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Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 28

Fall 2004

Special instructions:

- Duration: 180 minutes.

- Material allowed: a crib sheet (double sided 8.5 x 11), calculator.

- Attempt 5 out of 7 questions.

- Make any reasonable assumption.

- All questions and sub-questions carry equal weight.

A single phase 550 V, 60 Hz feeder supplies 2 loads in parallel: (a) a 20 kW heating load; (b) a 50

kW motor load, with an efficiency of 0.90 and a power factor of 0.80 (lagging).

(a) Draw the instantaneous current and voltage waveforms for the total load, indicating peak and

rms values. Give the equation for the total instantaneous power and draw the waveform. Indicate

the value of the total real power.

(b) Draw the V-I vector diagram and the power diagram. Compute total reactive power and power

factor.

(b) A capacitor is connected in parallel with the loads to increase the power factor to 1.0. Compute

the reactive power required from the capacitor. Redraw the power diagram.

(c) Explain the benefits in having a unity power factor from (i) the utility point of view; (ii) the

consumer point of view.

A single phase 24 kV/2.4 kV, 60 Hz transformer, with a series equivalent impedance of 0.2 + j1.0 Ω

referred to the low-voltage side, is connected at the end of a transmission line of impedance 50 +

j400 Ω. The transformer feeds a load drawing 200 kW, at a 0.8 power factor lagging, and 2300 V.

(a) The feeder voltage is adjusted so that the load voltage is 2300 V. Assume the load voltage has

an angle of 0 deg. Find the amplitude and angle of the voltage at the sending end of the

transmission line. (Hint: refer all quantities to the low voltage side).

(b) Compute the current in the transmission line, the losses in the transmission line and transformer,

and the overall system efficiency.

(c) Calculate the no-load voltage and the voltage regulation.

(d) Explain how the voltage regulation can be reduced. (Hint: consider shunt compensation).

A three-phase feeder supplies three identical single-phase 135 kV/6.9 kV, 60 Hz, 100 MVA

transformers, each with a leakage reactance of 0.15 pu on the transformer base, and connected in a

IGEE 402 – Power System Analysis – FINAL EXAMINATION – SAMPLE Joós, G.

∆-Y connection. The load is a three-phase Y-connected 12 kV load, with per phase parameters of 60

MW, 0.85 power factor (lagging). A capacitor bank of three elements of impedance (-j5 Ω) connected

in ∆ is used for power factor correction. The secondary voltage is assumed to be 12 kV.

(a) Compute the total power and total reactive power drawn from the feeder.

(b) Draw the single line pu circuit, using a 300 MVA (three-phase), 12 kV base.

(c) Compute the total line current, the total power and total reactive power drawn from the feeder, in

pu. Compute the voltage at the feeder. Compare with results in (a).

(d) Phase c of the load becomes an open circuit. In the original V-A three-phase circuit, compute the

current in the lines feeding the load, when (i) the load neutral is solidly grounded; (ii) the load

neutral is floating.

A 400 km, 138 kV, 60 Hz transmission line has the following distributed parameters: r = 0.106 Ω/km,

x = 0.493 Ω/km, y = j3.36 x 10-6 S/km. Losses are neglected.

(a) Compute the nominal π equivalent circuit parameters and draw the circuit. Compute the

corresponding ABCD parameters.

(b) Find the surge impedance and surge impedance loading.

(c) The line delivers 40 MW at 132 kV with a power factor of 0.95 lagging. Using the ABCD

parameters, compute the sending end voltage, current and δ angle. Confirm using the nominal π

equivalent circuit, and the short line equivalent.

(d) Draw the approximate voltage profile of this line for the following power delivered: (i) 0 MW, 20

MW, 50 MW, and surge impedance loading. Indicate the methods available to maintain the

voltages within the range of 0.95 and 1.05.

A two-bus transmission system consists of the following: (i) a voltage regulated bus (1.0 pu), the

swing bus; (ii) a load bus, with a load of power (0.3 = j1.0), and a fixed capacitor, supplying a reactive

power of (j1.1); (iii) a transmission line of impedance (j0.4).

(a) Draw the single line diagram. Assuming the load bus voltage magnitude is 1 pu, compute the

load angle δ. Compute the Ybus matrix.

(b) Formulate the Gauss Seidel solution. Indicate the unknowns. Compute the first iteration.

(c) Formulate the Newton Raphson solution. Compute the first iteration.

(d) Comment on the features of the 2 methods described above. Indicate approaches to accelerate

the convergence to the solution. Indicate the changes required to the formulation above if a

voltage-controlled bus replaces the load bus.

A three-phase power system is fed from the secondary of a ∆-Y connected transformer, with a

neutral grounded through an impedance of j1 pu. The transformer series impedance is j0.15 pu. The

transmission line impedance is j0.2 pu, with no zero sequence component. The sending end voltage

is assumed to be 1 pu. The load is a Y-connected impedance of 1 pu (resistive).

(a) Draw the sequence component networks, indicating all the impedance values, and voltage

sources.

(b) A three-phase symmetrical short circuit occurs at the load end, with a 0.1 pu impedance. Give

the sequence impedance matrix for the fault current. Draw the sequence networks

corresponding to the fault. Compute the sequence components of the fault currents. Convert into

phase quantities.

(c) A single line-to-ground fault occurs on phase a with an impedance of 0.1 pu. Calculate the

sequence components of the fault current. Draw the sequence networks corresponding to the

Page 2 of 3

IGEE 402 – Power System Analysis – FINAL EXAMINATION – SAMPLE Joós, G.

fault. Compute the value of the sequence components of the fault currents. Convert into phase

quantities.

(d) For the symmetrical three-phase fault and the single line-to-ground fault, compute the

symmetrical components of the voltage at the fault, and convert to abc values. Draw conclusions

as to the severity and impact of those two types of faults on the voltages at the load..

A three-phase. 60 Hz, round rotor hydroelectric generator has an H constant of 5 s. It delivers Pm =

1.0 pu power at a power factor of 0.90 lagging to an infinite bus through a transmission line of

reactance X = 0.6. The voltage at the infinite bus is 1.0 pu with an angle of 0 deg. The machine

transient reactance X’d = 0.3 pu.

(a) Compute the transient machine internal voltage and angle δ. Give the corresponding equation

for the electric power.

(b) Write the pu swing equation. A three-phase bolted short occurs midway along the transmission

line. Determine the power angle 4 cycles after the initiation of the short circuit. Assume the

mechanical input power remains constant at the initial value.

(c) Draw the P- δ curve for the above operating conditions. Indicate the initial conditions, and the

fault clearing point. Explain the application of the equal area criterion to this case.

(d) Discuss methods to ensure that the machine does not loose synchronism (breaker operation,

series compensation, …)

1 1 1

2

A= 1 a a

1 a a2

1 1 1

-1

A = 1 a a2

1 a2 a

Page 3 of 3

ECSE 464 - Power Systems Analysis

A single phase 550 V, 60 Hz feeder supplies 2 loads in parallel: (a) a 20 kW heating load; (b) a 50

kW motor load, with an efficiency of 0.90 and a power factor of 0.80 (lagging).

1. Draw the instantaneous current and voltage waveforms for the total load, indicating

peak and rms values. Give the equation for the total instantaneous power and draw the

waveform. Indicate the value of the total real power.

2. Draw the V-I vector diagram and the power diagram. Compute total reactive power and power

factor.

3. A capacitor is connected in parallel with the loads to increase the power factor to 1.0.

Compute the reactive power required from the capacitor. Redraw the power diagram.

4. Explain the benefits in having a unity power factor from (i) the utility point of view; (ii) the

consumer point of view.

Heating Load:

Pr

Ir :=

Vl

Motor Load:

Pm Sm

Sm := Imotor_mag := φ := acos( pf_m)

pf_m Vl

Combined Load:

Plot Waveforms:

t := 0 , 0.0001 .. 0.04

i( t) := 2 ⋅ mag( Is) ⋅ cos( ω ⋅ t + arg( Is) ) v ( t) := 2 ⋅ Vl⋅ cos( ω ⋅ t)

1000

600

Vl = 550

400

200 Ip = 204.192

i( t)

0 mag( Is) = 144.385

v( t)

200

400

600

800

1000

0 0.004 0.008 0.012 0.016 0.02 0.024 0.028 0.032 0.036 0.04

t

Instantaneous Power: p ( t) := v ( t) ⋅ i( t)

5

1.49 .10

5

1.18 .10

4

8.59 .10

p( t)

4

Ptotal = 7 × 10

Ptotal

4

5.41 .10

4

2.24 .10

9407.23

0 0.008 0.016 0.024 0.032 0.04

t

2. VI vector diagram, total reactive power, power factor, and power triangle

Qt := Sm⋅ sin( φ) Stotal := ( Pm + Pr ) + j ⋅ Qt ( Pm + Pr )

pf :=

mag( Stotal)

180

−cos( pf ) ⋅ = −36.441

π

pf = 0.881

4

Qt = 3.75 × 10

4

mag( Stotal) = 7.941 × 10

The reactive power required from the capacitor is simply the negative of the total reactive power

from part 2. This way the load power factor becomes unity and the feeder apparent power has

only a real component. The new power triangle looks as follow:

4. Explain the benefits of having unity power factor from (i) the utility point of view and

(ii) the customer's point of view.

The utility benefits from unity power factor since in this way the reactive power flows on the

line become zero. Although this doesn't directly contribute to losses, reactive power flows

contribute to increased currents and the associated losses involved. In addition, the

increased current may also play a role in reducing the lifespan of the lines and other

equipment. Also, providing reactive compensation at the load can help to improve voltage

stability

In terms of the customer, unity power factor is desirable since it indirectly affects the power

quality through the regulation of the voltage. Large inductive loads can cause undervoltages

which can be undesirable for sensitive loads. Also, the customer will likely inherit some of

the cost due to the losses mentioned above and therefore saving from the point of view of the

utility also result in savings for the customer as well.

QUESTION 2 (18 points)

A single phase 24 kV/2.4 kV, 60 Hz transformer, with a series equivalent impedance of 0.2 +

j1.0 Ω referred to the low-voltage side, is connected at the end of a transmission line of

impedance 50 + j400 . The transformer feeds a load drawing 200 kW, at a 0.8 power factor

lagging, and 2300 V.

1. The feeder voltage is adjusted so that the load voltage is 2300 V. Assume the load voltage

has an angle of 0 deg. Find the amplitude and angle of the voltage at the sending end of the

transmission line. (Hint: refer all quantities to the low voltage side).

2. Compute the current in the transmission line, the losses in the transmission line and

transformer, and the overall system efficiency.

3. Calculate the no-load voltage and the voltage regulation.

4. Explain how the voltage regulation can be reduced. (Hint: consider shunt compensation).

Define Load:

Pload

Pload := 200000 pfload := 0.8 Sload :=

pfload Vload := 2300

2

Vload

Zloadmag :=

Sload Zload := Zloadmag⋅ ( pfload + j ⋅ sin( acos( pfload) ) )

24000

a := Ztrans := 0.2 + j ⋅ 1.0 ( 50 + j ⋅ 400 )

2400 Zline := Zline = 0.5 + 4i

2

a

Vs := Vload⋅ mag( Vs) = 2.715 × 10 a_deg( Vs) = 8.24

Zload

2. Calculate the transmission line current, all losses, and efficiency

Current:

( Vs − Vload)

Iline_low :=

( Zline + Ztrans)

Iline_low

Iline_high :=

a mag( Iline_high ) = 10.87 a_deg( Iline_high ) = −36.87

Losses:

2

Transmission Line Pline := mag( Iline_low) ⋅ Re( Zline ) 3

Pline = 5.907 × 10

2 3

Transformer Ptrans := mag( Iline_low) ⋅ Re( Ztrans) Ptrans = 2.363 × 10

Efficiency: Pload

Eff := ⋅ 100 Eff = 96.029

Pload + Pline + Ptrans

Since the line contains no shunt components the no-load voltage will equal the

magnitude of the source voltage.

Vno_load := Vs 3

Vno_load = 2.715 × 10

( Vno_load − Vload)

VR := ⋅ 100

Vload VR = 18.043 %

The receiving end voltage varies as a function of the current on line which is dependent on the

load connected. We can compensate for the change in voltage by adding shunt

compensation at the load. In this way the voltage can be regulated to a given reference, say

1 pu. In this way the receiving end voltage may change by only a very small amount between

no-load an full-load. Therefore, a decrease in the VR is possible which will depend on the

rating of the reactive power source, in the case where the rating of the compensation is

infinite the voltage regulation becomes 0%.

VR will also depends upon the impedance of the line and therefore, series compensation or

installation of a parallel line could also help to limit VR.

QUESTION 3 (18 points)

A three-phase feeder supplies three identical single-phase 135 kV / 6.9 kV, 60 Hz, 100 MVA

transformers, each with a leakage reactance of 0.15 pu on the transformer base, and connected

in a -Y connection. The load is a three-phase Y-connected 12 kV load, with per phase

parameters of 60 MW, 0.85 power factor (lagging). A capacitor bank of three elements of

impedance (-j 5 ) connected in ∆ is used for power factor correction. The secondary voltage is

assumed to be 12 kV.

1. Compute the total power and total reactive power drawn from the feeder.

2. Draw the single line pu circuit, using a 300 MVA (three-phase), 12 kV base.

3. Compute the total line current, the total power and total reactive power drawn from the feeder,

in pu. Compute the voltage at the feeder. Compare with results in (1).

4. Phase c of the load becomes an open circuit. In the original V-A three-phase circuit,

compute the current in the lines feeding the load, when (i) the load neutral is solidly

grounded; (ii) the load neutral is floating.

1. Compute the total real and reactive power drawn from the feeder

6 2

Sbase := 300 × 10 Vbase := 12000 Vbase

Zbase := Zbase = 0.48

Sbase

Load:

6 Pload

pf := 0.85 Pload := 3 ⋅ 60⋅ 10 Sload := Sbase

pf ⋅ Sbase Ibase :=

3 ⋅ Vbase

1

Zload := ⋅ ( pf + j ⋅ sin( acos( pf ) ) ) Zload = 1.204 + 0.746i

Sload

Capacitor Bank:

5 Xc 1

Xc := −j ⋅ Xcpu := Xcpu = −3.472i Qc :=

3 Zbase Xcpu

Ptotal := Pload 8

Ptotal = 1.8 × 10

7

Qtotal := Sbase⋅ ( Sload⋅ sin( acos( pf ) ) − Qc ) Qtotal = 2.515 × 10

2. Single Line Diagram

3. Total line current, total real and reactive power and power factor in pu. Feeder voltage.

1 1

Iline := + Iline = 0.606 a_deg( Iline) = −7.955

Zload Xcpu

Pline

pfline := pfline = 0.99

Qline := Im( Sline) Qline = 0.084 Sline

8 7

Pline⋅ Sbase = 1.8 × 10 Qline⋅ Sbase = 2.515 × 10

Compare with (1):

8 7

Ptotal = 1.8 × 10 Qtotal = 2.515 × 10

3 5

Vf_high := Vfeeder⋅ 135 ⋅ 10 Vf_high = 1.389 × 10 V

4. Currents in the line feeding the load with phase c open circuited

(i) neutral is solidly grounded

We simply refer to the below figure and solve the two loop equations, we disregard the

capacitors since we are interested only in the current feeding the load.

Vb := 1 ⋅ cos −120 ⋅

π + j ⋅ sin −120 ⋅ π

Va := 1 Vab := Va − Vb

180 180

Va Vb

ia := ib := io := ia + ib

Z Z

3 3 3

ia ⋅ Ibase = 9.623 × 10 ib ⋅ Ibase = 9.623 × 10 io ⋅ Ibase = 9.623 × 10

In this case, the problem is trivial since I 0 = 0, since there is no path for zero sequence

current. Therefore, we can say that Ia = -Ib and the circuit looks as follows:

Vab

Ia := Ib := −Ia

2Z

3 3

Ia ⋅ Ibase = 8.333 × 10 a_deg( Ia) = −6.87 Ib ⋅ Ibase = 8.333 × 10 a_deg( Ib) = 173.13

QUESTION 4 (18 points)

A 400 km, 138 kV, 60 Hz transmission line has the following distributed parameters:

r = 0.106 /km, x = 0.493 /km, y = j3.36 x 10-6 S/km. Losses are neglected.

(a) Compute the nominal equivalent circuit parameters and draw the circuit. Compute

the corresponding ABCD parameters.

(b) Find the surge impedance and surge impedance loading.

(c) The line delivers 40 MW at 132 kV with a power factor of 0.95 lagging. Using the

ABCD parameters, compute the sending end voltage, current and angle. Confirm

using the nominal equivalent circuit, and the short line equivalent.

(d) Draw the approximate voltage profile of this line for the following power delivered: (i)

0 MW, 20 MW, 50 MW, and surge impedance loading. Indicate the methods

available to maintain the voltages within the range of 0.95 and 1.05.

−6

rl := 0.106 xl := 0.493 yl := 3.36⋅ 10 l := 400 Vl := 138000

X := ixl⋅ l X = 197.2i

Vl 4

−3 = 7.967 × 10

Y := iyl⋅ l Y = 1.344i × 10 3

X

Api := 1 + Y⋅ Api = 0.867

2

Bpi := X Bpi = 197.2i

Cpi := Y⋅ 1 + Y⋅

X

−3

4 Cpi = 1.255i × 10

Zc := xl Zc = 383.049 SIL :=

( Vl⋅ Vl)

SIL = 4.972 × 10

7

yl Zc

−3

β := xl⋅ yl β = 1.287 × 10

(c) Calculate sending end voltage and angle using ABCD, nominal pi, and short line

equivalent

Lossless ABCD

A := cos( β ⋅ l) A = 0.87

sin( β ⋅ l) −3

C := i⋅ C = 1.285i × 10

Zc

6 Prec

pf := 0.95 Prec := 40⋅ 10 Srated :=

pf

3

10

Vrl := 132 ⋅ 4

3 Vrl = 7.621 × 10

3 Vrl

Sending end voltage and angle,using ABCD, nominal pi, and short line

4 4 4

Vsl := A⋅ Vrl + B⋅ Ir Vsl = 5.549 × 10 + 3.3i × 10 Vsl = 6.456 × 10 a_deg( Vsl) = 30.739

4 4 4

Vsl := Api ⋅ Vrl + Bpi⋅ Ir Vsl = 5.477 × 10 + 3.45i × 10 Vsl = 6.473 × 10 a_deg( Vsl) = 32.207

4 4 4

Vsl := Vrl + X⋅ Ir Vsl = 6.487 × 10 + 3.45i × 10 Vsl = 7.347 × 10 a_deg( Vsl) = 28.006

Sending end current using ABCD, nominal pi, and short line

Isl := C⋅ Vrl + A⋅ Ir Isl = 152.277 + 148.013i Isl = 212.359 a_deg( Isl) = 44.186

Isl := Cpi⋅ Vrl + Api ⋅ Ir Isl = 151.77 + 145.524i Isl = 210.265 a_deg( Isl) = 43.796

(d) Approximate voltage profile for 0 MW, 20 MW, 50 MW, and SIL (49.7 MW)

It is possible to keep the receiving end voltage between 0.95 and 1.05 using shunt

compensation in the form of switched capacitors or inductors. Static compensators which

are more elegant can be used as well which provide for better adjustment of the reactive

power injected or consumed, and can respond much quicker. Examples include Static var

compensators (SVCs) and static shunt compensators (STATCOM).

QUESTION 5 (18 points)

A two-bus transmission system consists of the following: (i) a voltage regulated bus (1.0

pu), the swing bus; (ii) a load bus, with a load of power (0.3 + j1.0), and a fixed capacitor,

supplying a reactive power of (j1.1); (iii) a transmission line of impedance (j0.4).

(a) Draw the single line diagram. Assuming the load bus voltage magnitude is 1 pu,

compute the load angle . Compute the Ybus matrix.

(b) Formulate the Gauss Seidel solution. Indicate the unknowns. Compute the first

iteration.

(c) Formulate the Newton Raphson solution. Compute the first iteration.

(d) Comment on the features of the 2 methods described above. Indicate approaches to

accelerate the convergence to the solution. Indicate the changes required to the

formulation above if a voltage-controlled bus replaces the load bus.

(a) Draw the single line diagram, calculate load angle, δ assuming V2 = 1.0, calculate the

admittance matrix.

1

Use: P = V1V2/ X sin(δ1-δ2) P := 0.3 X := 0.4 y :=

X

δ 2⋅ = −6.892

π

P2 := −P

y −y

Ybus := −j ⋅ −2.5i 2.5i

−y y Ybus =

2.5i −2.5i

(b) Formulate the Gauss-Siedel problem: state the unknows and calculate the 1st iteration

The unknowns are the voltage and angle at bus 2. Once the solution has converged we are

able to obtain the unknown flows which are the real and reactive power at bus 1.

So, we calculate the first iteration assuming a flat voltage profile as our initial guess.

1 ( P2 − j ⋅ Q2)

V2 := ⋅ − Ybus ⋅ 1

Ybus 1 1 , 0 V2 = 1.047 a_deg( V2) = −6.582

1, 1

(c) Formulate the Newton-Raphson problem: state the unknows and calculate the 1st

iteration

In order to calculate the first iteration we need to determine the Jacobian, which will define

our search direction. The vector of unknows, x is given by the angle and magnitude of the

voltage at the load bus:

0 The unknown flows again are the real and reactive

Initial guess: x := power at bus 1. Which are calculated once the

1

voltage at the load bus has been determined.

V2 := x V1 := V2 P2 −0.3

1 ∆y := ∆y =

Q2 0.1

Calculate Jacobian:

1, 0 (

⋅ V1⋅ sin arg ( V2) − arg( V1) − arg Ybus ( 1, 0 ))

dP2dV2 := 2V2⋅ Ybus ( (

1, 1 )) + Ybus ⋅V1⋅cos(arg(V2) − arg(V1) − arg(Ybus ))

⋅ cos arg Ybus

1, 1 1, 0 1, 0

dQ2dδ2 := V2⋅ Ybus ⋅ V1⋅ cos( arg( V2) − arg ( V1) − arg( Ybus ) )

1, 0 1, 0

dQ2dV2 := −2 V2⋅ Ybus ⋅ sin( arg ( Ybus ) ) + Ybus ⋅ V1⋅ sin( arg ( V2) − arg( V1) − arg ( Ybus ) )

1, 1 1, 1 1, 0 1, 0

dP2dδ2 dP2dV2

J := 2.5 0

dQ2dδ2 dQ2dV2 J=

0 2.5

−1 −0.12

Calculate the new voltage: ∆x := J ⋅ ∆y ∆x = x := x + ∆x

0.04

−0.12 180

x= x ⋅

0 π

= −6.875

1.04

(d) Comments

Newton Raphson is more well suited to solve the load flow equations since it is more often

used to solve non-linear equations while Gauss-Siedel is more well suited for solving linear

equations. Methods to improve speed of convergence are to use fast-decoupled load flow

where the Jacobian is only calculated once, and only inverted once as well. Sparse matrices

methods are also implemented for larger systems. If bus 2 becomes a PV bus, the

formulation is changed slightly in that x becomes the angle δ2 and whereas y becomes the

known flow P2. In Gauss-Siedel we iterate w.r.t Q 2 and not V 2

QUESTION 6 (18 points)

A three-phase power system is fed from the secondary of a -Y connected transformer, with

a neutral grounded through an impedance of j 1 pu. The transformer series impedance is

j0.15 pu. The transmission line impedance is j 0.2 pu, with no zero sequence component.

The sending end voltage is assumed to be 1 pu. The load is a Y-connected impedance of 1

pu (resistive).

(a) Draw the sequence component networks, indicating all the impedance values, and

voltage sources.

(b) A three-phase symmetrical short circuit occurs at the load end, with a 0.1 pu

impedance. Give the sequence impedance matrix for the fault current. Draw the

sequence networks corresponding to the fault. Compute the sequence components of

the fault currents. Convert into phase quantities.

(c) A single line-to-ground fault occurs on phase a with an impedance of 0.1 pu.

Calculate the sequence components of the fault current. Draw the sequence

networks corresponding to the fault. Compute the value of the sequence components

of the fault currents. Convert into phase quantities.

(d) For the symmetrical three-phase fault and the single line-to-ground fault, compute the

symmetrical components of the voltage at the fault, and convert to abc values. Draw

conclusions as to the severity and impact of those two types of faults on the voltages

at the load.

(a) Draw the sequence component networks (Note: grounding impedance should be

3Zn)

(b) Three phase Symmetrical Short Circuit

−

Zo := 1 +

1

j ⋅ 1.15

Zo = 0.569 + 0.495i

−

Z1 := 1 +

1

j ⋅ 0.35

Z1 = 0.109 + 0.312i

1

E1 :=

1 + j ⋅ 0.35

E1 = 0.891 − 0.312i

E1 = 0.944

a_deg( E1 ) = −19.29

Zf := 0.1

Z2 := Z1

3

a := −0.5 + j ⋅

2

E1

I1 := I2 := 0 Io := 0

Z1 + Zf

1 1 1

2

Aseq := 1 a a

I1 = 2.514 a_deg( I1) = −75.44

2

1 a a

2.514 −75.44

Iph := Aseq⋅ I1 Iph = 2.514 a_deg( Iph ) = 164.56

1 1

I

2 Iph2 2.514 a_deg( Iph2) 44.56

(c) Single Line to Ground Fault

E1

I1 :=

( Z1 + Z2 + Zo + 3 ⋅ Zf ) I2 := I1 Io := I1

Io Iph0

1.815

Iph := Aseq⋅ I1 Iph = 0

I

2

1

Iph

0

( ) = −65.097

a_deg Iph

0

2

V2 := 0 Vo := 0 Zf

V1 := E1 ⋅ V1 = 0.063 − 0.243i V1 = 0.251

Zf + Z1

a_deg( V1) = −75.44

Vo Vph0

0.251

Vph := Aseq⋅ V1 Vph = 0.251

V

2

Vph

1

0.251

(

a_deg Vph

0 ) = −75.44

2

Vo := Io⋅ Zf V1 := Vo V2 := V1

Vo = 0.06 a_deg( Vo) = −65.097

Vo Vph0

0.181

Vph := Aseq⋅ V1 Vph = 0

V

2

Vph

1

0

(

a_deg Vph

0 ) = −65.097

2

QUESTION 7 (18 points)

A three-phase. 60 Hz, round rotor hydroelectric generator has an H constant of 5 s. It

delivers Pm = 1.0 pu power at a power factor of 0.90 lagging to an infinite bus through a

transmission line of reactance X = 0.6. The voltage at the infinite bus is 1.0 pu with an

angle of 0 deg. The machine transient reactance X'd = 0.3 pu.

(a) Compute the transient machine internal voltage and angle . Give the corresponding

equation for the electric power.

(b) Write the pu swing equation. A three-phase bolted short occurs midway along the

transmission line. Determine the power angle 4 cycles after the initiation of the short

circuit. Assume the mechanical input power remains constant at the initial value.

(c) Draw the P- curve for the above operating conditions. Indicate the initial conditions,

and the fault clearing point. Explain the application of the equal area criterion to this

case.

(d) Discuss methods to ensure that the machine does not loose synchronism (breaker

operation, series compensation, …)

X := 0.6 Xd := 0.3 pf := 0.9 H := 5 P := 1

P

I := ⋅ ( pf − j ⋅ sin( acos( pf ) ) ) I = 1.111 a_deg( I) = −25.842

pf

( 2H) 2

d

ω pu( t) ⋅ δ ( t) = pm,pu(t) -p e,pu (t) ωsyn := 2 ⋅ π ⋅ 60

ωsyn 2

dt

δ := arg( E)

ωsyn 2

δ ( t) = ⋅t + δ

4H

2

⋅

+δ

ωsyn 4 180

δ new := δ new = 0.644 δ new⋅ = 36.879

4H 60 π

(c) Draw the P-δ curve for the fault operation

1 E

p m( δ ) = E ⋅ ⋅ sin( δ ) = 1.18⋅ sin( δ ) = 1.883

( X + Xd) ( X + Xd)

δ1 δ1

⌠ ⌠

A1 := p m dδ 1.0 dδ = δ new − δ = 0.084

⌡δ ⌡δ

0 0

δ2

⌠

A2 := (1.18sinδ − pm) dδ ( ( ) ( )) − (δ2 − δ1) =

1.18 cos δ 1 − cos δ 2 A1 := 0.168

⌡δ

( )

1

1.18 cos δ 2 + δ 2 = 1.46

180

δ 2 := 2.13 δ 2⋅ = 122.04

π

We calculate A1 using the swing equation and the fault duration to determine the angle at which

the fault is cleared, δ1 . The machine continues to accelerate until A2 = A1. We can determine

whether the machine retains stability determining whether there in fact does exist and angle δ2 for

which A2 does in fact equal A1. Following the above calculations we see that this is true for

approximately 122 degrees, and therefore stability is maintained.

(d) Discuss methods to maintain stability

There exist various methods to help maintain stability. Many of the most common are listed

here:

•

• Smaller equivalent line impedance (parallel lines, different conductors, smaller transformer

leakage reactances, series compensation...)

• Higher voltages

• FACTS devices

• Faster clearing of faults

• Larger machine inertia

Define function

2 2

mag( x ) := ( Re( x ) ) + ( Im( x ) )

180

a_deg( x ) := arg ( x ) ⋅

π

n

1

1

r

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