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GCE Examinations

Mechanics

Module M1

Advanced Subsidiary / Advanced Level

Paper A

Time: 1 hour 30 minutes

Candidates may use any calculator except those with a facility for symbolic

algebra and / or calculus.

Full marks may be obtained for answers to ALL questions.

Mathematical and statistical formulae and tables are available.

This paper has 7 questions.

When a numerical value of g is required, use g = 9.8 m s-2.

Advice to Candidates

You must show sufficient working to make your methods clear to an examiner.

Answers without working will gain no credit.

Solomon Press

These sheets may be copied for use solely by the purchaser’s institute.

PMT

1. Two particles, P and Q, of mass 2 kg and 1.5 kg respectively are at rest on a smooth,

horizontal surface. They are connected by a light, inelastic string which is initially slack.

Particle P is projected away from Q with a speed of 7 m s-1.

(a) Find the common speed of the particles after the string becomes taut. (3 marks)

(b) Calculate the impulse in the string when it jerks tight. (2 marks)

2. Particle A has velocity (8i – 3j) m s-1 and particle B has velocity (15i – 8j) m s-1 where i and j

are perpendicular, horizontal unit vectors.

(c) Find the acute angle between the relative velocity found in part (b) and the vector i,

giving your answer in degrees correct to 1 decimal place.

(2 marks)

3.

A B

2m 4m 2m

Fig. 1

horizontal position by two pivots, one situated at A and the other 2 m from B. A man whose

mass is 80 kg is standing on the plank 2 m from A when his dog steps onto the plank at B.

Given that the plank remains in equilibrium and that the magnitude of the forces exerted by

each of the pivots on the plank are equal,

(a) calculate the magnitude of the force exerted on the plank by the pivot at A, (5 marks)

If the dog was heavier and the plank was on the point of tilting,

(c) explain how the force exerted on the plank by each of the pivots would be changed.

(2 marks)

Solomon Press

M1A page 2

PMT

4. A cyclist and her bicycle have a combined mass of 78 kg. While riding on level ground and

using her greatest driving force, she is able to accelerate uniformly from rest to 10 m s-1 in

15 seconds against constant resistive forces that total 60 N.

The cyclist begins to ascend a hill, inclined at an angle α to the horizontal, riding with her

maximum driving force and against the same resistive forces. In this case, she is able to

maintain a steady speed.

(b) Find the angle α, giving your answer to the nearest degree. (4 marks)

(c) Comment on the assumption that the resistive force remains constant

5.

200 N

40°

Fig. 2

Figure 2 shows a large block of mass 50 kg being pulled on rough horizontal ground by

means of a rope attached to the block. The tension in the rope is 200 N and it makes an angle

of 40° with the horizontal. Under these conditions, the block is on the point of moving.

(a) show that the coefficient of friction between the block and the ground is 0.424 correct to

3 significant figures.

(6 marks)

The angle with the horizontal at which the rope is being pulled is reduced to 30°. Ignoring air

resistance and assuming that the tension in the rope and the coefficient of friction remain

unchanged,

Turn over

Solomon Press

M1A page 3

PMT

6. Anila is practising catching tennis balls. She uses a mobile computer-controlled machine

which fires tennis balls vertically upwards from a height of 2.5 metres above the ground.

Once it has fired a ball, the machine is programmed to move position rapidly to allow Anila

time to get into a suitable position to catch the ball.

The machine fires a ball at 24 m s-1 vertically upwards and Anila catches the ball just before it

touches the ground.

(a) Draw a speed-time graph for the motion of the ball from the time it is fired by the

machine to the instant before Anila catches it.

(3 marks)

(b) Find, to the nearest centimetre, the maximum height which the ball reaches above the

ground.

(4 marks)

(c) Calculate the speed at which the ball is travelling when Anila catches it. (4 marks)

(d) Calculate the length of time that the ball is in the air. (3 marks)

Solomon Press

M1A page 4

PMT

7.

C Y

A 30° 60° B

4 metres

Fig. 3

Figure 3 shows a particle X of mass 3 kg on a smooth plane inclined at an angle 30° to the

horizontal, and a particle Y of mass 2 kg on a smooth plane inclined at an angle 60° to the

horizontal. The two particles are connected by a light, inextensible string of length 2.5 metres

passing over a smooth pulley at C which is the highest point of the two planes.

Initially, Y is at a point just below C touching the pulley with the string taut. When the

particles are released from rest they travel along the lines of greatest slope, AC in the case of

X and BC in the case of Y, of their respective planes. A and B are the points where the planes

meet the horizontal ground and AB = 4 metres.

g

10

( )

2 3 − 3 m s-2.

(7 marks)

(b) By finding the tension in the string, or otherwise, find the magnitude of the force

exerted on the pulley and the angle that this force makes with the vertical.

(7 marks)

(c) Find, correct to 2 decimal places, the speed with which Y hits the ground. (4 marks)

END

Solomon Press

M1A page 5

PMT

GCE Examinations

Mechanics

Module M1

Advanced Subsidiary / Advanced Level

Paper B

Time: 1 hour 30 minutes

Candidates may use any calculator except those with a facility for symbolic

algebra and / or calculus.

Full marks may be obtained for answers to ALL questions.

Mathematical and statistical formulae and tables are available.

This paper has 7 questions.

When a numerical value of g is required, use g = 9.8 m s-2 .

Advice to Candidates

You must show sufficient working to make your methods clear to an examiner.

Answers without working will gain no credit.

Solomon Press

These sheets may be copied for use solely by the purchaser’s institute.

PMT

1. A constant force, F, acts on a particle, P, of mass 5 kg causing its velocity to change from

( – 2i + j) m s-1 to (4i – 7j) m s-1 in 2 seconds.

(b) Show that the magnitude of F is 25 N and find, to the nearest degree, the acute angle

between the line of action of F and the vector j.

(5 marks)

2. A particle A of mass 3m is moving along a straight line with constant speed u m s-1. It collides

with a particle B of mass 2m moving at the same speed but in the opposite direction. As a

result of the collision, A is brought to rest.

(a) Show that, after the collision, B has changed its direction of motion and that its speed

has been halved.

(4 marks)

3.

P B A Q

Fig. 1

Figure 1 shows two window cleaners, Alan and Baber, of mass 60 kg and 100 kg respectively

standing on a platform PQ of length 3 metres and mass 20 kg. The platform is suspended by

two vertical cables attached to the ends P and Q. Alan is standing at the point A, 1.25 metres

from P, Baber is standing at the point B and the tension in the cable at P is twice the tension

in the cable at Q.

Modelling the platform as a uniform rod and Alan and Baber as particles,

(c) State how you have used the modelling assumptions that

Solomon Press

M1B page 2

PMT

4. A sports car is being driven along a straight test track. It passes the point O at time t = 0 at

which time it begins to decelerate uniformly. The car passes the points L and M at times t = 1

and t = 4 respectively.

5. P

30°

Fig. 2

A particle P, of mass 2 kg, lies on a rough plane inclined at an angle of 30° to the horizontal.

A force H, whose line of action is parallel to the line of greatest slope of the plane, is applied

to the particle as shown in Figure 2. The coefficient of friction between the particle and the

plane is 1 .

3

(a) draw a diagram showing all the forces acting on the particle, (2 marks)

(b) show that the ratio of the magnitude of the frictional force to the magnitude of H is

equal to 1 : 2

(7 marks)

The force H is now removed but P remains at rest.

(c) Use the principle of friction to explain how this is possible. (2 marks)

Turn over

Solomon Press

M1B page 3

PMT

6. A car of mass 1.25 tonnes tows a caravan of mass 0.75 tonnes along a straight, level road.

The total resistance to motion experienced by the car and the caravan is 1200 N. The car and

caravan accelerate uniformly from rest to 25 m s-1 in 20 seconds.

(a) Calculate the driving force produced by the car’s engine. (4 marks)

Given that the resistance to motion experienced by the car and by the caravan are in the same

ratio as their masses,

(b) find these resistances and the tension in the towbar. (4 marks)

When the car and caravan are travelling at a steady speed of 25 m s-1, the towbar snaps.

Assuming that the caravan experiences the same resistive force as before,

(c) calculate the distance travelled by the caravan before it comes to rest, (5 marks)

(d) give a reason why your answer to (c) may be unrealistic. (2 marks)

7. Two ramblers, Alison and Bill, are out walking. At midday, Alison is at the fixed origin O,

and Bill is at the point with position vector ( – 5i + 12j) km relative to O, where i and j are

perpendicular, horizontal unit vectors.

They are both walking with constant velocity – Alison at (2i + 5j) km h-1, and Bill at a speed

of 2√10 km h-1 in a direction parallel to the vector (3i + j).

(a) Find the distance between the two ramblers at midday. (2 marks)

(b) Show that the velocity of Bill is (6i + 2j) km h-1. (3 marks)

(c) Show that, at time t hours after midday, the position vector of Bill relative to Alison is

(d) Show that the distance, d km, between the two ramblers is given by

(e) Using your answer to part (d), find the length of time to the nearest minute for which

the distance between the Alison and Bill is less than 11 km.

(5 marks)

END

Solomon Press

M1B page 4

PMT

GCE Examinations

Mechanics

Module M1

Advanced Subsidiary / Advanced Level

Paper C

Time: 1 hour 30 minutes

Candidates may use any calculator except those with a facility for symbolic

algebra and / or calculus.

Full marks may be obtained for answers to ALL questions.

Mathematical and statistical formulae and tables are available.

This paper has 7 questions.

When a numerical value of g is required, use g = 9.8 m s-2.

Advice to Candidates

You must show sufficient working to make your methods clear to an examiner.

Answers without working will gain no credit.

Solomon Press

These sheets may be copied for use solely by the purchaser’s institute.

PMT

1.

distance

(km) d

3

4 d

O 3 4 6 time (hours)

Fig. 1

Figure 1 shows a distance-time graph for a car journey from Birmingham to Newquay which

included a stop for lunch at a service station near Exeter. During the first part of the journey

three-quarters of the total distance, d, was covered in 3 hours. After a 1 hour stop, the

remaining distance was completed in 2 hours.

(a) Calculate, in the form k : 1, the ratio of the average speed during the first 3 hours of the

journey to the average speed during the last 2 hours of the journey.

(4 marks)

Given that the average speed of the car over the whole journey (excluding the stop) was

80 km h-1,

(b) find the average speed of the car on the first part of the journey. (4 marks)

2.

35° 40°

Fig. 2

Figure 2 shows a washing line suspended at either end by vertical rigid poles. A jacket of

mass 0.7 kg is suspended in equilibrium part of the way along the line. The sections of the

washing line on either side of the jacket make angles of 35° and 40° with the horizontal.

(a) Find the tension in the washing line on each side of the jacket. (7 marks)

(b) Explain why, in practice, the angles are likely to be very similar in value. (1 mark)

Solomon Press

M1C page 2

PMT

3. In a simple model for the motion of a car, its velocity, v, at time t seconds, is given by

(b) Find the values of t for which the velocity of the car is parallel to the vector (i + j).

(5 marks)

(c) Why would this model not be appropriate for large values of t ? (1 mark)

4. The force F1 = (5i + 2j) N acts at the point A on a lamina where the position vector of A,

relative to a fixed origin O, is (3i – 2j) m.

(a) Calculate the magnitude and the sense of the moment of the force about O. (4 marks)

Another force F2 = (pi + qj), acts at the point B with position vector ( – i + 4j) m so that the

resultant moment of the two forces, F1 and F2, about O is zero.

5. A car and a motorbike are at rest adjacent to one another at a set of traffic lights on a long,

straight stretch of road. They set off simultaneously at time t = 0. The motorcyclist accelerates

uniformly at 6 m s-2 until he reaches a speed of 30 m s-1 which he then maintains. The car

driver accelerates uniformly for 9 seconds until she reaches 36 m s-1 and then remains at this

speed.

(b) Draw on the same diagram speed-time graphs to illustrate the movements of both

vehicles.

(4 marks)

(c) Find the value of t when the car again draws level with the motorcyclist. (7 marks)

Turn over

Solomon Press

M1C page 3

PMT

6. Corinne and her brother Dermot are lifted by their parents onto the two ends of a rope which

is slung over a large, horizontal branch. When their parents let go of them Dermot, whose

mass is 54 kg, begins to descend with an acceleration of 1 m s-2.

By modelling the children as a pair of particles connected by a light inextensible string, and

the branch as a smooth pulley,

(d) Explain what effect this would have on the initial acceleration of the children.

(1 mark)

7. Two particles A and B, of mass 3M kg and 2M kg respectively, are moving towards each other

on a rough horizontal track. Just before they collide, A has speed 3 m s-1 and B has speed

5 m s-1. Immediately after the impact, the direction of motion of both particles has been

reversed and they are both travelling at the same speed, v.

Given that the coefficient of friction between A and the track is 0.1,

(c) find the time taken from the moment of impact until A comes to rest. (7 marks)

END

Solomon Press

M1C page 4

PMT

GCE Examinations

Mechanics

Module M1

Advanced Subsidiary / Advanced Level

Paper D

Time: 1 hour 30 minutes

Candidates may use any calculator except those with a facility for symbolic

algebra and / or calculus.

Full marks may be obtained for answers to ALL questions.

Mathematical and statistical formulae and tables are available.

This paper has 8 questions.

When a numerical value of g is required, use g = 9.8 m s-2.

You must show sufficient working to make your methods clear to an examiner.

Answers without working will gain no credit.

Solomon Press

These sheets may be copied for use solely by the purchaser’s institute.

PMT

1. A particle, P, of mass 5 kg moves with speed 3 m s-1 along a smooth horizontal track.

It strikes a particle Q of mass 2 kg which is at rest on the track. Immediately after the

collision, P and Q move in the same direction with speeds v and 2v m s-1 respectively.

2. A particle P moves with a constant velocity (3i + 2j) m s-1 with respect to a fixed origin O. It

passes through the point A whose position vector is (2i + 11j) m at t = 0.

(a) Find the angle in degrees that the velocity vector of P makes with the vector i.

(2 marks)

3. A car of mass 1250 kg is moving at constant speed up a hill, inclined at an angle α to the

horizontal, where sin α = 101 . The driving force produced by the engine is 1800 N.

(a) Calculate the resistance to motion which the car experiences. (4 marks)

horizontal. When a woman of mass 60 kg stands on the plank at a distance of 2 m from B, the

magnitude of the reaction at A is 35g N.

(b) Calculate the magnitude of the reaction at B, giving your answer in terms of g.

(2 marks)

(c) Explain briefly, in the context of the problem, the term ‘non-uniform’. (2 marks)

(d) Find the distance of the centre of mass of the plank from A. (4 marks)

Solomon Press

M1D page 2

PMT

5.

20 m xm

A O B

Fig. 1

The points A, O and B lie on a straight horizontal track as shown in Figure 1. A is 20 m from

O and B is on the other side of O at a distance x m from O.

At time t = 0, a particle P starts from rest at O and moves towards B with uniform acceleration

of 3 m s-2. At the same instant, another particle Q, which is at the point A, is moving with a

velocity of 3 m s-1 in the direction of O with uniform acceleration of 4 m s-2 in the same

direction.

Given that the Q collides with P at B, find the value of x. (10 marks)

6. A sledge of mass 4 kg rests in limiting equilibrium on a rough slope inclined at an angle 10°

to the horizontal. By modelling the sledge as a particle,

(a) show that the coefficient of friction, µ , between the sledge and the ground is 0.176

correct to 3 significant figures.

(6 marks)

The sledge is placed on a steeper part of the slope which is inclined at an angle 30° to the

horizontal. The value of µ remains unchanged.

(b) Find the minimum extra force required along the line of greatest slope to prevent the

sledge from slipping down the hill.

(5 marks)

Turn over

Solomon Press

M1D page 3

PMT

7. Whilst looking over the edge of a vertical cliff, 122.5 metres in height, Jim dislodges a stone.

The stone falls freely from rest towards the sea below.

(a) calculate the time it would take for the stone to reach the sea, (3 marks)

(b) find the speed with which the stone would hit the water. (2 marks)

Two seconds after the stone begins to fall, Jim throws a tennis ball downwards at the stone.

The tennis ball’s initial speed is u m s-1 and it hits the stone before they both reach the water.

(d) If you had taken air resistance into account in your calculations, what effect would this

have had on your answer to part (c)? Explain your answer.

(2 marks)

8.

2m

P Q

1.5 m

Fig. 2

Figure 2 shows two particles P and Q, of mass 3 kg and 2 kg respectively, attached to the ends

of a light, inextensible string which passes over a smooth, fixed pulley. The system is released

from rest with P and Q at the same level 1.5 metres above the ground and 2 metres below the

pulley.

g

(a) Show that the initial acceleration of the system is m s-2. (4 marks)

5

(b) Find the tension in the string. (2 marks)

(c) Find the speed with which P hits the ground. (3 marks)

END

Solomon Press

M1D page 4

PMT

GCE Examinations

Mechanics

Module M1

Advanced Subsidiary / Advanced Level

Paper E

Time: 1 hour 30 minutes

Candidates may use any calculator except those with a facility for symbolic

algebra and / or calculus.

Full marks may be obtained for answers to ALL questions.

Mathematical and statistical formulae and tables are available.

This paper has 8 questions.

When a numerical value of g is required, use g = 9.8 m s-2.

You must show sufficient working to make your methods clear to an examiner.

Answers without working will gain no credit.

Solomon Press

These sheets may be copied for use solely by the purchaser’s institute.

PMT

1. Three forces ( – 5i + 4pj) N, (2qi + 3j) N and (i + j) N act on a particle A of mass 2 kg.

It maintains this speed for 84 seconds, until it decelerates uniformly to rest at station B.

The total journey time is 116 seconds and the magnitudes of the acceleration and deceleration

are equal.

(a) Find the time it takes the train to accelerate from rest to 24 m s-1. (2 marks)

(c) Using your graph, or otherwise, find the distance between the two stations. (3 marks)

3. Y

18 N X

N

30° 45°

45°

P 6N

20 N

Fig. 1

Figure 1 shows the forces acting on a particle, P. These consist of a 20 N force to the South, a

6 N force to the East, an 18 N force 30° West of North and two unknown forces X and Y

which act to the North-East and North respectively.

Solomon Press

M1E page 2

PMT

4. A 5m B

2m

Fig. 2

Figure 2 shows a uniform plank AB of mass 50 kg and length 5 m which overhangs a river by

2 m. When a boy of mass 20 kg stands at A, his sister can walk to within 0.3 m of B, at which

point the plank is in limiting equilibrium.

(b) Find the smallest extra weight which must be placed at A to enable the girl to walk right

to the end B.

(3 marks)

(c) How have you used the fact that the plank is uniform? (1 mark)

5. A cricket ball of mass 0.3 kg is approaching a batsman at – 30i m s-1. The batsman hits the

ball with a 1.5 kg bat moving with velocity 15i m s-1. Contact between bat and ball lasts for

0.2 seconds. Immediately after this, bat and ball move with velocities 5i m s-1 and vi m s-1

respectively.

(c) Find the magnitude of the force with which the batsman hits the ball. (3 marks)

6. A boy kicks a football vertically upwards from a height of 0.6 m above the ground with a

speed of 10.5 m s-1. The ball is modelled as a particle and air resistance is ignored.

(a) Find the greatest height above the ground reached by the ball. (4 marks)

(b) Calculate the length of time for which the ball is more than 2 m above the ground.

(6 marks)

Turn over

Solomon Press

M1E page 3

PMT

7. A particle has an initial velocity of (i – 5j) m s-1 and is accelerating uniformly in the direction

(2i + j) where i and j are perpendicular unit vectors.

(a) show that, after t seconds, the velocity vector of the particle is

(b) Using your answer to part (a), or otherwise, find the value of t for which the speed of

the particle is at its minimum.

(5 marks)

8. A P

3m

1m

1m

Fig. 3

Figure 3 shows two particles A and B, of mass 5M and 3M respectively, attached to the ends

of a light inextensible string of length 4 m. The string passes over a smooth pulley which is

fixed to the edge of a rough horizontal table 2 m high. Particle A lies on the table at a distance

of 3 m from the pulley, whilst particle B hangs freely over the edge of the table 1 m above the

3

ground. The coefficient of friction between A and the table is 20 .

9

(a) Show that the initial acceleration of the system is 32 g m s-2. (8 marks)

(b) Find, in terms of g, the speed of A immediately before B hits the ground. (4 marks)

When B hits the ground, it comes to rest and the string becomes slack.

(c) Calculate how far particle A is from the pulley when it comes to rest. (7 marks)

END

Solomon Press

M1E page 4

PMT

GCE Examinations

Mechanics

Module M1

Advanced Subsidiary / Advanced Level

Paper F

Time: 1 hour 30 minutes

Candidates may use any calculator except those with a facility for symbolic

algebra and / or calculus.

Full marks may be obtained for answers to ALL questions.

Mathematical and statistical formulae and tables are available.

This paper has 7 questions.

When a numerical value of g is required, use g = 9.8 m s-2.

You must show sufficient working to make your methods clear to an examiner.

Answers without working will gain no credit.

Solomon Press

These sheets may be copied for use solely by the purchaser’s institute.

PMT

1.

F P

15°

Fig. 1

Figure 1 shows a particle P of mass 4 kg on a smooth plane inclined at 15° to the horizontal.

P is held in equilibrium by a horizontal force, F.

(a) Show that the normal reaction exerted by the plane on P is 40.6 N correct to

3 significant figures. (4 marks)

2. During trials of a bullet-proof vest, a shotgun of mass 2 kg is used to fire a bullet of mass 30 g

horizontally at the vest. The initial speed of the bullet is 100 m s-1.

The bullet hits the vest horizontally at a speed of 80 m s-1 and is brought uniformly to rest in a

distance of 2 cm.

(b) Find the magnitude of the force exerted by the vest on the bullet in bringing it to rest.

(4 marks)

3. 2N

D C

4N 3N

A B

5N

Fig. 2

Figure 2 shows 4 points A, B, C and D arranged such that they form the corners of a square of

side 2 m. Forces of 5 N, 3 N, 2 N and 4 N act in the directions AB , BC , DC and DA

respectively.

(a) Calculate the magnitude and sense of the resultant moment about A. (3 marks)

moment of all the forces about D is now zero.

Solomon Press

M1F page 2

PMT

4. A lift of mass 70 kg is supported by a cable which remains taut at all times. A man of mass

90 kg gets into the lift and it begins to descend vertically from rest with constant acceleration

0.5 m s-2.

(a) the magnitude of the force which the lift exerts on the man, (3 marks)

Prior to slowing down, the lift is moving at 2 m s-1. It then uniformly decelerates until it is

brought to rest.

(c) Find the impulse exerted by the cable on the lift in bringing the lift to rest. (2 marks)

(d) Given that it takes 2 seconds to come to rest, use your answer to part (c) to calculate the

magnitude of the force exerted by the cable on the lift in bringing the lift to rest.

(2 marks)

5. The unit vectors i and j are due east and due north respectively.

At midday a motor boat A is 6 km east of a fixed origin O and is moving with constant

velocity ( – 4i + j) km h-1. At the same time, another boat B is 3 km north of O and is moving

with uniform velocity (4i – 3j) km h-1.

(a) Show that, at time T hours after midday, the position vector of A is [(6 – 4T)i + Tj] km

and find a similar expression for the position vector of B at this time.

(6 marks)

(c) By using your answer to part (b), or otherwise, show that the boats would collide if they

continued at the same velocities and find the time at which the collision would occur.

(3 marks)

Turn over

Solomon Press

M1F page 3

PMT

6. A student attempts to sketch the acceleration-time graph of a parachutist who jumps from a

plane at a height of 2200 m above the ground.

The student assumes that the parachutist falls freely from rest under gravity until she is 240 m

from the ground at which point she opens her parachute. The student makes the assumption

that, at this point, the velocity of the parachutist is immediately reduced to a value which

remains constant until she reaches the ground 140 seconds after she left the plane.

acceleration

(m s-2) g

Fig. 3

The student decides to ignore air resistance and his sketch is shown in Figure 3. The value t1

is used by the student to denote the time at which the parachute is opened.

(a) the speed of the parachutist immediately before she opens her parachute, (4 marks)

(c) the speed of the parachutist after the parachute is opened. (2 marks)

(d) Comment on two features of the student’s model which are unrealistic and say what

effect taking account of these would have had on the values which you calculated in

parts (a) and (b).

(4 marks)

Solomon Press

M1F page 4

PMT

7. A machine fires ball-bearings up the line of greatest slope of a rough plane inclined at an

angle α to the horizontal, where sin α =

3

5 .

1

The coefficient of friction between the ball-bearings and the plane is 4 .

(a) Show that the magnitude of the acceleration of the ball-bearings is 54 g and state its

direction.

(8 marks)

Given that the machine is placed at a point A, 30 m from the top edge of the plane, and the

ball-bearings are projected with an initial speed of 20 m s-1,

(b) find, giving your answer to the nearest cm, how close the ball-bearings get to the top

edge of the plane.

(4 marks)

(c) How long does it take for a ball-bearing to travel from the highest point it reaches back

down to the point A again?

(7 marks)

END

Solomon Press

M1F page 5

PMT

GCE Examinations

Mechanics

Module M1

Advanced Subsidiary / Advanced Level

Paper G

Time: 1 hour 30 minutes

Candidates may use any calculator except those with a facility for symbolic

algebra and / or calculus.

Full marks may be obtained for answers to ALL questions.

Mathematical and statistical formulae and tables are available.

This paper has 7 questions.

When a numerical value of g is required, use g = 9.8 m s-2.

You must show sufficient working to make your methods clear to an examiner.

Answers without working will gain no credit.

Solomon Press

These sheets may be copied for use solely by the purchaser’s institute.

PMT

1.

2m 4m

A B

Fig. 1

position on a single support 2 m from A. The beam is supported at B by a vertical string.

Given that the magnitude of the tension in the string is 1.5 times the magnitude of the reaction

at the support, find the distance of the centre of mass of the beam from A.

(6 marks)

2. A ball of mass 2 kg moves on a smooth horizontal surface under the action of a constant

force, F. The initial velocity of the ball is (2i – 3j) m s-1 and 4 seconds later it has velocity

(10i + 9j) m s-1 where i and j are perpendicular, horizontal unit vectors.

(a) Making reference to the mass of the ball and the force it experiences, explain why it is

reasonable to assume that the acceleration is constant.

(2 marks)

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3. P

10°

Fig. 2

Figure 2 shows a ball of mass 3 kg lying on a smooth plane inclined at an angle α to the

horizontal where sin α = 35 . The ball is held in equilibrium by a force of magnitude

P newtons, which acts at an angle of 10° to the line of greatest slope of the plane.

(c) find the magnitude of the reaction between the ball and the plane. (4 marks)

4. A bullet of mass 50 g is fired horizontally at a wooden block of mass 4.95 kg which is lying at

rest on a rough horizontal surface. The bullet enters the block at 400 m s-1 and becomes

embedded in the block.

(a) Find the speed with which the block begins to move. (3 marks)

2

(b) show that the coefficient of friction is g . (6 marks)

5. Two dogs, Fido and Growler, are playing in a field. Fido is moving in a straight line so that at

time t his position vector relative to a fixed origin, O, is given by [(2t – 3)i + tj] metres.

Growler is stationary at the point with position vector (2i + 5j) metres, where i and j are

horizontal perpendicular unit vectors.

(a) Find the displacement vector of Fido from Growler in terms of t. (2 marks)

(b) Find the value of t for which the two dogs are closest. (6 marks)

(c) Find the minimum distance between the two dogs. (3 marks)

Turn over

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6. A particle moving in a straight line with speed 5U m s-1 undergoes a uniform deceleration for

6 seconds which reduces its speed to 2U m s-1. It maintains this speed for 16 seconds before

uniformly decelerating to rest in a further 2 seconds.

Given that the total distance travelled by the particle during this period of motion is 220 m,

7. A car of mass 1200 kg tows a trailer of mass 800 kg along a straight level road by means of a

rigid towbar. The resistances to the motion of the car and the trailer are proportional to their

masses.

(a) find the resistance to motion which the trailer experiences. (2 marks)

Given that the engine of the car exerts a driving force of 3 kN,

When the system has reached a speed of 24 m s-1, it continues at constant speed until an

electrical fault causes the engine of the car to switch off. The brakes are used to apply a

constant retarding force until the system comes to rest.

Given that the retarding force of the brakes has magnitude 1 kN and assuming that the

original resistances to motion of the car and the trailer remain constant,

(d) calculate the distance that the system travels during the braking period, (5 marks)

(e) find the magnitude and direction of the force exerted by the towbar on the car.

(4 marks)

(f) Comment on the assumption that the original resistances to motion of the car and the

trailer remain constant throughout the motion.

(2 marks)

END

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GCE Examinations

Mechanics

Module M1

Advanced Subsidiary / Advanced Level

Paper H

Time: 1 hour 30 minutes

Candidates may use any calculator except those with a facility for symbolic

algebra and / or calculus.

Full marks may be obtained for answers to ALL questions.

Mathematical and statistical formulae and tables are available.

This paper has 7 questions.

When a numerical value of g is required, use g = 9.8 m s-2.

You must show sufficient working to make your methods clear to an examiner.

Answers without working will gain no credit.

Solomon Press

These sheets may be copied for use solely by the purchaser’s institute.

PMT

1.

P

30°

Fig. 1

Figure 1 shows a light, inextensible string fixed at one end to a point P. The other end is

attached to a small object of weight 10 N. The object is subjected to a horizontal force H so

that the string makes an angle of 30° with the vertical.

(b) Show that the ratio of the magnitude of the tension to the magnitude of H is 2 : 1.

(3 marks)

2. A particle of mass 8 kg moves in a horizontal plane and is acted upon by three forces

F1 = (5i – 3j) N, F2 = (3i + 2j) N and F3 = (4i – 5j) N, where i and j are perpendicular

horizontal unit vectors.

(a) Find the magnitude, in newtons, of the resultant force which acts on the particle, giving

your answer in the form k √5.

(4 marks)

(b) Calculate, giving your answer in degrees correct to 1 decimal place, the angle the

acceleration of the particle makes with the vector i .

(4 marks)

(b) Find, in seconds correct to 2 decimal places, the length of time it takes for the lorry to

cover the first half of this distance.

(6 marks)

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4. In this question, i and j are perpendicular horizontal unit vectors and O is a fixed origin.

Given that the velocity of the pedestrian is parallel to the vector (i – j),

(a) Show that one possible value of q is – 1 and find the other possible value of q.

(4 marks)

Given that q = – 1, and that the pedestrian started walking at the point with position

vector (6i − j) m,

(b) find the length of time for which the pedestrian is less than 5 m from O. (6 marks)

5. A sledgehammer of mass 12 kg is being used to drive a wooden post of mass 4 kg into the

ground. A labourer moves the sledgehammer from rest at a point 0.5 m vertically above the

post with constant acceleration 16 m s-2 directed towards the post.

(a) Find the velocity with which the sledgehammer hits the post. (3 marks)

When the sledgehammer hits the post, they both move together with common speed, V.

As the sledgehammer hits the post, the labourer relaxes his grip and applies no further force.

The sledgehammer and post are brought to rest by the action of a resistive force from the

ground of magnitude 1500 N.

(c) Find, in centimetres, the total distance that the sledgehammer and the post travel

together before coming to rest.

(6 marks)

Turn over

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6. 2m

1.2 m

Fig. 2

Figure 2 shows a picnic bench of mass 20 kg which consists of a horizontal plank of wood of

length 2 m resting on two supports, each of which is 0.6 m from the centre of the plank.

Luigi sits on the bench at its midpoint and his mother Maria sits at one end. Their masses are

40 kg and 75 kg respectively.

By modelling the bench as a uniform rod and Luigi and Maria as particles,

(b) Find how close Luigi can get to his mother before the reaction at one of the supports

becomes zero.

(5 marks)

(c) Explain the significance of a zero reaction at one of the supports. (1 marks)

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7.

30°

Fig. 3

Figure 3 shows a particle of mass 4 kg resting on the surface of a rough plane inclined at an

angle of 30° to the horizontal. It is connected by a light inextensible string passing over a

smooth pulley at the top of the plane, to a particle of mass 5 kg which hangs freely.

The coefficient of friction between the 4 kg mass and the plane is µ and when the system is

released from rest the 4 kg mass starts to move up the slope.

1

(a) Show that the acceleration of the system is 9 (3 − 2 µ 3 ) g m s-2. (7 marks)

1

Given that µ = 2 ,

(d) show that the magnitude of the force on the pulley is given by

5

3 (2 )

3 + 1 g N.

(5 marks)

END

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GCE Examinations

Mechanics

Module M1

Advanced Subsidiary / Advanced Level

Paper I

Time: 1 hour 30 minutes

Candidates may use any calculator except those with a facility for symbolic

algebra and / or calculus.

Full marks may be obtained for answers to ALL questions.

Mathematical and statistical formulae and tables are available.

This paper has 7 questions.

When a numerical value of g is required, use g = 9.8 m s-2.

You must show sufficient working to make your methods clear to an examiner.

Answers without working will gain no credit.

Solomon Press

These sheets may be copied for use solely by the purchaser’s institute.

PMT

Given that F1 = ( 2pi – 3qj) N and F2 = ( 5qi + 4pj) N, calculate the values of p and q.

(5 marks)

2.

20 N

25°

Fig. 1

Figure 1 shows a toy lorry being pulled by a piece of string, up a ramp inclined at an angle

of 25° to the horizontal. When the string is pulled with a force of 20 N parallel to the line of

greatest slope of the ramp, the lorry is on the point of moving up the ramp.

(a) Draw a diagram showing all the forces acting on the lorry. (2 marks)

(b) Find the weight of the lorry and the magnitude of the reaction between the lorry and the

ramp, giving your answers to an appropriate degree of accuracy.

(4 marks)

(c) Write down any modelling assumptions that you have made about

(d) State the effect that this would have on your answers to part (b). (2 marks)

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3. A cannon of mass 600 kg lies on a rough horizontal surface and is used to fire a 3 kg shell

horizontally at 200 m s-1.

(a) Find the impulse which the shell exerts on the cannon. (3 marks)

(b) Find the speed with which the cannon recoils. (2 marks)

Given that the coefficient of friction between the cannon and the surface is 0.75,

(c) calculate, to the nearest centimetre, the distance that the cannon travels before coming

to rest.

(6 marks)

4. The position of an aeroplane flying in a straight horizontal line at constant speed is plotted on

a radar screen. At 2 p.m. the position vector of the aeroplane is (80i + 5j), where i and j are

unit vectors directed east and north respectively relative to a fixed origin, O, on the screen.

Ten minutes later the position of the aeroplane on the screen is (32i + 19j).

(a) Find the position vector of the aeroplane at 2:30 p.m. (4 marks)

(c) Find, correct to the nearest degree, the bearing on which the aeroplane is flying.

(3 marks)

Turn over

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5. A car on a straight test track starts from rest and accelerates to a speed of V m s-1 in 6 seconds.

The car maintains this speed for a further 50 seconds before decelerating to rest.

In a simple model of this motion, the acceleration and deceleration are assumed to be uniform

and the magnitude of the deceleration to be 1.5 times that of the acceleration.

(a) Show that the total time for which the car is moving is 60 seconds. (3 marks)

velocity of the car.

(d) Explain how the acceleration would vary during the first six seconds under this model.

(2 marks)

6. 3m

2.2 m

Fig. 2

Figure 2 shows a bench of length 3 m being used in a gymnasium.

The bench rests horizontally on two identical supports which are 2.2 m apart and equidistant

from the middle of the bench.

(a) Explain why it is reasonable to model the bench as a uniform rod. (2 marks)

When a gymnast of mass 55 kg stands on the bench 0.1 m from one end, the bench is on the

point of tilting.

The first gymnast dismounts and a second gymnast of mass 33 kg steps onto the bench at a

distance of 0.4 m from its centre.

(c) Show that the magnitudes of the reaction forces on the two supports are in the

ratio 5 : 3. (6 marks)

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7. A car of mass 1250 kg tows a caravan of mass 850 kg up a hill inclined at an angle α to the

1

horizontal where sin α = 14 . The total resistance to motion experienced by the car is 400 N,

and by the caravan is 500 N.

(a) show that the acceleration of the system is 0.3 m s-2, (5 marks)

(b) find the tension in the towbar linking the car and the caravan. (3 marks)

Starting from rest, the car accelerates uniformly for 540 m until it reaches a speed of v m s-1 at

the top of the hill.

At the top of the hill the road becomes level and the driver maintains the speed at which the

car and caravan reached the top of the hill.

(d) Assuming that the resistance to motion on each part of the system is unchanged, find the

percentage reduction in the driving force of the engine required to achieve this.

(4 marks)

END

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GCE Examinations

Mechanics

Module M1

Advanced Subsidiary / Advanced Level

Paper J

Time: 1 hour 30 minutes

Candidates may use any calculator except those with a facility for symbolic

algebra and / or calculus.

Full marks may be obtained for answers to ALL questions.

Mathematical and statistical formulae and tables are available.

This paper has 7 questions.

When a numerical value of g is required, use g = 9.8 m s-2.

You must show sufficient working to make your methods clear to an examiner.

Answers without working will gain no credit.

Solomon Press

These sheets may be copied for use solely by the purchaser’s institute.

PMT

1. At time t = 0, a particle of mass 2 kg has velocity (8i + λj) m s-1 where i and j are horizontal

perpendicular unit vectors and λ > 0.

The particle experiences a constant retarding force F so that when t = 5, it has velocity

(3i + 5j) m s-1.

(b) Show that F can be written in the form µ (i + 2j) N where µ is a constant which you

should find.

(5 marks)

2. A monk uses a small brush to clean the stone floor of a monastery by pushing the brush with a

force of P Newtons at an angle of 60° to the vertical. He moves the brush at a constant speed.

The mass of the brush is 0.5 kg and the coefficient of friction between the brush and the floor

1

is 3

. The brush is modelled as a particle and air resistance is ignored.

g

(a) Show that P = 2 Newtons. (7 marks)

(b) Explain why it is reasonable to ignore air resistance in this situation. (1 mark)

3. A small van of mass 1500 kg is used to tow a car of mass 750 kg by means of a rope of length

9 m joined to both vehicles. The van sets off with the rope slack and reaches a speed of 2 m s-1

just before the rope becomes taut and jerks the car into motion. Immediately after the rope

becomes taut, the van and car travel with common speed V m s-1.

4

(a) Show that V = 3 . (3 marks)

(b) Calculate the magnitude of the impulse on the car when the rope tightens. (2 marks)

The van and car eventually reach a steady speed of 18 m s-1 with the rope taut when a child

runs out into the road, 30 m in front of the van. The van driver brakes sharply and decelerates

uniformly to rest in a distance of 27 m.

It takes the driver of the car 1 second to react to the van starting to brake. He then brakes and

the car decelerates uniformly at f m s-2, coming to rest before colliding with the van.

Solomon Press

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4.

A

B

C

Fig. 1

Figure 1 shows a weight A of mass 6 kg connected by a light, inextensible string which passes

over a smooth, fixed pulley to a box B of mass 5 kg. There is an object C of mass 3 kg resting

on the horizontal floor of box B.

The system is released from rest. Find, giving your answers in terms of g,

18

(c) Show that the reaction between C and the floor of B is 7 g newtons. (3 marks)

5. Two flies P and Q, are crawling vertically up a wall. At time t = 0, the flies are at the same

height above the ground, with P crawling at a steady speed of 4 cm s-1.

Q starts from rest at time t = 0 and accelerates uniformly to a speed of 6 cm s-1 in 6 seconds.

Fly Q then maintains this speed.

(a) Find the value of t when the two flies are moving at the same speed. (3 marks)

(b) Sketch on the same diagram, speed-time graphs to illustrate the motion of the two flies.

(3 marks)

Given that the distance of the two flies from the top of the wall at time t = 0 is x cm and that

Q reaches the top of the wall first,

Turn over

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6.

A B

8m

Fig. 2

two light vertical inextensible strings attached at either end of the plank. The maximum

tension that either string can support is 40g N.

A rock of mass M kg is placed on the plank at A and rolled along the plank to B without either

string breaking.

(a) Explain, with the aid of a sketch-graph, how the tension in the string at A varies with x,

the distance of the rock from A.

(3 marks)

The first rock is removed and a second rock of mass 20 kg is placed on the plank.

(c) Find the fraction of the plank on which the rock can be placed without one of the strings

breaking.

(6 marks)

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7. At 6 a.m. a cargo ship has position vector (7i + 56j) km relative to a fixed origin O on the

coast and moves with constant velocity (9i – 6j) km h-1.

A ferry sails from O at 6 a.m. and moves with constant velocity (12i + 18j) km h-1. The unit

vectors i and j are directed due east and due north respectively.

(a) Show that the position vector of the cargo ship t hours after 6 a.m. is given by

(b) Show that if both vessels maintain their course and speed, they will collide and find the

time and position vector at which this occurs.

(6 marks)

At 8 a.m. the captain of the ferry realises that a collision is imminent and changes course so

that the ferry now has velocity (21i + 6j) km h-1.

(c) Find the distance between the two ships at the time when they would have collided.

(5 marks)

END

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M1J page 5

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GCE Examinations

Mechanics

Module M1

Advanced Subsidiary / Advanced Level

Paper K

Time: 1 hour 30 minutes

Candidates may use any calculator except those with a facility for symbolic

algebra and / or calculus.

Full marks may be obtained for answers to ALL questions.

Mathematical and statistical formulae and tables are available.

This paper has 7 questions.

When a numerical value of g is required, use g = 9.8 m s-2.

You must show sufficient working to make your methods clear to an examiner.

Answers without working will gain no credit.

Solomon Press

These sheets may be copied for use solely by the purchaser’s institute.

PMT

1. In a safety test, a car of mass 800 kg is driven directly at a wall at a constant speed of 15 m s-1.

The constant force exerted by the wall on the car in bringing it to rest is 60 kN.

(a) Calculate the magnitude of the impulse exerted by the wall on the car. (2 marks)

(b) Find the time it takes for the car to come to rest. (2 marks)

2. 70 N

A

1.2 m

1.2 m

D B

90 N O 1.2 m 80 N

1.2 m

C

60 N

Fig. 1

Figure 1 shows an aerial view of a revolving door consisting of 4 panels, each of width 1.2 m

and set at 90° intervals, which are free to rotate about a fixed central column, O.

The revolving door is situated outside a lecture theatre and four students are trying to push the

door. Two of the students are pushing panels OA and OD clockwise (as viewed from above)

with horizontal forces of 70 N and 90 N respectively, whilst the other two are pushing panels

OB and OC anti-clockwise with horizontal forces of 80 N and 60 N respectively.

(a) Calculate the total moment about O when the four students are pushing the panels at

their outer edge, 1.2 m from O.

(3 marks)

The student at C moves her hand 0.2 m closer to O and the student at D moves his hand x m

closer to O. Given that the students all push in the same directions and with the same forces as

in part (a), and that the door is in equilibrium,

Solomon Press

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3. During a cricket match, the batsman hits the ball and begins running with constant velocity

4i m s-1 to try and score a run. When the batsman is at the fixed origin O, the ball is thrown by

a member of the opposing team with velocity ( – 8i + 24j) m s-1 from the point with position

vector (30i – 60j) m, where i and j are horizontal perpendicular unit vectors. At time t seconds

after the ball is thrown, the position vectors of the batsman and the ball are r metres and

s metres respectively.

In a model of the situation, the ball is assumed to travel horizontally and air resistance is

considered to be negligible.

(b) Show that the ball hits the batsman and find the position vector of the batsman when

this occurs.

(5 marks)

(c) Write down two reasons why the assumptions used in these calculations are unlikely to

provide a realistic model.

(2 marks)

4. In a physics experiment, two balls A and B, of mass 4m and 3m respectively, are travelling

towards one another on a straight horizontal track. Both balls are travelling with speed 2 m s-1

immediately before they collide.

As a result of the impact, A is brought to rest and the direction of motion of B is reversed.

A student notices that after the collision, B comes to rest 0.2 m from A.

(b) Show that the coefficient of friction between B and the track is 0.113, correct to

3 decimal places.

(7 marks)

Turn over

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5. A cyclist is riding up a hill inclined at an angle of 5° to the horizontal. She produces a driving

force of 50 N and experiences resistive forces which total 20 N.

Given that the combined mass of the cyclist and her bicycle is 70 kg,

(a) find, correct to 2 decimal places, the magnitude of the deceleration of the cyclist.

(4 marks)

When the cyclist reaches the top of the hill, her speed is 3 m s-1. She subsequently accelerates

uniformly so that in the fifth second after she has reached the top of the hill, she travels 12 m.

(b) Find her speed at the end of the fifth second. (8 marks)

6.

A

0.9 m B

Fig. 2

Figure 2 shows a particle A of mass 5 kg, lying on a smooth horizontal table which is 0.9 m

above the floor. A light inextensible string of length 0.7 m connects A to a particle B of mass

2 kg. The string passes over a smooth pulley which is fixed to the edge of the table and B

hangs vertically 0.4 m below the pulley.

10 2

(a) show that the magnitude of the force exerted on the pulley is 7 g N, (7 marks)

(b) find the speed with which A hits the pulley. (3 marks)

When A hits the pulley, the string breaks and B subsequently falls freely under gravity.

(c) Find the speed with which B hits the ground. (4 marks)

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7.

15°

35°

Fig. 3

35° to the horizontal by means of a string which is at an angle of 15° to the line of greatest

slope of the plane.

In an initial model of the situation, the plane is assumed to be smooth. Giving your answers

correct to 3 significant figures,

(b) find the magnitude of the reaction between the plane and the block. (4 marks)

Given that the tension in the string can be increased to 200 N before the block begins to move

up the slope,

(c) find, correct to 3 significant figures, the magnitude of the frictional force and state the

direction in which it acts.

(4 marks)

(d) Without performing any further calculations, state whether the reaction calculated in

part (b) will increase, decrease or remain the same in the refined model. Give a reason

for your answer.

(3 marks)

END

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GCE Examinations

Mechanics

Module M1

Advanced Subsidiary / Advanced Level

Paper L

Time: 1 hour 30 minutes

Candidates may use any calculator except those with a facility for symbolic

algebra and / or calculus.

Full marks may be obtained for answers to ALL questions.

Mathematical and statistical formulae and tables are available.

This paper has 7 questions.

When a numerical value of g is required, use g = 9.8 m s-2.

You must show sufficient working to make your methods clear to an examiner.

Answers without working will gain no credit.

Solomon Press

These sheets may be copied for use solely by the purchaser’s institute.

PMT

1. Two particles P and Q, of mass m and km respectively, are travelling in opposite directions on

a straight horizontal path with speeds 3u and 2u respectively. P and Q collide and, as a result,

the direction of motion of both particles is reversed and their speeds are halved.

(b) Write down an expression in terms of m and u for the magnitude of the impulse which

P exerts on Q during the collision.

(3 marks)

2.

A B

6m

Fig. 1

Figure 1 shows a plank AB of mass 40 kg and length 6 m, which rests on supports at each of

its ends. The plank is wedge-shaped, being thicker at end A than at end B.

(c) calculate the distance of the centre of mass of the plank from A. (4 marks)

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3. A B

α

Fig. 2

Figure 2 shows a cable car C of mass 1 tonne which has broken down. The cable car is

suspended in equilibrium by two perpendicular cables AC and BC which are attached to fixed

points A and B, at the same horizontal level on either side of a valley. The cable AC is

inclined at an angle α to the horizontal where tan α = 34 .

(a) Show that the tension in the cable AC is 5880 N and find the tension in the cable BC.

(7 marks)

(b) Explain the effect that this will have on the tension in the two cables. (2 marks)

4. Andrew hits a tennis ball vertically upwards towards his sister Barbara who is leaning out of a

window 7.5 m above the ground to try to catch it. When the ball leaves Andrew’s racket, it is

1.9 m above the ground and travelling at 21 m s-1. Barbara fails to catch the ball on its way up

but succeeds as the ball comes back down.

Modelling the ball as a particle and assuming that air resistance can be neglected,

(a) find the maximum height above the ground which the ball reaches. (4 marks)

(b) find how long Barbara has to wait from the moment that the ball first passes her until

she catches it.

(6 marks)

Turn over

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5.

A B

Fig. 3

Figure 3 shows two particles A and B of masses m and km respectively, connected by a light

inextensible string which passes over a smooth fixed pulley.

When the system is released from rest with both particles 0.5 m above the ground, particle A

1

moves vertically upwards with acceleration 4 g m s-2.

(a) Write down, with a brief justification, the magnitude and direction of the acceleration

of B.

(2 marks)

(c) calculate, correct to 3 significant figures, the speed with which B hits the ground.

(3 marks)

6. Two trains A and B leave the same station, O, at 10 a.m. and travel along straight horizontal

tracks. A travels with constant speed 80 km h-1 due east and B travels with constant speed

52 km h-1 in the direction (5i + 12j) where i and j are unit vectors due east and due north

respectively.

(c) find the value of t correct to the nearest whole number. (6 marks)

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7. P Q

60°

30°

3m 3m

Fig. 4

Figure 4 shows two golf balls P and Q being held at the top of planes inclined at 30° and 60°

to the vertical respectively. Both planes slope down to a common hole at H, which is 3 m

vertically below P and Q.

P is released from rest and travels down the line of greatest slope of the plane it is on which is

assumed to be smooth.

(b) Show that the time taken for P to reach the hole is 0.904 seconds, correct to

3 significant figures. (5 marks)

Q travels down the line of greatest slope of the plane it is on which is rough. The coefficient

of friction between Q and the plane is µ.

In order for the two balls to arrive at the hole at the same time, Q must be released t seconds

before P.

END

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