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SVS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING COIMBATORE 642 109 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING QUESTION BANK

SVS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

COIMBATORE 642 109

SVS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING COIMBATORE 642 109 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING QUESTION BANK Name

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

QUESTION BANK

Name of the Faculty

:

Mr.B.Sridhar

Subject

:

Power System Transients

Regulations

:

2013

Course Code

:

EE6002

Branch

:

EEE

Year & Semester

:

III & VI

Academic Year

:

2018-2019

SVSCE/EEE/QB/III YR/PST

SYLLABUS

EE6002

POWER SYSTEM TRANSIENTS

LT P C

3 0 0 3

UNIT I

INTRODUCTION AND SURVEY

9

Review and importance of the study of transients - causes for transients. RL circuit transient with sine wave excitation - double frequency transients - basic transforms of the RLC circuit transients. Different types of power system transients - effect of transients on power systems role of the study of transients in system planning.

UNIT II

Over voltages due to switching transients - resistance switching and the equivalent circuit for interrupting the resistor current - load switching and equivalent circuit - waveforms for transient voltage across the load and the switch - normal and abnormal switching transients. Current suppression - current chopping - effective equivalent circuit. Capacitance switching - effect of source regulation - capacitance switching with a restrike, with multiple restrikes. Illustration for multiple restriking transients - ferro resonance.

SWITCHING TRANSIENTS

9

UNIT III

Review of the theories in the formation of clouds and charge formation - rate of charging of thunder

clouds mechanism of lightning discharges and characteristics of lightning strokes model for lightning stroke - factors contributing to good line design - protection using ground wires tower footing resistance - Interaction between lightning and power system.

LIGHTNING TRANSIENTS

9

UNIT IV

9

Computation of transients - transient response of systems with series and shunt lumped parameters and distributed lines. Traveling wave concept - step response - Bewely‟s lattice diagram - standing

waves and natural frequencies - reflection and refraction of travelling waves.

TRAVELING WAVES ON TRANSMISSION LINE COMPUTATION OF TRANSIENTS

UNIT V

TRANSIENTS IN INTEGRATED POWER SYSTEM

9

The short line and kilometric fault - distribution of voltages in a power system - Line dropping and load rejection - voltage transients on closing and reclosing lines - over voltage induced by faults switching surges on integrated system Qualitative application of EMTP for transient computation.

TEXT BOOKS:

TOTAL : 45 PERIODS

1. Allan Greenwood, „Electrical Transients in Power Systems‟, Wiley Inter Science, New York, 2nd

Edition, 1991.

2. Pritindra Chowdhari, “Electromagnetic transients in Power System”, John Wiley and Sons Inc.,

Second Edition, 2009.

3. C.S. Indulkar, D.P.Kothari, K. Ramalingam, „Power System Transients – A statistical approach‟,

PHI Learning Private Limited, Second Edition, 2010.

REFERENCES:

1. M.S.Naidu and V.Kamaraju, „High Voltage Engineering‟, Tata McGraw Hill, Fifth Edition, 2013.

2. R.D. Begamudre, „Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering‟, Wiley Eastern Limited,

1986.

3. Y.Hase, Handbook of Power System Engineering,” Wiley India, 2012.

4. J.L.Kirtley, “Electric Power Principles, Sources, Conversion, Distribution and use,” Wiley, 2012.

SVSCE/EEE/QB/III YR/PST

UNIT I

INTRODUCTION AND SURVEY

PART A

1. What are the causes of transients?

(AU AM2017)-3

The causes of power system transient may be broadly classified into two main categories,

i) Internal Causes :

(a)

Switching surges

(b)

Insulation failure

(c)

Arcing ground

ii) External causes Natural causes

(a) Lightning

2. Draw the double frequency transient circuit.

(AU AM 2017)-3

Draw the double frequency transient circuit. (AU AM 2017)-3 3. Mention the need for study of
Draw the double frequency transient circuit. (AU AM 2017)-3 3. Mention the need for study of

3. Mention the need for study of transients in a power system. (or)

(AU ND 2016)-6

State the importance of transient study in planning. The transients are system problems i.e., a disturbance created in one location will permeate throughout the system, after causing difficulties at points quite remote from its origin. The study of switching transients in integrated system specially relates to EHV field.

For a long line the most serious problems are voltage surges in the power systems which are the consequence of lightning.

The sudden reversal of voltage polarity which can occur with travelling waves from switching surges causes flash over voltage of certain applications.

The above considerations are causing system planners to take a new look at the overall design of transmission networks.

SVSCE/EEE/QB/III YR/PST

4. Draw the TRV wave form across the circuit breaker following the interruption of fault current.

circuit breaker following the interruption of fault current. Fig. TRV Waveform across the C.B following the

Fig. TRV Waveform across the C.B following the interruption of fault current

(AU AM 2016)

5. Write the basic transform of RLC circuit transient. (or) Write the mathematical expression for transient due to RLC circuits. The basic transform of RLC Circuit transient is given by,

The basic transform of RLC Circuit transient is given by, The solution depends upon the values

The solution depends upon the values of

If

thenIf and are real.

andIf then are real.

are real.If then and

If

thenIf and are complex.

andIf then are complex.

are complex.If then and

and are real. If then and are complex. and . (AU AM2015)-3 6. What are the

and

.
.

(AU AM2015)-3

6. What are the causes of transients in a power system? (or)

(AU ND 2015)-2

What are the causes of switching surges? The making and breaking of electric circuits with switchgear may result in abnormal transient over voltages in a power systems having large inductances and capacitances. The different situations under which this happens are summarized as, i) Interruption of low inductive currents by high speed circuit breaker. (Current chopping) ii) Interruption of small capacitive currents. (Switching operation of unloaded lines)

iii) Ferro resonance

iv) Energization of a loaded line.

7. Define Transient (or) Define Power System transients (or)

(AU AM 2014)-5

What is a transient? An electrical transient is a temporary excess of voltage and/or current in an electrical circuit when a fault occurs on a system or a switch opens or closes. The transient period is very short.

8. List the various types of power system transients.

i) Based upon the duration of transients:

(a)

Ultra fast transients

(b)

Medium fast transients

(c)

Slow transients

ii) Based upon the mode of Generation of transients:

(a)

Electromagnetic transients

(b)

Electromechanical transients

iii) Based upon the sources of transients:

(a)

Switching transients

(b)

Lightning transients

(AU AM 2014)

iv) Based upon its Nature:

In this case, transients are divided into two categories which are easy to identify: Impulsive

and Oscillatory.

SVSCE/EEE/QB/III YR/PST

(a)

The impulsive low-frequency transient

(b)

The medium-frequency impulse transient

(c)

High-frequency types

(d)

Low frequency transients

(e)

High frequency transients

(f)Extremely fast transients (EFT’s)

(g) Subsidence transients

v) Based upon the control to the transients:

(a)

Single transients

(b)

Recurrent transients

(c)

Random transients

9. What are the causes for the capacitor inrush currents?

(AU ND 2013)

The magnitude and frequency of the inrush current resulting from energizing capacitor bank

is a function of:

The point on the wave of the applied where the contacts were closed.

The capacitance and inductance of the circuit.

The charge on the capacitor at closing time.

Any damping resistance contained in the circuit.

10. Define: Transient recovery voltage.

(AU AM2013)

The power frequency rms voltage appearing across the breaker contacts arc is extinguished and transient oscillations die out is called transient recovery voltage.

11. Name the different sources of transients (over voltages) in power system. The sources of transients are classified as

i) Internal sources

ii) External sources

The internal sources are classified as

a) Switching surges

b) Insulation failures

c) Arcing ground

(AU AM 2013)-3

The external source for power system transient is lightning.

12. What are the requirements needed by the electrical system to have

transients? In a power system, when there is a sudden change in system conditions, as when a switch opens or closes or a fault then the transients will occur for very short duration and they cause over voltages on the system. Transients or surges originate from switching and from other causes but the most important transients are caused by lightning striking a transmission lines.

13. Why magnetic energy cannot be changed instantaneously? (AU AM 2012) The inductor stored energy in the magnetic field and the stored energy are also called magnetic energy. An inductor does not allow instantaneous changes in the current passing through it hence the magnetic energy cannot be changed instantaneously.

14. List the effects of transients in power system. (AU AM 2011)-2

(AU ND 2012)

i) Motor will run at higher temperatures when transient voltages are present. Transients can interrupt the normal timing of the motor and result in “micro-jogging”.

ii) Transients produce hysteresis losses in motors that increase the amount of current necessary to operate the motor.

iii) The facility’s of electrical distribution system is also affected by transient activity. i.e., transient degrade the contact surfaces of breakers or switches and disconnects it

from the system.

SVSCE/EEE/QB/III YR/PST

iv) The travelling waves produced due to lightning transients cause considerable damage to the equipments connected in the line.

v) Transient causes early failure of all types of lights. Fluorescent systems suffer early failure of ballast and the most common indictor of transient activity is the premature appearance of “black rings” at the end of the tubes.

vi) The effect of voltage transients can disrupt or damage or completely destroy semiconductor devices, electronic equipments, instruments, computers & telecommunication equipments as well as the solid circuitry found in most type of appliances.

15. What are the effects of lightning?

(AU AM 2011)

i) Lightning produces a steep fronted voltage wave on the transmission line. The voltage of this wave may rise from zero to peak value in about 1µs and decay to half the peak value in about 5µs.

ii) The travelling waves produced due to lightning transients will shatter the insulators and may even wreck poles and also hit the windings of the transformer or generator, it may cause considerable damage.

iii) If the arc is initiated in any part of the power system by lightning stroke, this arc will be set up very disturbing oscillations in the line. This may damage other equipment connected to the line.

16. Define Switching transients.

The switching transient is initiated whenever there is a sudden change of circuit conditions. This transient is most frequently developed due to switching operations such as

i) The closing of a switch (or) circuit breaker to energies a load.

ii) The opening of a circuit breaker to clear a fault.

17. What is meant by arcing ground? The phenomenon of intermittent arc taking place in line to ground fault of a three phase system with consequent production of transients is known as arcing ground. Arcing ground can be prevented by earthing the neutral.

18. What are impulsive high frequency transients? The high frequency impulsive transient has duration below 50 ns and the frequency of the high frequency oscillatory type ranges between 0.5 and 5 MHz.

19. List out some of the common internal sources of transient activity. The common internal sources of transient activity are,

i) Photocopiers

ii) PC Power supplies

iii) Laser printers

iv) Electronic ballasts

v) Inverters and vi) Temperature controllers

20. What is meant by first order transients? The energy storage elements in electrical circuits are inductors and capacitors. The first order transients occur when the circuit contains only one energy storage element, which is inductance or capacitance.

21. What is meant by subsidence transients? In coupling capacitor voltage transformers and bushing capacitor voltage transformers, the elements L and C contains stored energy. When a disturbance, such as a fault occurs on the primary, then subsidence transient is produced. Due to this sudden reduction of voltage produced on the primary. This voltage may be oscillatory or it may be unidirectional. Due to this severe secondary transient is produced.

SVSCE/EEE/QB/III YR/PST

PART B

1. Derive the expression for RL circuit transient with sine wave

excitation.

(16)(AU AM 2017)-2

2. With suitable examples explain double frequency transients. (16)(AU AM 2017)-7

3. Explain the double frequency transient in a power system with a circuit diagram, wave forms

and expressions.

(16)(AU ND 2016)-2

4. Examine the sources of transients? Also explain how transients affect the power systems.

.

(16)(AU ND 2016) (16)(AU AM 2016)

5. Briefly explain the importance of study of transients in planning.

6. What are the various types of power system transients? With neat diagrams, describe any two

types of power system transients in detail.

7. (i) Discuss about the effects of transients on power systems.

(ii) Briefly explain the importance of study of transients in planning.

(16)(AU ND 2015)-2 (8)(AU ND 2015)-7 (8)(AU AM 2015)-4

8. (i) Discuss in detail about the various types of power system transients.

(8)(AU AM 2015)-7

(ii) Derive an equation for finding the transient current in an RL series circuit excited by an

ac source. What can be the maximum value of initial current? Under what condition does

it occur?

(8)(AU AM 2015)

9. (i) Explain the significance in the study of transients in the system planning.

.

(ii) Discuss briefly the various causes of transients on power systems.

(10)(AU ND 2014) (8)(AU ND 2014) (16)(AU AM 2014)

10. Discuss in detail about the various types of power system transients.

11. Derive the three solutions of the inductor current of a parallel RLC circuit when the charge on

the capacitor is discharged through the other two branches.

(16)(AU AM 2013)

12. What are the types of transients? Explain how transients affect the power systems. (16)(AU AM 2012)-3

13. Derive the current transient response of an RL series circuit excited by a sine wave drive. (16)(AU AM 2012)

14. Define transient. Describe in detail about its importance.

15. (i) What is meant by circuit closing transients?

(16)(AU AM 2011)-2 (6)(AU ND 2010)

(ii) Describe about double frequency transients and basic transform of RLC circuit.

(10)(AU AM 2010)

16. Explain in detail about the basic transforms of RLC Circuits.

SVSCE/EEE/QB/III YR/PST

UNIT II

SWITCHING TRANSIENTS

PART A

1. What is meant by abnormal switching transients? (AU AM2017) Due to some other circumstances like transients the voltage and current magnitude may rise high. The transients occur due to the trapping of energy and its subsequent release somewhere in the circuit. Such transients are referred as abnormal current and voltage transients. The Normal transient stores energy in the system, so that subsequently when a second transient is initiated it would be abnormal.

(AU ND 2016)-7

2. Define Current Chopping.

Current chopping is the phenomenon of current interruption before the natural current zero is reached. It is mainly occurs in air blast circuit breakers because they retain the same extinguishing power irrespective of the magnitude of the current to be interrupted. When breaking low currents i.e., unloaded transformer or reactor magnetizing current, the powerful de-ionizing effect of air blast causes the current abruptly to zero well before the natural current zero is reached. This phenomenon is called current chopping and results in

the production of high voltage transients across the breaker contacts.

3. Draw the resistance switching circuit. (AU ND 2016)

3. Draw the resistance switching circuit. (AU ND 2016) Fig. Resistance switching circuit 4. What is

Fig. Resistance switching circuit

4. What is the origin of ferro-resonance? What are its undesirable effects?

(AU ND 2015)-4 Resonance causes high transient voltage in the power system. In usual transmission lines the capacitance is very small so that resonance rarely occurred in power system at normal frequency. However if generator emf wave is distorted, the trouble of resonance may occur due to 5 th or higher harmonics. This phenomenon is referred as ferro-resonance, since the inductance involved is usually iron cored.

5. What is meant by multiple restriking transients? (AU ND 2015)-2 During capacitance switching, practically there is a chance of sequential restrikes. The sequence is idealized and to some extent over simplified. When multiple restriking occurs it is possible for a voltage of 4 p.u to be developed across a switch, a point which is often overlooked.

6. What is current suppression?

(AU AM 2015)

The current carried by a power switch does not normally cease when its contacts separate, rather the current continues to flow through an arc until it reaches its periodic zero. Some times the over zealous action of arc suppression devices in the circuit breaker bring the current to zero abruptly and prematurely ahead of the normal zero. This phenomenon is referred to as current chopping and is an example of what is known generically as current suppression. It can give rise to an abnormal voltage as a consequence of the release of trapped magnetic energy associated with the current.

SVSCE/EEE/QB/III YR/PST

(AU AM 2015)-4

Resonance causes high transient voltage in the power system. In usual transmission lines the capacitance is very small so that resonance rarely occurred in power system at normal

frequency. However if generator emf wave is distorted, the trouble of resonance may occur due to 5 th or higher harmonics. This phenomenon is referred as ferro-resonance, since the inductance involved is usually iron cored.

8. What is load switching in abnormal conditions? (AU ND 2014)-2 The frequent functions performed by switching devices are to switch on and switch off load i.e., load switching which is represented by a parallel RL circuit.

7. Define Ferro resonance.

Low power factor loads are inductive and high power factor loads are resistive. When a high power factor load is switched off, the effective capacitance of load becomes important in determining the form of transient produced.

(AU AM 2014)-4

A deliberate connection of a resistance in parallel with the contact of the circuit breaker is

9. What is meant by resistance switching?

made to overcome the effect of transient recovery voltage, restriking voltage, RRRV (rate of rise of restriking voltage) and severity of the transient oscillations. This is known as resistance switching.

10. Why multiple restrike occur due to capacitance switching? (AU AM 2014) During capacitance switching, practically there is a chance of sequential restrikes. The sequence is idealized and to some extent over simplified. Some capacitance will exist on the source sides of the breaker, which will induce higher frequency of disturbances. When multiple restriking occurs, it is possible for a voltage of 4 per unit to be developed across the switch, a point which is often over looked. A reignition may occur at this time rather than half a cycle later, which will probably result in the switch conduction current for another half cycle.

11. Draw the equivalent circuit of resistance switching problem. (AU ND 2013) Fig. Equivalent circuit
11. Draw the equivalent circuit of resistance switching problem.
(AU ND 2013)
Fig. Equivalent circuit of resistance switching problem.
12. Draw the equivalent circuit for interrupting the resistor current.
(AU ND 2012)
of resistance switching problem. 12. Draw the equivalent circuit for interrupting the resistor current. (AU ND

SVSCE/EEE/QB/III YR/PST

13. What is the need for resistance switching?

(AU ND 2012)

The shunt resistors connected across circuit breaker have two functions:

i) To distribute the transient recovery voltage more uniformly across the several breaks.

ii) To reduce the severity of transient recovery voltage at the time of interruption by introducing damping into oscillation.

14. What are the objectives of resistive switching?

(AU ND 2012)

i) To reduce switching surges and over voltages

ii) For potential control access multi-breakers per phase in the high voltage breakers

iii) To reduce natural frequencies effects and breaker recovery voltage

15. Define time constant.

(AU AM 2012)

The time constant of RL circuit is defined as the period during which the current rises to 62.2% of its final value. The time constant of RC circuit is defined as the time during which

the current falls to 36.8% of initial current.

16. What is meant by capacitance switching? (AU AM 2012) The capacitor banks or shunt capacitors plays vital role in power systems. The shunt capacitors are connected between transmission line and neutral or transmission line and ground, are commonly available sights in power systems. The shunt capacitors are employed to correct a lagging power factor or in some cases to provide voltage supports for the system. Switching in and out of these capacitor banks with the power system is called capacitance switching.

17. Differentiate normal and abnormal switching transients.

(AU AM 2012)

S. No

Normal Transient

When switch opens, it is possible for a recovery voltage to reach a value 1. twice as high as normal peak voltage of the system. When switch closes, then current reach a value twice that of the eventual steady state current.

2.

is also caused due to charge on a

capacitor or line and current in an

a circuit is completely

quiescent when a transient is initiated, the transient will be a

normal transient.

inductor. If

It

transient will be a normal transient. inductor. If It Abnormal Transient Due to some other circumstances

Abnormal Transient

Due to some other circumstances like transients the voltage and current magnitude may rise high. The transients occur due to the trapping of energy and its subsequent release somewhere in the circuit. Such transients are referred as abnormal current and voltage transients.

The Normal transient stores energy in the system, so that subsequently when a second transient is initiated it would be abnormal.

18. What is meant by abnormal switching transients? (AU AM 2011) Due to some other circumstances like transients, the voltage and current magnitude may rise high. The transients occur due to the trapping of energy and its subsequent release somewhere in the circuit. Such transients are referred as abnormal current and voltage transients.

19. Draw the circuit diagram showing interruption of inductive currents.

and voltage transients. 19. Draw the circuit diagram showing interruption of inductive currents. SVSCE/EEE/QB/III YR/PST

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20. Write any two applications of switching. The applications of switching are,

i) Design of carrier protection

ii) Radio interference

iii) Control band if instrument

21. What is meant by Ferranti rise or negative regulation? When a capacitor is connected to a system, the leading current that it draws, flowing through the inductance of the system causes the capacitor voltage to be higher than the open circuit system voltage. This condition is called as Ferranti rise or Negative regulation.

22. What is restriking voltage? It is the transient voltage that appears across the contacts of the circuit breaker at or near the zero current instant during arcing period. A high frequency transient voltage appears across the contacts and is caused by the rapid distribution of energy between the magnetic and electric field associated with the station and transmission lines of the system at the zero current. This transient voltage is known as restriking voltage.

23. What is RRRV? It is the rate of rise of restriking voltage, expressed in Volts per Microseconds. It is closely associated with natural frequency of oscillation.

24. What are the methods of capacitive switching?

i) Opening of Single capacitor bank

ii) Closing of one capacitor bank against another

25. Draw the current chopping illustration waveforms.

bank against another 25. Draw the current chopping illustration waveforms. Fig. Current chopping illustration waveforms.

Fig. Current chopping illustration waveforms.

SVSCE/EEE/QB/III YR/PST

26. What is power swing? During switching of lines or wrong synchronization surges of real and reactive power flowing in transmission line causes severe oscillations in the voltage and current vectors. It is represented by curves originating in load regions and travelling towards relay characteristics.

27. What is meant by recovery voltage? The power frequency rms voltage appearing across the breaker contacts arc is extinguished and transient oscillations die out is called recovery voltage.

PART B

1. Describe briefly about characteristic of Ferro-resonance.

2. What is called capacitance switching? With necessary sketches, explain capacitive switching

(16) (AU AM2017)

with a resrike and multiple resrikes.

(16)(AU AM 2017)-3

3. Write the short notes on

(i)

Ferro resonance.

(8)(AU ND2016)-2

(ii)

Current chopping.

(8)(AU ND 2016)

4. What is meant by current suppression? Explain the concept in an unloaded transformer

with relevant wave forms.

(16)(AU ND2016)

(i)

5. Explain the load switching in both normal and abnormal conditions with neat sketches. (8)(AU ND 2015) (8)(AU ND 2015)

(ii)

(i)

Explain current chopping with appropriate equivalent circuit.

6. Draw and explain the waveforms for transient voltage across the load switch. (6)(AU ND 2015)-3

(ii) Explain the characteristics of energy released by a transformer when the magnetizing current is chopped and derive the expressions of current suppression. (10)(AU ND2015)-2

(i)

7. Discuss the capacitance switching with a restrike at peak voltage. Draw the characteristics and derive the relevant transient expressions. (10)(AU AM 2015)-4

(ii) What is meant by reignition current? Discuss the voltage escalation on interrupting

current to inductive load.

(6)(AU AM 2015)-2 (8)(AU AM 2015)

8. Explain Resistance switching.

(8)(AU ND 2014)-2

9. Describe with suitable example normal and abnormal switching transients. (8)(AU ND 2014)-3

(i)

(ii) Explain current suppression with appropriate equivalent

circuit.

(i)

(ii) Write a short note on resistance switching and develop the equivalent circuit. (8)(AU ND 2014)

10. Write short note on the following:

(i)

Resistance switching

(4)(AU AM 2014)

(ii)

Load switching

(4)(AU AM 2014)

(iii)

Capacitance switching

(4)(AU AM 2014)

(iv)

Capacitance switching with multiple restrikes

(4)(AU AM 2014)

11. Explain the transients due to load switching and develop the equivalent circuit. Also draw and

explain the waveforms for transient voltage across the load and switch. (16)(AU AM 2014)-4

12. A 13.8KV, 50Hz, single phase transformer takes a current of 2.8A rms (assumed sinusoidal) at a power factor of 0.15 when energized on no- load at its rated voltage. When disconnecting the transformer under these conditions, a circuit breaker chops 2A. Calculate the peak of the

voltage transients that ensues due to the chop. The effective winding capacitance is 2.5x10 -9

Farad.

(16)(AU ND 2013)

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13. Illustrate the problem of capacitance switching with the effect of source regulation. (8)(AU ND 2013)-2

(i)

(ii)

Draw the equivalent circuit for the resistance switching problems and explain the

parameters of the expressions.

(8)(AU ND 2013)

14. What is capacitance switching? Explain its effect on the performance of the power

(i)

system component.

(8)(AU ND 2012)

(ii)

Briefly discuss about Ferro resonance.

(8)(AU ND 2012)-4

15. An 8MVAR, three phase 13.8KV capacitor bank is to switched against a similar 20MVAR bank,

the 2MVAR is already energized, the 8MVAR bank is initially uncharged. A resistor is used in

control the current and transient voltage. The inductance of the loop

the

between the two capacitor banks is 30µH.What value should the resistor have if

connection to

(i)

The peak current is not to exceed 10KA.

(ii)

The peak voltage on either capacitor is not to exceed 10KV regardless of the instant

when the switching occurs.

16. Explain with appropriate waveform:

(16)(AU AM 2012)

(i)

Current suppression.

(4)(AU ND 2011)-2

(ii)

Current chopping.

(4)(AU ND 2011)

(iii)

Capacitance switching with one and multiple restrikes.

(4)(AU ND 2011)

(iv)

Ferro resonance.

(4)(AU ND 2011)

17. Write a detailed note on:

(i)

Resistance switching.

(8)(AU ND 2011)-2

(ii)

Local switching with their equivalent circuits.

(8)(AU ND 2011)

18. What is known as load switching? Derive its equivalent circuit.

(16)(AU AM 2011)-2

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UNIT III

LIGHTNING TRANSIENTS

PART A

1. What is the significance of tower footing resistance?

(AU AM 2017)-2

A low value of tower footing resistance results in less voltage stresses across line insulation.

A tower footing resistance of 20Ω for EHV lines and 10Ω for HV lines provides sufficient lightning phenomenon.

2. What is called charge formation in the clouds? (AU AM 2017)-3 During thunder storms, positive and negative charges become separated by the heavy air currents with ice crystals in the upper part and rain in the lower part of the cloud. This charge separation depends on the height of the clouds, which range from 0.2 to 10 km with their charge centers probably at a distance of about 0.25 to 2 km. The charge inside the cloud may be as high as 1 to 100C. Clouds may have a high potential as 107 to 108 V with field gradients ranging from 100 V/cm to10 kV/cm.

3. Define Isokeraunic Level or Thunderstorm days. (AU ND 2016)

It is defined as the number of days in a year when thunder is heard or recorded in a

particular location. But this indication does not often distinguish between the ground strikes and the cloud-to-cloud strikes. If a measure of ground flashover density (N g )is obtained, then the number of ground flashovers can be computed from the TD level. From the past records and the past experience, it is found that Ng= (0.1 to 0.2) TD/strokes/km 2 - year.

4. What is ground wire?

(AU ND 2016)

The use of ground wire is that it shields the transmission line conductor from induced charges, from clouds as well as from a lightning discharge.

5. How does earthing screen provide protection against direct lightning strokes? (AU ND 2015)-2 Earthing screen provides protection to power stations and sub-stations against direct strokes. It consists of a network of copper conductors (generally called shield or screen) mounted all over the electrical equipment in the sub-station or power station. The shield is properly connected to earth on at least two points through low impedance. On the occurrence of direct stroke on the station, screen provides a low resistance path by which lightning surges are conducted to ground. In this way, station equipment is protected against damage.

6. What is a voltage surge? Draw a typical lightning voltage surge. (AU ND 2015)-2

A Sudden rise in voltage for a very short duration is known as voltage surge or transient

voltage.

voltage for a very short duration is known as voltage surge or transient voltage. Fig. Lightning

Fig. Lightning voltage surge. (a), (b).

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7. Define tower footing resistance (or) What is called tower footing resistance? (AU AM 2015)-3 Tower footing resistance is the resistance offered by tower footing to the dissipation of

current. The effectiveness of a ground wire depends to a large extend on the tower footing resistance. The tower top potential depends on this resistance. Tower footing resistance depends on,

i) Type of electrode configuration employed.

ii) Soil resistivity.

8. What are the types of protection afforded by ground wires? The types of protection afforded by ground wires are as given below,

(AU AM 2015)

i) It provides protection against direct lightning strokes on transmission lines.

ii) A grounding wire provides damping effect on any disturbance travelling along the line as it acts as a short-circuited secondary.

iii) It provides a certain amount of electrostatic shielding against external fields. Thus it reduces the voltages induced in the line conductors due to the discharge of a neighboring cloud.

(AU ND 2014)-2

9. What are the causes of over voltage?

The causes of over voltages on a power system may be broadly divided in to two categories,

1. Internal Causes

(i) Switching surges

(ii) Insulation failure

(iii)

Arcing ground

(iv)

Resonance

2. External Causes

(i) Lightning

Lightning overvoltage is a natural phenomenon, while switching over voltages originate in the system itself by the connection and disconnection of circuit breaker contacts or due to initiation or interruption of faults. Switching over voltages are highly damped short duration over voltages. They are “temporary over voltages” of power frequency.

10. Mention some of the factors to be considered while designing a transmission line in

view of lightning stroke. (or) Mention the factors which are contributing to good line

design.

(AU ND 2014)-3

The objective of good line design is to reduce the number of outages caused by lightning.

First we try to keep the incidence of strokes to the system to a minimum. Then we try to minimize the effects of those strokes that do terminate on the system.

Lightning problems can be eliminated if all transmission was through tunnels atleast 20ft under the ground.

Tall towers are more vulnerable than low goal post-like structures. In order to prevent the lightning, some adequate clearances must be avoided.

High ground impedance or tower footing resistance is to be avoided.

High surge impedance in ground wires, tower structures are to be avoided.

11. What are the characteristics of the lightning stroke? The parameters and characteristics of lightning strokes are,

(AU AM 2014)-3

Amplitude of the currents

Rate of rise

Probability distribution of the above and

Wave shapes of the lightning voltages and currents

SVSCE/EEE/QB/III YR/PST

12. Write the formula for tower footing resistance.

(AU AM 2014)-2

S.No

Electrode Shape

1. Hemisphere

2. Vertical driven

rod

S.No Electrode Shape 1. Hemisphere 2. Vertical driven rod Resistance Or (Rudenberg) (Dwight)

Resistance

S.No Electrode Shape 1. Hemisphere 2. Vertical driven rod Resistance Or (Rudenberg) (Dwight)

Or

S.No Electrode Shape 1. Hemisphere 2. Vertical driven rod Resistance Or (Rudenberg) (Dwight)

(Rudenberg)

S.No Electrode Shape 1. Hemisphere 2. Vertical driven rod Resistance Or (Rudenberg) (Dwight)

(Dwight)

driven rod Resistance Or (Rudenberg) (Dwight) 3. Horizontal wire Remarks - radius of sphere - radius

3. Horizontal wire

3. Horizontal wire
3. Horizontal wire
Resistance Or (Rudenberg) (Dwight) 3. Horizontal wire Remarks - radius of sphere - radius - length
Resistance Or (Rudenberg) (Dwight) 3. Horizontal wire Remarks - radius of sphere - radius - length

Remarks

Remarks - radius of sphere - radius - length

- radius of sphere

- radius - length
-
radius
-
length
- radius - length - depth
-
radius
-
length
-
depth

13. What is the rate of charging of thunder clouds? The rate of charging of thunder clouds is given by,

clouds? The rate of charging of thunder clouds is given by, (AU AM 2014) where The

(AU AM 2014)

where

The average values observed for thunder clouds are,

where The average values observed for thunder clouds are, the electric moment of the thunder-storm. ,

the electric moment of the thunder-storm.

clouds are, the electric moment of the thunder-storm. , Electric moment and Velocity of separation of

, Electric moment

and Velocity of separation of charges,

Time constant

appear,

Sustituting these values, we get,

Time constant appear, Sustituting these values, we get, , Time for first lightning to 14. Draw

, Time for first lightning to

these values, we get, , Time for first lightning to 14. Draw the lumped parameter equivalent
these values, we get, , Time for first lightning to 14. Draw the lumped parameter equivalent
these values, we get, , Time for first lightning to 14. Draw the lumped parameter equivalent

14. Draw the lumped parameter equivalent circuit for lightning stroke to tower. (AU AM 2014)-2

for first lightning to 14. Draw the lumped parameter equivalent circuit for lightning stroke to tower.

SVSCE/EEE/QB/III YR/PST

(AU ND 2013)-2

An electric discharge between cloud and earth, between clouds or within the same cloud is known as lightning. The discharge of the charged cloud to the ground is called lightning

phenomenon (or) lightning stroke. To have a rough idea of number of lightning strokes in a day, it has been estimated that throughout the world there occur about 40,000 lightning strokes a day and about 100 lightning strokes per second.

16. What are the interaction between lightning and the power system? (AU ND 2013) The relation between lightning and power system equipments were carried out vast number of times in all developed nations concerned with evaluation, measurement, efficacy and statistics. The ultimate objective of this study has been to improve our understanding in order to overcome the interruption due to lightning. So to study the interaction, a good place to start is with a model for the lightning stroke, something that can be expressed in terms of circuit elements and can therefore be used in conjunction with the circuit elements of the power system.

15. State : Lightning stroke.

17. Why modeling of lightning is important in power systems? (AU AM 2012) The Physical characteristics of lightning strike are very complicated and still partly unexplored and are difficult to describe mathematically. Even when we could take in consider all characteristics we would get the model, which would be very complicated for practical use. That is the reason for making some simplifications and that is how different models were created.

18. Define overvoltage factor (or) overvoltage protection factor (or) amplitude factor. (AU AM 2011) Transient over voltages arising on the power system are assessed by an overvoltage factor. It is defined as the ratio of the peak overvoltage to the rated peak system frequency phase voltage.

to the rated peak system frequency phase voltage. Over voltage factor = 19. State Mason’s theory

Over voltage factor =

19. State Mason’s theory of lightning. (AU AM 2011) Mason’s states that, the thunder clouds are developed at heights 1 to 2 km above the ground level and may extend up to 12 to 14 km above the ground. For thunder clouds and charge formation air currents, moisture and specific temperature range are required. The air currents controlled by the temperature gradient move upwards carrying moisture and water droplets. The temperature is O˚C at about 4 km from the ground and may reach – 5O˚C at about 12 km height. But water droplets do not freeze as soon as the temperature is O0C. They freeze below 4O0C only as solid particles on which crystalline ice patterns develop and grow. Thus in clouds, the effective freezing temperature range is around – 33˚C to – 4O˚C. When such freezing occurs, the crystals grow into large masses and due to their weight and gravitational force start moving downwards. Thus, a thunder cloud consists of super cooled water droplets moving upwards and large hail stones moving downwards.

20. Give the measurement details of induced voltage on overhead lines due to lightning. The measurements of surge voltages indicated that,

Maximum Voltage (Peak) 5000 kV in transmission lines but on the average, most of the lightning strokes give rise to voltage surges less than 1000 kV on lines.

Front time 2 to 10 µS.

Tail time 20 to 100 µS.

Rate of rise of voltage 1 MV/µS.

SVSCE/EEE/QB/III YR/PST

21. What are the different types of lightning strokes? There are two types of lightning strokes. They are

i) Direct Lightning strokes and ii) Indirect lightning strokes

22. Differentiate between Lightning over voltages and switching over voltages.

S. No 1. It is a natural phenomenon.

S.

No

1.

It is a natural phenomenon.

Lightning Over voltages

Switching Over voltages

They originate in the system itself by the connection and disconnection of circuit breaker contacts or due to the initiation or interruption of faults

appearing on transmission does not depend on line design.

2.

3.

The magnitude of lightning voltages

If the system operating voltage is less

Switching over voltages are proportional to operating voltage.

If the system operating voltage is in the range of 300kV to 765kV both switching over voltages and lightning over voltages have to be considered.

over voltages and lightning over voltages have to be considered. than 500kV, lightning over voltages are

than 500kV, lightning over voltages are considered.

23. Define Basic impulse level. It is defined as the minimum insulation impulse withstands voltage of any power equipment or apparatus. The BIL of a power system is usually chosen as 25% to 30% more than the protective level offered by the protective devices.

24. What is meant by insulation failure? The most common case of transient over voltage in power system is the insulation failure between line and earth which cause high voltage in the system.

25. What is back flashover? When a direct lightning stroke occurs on a tower, the tower has to carry huge impulse currents. If the tower footing resistance is considerable, the potential of the tower rises to a large value, steeply with respect to the line and consequently a flashover may take along the insulator strings. This is known as back flashover.

SVSCE/EEE/QB/III YR/PST

PART B

1. What are the two theories of charge formation in the clouds? Explain them in details. (16)(AU AM 2017)-4

.

(i)

2. Explain the interaction between lightning and power system.

(8)(AU AM 2017)

(ii)

With a neat diagram, explain the protection offered ground wires.

(8)(AU AM 2017)

3. Explain the mechanism of lightning discharge and concept of tower footing resistance.

(16)(AU ND 2016)

4. Sketch the characteristics of lighting strokes and discuss the parameters of lightning flash. (16)(AU ND 2016)

.

.

5. Discuss in detail about the lightning flash parameters.

(i)

(8)(AU AM 2016)

(ii)

Differentiate between direct and indirect lightning strokes.

(8)(AU AM 2016)

6. What are the factors that contribute to good line design? Discuss in detail. (8)(AU AM 2016)

(i)

(ii)

How the ground wires protect the transmission line from lightning transients? Explain. (8)(AU AM 2016)

7. Derive the mathematical model for lightning. Write and express various parameters in

(i)

lightning model.

(8)(AU ND 2015)-7

(ii)

Write a detailed technical note on the interaction between lightning and power system

mentioning the cause and effects.

(8)(AU ND 2015)-10

8. Explain in detail how the charges are formed in the clouds. (8)(AU ND 2015)-3

(i)

(ii)

With neat sketch, explain the characteristics of lightning strokes.

 

(8)(AU ND 2015)-6

9. Discuss the physical phenomenon of lightning in detail with appropriate diagrams. (8)(AU AM 2014)-2

(i)

(ii)

Discuss the theory in the formation of clouds and charge formation. (8)(AU AM 2014)-2

10. What are the factors to be considered for good line design?

(i)

(8)(AU AM 2014)-7

(ii)

Explain the mechanism of lightning discharges. (8)(AU AM 2014)

11. Explain the physical phenomenon of lightning with a generalized diagram showing air

currents and distribution of electricity.

(16)(AU ND 2013)-2

12. Discuss and derive the distributed and lumped parameter equivalent circuit representation

for lightning stroke to transmission tower.

13. Explain the mechanism of lightning strokes.

(i)

(ii)

Write short notes on grounding for protection against lightning.

(16)(AU ND 2013)-2 (8)(AU AM 2013)-4

(8)(AU ND 2012)-3

(16)(AU ND 2011)

14. Explain the counter-poise method of protection.

15. What are the causes of over voltage? Explain the mechanism of charge formation in clouds

and also discuss the mechanism of lightning strokes.

(16)(AU AM 2009)

16. Give the protection afforded by grounding wires. Discuss the interaction between lightning

and power system and explain the mathematical model.

17. Explain in detail about the tower footing resistance.

(16)(AU AM 2009)

(16)

SVSCE/EEE/QB/III YR/PST

UNIT IV

TRAVELLING WAVES ON TRANSMISSION LINE COMPUTATION OF TRANSIENTS

PART A

1. What are standing waves?

(AU AM 2017)

A standing wave is a vibrational pattern created within a medium when the vibrational frequency of the source causes reflected waves from one end of the medium to interfere with incident waves from the source. This interference occurs in such a manner that specific points along the medium appear to be standing still. Because the observed wave pattern is characterized by points that appear to be standing still, the pattern is often called a standing wave pattern.

2. What is attenuation? How they are caused?

(AU AM 2017)

The decrease in the magnitude of the wave as it propagates along the line is called attenuation. Attenuation is caused due to the energy loss in the line.

3. What are the damages caused by the travelling waves? (AU ND 2016) The disturbance propagates as a travelling wave to the ends of the line or to a termination, such as a substation. Usually these travelling waves are high frequency disturbances and travel as waves. They may be reflected, transmitted, attenuated or distorted during propagation until the energy is absorbed.

4. Draw the diagrams of meeting of two positive current waves in opposite directions. (AU AM 2016)

positive current waves in opposite directions. (AU AM 2016) Fig. Diagrams of meeting of two positive

Fig. Diagrams of meeting of two positive current waves in opposite directions.

5. Draw the neat sketch of Bewley’s Lattice diagram.

(AU AM2016)

opposite directions. 5. Draw the neat sketch of Bewley’s Lattice diagram. (AU AM2016) Fig. Bewley’s Lattice

Fig. Bewley’s Lattice diagram.

SVSCE/EEE/QB/III YR/PST

6. Write the expression for series and shunt lumped parameters in distributed lines. (AU ND 2015)-2 The expression for series and shunt lumped parameters in distributed lines is given by,

For Voltage V,

Where

in distributed lines is given by, For Voltage V, Where and For current I, with a
in distributed lines is given by, For Voltage V, Where and For current I, with a

and For current I,

with a dimension of velocity.

V, Where and For current I, with a dimension of velocity. 7. Define standing wave voltage

7. Define standing wave voltage ratio (or) What is SWR? (AU ND 2015)-3

A standing wave ratio (SWR) is the ratio of the amplitude of a partial standing wave at an

antinode (maximum) to the amplitude at an adjacent node (minimum) in an electrical transmission line. The standing wave ratio is usually defined as a voltage ratio called the voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR).

8. What is the importance of Bewley’s Lattice diagram? (AU AM 2015) The lattice diagram determines the voltage at a given point and time in a transmission system. It is a useful aid to keep track of travelling voltage wave or current wave as it reflects back and forth from the ends of the line.

9. What is a travelling wave?

(AU ND 2014)-2

Any disturbance on a transmission line or a system such as sudden opening or closing of line,

a short circuit or a fault results in the development of over voltages or over current at that point. This disturbance propagates as a travelling wave to the ends of the line or to a termination, such as a substation. Usually these travelling waves are high frequency disturbances and travel as waves. They may be reflected, transmitted, attenuated or distorted during propagation until the energy is absorbed.

10. What is Bewley’s lattice diagram?

(AU ND 2014)

The Bewley’s lattice diagram or time space diagrams from which the motion of reflected and transmitted waves and their position at every instant can be obtained. It is useful aid to keep track of travelling voltage wave or current wave as it reflects back and forth from the ends of the line.

11. What is standing wave?

(AU AM 2014)-3

A standing wave, also known as stationary wave, is a wave that remains in a constant

position. This phenomenon can occur because the medium is moving in the opposite direction to the wave, or it can arise in the stationary medium as a result of interference between two waves travelling in opposite directions.

12. Write the travelling wave equation and define the terms.

Voltage wave equation,

Current wave equation,

Where,

terms. Voltage wave equation, Current wave equation, Where, Voltage wave, Current wave and Propagation constant. (AU

Voltage wave,

Voltage wave equation, Current wave equation, Where, Voltage wave, Current wave and Propagation constant. (AU AM
Voltage wave equation, Current wave equation, Where, Voltage wave, Current wave and Propagation constant. (AU AM
Voltage wave equation, Current wave equation, Where, Voltage wave, Current wave and Propagation constant. (AU AM

Current wave and

Voltage wave equation, Current wave equation, Where, Voltage wave, Current wave and Propagation constant. (AU AM

Propagation constant.

(AU AM 2014)

SVSCE/EEE/QB/III YR/PST

13. Draw the lattice diagram for a single transmission line terminated in an impedance Z. (AU AM 2014)-2

line terminated in an impedance Z. (AU AM 2014)-2 Fig. Lattice diagram for a single transmission

Fig. Lattice diagram for a single transmission line terminated in an impedance Z.

14. Distinguish between reflection and refraction of travelling waves with expressions. (AU ND 2013)

Reflection involves a change in direction of waves when they bounce off a barrier; refraction of waves involves a change in direction of waves as they pass from one medium to another.

The reflection coefficient is given by (Z B Z A ) / (Z B + Z A ) and is designated as ‘a’, which can be positive or negative depending upon the relative values of Z A and Z B , -1 ≤ a≤ +1. The refraction coefficient is given by 2Z B / (Z B + Z A ) and is designated as ‘b’, which varies between zero and two depending upon the relative values of Z A and

Z B .

15. Draw the electric and magnetic field lines of a current carrying single phase

transmission system. (AU ND 2013) 16. What are the advantages of Bewley’s lattice diagram? (AU
transmission system.
(AU ND 2013)
16. What are the advantages of Bewley’s lattice diagram?
(AU AM 2013)

All waves travel downward i.e., in to the positive time.

The position of the wave at any time can be deduced directly from the diagram.

Attenuation is included, so that the wave arriving at the far end of a line corresponds to the value entering multiplied by the attenuation factor of the line.

The history and origin of the wave is easily traced.

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17. What are the incident and reflected waves? (AU ND 2012) The wave that starts travelling over the line when the switch is closed, could be considered as the incident wave and after the wave reaches the open end, the rise in potential ‘V’ could be considered due to a wave which is reflected at the open end and actual voltage of the open end could be considered as the refracted or transmitted wave. Incident wave + Reflected wave = Refracted wave

18. Write the characteristics of switching surges.

(AU ND 2012)

De-energizing of transmission lines, cables, shunt capacitor, banks, etc.

Disconnection of unloaded transformers, reactors, etc.

Energization or reclosing of lines and reactive loads,

Sudden switching off of loads.

Short circuits and fault clearances.

Resonance phenomenon like ferro-resonance, arcing grounds, etc

19. What is the necessity of considering distributed parameters in the study of

transmission lines?

It may be emphasized that, the exact solution of any transmission line must consider the fact

that the constants of the line are not lumped but are distributed uniformly throughout the length of the line.

(AU AM 2012)

20. Write the wave equation of a uniform, isolated two-wire transmission line connected

to voltage source of zero impedance. Voltage wave equation,

to voltage source of zero impedance. Voltage wave equation, Current wave equation, (AU AM 2012) (AU

Current wave equation,

impedance. Voltage wave equation, Current wave equation, (AU AM 2012) (AU ND 2011)-2 The natural frequency

(AU AM 2012)

(AU ND 2011)-2

The natural frequency is the frequency at which a system oscillates when it is disturbed. Systems have inertial and elastic characteristics which make them want to oscillate or vibrate at certain frequencies. These specific frequencies are called natural frequencies.

22. What is meant by reflection and refraction of travelling waves? (AU ND 2011) Reflection involves a change in direction of waves when they bounce off a barrier; refraction of waves involves a change in direction of waves as they pass from one medium to another and diffraction involves a change in direction of waves as they pass through an opening or around a barrier in their path.

23. What are the specifications of a travelling wave?

21. Define natural frequencies.

(AU AM 2011)-2

A travelling wave is characterized by four specifications:

i) Crest of a wave

ii) Front of a wave

iii) Tail of a wave

iv) Polarity

24. Why velocity of propagation over all over head lines is same? (AU AM 2011) Velocity of propagation over all overhead lines is same because the product of L and C is same for all overhead lines.

Velocity of propagation over all overhead lines is same because the product of L and C

SVSCE/EEE/QB/III YR/PST

25. Write the expressions for reflection coefficient and refraction coefficient. (AU AM 2011)

coefficient and refraction coefficient. (AU AM 2011) - 1 ≤ a ≤ +1 Where Z A

-1 ≤ a ≤ +1

and refraction coefficient. (AU AM 2011) - 1 ≤ a ≤ +1 Where Z A and

Where Z A and Z B are the characteristic impedance of the lines.

26. Define lumped parameters.

(AU ND 2010)

In a transmission line, the parameters Resistance, Inductance, Capacitance, Voltage source

etc.,

parameters.

are physically separable for analysis purposes and so they are called lumped

27. Draw the circuit of long transmission line with lumped parameters. (AU AM 2009)

long transmission line with lumped parameters. (AU AM 2009) Fig. Two wire transmission line. Fig. “Lumpy”

Fig. Two wire transmission line.

parameters. (AU AM 2009) Fig. Two wire transmission line. Fig. “Lumpy” representation of a two wire

Fig. “Lumpy” representation of a two wire line.

28. What is meant by attenuation and distortion of travelling waves? The decrease in the magnitude of the wave as it propagates along the line is called attenuation. Attenuation is caused due to the energy loss in the line. The elongation or change of waveshape that occurs is called distortion. Distortion is caused due to the inductance and capacitance of the line.

29. What is the effect of shunt capacitance at the terminal of a transmission lines? The effect of shunt capacitance at the terminal of a transmission line is to cause the voltage at the terminal is to rise to full value gradually instead of abruptly (i.e.,) to cause flattening of the wave front, which reduces the stress on the line end windings of the transformer connected to the lines.

30. How the transmission lines are classified?

The transmission lines are classified as,

i) Lines with no loss (or) ideal loss

ii) Lines without distortion (or) distortion less lines

iii) Lines with small losses

iv) Lines with infinite and finite length defined by all the four parameters.

SVSCE/EEE/QB/III YR/PST

PART B

1.

Explain Bewley’s Lattice diagrams with examples.

(16)(AU AM 2017)-10

2.

Explain the behavior of travelling waves at line terminations for

(i)

Open circuited line,

(8)(AU AM 2017)

(ii)

Short circuited line.

(8)(AU AM 2017)

3.

Explore the steps involved in Bewely’s lattice diagram construction with an example. (16)(AU ND2016)

4.

Discuss transient response of systems with series and shunt lumped parameters and

distributed lines.

(16)(AU ND2016)-4

5.

Derive the reflection and refraction coefficients of a travelling wave with diagrams.

 

(16)(AU AM 2016)-6

6.

(i)

A surge of 100 KV travelling in a line of natural impedance 600 Ω arrives at a junction with two lines of impedances 800 Ω and 200 Ω respectively. Find the surge voltages and current traveled into each branch line. (8)(AU AM 2015)-2

(ii)

Draw and explain the reflection and refraction of travelling waves on transmission lines. (8)(AU ND 2014)-2

8.

Write short note on

 

(i)

Bewley’s Lattice diagram

(8)(AU ND 2014)

(ii)

Standing wave and natural frequency

(8)(AU ND 2014)

9.

What are called lumped parameters? Explain the transient response of systems with series and shunt lumped parameters.

 

(16)(AU AM 2014)-4

10.

(i)

Explain the various types of travelling wave concept in step response. (8)(AU AM 2014)

(ii)

Compare travelling waves and standing waves.

(8)(AU AM 2014)-2

11.

Discuss the reflection and refraction of travelling waves (i) at a junction between two lines

(ii) encountering a line bifurcation (iii) from a short circuit.

(16)(AU AM 2014)

12.

(i)

Derive the wave equation and express the various parameters.

(10)(AU ND 2013)

(ii)

Explain the behavior of travelling waves at line terminations

(6)(AU ND 2013)-3

13.

Derive the travelling wave equation and its corresponding voltage solution of a single phase

transmission system.

(16)(AU ND 2013)

14.

Explain the application of Thevenin’s theorem for the calculation of reflected and refracted

waves at a line termination.

(16)(AU AM 2012)

15.

Explain the Bewley’s lattice diagram for single transmission line terminated in impedance. (16)(AU AM 2012)-2

16.

(i)

Explain the behavior of travelling waves at open circuited transmission line. (8)(AU ND 2011)

(ii)

Describe briefly about standing waves and standing wave ratio (SWR). (8)(AU AM 2011)

SVSCE/EEE/QB/III YR/PST

UNIT V

TRANSIENTS IN INTEGRATED POWER SYSTEM

PART A

1. What is meant by kilometric fault? (or) What is a short line fault? (AU AM 2017)-9 The Circuit breakers undergo less difficulty in interrupting current to a fault located close to their terminals than the current to a similar fault located away from the terminals. Kilometric fault is the fault located beyond the terminals and thus the current can be easily interrupted due to the added impedance of the line. This added impedance not only limits the current but also supports some of the system voltage. Kilometric fault is also called as Short line fault.

2. What are the effects of load rejection in power system? (AU AM 2017)-3 Load rejection is when there is a fault on the transmission line which is sensed by the protection system and trip the circuit breaker concern, during that time the load connected with the feeder and lines are suddenly dropped i.e., load throw off or load rejection occurs. Sudden load rejection on integrated power system causes the over speeding up of prime movers of generators. The speed governors and automatic voltage regulators will intervene to restore the normal conditions.

3. Write an expression for amplitude of the over voltage with circuit diagram during

the load rejection.

The expression for amplitude of the over voltage during load rejection by neglecting losses

etc., is

(AU AM 2016)

load rejection by neglecting losses etc., is (AU AM 2016) Where, reactance of generator capacitive reactance

Where, reactance of generator capacitive reactance of line at open voltage generated before over speeding and load rejection instantaneous increased frequency normal frequency

rejection instantaneous increased frequency normal frequency The voltage at the sending end is affected by line

The voltage at the sending end is affected by line length short circuit MVA at sending end bus and reactive power generator of the line. Shunt reactors may reduce the voltage to 1.2 to 1.4 p.u. The Circuit diagram is shown below,

to 1.2 to 1.4 p.u. The Circuit diagram is shown below, Fig. Amplitude of the over

Fig. Amplitude of the over voltage with circuit diagram during the load rejection.

SVSCE/EEE/QB/III YR/PST

4. Write a short note on EMTP.

(AU AM 2016)

The EMTP (Electromagnetic Transient Program) is a comprehensive computer program designed to solve electrical transient problems in lumpy circuits, distributed circuits or combination of both. This program is capable of solving steady-state circuit problems. Transient analysis can be carried out in circuits with any arbitrary configuration of lumped parameters (R, L and C). Transmission lines with distributed parameters, transposed (or) un-transposed, can be included in the network. Losses in such lines are approximated to good effect by lumped resistance. In order to perform transient analysis, it is often a good idea to obtain a steady-state solution first to check on the validity of the network representation and also obtain initial conditions for the transient study.

5. What do you mean by critical flash over voltage?

(AU ND 2015)

Critical flashover (CFO) voltage is the peak voltage for a 50% probability of flashover or

disruptive discharge.

6. List out the advantages of EMTP.(or) Mention the features of EMTP. (AU ND 2015)-2

The methods used in EMTP are numerically stable and error free.

The EMTP can designed to solve electrical transient problems in lumpy circuits, distributed circuits or combination of both.

The EMTP is also capable of solving steady-state circuit problems.

Transient analysis can be carried out in circuits with any arbitrary configuration of lumped parameters (R, L and C).

Transmission lines with distributed parameters, transposed (or) un-transposed, can be included in the network. Losses in such lines are approximated to good effect by lumped resistance.

7. Distinguish between line dropping and load rejection. (AU AM 2015)-2 In general, on transmission lines the voltage simply decreases as one move from the substation out forward the end of a distribution feeder. This charge in voltage is known as line drop. Load rejection is when there is a fault on the transmission line which is sensed by the protection system and trip the circuit breaker concern, during that time the load connected with the feeder and lines are suddenly dropped i.e., load throw off or load rejection occurs.

8. What is meant by EMTP? Write about its importance in transient analysis. (AU ND 2014)-2 EMTP is called Electromagnetic Transient Program. The EMTP is a comprehensive computer program designed to solve electrical transient problems in lumpy circuits, distributed circuits or combination of both. This program is capable of solving steady-state circuit problems. Transient analysis can be carried out in circuits with any arbitrary configuration of lumped parameters (R, L and C). Transmission lines with distributed parameters, transposed (or) untransposed, can be included in the network. Losses in such lines are approximated to good effect by lumped resistance.

9. How EMTP is used for the computation of transients? (AU ND 2014) The EMTP is a comprehensive computer program designed to solve electrical transient problems in lumpy circuits, distributed circuits. This program is capable of solving steady- state circuit problems. Transient analysis can be carried out in circuits with any arbitrary configuration of lumped parameters (R,L and C). Transmission lines with distributed parameters, transposed (or) untransposed can be included in the network. In order to perform transient analysis, it is often a good idea to obtain a steady-state solution first to check on the validity of the network representation and also obtain initial conditions for the transient study.

SVSCE/EEE/QB/III YR/PST

10. Which software do you suggest to solve electrical transient problems?

(AU AM 2014) I suggest EMTP software for solving electrical transient problems. Because, the EMTP software is a comprehensive computer program designed to solve electrical transient problems in lumpy circuits, distributed circuits. This program is capable of solving steady- state circuit problems.

11. Define Surge impedance.

(AU ND 2013)

The ratio of voltage to current which has the dimensions of impedance is called as surge impedance of the line. i.e., a wave of current should accompany the wave of voltage. It is also called natural impedance because this impedance does not depend on load impedance but depends only on the line constants and it is given by Z 0 = Z n √(L/C). The value of this impedance is 400Ω to 600Ω for an overhead line and 40Ω to 60Ω for a cable.

12. Write some of the transient studies that can be performed using EMTP software. (AU ND 2013)

Lightning over-voltage studies.

Switching transients and faults.

Statistical and systematic over voltages studies.

Ferro-resonance studies.

Transient stability and motor startup.

Circuit breakers duty study, current chopping.

13. What are the methods for controlling the over voltages due to switching and power

frequency?

(AU ND 2012)

Energization of transmission lines in one or more steps by inserting resistances and withdrawing them afterwards.

Phase controlled closing of circuit breakers.

Drainage of trapped charges before reclosing.

Use of shunt reactors and

Limiting switching surges by suitable surge diverters.

14. Give the applications of EMTP software.

(AU AM 2012)-2

Power Electronic applications.

Machine modeling.

Transformer and shunt reactor / capacitive switching.

Harmonic analysis, network resonances.

Protective device testing.

FACTS devices STATCOM, SVC, UPFC, TCSC modeling.

Shaft torsional oscillations.

15. State surge impedance loading.

(AU AM 2012)

In electric power transmission, the characteristic impedance of a transmission line is expressed in terms of the surge impedance loading (SIL), or natural loading, being the power loading at which reactive power is neither produced nor absorbed.

at which reactive power is neither produced nor absorbed. 16. What is meant by distribution of

16. What is meant by distribution of voltage in a power system? (AU ND 2011) In an integrated power system the voltage produced will be distributed to the consumer ends through transmission line .If a fault occurs at transmission line then the circuit breaker operates and interrupts the fault current. During the interruption of fault the voltage will be distributed along the lines according to its added impedance.

SVSCE/EEE/QB/III YR/PST

17. What are the effects of transients when a switch is closed? (AU ND 2011) When a switch is closed immediately prior to the circuit being completed a certain voltage exists across the switch contacts. At the moment the contacts made by prestriking discharge, this voltage disappears.

18. Draw the Norton’s equivalent circuit to model a capacitor in a network for EMTP

calculation.

(AU AM 2011)

a capacitor in a network for EMTP calculation. (AU AM 2011) Fig. Norton’s equivalent circuit .

Fig. Norton’s equivalent circuit.

19. What are called switching surges? (AU ND 2010) The over voltages produced on the power system due to switching operations are known as

Switching surges. The making and breaking of electric circuits with switch gear may result in abnormal transient over voltages in a power system having large inductances and capacitances. The different situations under which this happens are summarized as

i) Interruption of low inductive currents by high speed circuit breaker.

ii) Interruption of small capacitance currents (switching operation of unloaded lines).

iii) Ferro resonance.

iv) Energisation of loaded line

20. Define over voltage in the context on integrated power system. (AU AM 2009) In integrated power system the lightning transients produce the highest voltage and the switching transients geared with the system voltage and consequently produce a very high voltage. In integrated system the over voltage produced will be very high.

21. Define transmission coefficient. It is defined as the ratio of voltage of transmitted wave to the voltage of incident wave.

voltage of transmitted wave to the voltage of incident wave. 22. What is integrated power system?

22. What is integrated power system? Bulk electricity networks are made up of generators that produce power, loads that consume power and transmission lines that transit power from generators to loads. Electricity networks are typically geographically vast and completely interconnected with thousands of lines connected in a web-like pattern under the control of a single network operator.

23. What are the variants of EMTP?

i)

ii)

iii)

iv)

v)

vi)

EMTDC

-

Electromagnetic transients for DC

PSCAD

-

Power system computer aided design

ATP

-

Alternative transient program

EMTP RV

-

Electromagnetic transients program Restructure & version

MT EMTP

-

Micro Tran EMTP

RTDS

-

Real time digital simulator

What

24. voltages?

are

the

methods used

for

analyzing

the

transient

over

i) Lattice diagram

ii) Fourier transform

iii) Transient network analysis (TNA)

iv) Electromagnetic Transient Program (EMTP).

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25.

What is meant by voltage drop or line drop in general? In general, on transmission lines the voltage simply decreases as one move from the substation out forward the end of a distribution feeder. This charge in voltage is known as the line drop.

 

PART B

1.

Explain in detail about the switching surges on an integrated power system.

 

(16)(AU AM 2017)

2.

(i)

What are the causes of transients on closing and reclosing of transmission lines? Explain. (8) (AU AM 2017)

(ii)

Explain about line dropping and load rejection in integrated power system. (8) (AU AM 2017)-2

3.

Describe in detail about the causes of over voltages due to various faults occurring in a power

system.

(16)(AU ND 2016)

4.

Examine the computation of Transients in power system using EMPT.

(16)(AU ND 2016)-2

5.

Discuss in detail about the kilometric fault with necessary diagrams, expressions and voltage

and recovery voltage wave forms.

(16)(AU AM 2016)

6.

Explain the voltage transients on closing and reclosing of lines and switching surges on

integrated system.

(16)(AU AM 2016)-5

7.

(i)

Explain in detail about the short line fault.

(6)(AU ND 2015)

(ii)

Discuss about the switching surges on integrated system with suitable example. (10)(AU ND 2015)

8.

(i)

Describe how the voltage is distributed in a power system.

(8)(AU AM 2015)

(ii)

Derive the voltage transients on reclosing lines.

(8)(AU AM 2015)

9.

Explain in detail how EMTP is used for the computation of transients in power system.

 

(16)(AU AM 2015)-2

10.

What is meant by switching surges? Explain in detail about the switching surges in

integrated system.

(16)(AU ND 2014)-4

11.

Briefly explain the following :

(i)

Kilometric fault

(4)(AU ND 2014)

(ii)

Line dropping

(4)(AU ND 2014)

(iii)

Over voltage induced by fault

(4)(AU ND 2014)

(iv)

Voltage transients due to closing of lines

(4)(AU ND 2014)

12.

(i)

With a neat schematic diagram, explain the distribution of voltages in the power

 

system.

(10)(AU AM 2014)

 

(ii)

Explain briefly about the switching surges on integrated system.

(6)(AU AM 2014)

13.

(i)

Explain the occurrence of over voltages in power systems due to faults.

(ii)

Write short note on line dropping and load rejection.

(10)(AU AM 2014) (6)(AU AM 2014)

14.

Discuss briefly the following :

(i)

Short line fault

(8)(AU ND 2014)

(ii)

Over voltage induced by faults

(8)(AU ND 2014)

15.

(i)

Explain the line dropping and load rejection.

(8)(AU AM 2014)

(ii)

Explain the causes of transients on closing and reclosing of

 

transmission lines.

 

(8)(AU AM 2014)

16.

Discuss the following in detail.

(i)

Over voltage induced by faults.

(8)(AU ND2013)

(ii)

Line dropping and load rejection.

(8)(AU ND2013)-2

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