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Tutorial 3

1. A metal rod of length 2L, diameter D and thermal conductivity, k is inserted into a perfectly insulating wall, exposing one half of the rod to an air stream at temperature and providing a uniform heat transfer coefficient, h at the surface of the rod. Within the embedded portion of the rod, an electromagnetic field induces volumetric heat generation at a uniform rate ´ .

a). Obtain an expression for the steady state temperature at the base of the exposed half of the rod. The exposed portion may be treated as an infinitely long fin.

b). Derive an expression for the steady state temperature distribution for each half of the rod.

state temperature distribution for each half of the rod. 2. (a). Two long rods of same

2. (a). Two long rods of same diameter, one made of brass (k = 100 W/m. K) and the other of copper (k = 390 W/m. K), have one of their ends inserted into a furnace. At a section 10.5 cm away from the furnace, the temperature of the brass rod is 120 °C. At what distance from the furnace end, the same temperature would be reached in the copper rod. Both rods are exposed to the same environment. (Hint: Consider the fin as infinitely long).

(b). (i). What is the efficiency of the fin and effectiveness of the fin? (ii). Hot water is to be cooled as it flows through the tubes exposed to atmospheric air. Fins are to be attached in order to enhance heat transfer. Would you recommend attaching the fins inside or outside the tubes? Why? (iii). A steel rod (k = 30 W/m. K) 1 cm in diameter and 5 cm long protrudes from a wall which is maintained at 100 °C. The rod is insulated at its tip and is exposed to an environment with h = 50 W/m 2 K and = 30°. Calculate the fin efficiency, temperature at the tip of the fin and the rate of heat dissipation.

3. A 2-mm-diameter and 10-m-long electric wire is tightly wrapped with a 1-mm-thick plastic cover whose thermal conductivity is k=0.15 W/m - K. Electrical measurements indicate that a current of 10 A passes through the wire and there is a voltage drop of 8 V along the wire. If the insulated wire is exposed to a medium at T=303 K with a heat transfer coefficient of h=24 W/m2 - K, determine the temperature at the interface of the wire and the plastic cover in steady operation. Also determine if doubling the thickness of the plastic cover will increase or decrease this interface temperature.

4. (a). Two long copper rods of diameter D = 10 mm are soldered together end to end, with solder having a melting point of 650 °C. The rods are in air at 25°C with a convection coefficient of 10 W/m 2 K. What is the minimum power input needed to effect the soldering? (consider k Cu = 379 W/m. K).

(b). Fins, 12 in number, having k = 75 W/m. K and 0.75 mm thickness protrude 25 mm from a cylindrical surface of 50 mm diameter and 1 m length placed in an atmosphere of 40 °C. If the cylindrical surface is maintained at 150 °C and the heat transfer coefficient is 23 W/m 2 . K, calculate (i). rate of heat transfer (ii). percentage increase in heat transfer due to fins, (iii). the temperature at the centre of the fins (iv). fin efficiency and fin effectiveness.

Tutorial 3 solutions

1.

Tutorial 3 solutions 1. 2 (a). 2 (b) (iii). 2 (b).

2 (a).

2 (b) (iii).

Tutorial 3 solutions 1. 2 (a). 2 (b) (iii). 2 (b).
Tutorial 3 solutions 1. 2 (a). 2 (b) (iii). 2 (b).

2 (b).

(i). Efficiency of Fin: relates the performance of actual fin to that of an ideal
(i). Efficiency of Fin: relates the performance of actual fin to that of an ideal or fully effective
fin.
actualheattransfer ratefrom thefin
η=
f
heat that would bedissipatedif thewholesurfaceof thefin weremaintainedat basetemperature
Effectiness of fin: represents the fin heat transfer rate to heat transfer rate that would exist
without a fin.
the fin heat transfer rate
ε=
f
heat transfer rate that would exist without a fin
(ii). Use of fin will be more justified under conditions for which the convective coefficient
is small, i.e., when the fluid is gas rather than a liquid.
Therefore, Fins are recommended on air side.
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4a.
4b.
4b.