conveyor belt operating over The manufacturer’s recom-
a series of steel support rollers. mended maximum working
tension for a conveyor belt
Rosin: The hard amber-colored mate- operating in ideal conditions.
rial of the residue from the
distillation of oil of turpentine. Sag: The amount of vertical deflec-
tion of a conveyor belt from a
Rotary press: A vulcanizing machine consist- straight line between idlers,
ing of a rotating, heated drum usually expressed as a per-
with a flexible steel band centage of the spacing be-
partially encircling the drum, tween idlers.
which continuously advances a
material while under pressure Sag belt tension:
and heat between drum and The minimum tension in any
band. portion of the carrying run of a
belt necessary to prevent
Rotocure: See rotary press. excessive sag of the belt
between idlers.
Rough top: A belt made with projections in
the carrying surface to improve Sample: A piece of material removed for
the ability of the belt to carry evaluation.
material on inclines.
Scraper: A device for cleaning the
Rubber cement: A mixture of polymeric com- surface of belting.
pound or elastomer used as an
adhesive or sealant. Screw take-up: A take-up for a conveyor
system in which movement of a
Rubberized: Coated with rubber compound. pulley-bearing block is accom-
plished by means of a screw.
Run: The distance or route covered See also take-up.
by a conveyor.
Seam: The place where two edges of
fabric or elastomer are adja-
S cent to each other to form a
single ply or layer.

Saddle: An additional short length of Seaming strip: A strip of polymeric material

belting added to an existing laid over and/or in a seam to fill
belt. See butt strap. any voids between the adjacent
plies of material.

Index Page

Self-aligning idler: Simulated service test:

An idler having a belt-activated See bench test.
swivel mechanism to control
the side movement of an Singles yarn: The product from aligning and
operating conveyor belt. twisting together fibers or
twisting together filament fibers.
Selvage: The lengthwise woven edge of
a fabric. Also called selvedge. Sink: A collapsed blister or bubble
leaving a depression in a
Semi-cure: A partial or incomplete cure. product.

Service condition: Skew: Amount by which the ends of a

All the conditions of operation single pick yarn in a fabric are
to which a conveyor or elevator offset longitudinally.
belt is exposed.
Skim: A thin layer of polymeric com-
Service factor: The amount by which the pound applied to a fabric.
normal rating of a unit is altered
to compensate for specific Skim or skim coat:
service requirements. A layer of rubber material laid
on a fabric but not forced into
Service test: A test in which the product is the weave. Normally laid on a
made to operate under service frictioned fabric.
conditions in the actual equip-
ment. Skirt board: In a conveyor system, the
vertical or inclined plates lo-
Set: The amount of deformation cated longitudinally and closely
remaining after complete above the belt to confine the
release of the load producing conveyed material.
the deformation.
Skive: A cut made on an angle to the
Shadowing: A bas-relief or outline of a surface to produce a tapered or
reinforcement which appears feathered cut.
on a cover after vulcanization.
Slab belting: Belting made in wide widths
Sheeting: A form of plastic in which the and long lengths for later slitting
thickness is very small in into narrower widths and cutting
proportion to length and width into shorter lengths.
and in which the plastic is
present as a continuous phase Slack side tension:
throughout. The lessor of the tensions in a
belt on an operating conveyor.
Shelf storage life: Usually immediately following
The period of time prior to use the drive pulley.
during which a product retains
its intended performance Slider bed: A stationary surface on which a
capability. belt slides.

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Slider bed conveyor: Specification: Detail description of specific

A conveyor belt operating all, or requirements.
in part of its length, over a flat
support surface as opposed to Specimen: A piece cut from a sample of
being supported by a series of belting to test.
Splice angle: The angle at which belting is
Slip: The action that takes place, spliced.
causing a differential move-
ment between the pulley Splice: Methods for joining the ends of
surface and the belt. belting together without using a
mechanical fastener.
Slip and sequence system:
An interlocking belt conveyor Spread: To apply a thin coat of liquid
system that stops the system material over a surface by
when the speed of the con- means of a knife, bar, or doctor
veyor belt drive pulley exceeds blade.
a certain speed of the conveyor
belt. Spread coat: To apply a thin coat of material
over a surface determined by
Slit belt: A belt cut to lesser width. means of a knife, bar, or doctor
Slit edge: The square finished edge of a
belt after trimming to width. Spread coated fabric:
A fabric coated with a liquid
Slit edge belt: See cut edge. plastic by a spreading process
and then heated to fuse the
Slope belt: A conveyor belt used to carry
material along an inclined flight. Spring take-up: A mechanical device on both
sides of the conveyor system
Slope tension: See tension, slope. where a variable force spring is
secured to the conveyor struc-
Snub pulley: A pulley adjacent to a drive ture and to the tail pulley block
pulley that increases the arc of for the purpose of maintaining
contact on the drive pulley to a uniform tension in the belt.
increase the effectiveness of
the drive. Spun yarn: A yarn produced from short
fibers by aligning and twisting
Solid woven belt: them together.
A type of conveyor belt wherein
the carcass is a single ply Square edge: An edge of plastic-covered
consisting of multiple layers of belting finished against rectan-
warp and filling yarns interwo- gular irons.
ven. The carcass usually is
impregnated and/or coated with Stacker: A conveyor adapted to piling or
polymeric compound. stacking bulk material, pack-
ages, or objects.

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Stamped metal: Perforated metal sheet used for Step ply: A conveyor belt having a plied
making a rough top design on a textile carcass in which the
conveyor belt. upper ply or plies are set back
toward the edges to increase
Standard: A quality level set for the the cover gauge in loading
results from a belt test. area.

Staple: A textile fiber of relatively short Stepped splice: The joint of one end of multi-ply
(1" to 3") length which when belting with plies of fabric
spun and twisted forms a yarn. removed so respective ply
ends will butt together and
Staple fiber: The short fibers from which a overlap adjacent plies of fabric.
spun yarn is made.
Stiffness: Resistance to flexing.
Starting tension:
The tension necessary to
accelerate a belt from rest to Stitched belt: (1) A belt made from plies of
normal operating speed. non-rubberized fabric sewed
together to make a unit struc-
Static conductive: ture. (2) A rubberized belt in
Capability to conduct static which the plies have bee
electricity. sewed.

Static electricity: Stitching: A method of butting or joining

Electrical potential resulting two pieces of material together,
from two surfaces rubbing usually by means of a stitcher
together or parting one from roller.
the other.
Stock roll: A belt made to some nominal
Static friction: The resistance which must be length and width for subse-
overcome to start a body quent cutting to required length
sliding down a belt surface. and width.

Steel cable: Several steel cords twisted Straight face pulley:

together. A pulley without any crown.

Steel cord: Several steel wires twisted Straight warp weave:

together. Two warp yarn systems and a
filling yarn system where one
Steel cord belt: A conveyor belt having a warp system is essentially
tension bearing member of without crimp and is the tension
steel cords lying in the same bearing member, while the
plane with a definite spacing other warp system is interlaced
between the cords, elastomer with the filling yarn and pro-
between the cords and an vides mechanical fastener
elastomeric cover on both holding capability.
sides of the belt.

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Strain: Deformation resulting from a Tail end: The end of a conveyor, usually
force applied to a body. near its loading points.

Stress: Force applied to a body that Tail pulley: The belt pulley near the loading
results in the body being end of the conveyor system.
Take-up (1) Removal of slack or stretch
Stress-strain: The relationship of force and in a belt (2) An assembly of
deformation in a body during structural and mechanical parts
compression, extension, or to maintain proper belt tension.
shear. In a belt this is the
relationship of tension (stress) Take-up, automatic:
and resulting elongation See automatic take-up.
Take-up, gravity: See gravity take-up.
Stretch: An increase in length.
Take-up pulley: A pulley which can move in
Striated cover: A cover having grooved or space due to gravity, a spring,
channeled lines, due to transfer or other forces in order to
of irregularities from contact maintain relatively constant
with surfaces of forming or tension in a specific strand of a
finishing equipment. belt.

Strike through: Penetration of plastic com- Take-up, screw: See screw take-up.
pound through the fabric.
Take-up tension: See tension, take-up.
Strip test: In fabric testing, a tensile
strength test made on a strip of Take-up travel: The distance the take-up can
fabric with cut edge or raveled move during the belt operation.
down to a specified number of
threads or width of fabric, all of Tandem drive: A belt driving system employing
which are firmly held in gripping two adjacent powered pulleys.
jaws wider than the test piece.
Tape line measurement-maximum length:
Sun check: Fine cracks and crazing of an The inside circumference of a
elastomeric surface primarily belt measured around the
due to the sun’s ultraviolet pulley surfaces when the take-
rays. up idler(s) are moved out to
where they take up all the belt
Surface finish: See belt surface finish. slack their movement permits.

Swelling: An increase in volume of an Tape line measurement-minimum length:

elastomer or belt. The inside circumference of a
belt measured around the
pulley surfaces when the take-
T up idler(s) are moved in for the
installation of the shortest belt
Tack: Having a property of temporary possible.

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Tear down: The removal of a ply of fabric in Tension member: See carcass.
a multi-ply fabric belt to prepare
the stepped down configuration Tension minimum:
for a stepped splice. The lowest tension occurring in
a belt in a conveyor or elevator
Tear Propagation: Continuation of tear. system under operating condi-
Telescoped roll: At the outside end of a roll of
belting, turns of the belting Tension rating: Maximum safe working tension
progressively loosened and recommended by a belt manu-
moved outward from the re- facturer.
mainder of the evenly wound
turns of the belting.
Tension ratio: In an operating belt system, the
Template: A pattern to guide the punching ratio of the larger to the smaller
of holes or cuts in belt ends. tension as the belt approaches
and leaves a driving or driven
Tensile member: See carcass. pulley.

Tensile strength: The maximum force, Tension, slack side:

stress, applied to a specimen In a belt system, where the two
at rupture. portions of the length of a belt
on either side of a driving or
Tensile stress: The force applied to stretch a driven pulley have different
test piece (specimen). tensions, the slack side tension
is the smallest of the two.
Tension: Stress on a material tending to
cause extension of the mate- Tension, slope: The tension in an inclined belt
rial. caused by the weight of the
material being elevated in
Tension, effective: addition to the belt weight and
In a belt drive, it is the differ- independent of friction and
ence between the two tensions other sources of tension.
in a belt as it approaches and
leaves a driving or driven Tension, take-up:
pulley. In a two-pulley drive, it The amount of tension in each
is the difference between tight of the runs of belting approach-
and slack side tensions. Being ing and leaving the take-up
a measure of power require- pulley, the total of which is the
ment, it is sometimes referred force exerted by the take-up
to as horsepower pull. device.

Tension, maximum: Tension, tight side:

(1) The highest tension occur- In an operating conveyor
ring in any portion of a belt system, the greater of the
drive. In a two-pulley drive it is tensions as the belt ap-
the tight side tension. (2) In proaches and leaves the drive
conveyors, the maximum pulley.
tension may occur at a point
other than the drive pulley.
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Tension, working: Tire bead wire: Steel wire placed in or beneath

The maximum working tension the top cover to minimize rips
for a fabric or belt recom- in the belt by objects that
mended by the manufacturer. penetrate the belt.

Terminal position: Tolerances: The limiting values for a dimen-

The maximum working tension sion.
for a fabric or belt recom-
mended by the manufacturer. Top cover: Loss of the elastomer due to
Terminal pulley: The pulley at or near the
discharge end of a conveyor Top cover wear:
belt system. The protective rubber cover on
the material conveying surface
Tex: A yarn size system defined as or surfaces of a conveyor belt.
the weight in grams of 1000
meters of yarn. Tracking alignment:
See training.
Textile: A general term applied to yarn,
cord, nonwoven, or woven Traction: The friction between a drive
fabric made from a fibrous pulley and the conveyor belt.
Traction top: See rough top.
Thermoplastic: Capable of being repeatedly
softened by heating and hard- Training: The process of adjusting idlers,
ened by cooling and in the pulleys, and loading conditions
softened state can be shaped to insure the belt runs straight.
by flow.
Training idler: An idler mounted on a me-
Tie cloth breaker: chanical device, actuated by
A leno or other open weave the belt moving against it to
fabric breaker between a belt make the belt run straight.
cover and the carcass.
Trajectory: The arc made by material
Tie gum: A thin sheet of unvulcanized freely discharged from a con-
rubber inserted between plies veyor system.
in vulcanized repairs of splices.
Transfer system: A combination of mecha-
Tight side tension: nisms to move objects or bulk
See tension, tight side. material to or from a conveyor.

Tilted troughing idlers: Transition distance:

Used for belt training. The distance between the last
fully troughed idler and the flat
Time cycle: The duration of time, in min- driving or discharge pulley.
utes, required for one complete
cycle of a conveyor belt. Transition idler: A troughed belt idler having a
lesser degree of trough than
the previous carrying idlers.

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Transverse: A crosswise direction of a belt. Troughed belt: A belt operating in a conveyor

system with inclined side idlers
Transverse cord breaker: to cause the belt edges to turn
A cord fabric laid in the top up and increase the amount of
cover at right angles to the belt material carried while minimiz-
edges. ing side spillage of the material.

Transverse rigidity: Troughing angle:

Resistance to belt deformation The angle troughing idlers are
in the belt crosswise direction. to the horizontal extension of
the flat carrying idler.
Transverse seam:
The joint, across the belt, of Troughing idlers:
two ends of a fabric ply in the An idler system which supports
belt or cover material. a belt in a troughed configura-
tion. Usually it consists of a
Trapped air: Air which is enclosed in a center horizontal roll with an
product or between a product inclined roll on each side. See
and a mold surface during also catenary idler.
Twill weave: A fabric woven with the appear-
Traveling deflector: ance of diagonal lines.
A mechanism which moves
over the carrying surface of the Twist: The rotation of a belt on its
belt and deflects the conveyed longitudinal axis. A 180 degree
material off of the belt. twist is used as a means of
inverting a belt through the
Tripper: A fixed or moveable mecha- zone of the twist.
nism at some intermediate
place in the conveyor system to
discharge material from the U
Ultimate elongation:
Troughability: The property of a belt that Elongation at rupture.
permits it to conform to the
contour of troughing idlers. Ultimate strength:
The force required to rupture a
Troughability index: specimen.
The ratio of the deflection of a
freely supported transverse Ultimate tensile:
section of a belt to the distance Tensile stress at rupture.
between the freely supported
ends. Undercure: A less than optimal state of
vulcanization which may be
evidenced by tackiness or
inferior physical properties.

Uncured: Not vulcanized.

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V Weathering: Surface deterioration, evi-

denced by cracks and crazing
Vanner edge: See flanged edge. of an elastomer, during outdoor
Vertical curve: The portion of a conveyor belt
where the angle of incline Weave: A fabric pattern description
increases. denoting a specific relationship
of warp and filling yarns at
Viscosity: The flow property of a material. specific locations in the fabric.

Void: The absence of material or an Weft: The crosswise threads in a

area devoid of materials where fabric; filling threads. The
not intended. See also blister treads or yarns running at right
and sink. angle to the warp.

Volume swell: See swelling. Weftless cord: A cord ply without filling yarns.

Vulcanization: A process over a range in Winged pulley: A pulley with radial vanes
temperature during which a extending from a supporting
polymeric compound, through a structure to the center shaft to
change in molecular structure minimize trapping material that
(e.g., crosslinking) becomes otherwise would build up and
less plastic and causes damage the belt.
changes in the physical and
chemical properties of the Wire hook fastener:
resulting elastomer. A mechanical fastener consist-
ing of wires capable of being
Vulcanized splice: driven through the belt end and
A joint in a belt made by means bent back into the belt by a
of vulcanization. special tool device.

Vulcanized splice step length: Wires: Metal in the form of a fine

The longitudinal distance flexible rod.
between steps in the splice.
Working load: See working tension.

W Working tension:
Stress on the belt when the belt
Warp: (1) The yarns that run length- is loaded with conveyed mate-
wise in a woven fabric or rial and moving.
jacket. (2) The total deviation
from a straight line of a hose Woven fabric: A flat structure composed of
when subjected to internal two series of interlacing yarns
pressure. of filaments, one parallel to the
fabric and the other transverse.
Warp-yarn: (1) A longitudinal yarn in a
fabric. (2) A corner yarn in a Woven wire carcass:
braid. A belt with woven wire fabric.

Index Page

Wrinkled ply: See buckled ply.

Yarn: A generic term for continuous

strands of textile fibers or
filaments in a form suitable for
knitting, weaving, or otherwise
intertwining to form a textile
fabric. It may comprise (1) a
number of fibers twisted to-
gether (2) a number of fila-
ments laid together without a
twist (a zero-twist yarn) (3) a
number of filaments laid to-
gether with more or less twist
or (4) a single filament with or
without twist (a mono-filament).

Yarn number: The number of hanks in a

pound of spun yarn.

Yield point: The stress in a material at

which a substantial increase in
strain occurs with a minimum
increase in stress.

Yield strength: The stress at which a material

exhibits a specified limiting
permanent set. Determined by
a measurable value of plastic
yielding of the material, above
which the material is consid-
ered to be damaged and below
which the damaging effects are
considered to be negligible.

Young’s modulus:
Stress per unit strain for per-
fectly elastic material.

Zero load: A reference load applied in

taking an initial reading and
prior to determining compress-
ibility or extensibility.

Index Page


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