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Time is the most important and precious resource available to the mankind to
be utilized instantly. It doesn’t wait for anybody whosoever is the person. We can
also say time when utilized appropriately to the maximum extend can give amazing
results. In case of a manager, it is the most precious resource available. The
maximum utilization of the time in a day should be the adored principle, one who
kills time, kills his and his company’s progress time is the resources equally
available to each one of us. There is no unequal distribution of time. Mangers
employees and employees should understand the importance of time. With the
background of the scenario of economic recession.

People waste time and then complain about its shortage, of time is
wasted work will suffer. Work goes on increasing with time. Every second I
precious worth of time should been taught to the executives, employees and
employees. If it is wasted, Then it becomes costly its wastage adds to cost.

Time being the most important resource, its value must be understood
by one and all. It is more important than money and other material resources. It
is, therefore, necessary to manage time skillfully. Time is divided into past,
present and future. Present is the most important of time. It’s like ready cash
hence it must be used immediately with effective management. Those who
utilize time properly are time conscious they reach their office on time such
people and executives command respect.

On the contrary, there are many who are never on time, to them being
light and wasting time add to their prestige so that people should say they are
the busiest persons. The success and failure of executives depends on proper
use of time. Being one of the most important resources it must be saved from
prolonging the unnecessary meetings and useless chats with colleagues and
friends to use it for more purposeful tasks. On completing the task on time, if

exhausted, he should take rest .What we have to keep in mind is that it is not up
to how much of time we have used, it lies on the quality of work we have done.

Time management is commonly defined as the various means by which

people effectively use their time and other closely related resources in order to
make the most out of it. In business, time management has morphed in to
everything from methodologies such as Enterprise Resources planning through
consultant services such as professional organizers. When we think of time
management, however, we tend to think of personal time management, loosely
defined as managing our time to waste less time on doing the things we have to
do so we have more time to do the things we want to do.

Generally, time management refers to the development of processes and

tools that increase efficiency and productivity. Any people mistake time tracking
for time management. They religiously keep track of everything they do each
day, for weeks or even months. And then they stop doing it because they haven’t
realized any positive changes. But keeping track of how you spend your time
isn’t time management. Time management is about making changes to the way
you spend your time.

Keeping track of your many daily activities is just a preliminary step to

effective time management. The first step of time management is to analyze
how you actually spend your time so you can determine what changes you want
to make.

This is where many people’s attempts at time management fail. They

look at specific day in their Day-Timer or Outlook calendar or on their palm
which is packed with activities from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. or 5 p.m. to 8 a.m. and don’t
know what to do with it. So they fall back on the tried and true techniques and
eliminate a few events and prioritize others. But they haven’t really managed
anything; they’ve just rearranged it. All the perceived problems and frustrations
of the day’s activities are still there and at the end of their they’re still frazzled
and frustrated.

The needs for time management for the corporations arise because of
fast changing world. Everything is moving fast. The competition is increasing
day in and day out. Executives must be time conscious. They have to take
decisions quickly and on time. The delays in taking decision may push the
companies back. Corporation should use the modern technologies as and when
they are available. This is all possible if time is perfectly worked. The
globalization of trade and economic liberalization has increased need for

What is Time Management ?

Time Management refers to managing time effectively so that the right time
is allocated to the right activity.

Effective time management allows individuals to assign specific time slots to

activities as per their importance.

Time Management refers to making the best use of time as time is always

Ask yourself which activity is more important and how much time should be
allocated to the same? Know which work should be done earlier and which can be
done a little later.

Time Management plays a very important role not only in organizations but also in
our personal lives.

Time Management includes:

i. Effective Planning

ii. Setting goals and objectives

iii. Setting deadlines

iv. Delegation of responsibilities

v. Prioritizing activities as per their importance

vi. Spending the right time on the right activity

 Effective Planning

Plan your day well in advance. Prepare a To Do List or a “TASK PLAN”.

Jot down the important activities that need to be done in a single day
against the time that should be allocated to each activity. High Priority

work should come on top followed by those which do not need much of
your importance at the moment. Complete pending tasks one by one. Do
not begin fresh work unless you have finished your previous task. Tick the
ones you have already completed. Ensure you finish the tasks within the
stipulated time frame.

 Setting Goals and Objectives

Working without goals and targets in an organization would be similar to a

situation where the captain of the ship loses his way in the sea. Yes, you
would be lost. Set targets for yourself and make sure they are realistic ones
and achievable.

 Setting Deadlines

Set deadlines for yourself and strive hard to complete tasks ahead of the
deadlines. Do not wait for your superiors to ask you everytime. Learn to
take ownership of work. One person who can best set the deadlines is you
yourself. Ask yourself how much time needs to be devoted to a particular
task and for how many days. Use a planner to mark the important dates
against the set deadlines.

 Delegation of Responsibilities

Learn to say “NO” at workplace. Don’t do everything on your own. There

are other people as well. One should not accept something which he
knows is difficult for him. The roles and responsibilities must be delegated
as per interest and specialization of employees for them to finish tasks
within deadlines. A person who does not have knowledge about something
needs more time than someone who knows the work well.

 Prioritizing Tasks

Prioritize the tasks as per their importance and urgency. Know the
difference between important and urgent work. Identify which tasks should

be done within a day, which all should be done within a month and so on.
Tasks which are most important should be done earlier.

 Spending the right time on right activity

Develop the habit of doing the right thing at the right time. Work done at
the wrong time is not of much use. Don’t waste a complete day on
something which can be done in an hour or so. Also keep some time
separate for your personal calls or checking updates on Facebook or
Twitter. After all human being is not a machine.

Why Would We Manage Time?

Time management has come up as a subject in the management field to reach

the goal of increasing productivity, especially among white collar employees for
whom work output may be hard to measure. For example, an assembly line worker's
output of 60 widgets per hour can be compared to a factory average and deemed as
acceptable or not; however white collar outputs tend to be difficult to compare to
standards. So, modern managers in these areas look for ways to monitor worker
productivity in terms of time use.

Examples of Time Management Theories

Modern time management goals are still to increase productivity, but the best
way to do so remains elusive. Many researchers have explored the subject and come
up with different theories on effective time management. Here are the theories of a
few big names in the time management field:

In her 1994 book, Thinking Smarter: Skills for Academic Success, Carla
Crutsinger defined effective time management as the process of:

•Setting goals

•Prioritizing those goals

•Deciding how much time to allocate to specific tasks

•Adjusting plans as things change

•Revisiting the goals and priorities regularly

•Observing results

Academic leader Neil Shipman feels that the critical skills for time management are:

•Being aware of yourself - your habits and ways of working

•Structuring your time

•Setting goals and priorities

•Increasing personal efficiency and effectiveness

•Scheduling specific time for each activity

•Scheduling relaxation time in order to regenerate

William E. Kelly, in his 2002 article on time management, defined critical time
management skills as:

•Making task lists

•Organizing resources and work

•Setting goals

•Creating and reviewing a schedule

•Breaking down large tasks into smaller pieces




One of the most talked subject in corporate circles, in recent times is how
to optimize the contributions of human resources in achieving organizational
goals. An efficient and satisfied workforce is the most significant factor in
organizational effectiveness and marginal excellence. But experience in
business and service organizations however indicate that management,
comparatively speaking, bestows more time and attention to policies and
system relating to production, technology, investment, inventory, marketing etc.
than to human resource.

Compulsion of modern business environment is however

promoting corporate management to systematically review their current
attitude, beliefs and policies towards human resources for they contribute most
significantly to the survival and growth of organization. Enlightened and
progressive management have therefore come to believe that people are not
problems but opportunities Training and development activities are important
part of exploring these opportunities.

Moreover, Big Bazaar is one of the renowned malls. It has

133outlets across the country. It employees more than 20,000employees. Big
Bazaar is not just another hypermarket; it caters to every need of your family.

Where Big Bazaar scores over the other stores its value for money proposition
for the Indian customers.

Time Management play a very important role in the development of

the organization and its personnel. It is very important function of HR

Time Management is necessary to raise the skill levels and increase

the versatility and adaptability of the employees. This in turn will increase the
productivity of an organization.

Moreover, Big Bazaar ever growing future for their employees; a

person starting from the junior level can grow in any department of Big Bazaar
and for that reason employees Time Management play a vital role in Big Bazaar.
Hence, there could not been a better opportunities to learn about this important
aspect of HRM.

As a result this project of conducting an analysis of the Time

Management in Big Bazaar was selected.


Future Group, led by its founder and Group CEO, Mr. KishorBiyaini,
is one of India’s leading business house with multiple business spanning across
the consumption space. While retail forms the core business activity of Future
Group, group subsidiaries are present in consumer finance, capital, insurance,
leisure and entertainment, brand development, retail real estate development,
retail media and logistics.


In the lifestyle segment, the group operates Pantaloons, a fashion
retail chain and central, a chain of seamless malls. In the value segment, its
marquee brand, Big Bazaar is a hypermarket format that combines the look,
touch and feel of Indian Bazaars with the choice and convenience of modern

In 2008, Big Bazaar opened its 100 th store, making the fastest ever
organic expansion of a hypermarket. The first set of Big Bazaar opened in 2001
in Kolkata, Hyderabad and Bangalore.

The group’s specialty retail formats include books and music chain,
Depot, sportswear retailer, Planet Sports. Electronics retailers, Ezone, Home
improvement chain, Home town and rural retail chain, Aadhar among others. It
also operates popular shopping portal,

Future Capital Holdings, the group’s financial arm provides

investment advisory to assets worth over $1 billion that are being invested in
consumer brands and companies , real estate, hotels and logistics. It also
operates a consumer finance arm with branches in 150 locations. Big Bazaar is
not just another hypermarket, it cater to every need of your family. Where Big
Bazaar scores over other stores is its value for money proposition for the Indian

Big Bazaar is a chain of shopping malls in India, owned by

Pantaloon Group and which work on Wal-Mart type economies of scale. They
have had considerable success in many Indian cities and towns. Big Bazaar
provides quality items at affordable prices. It is a very innovative idea and this
hypermarket has almost anything under one roof. Apparel, Footwear, Toys,
House hold appliances and more. The ambience and customer care add to the
shopping experience.

Big Bazaar is the company’s foracy into the world of hypermarket

discount stores, the first of its kinds in India. Price and the wide array of

products are the USP’s in Big Bazaar customers. Big Bazaar offers 1.6 lakhs
mass market product ranges that are sought by a majority of Indian consumers.
The high quality of service, goal, ambience, implicit guarantees and continuous
discount programmes had helped in changing the face of Indian retailing
industry. A leading foreign broking house compared the rush at Big Bazaar to
that of a local suburban train.

 Big Bazaar is a chain of shopping malls in India currently with 214

outlets owned by the pantaloon group. The idea was pioneered by
entrepreneur Kishore Biyani, the head of pantaloon retail India ltd. The
idea from the very beginning was to make Big Bazaar very comfortable
for the Indian customer. That was Kishoreji strength as a retailer.
 Big Bazaar is not just another hypermarket. It caters to every need of
your family. Where Big Bazaar scores over other stores is its value for
money proposition for the Indian customers.
 Big bazaar all over India attract a few thousand customers on any
regular day, and a lot more if they are offering something extra on each
buy. Which they normally are! And the sales force at Big Bazaar along
with the executives is prepared for them.


The central objective for earlier businesses of big Bazaar was to bring in
stability and consolidation. The new macro-differentiate can be design.
Design is helping companies to sell differentiated experiences and solutions
that connect with the consumer emotions.

 Target customers
 Targeting young working class
 Value for money


Big Bazaar has a wide range of merchandise they have both

branded and unbranded products like

o Home line items

o Electronic items
o Mobile Zone
o Furniture
o Star Sitara
o Opticians
o Men, ladies and kids wear
o Foot wear
o Music
o Toys
o Stationary


o Mumbai
o Delhi

o Pune
o Bangalore

o Hyderabad
o Kolkata
o Chennai
o Coimbatore
o Tirupur
o Ahmadabad
o Allahabad
o Chandigar
o Cochin
o Goa
o Jaipur
o Ludhiana
o Luck now

“To deliver everything, everywhere, every time to every Indian

consumer in the most profitable manner.”


 We share the vision and belief that our customers and

stakeholders shall be served only by creating and executing future
scenarios in the consumption space leading to economic development.

 We will be the trendsetters in evolving delivery formats,
creating retail realty, making consumption affordable for all customer
segments – for classes and for masses.
 We shall infuse Indian brands with confused and renewed
 We shall be efficient and cost- conscious and committed to
quality in whatever we do.


Managing director:

 MrkishoreBiyani

Whole time Director:




 MrShaileshHaribhakti

 MrS.Doreswamy
 MrDarlieKoshy
 Mr Anil Harish


The specific objectives of the study are:

 To know whether the employees of bigbazaar have enough knowledge

about the importance of time management
 To study various measures instituted in the company for an effective
management of time in the area of work
 To know how work is related with time
 To interpret whether they use and manage there time effectively
 To suggest some guidelines to manage the time effectively in work


Research hypothesis are the specific testable prediction made about the
independent and dependent variables that are going to be used in study. The
researcher hypothesis of this study is as follows;

H1 :- Employee’s performance is increased by Time management.

H0 :- Employee’s performance cannot be increased by Time management.


1. To understand the relationship between the employer and employees

2 This study is helpful to the organization for conducting further research.

It is the helpful for the organization to understand the employee relationship

regarding human resources practices in the organization.

3. The activity shows how to diligently work together and communicate
effectively in order to ensure a successful project outcome.

4. Conducting team meetings to address concerns and to gain feedback makes

employees feel involved beyond the physical aspects of the project and also
makes them feel comfortable working under our management.

5. Work break down structure method is highly recommended for successful

project outcomes.


There are some limitations for research which are as follows:-

a) It was not always possible to visit each department.

b) The employees were busy with their work, therefore they could not give
enough time for the interview.

c) The personal biases of the respondents might have entered into their

d) Some of the respondents gave no answer to the questions, which may affect
the analysis.

e) Respondents were reluctant to disclose complete and correct information

f) Only feedback from morning shift employees can be collected not possible
to contact the night shift employees.


Generally research is considered as an endeavour to arrive at the answer to
intellectual and practical problem through the application of scientific methods to the
knowledge universe. It is movement from known to unknown. Research is
essentially a logical and an organized enquiry seeking facts through objective
verifiable methods in order to discover the relation among them and to refer from the
board principles or laws. It is really a method of critical thinking.

Research may be defined as a systematic and objective analysis and recording of

controlled observations that may lead to the development of generalization of
principles or theories resulting in predicting and possibly ultimate control of events.

Methodology is often used in a narrow sense to refer to methods, technology or tools

employed for the collection data as well as it’s processing. This is also used
sometimes to designate data collection to arrive at the conclusion. Infects, it
describes that what should have been done. It provides answers to some of the major
questions while search like what must be done, how it will be employed, how
sources of data will be analysed to arrive at the conclusion. For systematic research
scientific approach is necessary. It is therefore essential to follow systematic
methodology to arrive at a proper conclusion.

 The procedures involved in the concept of research methodology are:-

1) Selection of subject.

2) Selection of project title.

3) Selection of time period.

4) Collection of data.

5) Reliability of data.

6) Analysis of data.

7) Reporting.


Basic Research

This research is conducted largely for the enhancement of knowledge, and is

research which does not have immediate commercial potential. The research which
is done for human welfare, animal welfare and plant kingdom welfare. It is called
basic, pure, fundamental research. The main motivation here is to expand man's
knowledge, not to create or invent something. According to Travers, “Basic Research
is designed to add to an organized body of scientific knowledge and does not
necessarily produce results of immediate practical value.” Such a research is time
and cost intensive. (Example: A experimental research that may not be or will be
helpful in the human progress.)

Applied Research

Applied research is designed to solve practical problems of the modern world, rather
than to acquire knowledge for knowledge's sake. The goal of applied research is to
improve the human condition. It focuses on analysis and solving social and real life
problems. This research is generally conducted on a large scale basis and is
expensive. As such, it is often conducted with the support of some financing agency
like the national government, public corporation, world bank, UNICEF, UGC, Etc.
According to Hunt, “applied research is an investigation for ways of using scientific
knowledge to solve practical problems” for example:- improve agriculture crop
production, treat or cure a specific disease, improve the energy efficiency of homes,
offices, how can communication among workers in large companies be improved

Problem oriented research

Research is done by industry apex body for sorting out problems faced by all the
companies. Eg:- WTO does problem oriented research for developing countries, in
India agriculture and processed food export development authority (APEDA)
conduct regular research for the benefit of agri-industry.

• As the name indicates, Problem identifying researches are undertaken to know the
exact nature of problem that is required to be solved.

• Here, one clarification is needed when we use the term ‘Problem’, it is not a
problem in true sense. It is usually a decision making dilemma or it is a need to
tackle a particular business situation.

• It could be a difficulty or an opportunity.

For e.g.:-Revenue of Mobile company has decreased by 25% in the last year. The
cause of the problem can be any one of the following:

• Poor quality of the product. • Lack of continuous availability. • Not so effective

advertising campaign. • High price. • Poor calibre / lack of motivation in sales
people/marketing team. • Tough competition from imported brands. • Depressed
economic conditions

• In the same case, suppose the prime cause of problem is poor advertising campaign
& secondary cause is higher pricing. • To tackle the problem of poor advertising, we
have to answer questions like, what can be the new advertising campaign, who can
be the brand ambassador, which media, which channel, at what time & during which
programme advertisements will be broadcast.

Problem solving

This type of research is done by an individual company for the problem faced by it.
Marketing research and market research are the applied research. For eg:- videocon
international conducts research to study customer satisfaction level, it will be
problem solving research. In short, the main aim of problem solving research is to
discover some solution for some pressing practical problem.

Quantitative Research

This research is based on numeric figures or numbers. Quantitative research aim to

measure the quantity or amount and compares it with past records and tries to project
for future period. In social sciences, “quantitative research refers to the systematic
empirical investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their

relationships”. The objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ
mathematical models, theories or hypothesis pertaining to phenomena.

The process of measurement is central to quantitative research because it provides

fundamental connection between empirical observation and mathematical expression
of quantitative relationships. Statistics is the most widely used branch of
mathematics in quantitative research. Statistical methods are used extensively with
in fields such as economics and commerce.

In sum, the research using the normative approach conducts why may be called
quantative research as the inferences from it are largely based on quantative data.
Moreover, objectivity is the primary guard so that the research may be replicated by
others, if necessary.

Qualitative Research

Qualitative research presents non-quantitative type of analysis. Qualitative research

is collecting, analyzing and interpreting data by observing what people do and say.
Qualitative research refers to the meanings, definitions, characteristics, symbols,
metaphors, and description of things. Qualitative research is much more subjective
and uses very different methods of collecting information, mainly individual, in-
depth interviews and focus groups.

The nature of this type of research is exploratory and open ended. Small number of
people are interviewed in depth and or a relatively small number of focus groups are
conducted. Qualitative research can be further classified in the following type.

Phenomenology:-a form of research in which the researcher attempts to understand

how one or more individuals experience a phenomenon. Eg:-we might interview 20
victims of bhopal tragedy.

Ethnography:- this type of research focuses on describing the culture of a group of

people. A culture is the shared attributes, values, norms, practices, language, and
material things of a group of people. Eg:-the researcher might decide to go and live
with the tribal in Andaman island and study the culture and the educational practices.

Case study:-is a form of qualitative research that is focused on providing a detailed
account of one or more cases. Eg:-we may study a classroom that was given a new
curriculum for technology use.

Grounded theory:- it is an inductive type of research,based or grounded in the

observations of data from which it was developed; it uses a variety of data sources,
including quantitative data, review of records, interviews, observation and surveys

Historical research:-it allows one to discuss past and present events in the context of
the present condition, and allows one to reflect and provide possible answers to
current issues and problems. Eg:-the lending pattern of business in the 19th century.


Descriptive research studies are those studies, which describing the

characteristics of a particular individual or as group respective research required

clean specification of what who when why and how aspects of the research.


The observation method is most commonly used especially in the studies

relating to behavioral science the main advantage of this method is the subjective

bias is eliminated if observation is done accurately.


The Sample Size is 50 Respondents


The Sample Area is Nagpur city.


Data which has been collected through various sources has to proceed and analysed
the accepted relevant scientific method are used for analysed processing is done by
different graphs, which clearly show the finding and half us to understand thing is
more better way different table and comparative chart also used for analysed and the
most important ways was case study and illustration.

1. ANALYSIS: The data collected has to process and analysis is done in

accordance with the acceptable relevant scientific method processing of the
data covers editing loading classification.

2. EDITING: Editing is a routine task it is process of examining collected data

especially in survey to detest and animate error editing endures completeness
accuracy and uniformity.

3. CODING: It is process of assign numerical or other symbol to symbol to

answer so that response can be part in a limited number of categories.

4. CLASSIFICATION: The large volume of data collected for a search study

has to be reduced in homogenous gropes for getting a meaningful relationship.
This is known as classification of data. It condense data in such way that
similarities and dissimilarities can easily be apprehended, so as to facilities
comparison. Classification of data collected can be categorized as by
geographical grouping chronological grouping qualitative and quantitative

5. TABULATION: It is a process of summarizing row data and displaying the
same in concept from for further analysis. The tabulation can be simplified in
rows and columns; it conserves space and minimizes exploratory and
descriptive statements. Tabulation facilities the process of comparison. It
assists in various statistical computations. It simplifies complex data, and gives
identify to data and reveals pattern.

6. GRAPHIC PRESENTATION: Graphic presentation of statistical data gives a

pictorial effect. It enables one to present data in simple, clear and effective
manner. It shows what is happening and what is likely to take place just as
quickly as the age is capable of working. A graph is a visual form of
presentation. It provides an attractive and impressive view. It also provides
easy comparison of two or more phenomena.


Collection of data refers to purposive gathering of information relevant to the subject

matter under study and the methods used depend mainly on the nature, purpose and
scope of the enquiry to be undertaken, as well as on the availability of resources and

The data collection can be grouped under two types:-

 Primary data

 Secondary data

 PRIMARY DATA:- Primary data are those which are collected for the first
time. They are original in character. They are collected by the researcher for
the first time for her own use.

The source of primary data includes:

1. Direct personal investigation

2. Interview

3. Questionnaire

1. DIRECT PERSONAL INVESTIGATION- This implies the situation

where the researcher goes into the field of study in person for the
collection of required data. Also, the investigation of this nature is
normally confined to a single locality and the information gathered is
capital in nature.

2. INTERVIEW METHOD- Every interview has got its own balance of

revaluation and has withheld information, an interview can be effective
informal verbal and non-verbal conversation initiated for the specific
purpose focus on a certain planned contained areas.

 SECONDARY DATA- Secondary data are those which have already been
collected by others. When it is not possible to collect data in primary form,
the researcher may take the help of secondary data. They are thus which
have already been collected for serving the objectives other then what the
researcher might have in his mind.

The sources of secondary data includes:-

1) Books

2) Websites

3) Journals


A book is a collection of paper or other material with text, pictures, or both

written on them, bound together along one edge, usually with covers. In
library and information science, a book is calling a monograph to distinguish
it from serial periodicals such as magazines journals or newspapers.


A website may be the work of an individual, a business or other organization

and is typically dedicated to some particular topic or purpose. Any website
can content s hyperlink to any other website, so the distinction between
individual sites, as perceived by the user, may sometimes to blur.


A journal may publication issued at stated intervals, such as magazines or the

record of the transactions of a society, are often called journals. In academic
use, a journals refers to a serious, scholarly publication, most often peer-
reviewed. The purpose of a journal is to provide a place for the introduction a
scrutiny of new research and often a forum for the critique of existing

The Balance sheet shows the financial status of a business. The registered
companies are to follow part 1 of schedule VI of act 1956 for recording Assets
and Liabilities in the Balance Sheet.


 Performance management begins when an employee joins your workforce.

The employee's job description, new hire orientation and initial discussions
with his manager are fundamental steps in creating a performance
management plan. Employers generally provide guidance and closer
oversight during the employee's first few months of employment.

 If your business focus is the development of an innovative, high-quality

product, employee performance plays an integral role in achieving your
business goals. The design, engineering, quality assurance and marketing of
your company's product are essential components--employee performance in
these areas is critical to your business success.

 Another aspect of employee performance and business success is employee

recognition. Annual employee appraisals aren't enough--employees
appreciate frequent and regular feedback. When your management team
provides regular feedback, it motivates employees to maintain consistently
good performance.

Performance management is basically a system of different processes that

combine to create an effective workforce within your company that can effectively
reach your business goals. There are many different aspects of performance
management, but in most cases it can be broken down into a few simple steps. If
you're adopting a performance management process for the first time or want to
modify your current one to maximize its effectiveness, there are three key aspects
that are the most important in your performance management system. Obviously
these are up for debate, but in most cases of performance management you can plan
on these to have the most impact on the success or failure of your performance
management efforts.
1. Planning – The first step in any good performance management process
is likely also the most important. Haphazardly stumbling towards goals will

usually only end in disaster, so it's important that proper planning is used during
performance management. This applies not only to the performance management
system itself, but also to the inner workings of the business. Speaking strictly
about performance management, good planning begins by analyzing the exact
goals you want your company to attain and to develop realistic ways to achieve
them. It's vital that your goals be realistic, otherwise your performance
management plan will fail. It's also important to take the time to create a real
plan that can achieve your goals.

2. Monitoring – If any performance management system is to succeed it needs to

involve a very rigorous monitoring process. Closely surveying your overall
company, each department, and individuals is vital for performance management
and for you to reach your goals. Monitoring during performance management
involves not just monitoring the progress of each department and employee but
also providing them with constant feedback whether it is in the form of praise
and reward or in constructive criticism. If you want your performance
management efforts to succeed you'll have to monitor each step towards your
goal very closely to ensure everything is going according to plan. If areas seem
to be lacking, you'll need to be able to take steps to improve them such as
providing training.

3. Rewards – While some experts place this lower in importance than other aspects
of performance management, the truth is that your employees deserve rewards
and that few things will influence not only the success of your performance
management efforts but also the success of your entire company quite like
appropriate rewards. Whether it is simple public recognition or actual monetary
rewards, no performance management process will be complete or effective
without good use of rewards. They can improve morale and employee
satisfaction, boost productivity, and help you move closer to your goals. If you
want your performance management to be successful, take the time to utilize

Unicorn HRO provides performance management tools that can help you
formulate plans, monitor progress closely, and even track and manage rewards.
Having software that allows you to effectively implement performance
management is important and almost as vital as the actual steps that you take in
your performance management efforts.



A Literature review is a body of text that aims to review the critical point of
current knowledge including substantive findings as well as theoretical and
methodological contributions to a particular topic.


1) Employers have a need to keep employees from leaving and going to work
for other companies. This is true because of the great costs associated with
hiring and retraining new employees. The best way to retain employees is by
providing them with job satisfaction and opportunities for advancement in
their careers.

2) Employees that are satisfied and happy in with their jobs are more dedicated
in doing a good job and taking care of customers that sustain the operation.

3) Research has shown that there may be many environmental features that can
be created and maintained to give employees job satisfaction. Pay and
benefits, communication, motivation justice and leisure time all seem to play
a part as to whether employees are satisfied with their jobs, according to
studies which helps to retain employees.

4) The employees are extremely crucial to the organization since their value to
the organization is essentially intangible and not easily replicated Meaghan et
al., Therefore, managers must recognize that employees as major contributors
to the efficient achievement of the organization’s success.


Purpose – The purpose of this article is to provide an overview for those

interested in the current state-of-the-art in time management research.
Design/methodology/approach – This review includes 32 empirical studies on time
management conducted between 1982 and 2004. Findings – The review
demonstrates that time management behaviours relate positively to perceived control
of time, job satisfaction, and health, and negatively to stress. The relationship with
work and academic performance is not clear. Time management training seems to
enhance time management skills, but this does not automatically transfer to better
performance. Research limitations/implications – The reviewed research displays
several limitations. First, time management has been defined and operationalised in a
variety of ways. Some instruments were not reliable or valid, which could account
for unstable findings. Second, many of the studies were based on cross-sectional
surveys and used self-reports only. Third, very little attention was given to job and
organizational factors. There is a need for more rigorous research into the
mechanisms of time management and the factors that contribute to its effectiveness.
The ways in which stable time management behaviours can be established also
deserves further investigation. Practical implications – This review makes clear
which effects may be expected of time management, which aspects may be most
useful for which individuals, and which work characteristics would enhance or
hinder positive effects. Its outcomes may help to develop more effective time
management practices.

Originality/value – This review is the first to offer an overview of empirical
research on time management. Both practice and scientific research may benefit
from the description of previous attempts to measure and test the popular notions of
time management. Keywords Time measurement, Training, Control, Job satisfaction,
Performance management Paper type Literature review During the last two decades,
there has been a growing recognition of the importance of time in the organizational
literature. According to Orlikowsky and Yates (2002), the temporal dimension of
work has become more important because of expanding global competition and
increased demands for immediate availability of products and services. Garhammer
(2002) has pointed at the increased pace of life shown in doing things faster
(acceleration), contracting time expenditure (e.g. eat faster, sleep less), and
compressing actions (making a phone call while having lunch). Other studies have
examined the perception of time in organizational contexts (e.g. Palmer and
Schoorman, 1999) and the experience of time pressure among employees (e.g.
Jackson and Martin, 1996; Major et al., 2002; Teuchmann et al., 1999). The current
issue and full text archive of this journal is available at

The increasing salience of time is reflected in theoretical as well as practical

publications. A number of authors discussed the need for better incorporating time in
theoretical models and research designs (e.g. Ancona et al., 2001; George and Jones,
2000; Wright, 2002). Others focused on the ways in which people in organizations
manage their time, and on ways in which these efforts can be improved (e.g.
Macan,1994). In this article we will address time from the second perspective, and
review the empirical studies on time management. More specifically, we will review
definitions of time management, discuss methods for studying time management,
summarize empirical findings on time management and the use and effectiveness of
time management methods, identify gaps in the current research literature, and give
suggestions for future research. The interest in time management is by no means
new. The problem of how to manage time was already discussed in the 1950s and
1960s, and several authors proposed methods on how to handle time issues on the
job (e.g. Drucker, 1967; Lakein, 1973; Mackenzie, 1972; McCay, 1959). They
suggested simple remedies such as writing work plans down on paper (so-called “to-

do lists”) in order to increase job performance. At the same time, some authors (e.g.
Drucker, 1967) recognized that planning tasks and activities does not always lead to
the completion of planned work, especially when time pressure is high.
McCay (1959) developed a concept for a time-management training program,
which is still being used. Critical elements are: giving insight into time-consuming
activities, changing time expenditure, and increasing workday efficiency by teaching
people how to make a daily planning, how to prioritise tasks, and how to handle
unexpected tasks. Many books and articles were written to convey these and similar
ideas to managers, promising them a greater effectiveness while using less time (e.g.
Blanchard and Johnson, 1982). Over the years the focus of time management
publications and training courses has shifted from managers as the major target
group to a broad audience of working people. The term “time management” is
actually misleading. Strictly speaking, time cannot be managed, because it is an
inaccessible factor. Only the way a person deals with time can be influenced. Time
management can be viewed as a way of monitoring and controlling time (e.g. Eilam
and Aharon, 2003). In this regard, it would be more appropriate to speak about self-
management with regard to the performance of multiple tasks within a certain time
period. But in the literature, the term self-management has a different meaning. It
refers to monitoring and regulating oneself, but without any specific reference to
techniques for monitoring time use.
Therefore, we will stick to the use of the term time management in the present paper.
In spite of all popular attention to managing time, relatively little research has been
conducted on the processes involved in using one’s time effectively (e.g. by using
“prime time” to carry out important tasks) and completing work within deadlines. In
1987, a review was published that addressed the increasing popularity of time
management (Richards, 1987). It discussed the principles mentioned by authors like
McCay (1959) and concluded that, for instance, setting life goals and keeping time
logs were important techniques for effectively managing one’s time. Although this
article was helpful in understanding the ideas behind the notion of time management,
it was not a review of empirical time management studies. In fact, to our knowledge,
no reviews of empirical research of time management have been published since the
article by Richards (1987). Therefore, the first aim of the present study is to review

past empirical studies on time management and to determine the state-of-the-art in
this area of research. We will review the way in which researchers have incorporated
time management concepts and methods in their research and critically discuss the
research designs they used. Questions to be addressed are: What is time management
behaviour? What are its antecedents? What is its impact on outcome variables, such
as health and job performance? Our second aim is to determine in which areas more
research is needed to extend the present knowledge of time management and the
processes involved.


Empirical studies on time management published between 1954 (when time

management was introduced) and 2005 were found through PsycInfo, Sociofile, and
references of past studies. Query terms included time management, time use, time
allocation, and time structuring. A first criterion for the selection of studies was that
time management had been related to academic or work situations. Quite a few
studies dealt with topics like rehabilitation after an injury or accident, geriatric
afflictions, and other medical conditions (for example, Sakelaris, 1999), which fell
outside the scope of our study. The second criterion was that time management
behaviour or attitudes had been measured by means of instruments constructed for
this purpose. In some studies (e.g. Sweidel, 1996), time management was measured
post hoc by combining some items that were more or less related to time
management, rather than by means of validated scales to measure time management.
Results were therefore questionable and were not included in this review study.
Using these two criteria, 35 empirical studies were selected for inclusion in this
review.We will discuss these studies by presenting the theoretical contributions
made, the definition of time management used, the measurement scales, the results,
gaps in research, and suggestions for future research.


Table I describes the studies included in this review in terms of: author(s) and
publication year, the methods used, the samples, the measures of time management,
and the variables involved. As can be seen in Table I, we found no empirical studies
published before 1982. Obviously, time management has made its way into the
literature without being accompanied by empirical research. The number of
respondents in the studies ranged from four to 701, with an average of 90. Three
types of research groups were included,

(1) Employees of different organizations (social service agencies, car dealers);

(2) Students following psychology classes; and
(3) Employees with double workload, that is, working full-time while studying
part-time, or working full-time and running a household with children.
The majority of respondents were recruited among students in psychology
Research methods included self-report questionnaires, diaries, and experiments



1) Are you aware the deadlines & schedule of work in company?

Work Employees Percentage

Yes 30 60%
No 20 40%
Total 50 100%


40 Yes



From the above graph is 60% of Worker are aware of Deadlines &
Schedules are aware of the Company and 40% Worker are not aware of
Deadlines & schedules of company.

2) How long have you been working for the company.

Work Employees Percentage

Less than 1 Year 10 20%

1 – 2 Year 12 25%
Above 2 Year 33 55%
Total 50 100%



Less than 1 Year

1 - 2 Year
Above 2 Year


From the above graph 20% Employees are working for Less than
1 Year in the company, 25% Employees are Working since 1 – 2 Year
and 55% Employees are working more and than 2 years.

3) Do you know you can help the organization to achieve its aims.

Work Employees Percentage
Yes 35 70%
No 15 30%
Total 50 100%





From the above graph is 70% Worker in the organization helps

any problem in the work and 30% employees are not help the

4) Find the plan & schedule the time ?

Work Employees Percentage

Always 20 40
Usually 15 30
Sometimes 10 20
Rarely 5 10
Total 50 100%



20 40 Usually



From the above graph is 40% Employees are Plan in working time
is always and regularly, 30% are usually plan the working time, 20%
Employees are plan in sometimes and 10% Rarely working in

5) Do you keep the work space tidy, so that can be done

Work Employees Percentage

Frequently 18 35
Always 12 28
Rarely 10 22
Sometimes 5 16
Total 50 100%



35 Frequently



From the above graph is 35% Employees is working space tidy,

28% are always in work, 22% Employees are not efficiently work and
16% are sometimes.

6) Find the plan & scheduled the time ?

Work Employees Percentage

Always 20 40
Usually 12 25
Sometimes 10 20
Rarely 8 15
Total 50 100%



40 Usually
20 Rarely



From the above graph 40% Employees are Plan & schedules are
decide the and 25% employees in usually plan and scheduled time in

working and 20% Employees are sometime and 15% Employees in
Rarely Time scheduled.

7) Do you have up to date written goals for all areas of your


Work Employees Percentage

Yes 35 70
No 15 30
Total 50 100%






From the above graph is 70% Employees are date and work are
decided in office and 30% are not goals of the work.

8) Are you able to relax in your free time without worrying about
your work?

Work Employees Percentage

Yes 20 40
No 30 60
Total 50 100%


40 Yes



From the above graph is 40% employees working are complete

and free time without worrying in work and 60% are working in rest.

9) Do you schedule time for your physical exercise?

Work Employees Percentage

Yes 25 50
No 15 30
Sometime 10 20
Total 50 100%






From the above graph is 50% Employees are schedules time is

decided and physical exercise and 30% Employees are not decide the
schedule time in physical exercise and 20% employees are sometimes.

10) Finish one job or task before going to the next?

Work Employees Percentage

Always 20 40
Usually 10 20
Sometimes 8 15
Rarely 12 25
Total 50 100%



40 Usually




From the above graph is 40% Employees are one job is Always
and next working time is start, 20% employees are usually the time is
next and 15% employees are one job or task before company and 25%
are no job.

11) Do you think that the incentives and other benefits will
influence your performance?

Work Employees Percentage

Influence 25 50
Does not influence 15 30

No opinion 10 20
Total 50 100%



Does not influence
No opinion



From the above graph is 50% Employees are working is better

and company are benefit is provided and influence, 30% are not
influence and facility not provide and 20% employees are no opinion.

12) Does your job improve your skills & abilities ?

Work Employees Percentage

Yes 40 80

No 10 20
Total 50 100%






From the above graph is 80% Employees are improve the skill
and abilities in job at company because the experience in the company
and 20% employees are not improve in skills and ability.

13) Do you keep the work space, tidy, so that work can be done

Work Employees Percentage
Frequently 20 40
Always 10 20
Sometimes 8 15
Rarely 12 25
Total 50 100%



40 Usually




From the above graph is 40% Employees are working time tidy,
20% employees are done in efficiently in your work and 15% are
sometime in working time and 25% are rarely in your working space.

14) Find that doing everything is very efficient?

Work Employees Percentage

Always 18 35
Usually 15 30
Sometimes 13 25
Rarely 10 20
Total 50 100%







From the above graph is 35% employees is very efficient in the

company and 30% are usually in work, 25% are sometimes and 20% are
rarely in working time.



The data collected are analyzed by appropriate mathematical tool such as

percentages. The major findings emanating from study are summarized in
following paragraphs.

 Age wise, a good majority belong to upper middle class and middle class
 On the basis of income, a good majority belong 8000-10000 income
 Out of the 40 respondents, most of them find enough time to discharge
their duties.
 Out of the 40 respondents majority of 50% always agree that they are
aware of deadlines and schedule their work to meet them in plenty of
 It can conclude that most of the respondents write specific objectives in
order to work towards their goals which are equally true for all the
 Out of all the respondents majority agreed that they have the habit of
using calendar to write down appointment, deadlines etc,.
 Most of the respondents agree that they have control at work and at
 Out of the 40 respondents, majority usually plan and schedule their time
on a weekly or a monthly basis.
 Out of the 40 respondents, half of them maintain a daily-to-do list and
refer it several times a day. Rest half rarely keeps a record.

 A majority state that they are able to say ‘No’ when they are pressed for
 Majority of respondents rarely delegate their respondents to others.

 Majority of the employees organize their desks and work area to prevent
clutter and confusion.
 Most of the employees find it easy to eliminate priority items and given
more time to priority items.
 Most of the respondents try to do things in a way that cuts down on
duplicated efforts.
 Most of the employees find it efficient to do everything themselves.
 Majority of the respondents try to shift priorities as soon as they change.
 Most of the employees agree that their meetings and activities are well
organized and efficient.


On the basis of the study, following recommendations are advanced for

better management of time.

 Keeping a diary of activities and an accurate record of time wasters

should give us a clear picture of how we are doing as time mangers and
how far we need to go to become time managers.
 Prioritize tasks according to importance. After writing down these
activities, give them a priority ranking, top, high, low or least.
 Schedule demanding tasks during periods of high energy. There are
morning, noon and night people. Scheduling in this manner will allow
you to do your best on the important assignments.
 Eliminate time wasting activities. Eliminate all the things you do every
day that are unnecessary. Put them at the end of the list.
 Improve reading and writing skills. Effective communication including
the ability to read quickly and write coherently is basic to all effective
time management.
 Finish one task before starting another. Some of us can handle several
things at the same time; most of us can’t. Assign a priority rating to
each task and eliminate the tendency to procrastinate.
 Write it down. Taking good notes supplies you with information,
reminds you of priorities and provide you with a back up to your
calendar. Always keep a pencils and small note pad available and get in
the habit of using it.

 Develop an effective reminder system. No one can remember every
thing without a reminder; follow-up material and attention to small
details suffer.
 Being in control is as important in time management as in stress
management. Avoid unnecessary calls and unorganized meeting or
 Plan schedules in an organized manner by using a calendar or
appointment book. These tools are organized in a way that makes
scheduling and planning easy, effective and manageable.
 Leave some of your schedule open. Never fill up your schedule
completely, by leaving yourself available time for emergency meetings
or unexpected jobs, you will be less anxious about your ability to
schedule ‘just one more thing’.
 Develop and keep deadlines. Don’t put off projects. Procrastination just
makes deadlines harder to meet. Know when your deadlines are and
keep them.


Book Reference :-

 Dr. Andrew Goliszek - Time Management 1st edition

 Aswatappa K - Human Resource and Personnel


 Elhance D.N - Fundamentals of Statistics Allahabad


 Fontana David - Management of Time Excel Book 1 st


 Sheikh A.M - Human Resource Development

 Adams, G.A. And Jex, S.M. (1997),

“Confirmatory Factor Analysis Of The Time Management
 Behaviour Scale”, Psychological Reports, Vol. 80, Pp. 225-6.
 Adams, G.A. And Jex, S.M. (1999)
“Relationships Between Time Management, Control,

Websites -




1) To aware the deadlines & schedule of work in company?

 Yes
 No

2) How long have you been working for the company.

 Less than 1 Year

 1 – 2 Year
 Above 2 Year

3) Do you know you can help the organization to achieve its aims.

 Yes

 No

4) To find the plan & schedule the time ?

 Always
 Usually
 Sometimes
 Rarely

5) Do you keep the work space tidy, so that can be done


 Frequently
 Always
 Rarely
 Sometimes

6) To find the plan & scheduled the time ?

 Always
 Usually
 Sometimes
 Rarely

7) Do you have up to date written goals for all areas of your


 Yes
 No

8) Are you able to relax in your free time without worrying about
your work?

 Yes
 No

9) Do you schedule time for your physical exercise?

 Yes
 No
 Sometime

10) To finish one job or task before going to the next?

 Always
 Usually
 Sometimes
 Rarely

11) Do you think that the incentives and other benefits will
influence your performance?

 Influence
 Does not influence
 No opinion

12) Does your job improve your skills & abilities ?

 Yes
 No

13) Do you keep the work space, tidy, so that work can be done

 Frequently
 Always
 Sometimes
 Rarely

14) To find that doing everything is very efficient?

 Always
 Usually
 Sometimes
 Rarely