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GREEN MANUFACTURING

Prof.Dr R Prabhu,
BE,ME,Ph.D,FIE,C.Engg,PGDPM&IR
Email id: r.prabhu1971@gmail.com , 1
CONTENTS

ü CURRENT SCENARIO (NATURAL RESOURCES DEPLETION )


ü CLEAN-LEAN-SUSTAINABLE-GREEN
ü INTRODUCTION TO GREEN MANUFACTURING
ü METRICS FOR GREEN MANUFACTURING
ü PRINCIPLES OF GREEN MANUFACTURING
ü CLOSED LOOP PRODUCTION PROCESS
ü SUSTAINABLE MANUFACTURING
ü ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES FOR ASSURING GREEN MANUFACTURING
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CURRENT SCENARIO (NATURAL RESOURCES DEPLETION )
CURRENT SCENARIO (NATURAL RESOURCES DEPLETION)

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RCP-Representative concentration pathway
SSP-Shared socio economic Pathway
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IT IS TIME TO CONSERVE OUR NATURAL RESOURCES

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CLEAN MANUFACTURING
• Clean manufacturing industries are defined as those industries which
use clean technology, clean energy and improved resource efficiency.

• They ultimately reduce air and water pollution, manage waste and
reduce its generation, as well as minimize chemical risks.

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Clean Technologies
üClean technologies associated with things like
Environmental protection
Pollution control and prevention
Waste management
Remediation of contaminated property
Design and operation of environmental infrastructure
Renewable energy technologies are also considered to be clean
technologies.
üExamples of clean technologies include technologies for wastewater treatment,
recycling, solid waste management, solar panels and wind turbines.
üMany clean technologies can be used to green the manufacturing process and are
therefore important for sustainable manufacturing.
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LEAN-GREEN MANUFACTURING

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WHAT IS GREEN MANUFACTURING?
Green Manufacturing is the
one which uses
ü Less water.
ü Optimizes energy efficiency
ü Conserves natural resources
ü Provides Healthier spaces for
occupants as compared to a
conventional building.

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NEED FOR GREEN MANUFACTURING
ü Customers are environment conscious
ü Environment Protection is a top agenda for
everyone
Reasons for environmental care
ü Running out of fossil fuel supply (energy crisis) ,
global warming
ü Depletion of ozone layer
ü Loss of trees and forest
ü Green Manufacturing is a challenge for today
but as Business opportunity for tomorrow
GOAL OF GREEN MANUFACTURING
ü To achieve sustainability
ü To conserve natural resources for future generations

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Why Green Manufacturing is so important?
Due to the recent global climate, humans have started to realize the vulnerability of nature and the
disasters it may bring as a response of our negligence. The following are the recent stresses on our
environment
• As much fresh water has been withdrawn in the last 30
1 years as in the last three centuries

• The rate of increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide between


2 1970 and 2000 is nearly double that between 1940 and 1970

• Carbon emissions have increased by more than 1.5 times


3 since 1970

• Industrial Waste
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Evolution of Sustainable Manufacturing

Innovation Elements
Sustainable Manufacturing
Remanufacture (Innovative, 6R-based)

Redesign
Green Manufacturing
Stakeholder Value, $

Recover (Environmentally-benign, 3R-based)

Recycle Lean Manufacturing


(Waste Reduction-based)
Reuse
Traditional Manufacturing
(Substitution-based)
Reduce

1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050


Time

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METRICS FOR GREEN MANUFACTURING

üSOCIETAL METRICS
Injury, Fatalities rate, acceptable living standards
üINTERNAL METRICS
Dissatisfaction, Rewards, pay, Job safety, Insurance (Life, Health)
üEXTERNAL METRICS
Overall community (Connected to our manufacturing concern)
Employees, Share holders, Consumers, local communities
üISO 14000, ISO 14040 (Life Cycle Assessment)

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ISO STANDARD DESCRIPTION
ISO 14001 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS-
GUIDANCE FOR USE
ISO 14004 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS-GENERAL
GUIDELINES ON PRINCIPLES, SYSTEMS AND
SUPPORTING TECHNIQUES
ISO 14010 GUIDELINES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITING-
GENERAL PRINCIPLES
ISO 14011 GUIDELINES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITING- AUDIT
PROCEDURES-AUDITING OF ENVIRONMENTAL
MANGEMENT SYSTEMS
ISO 14012 GUIDELINES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITING-
QUALIFICATION CRITERIA FOR ENVIRONMENTAL
AUDITORS
ISO14031 ENVIRONMENTAL MANGEMENT-ENVIRONMENTAL
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION –GUIDELINES
ISO 14032 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT-EXAMPLES OF
ENVIRONMENT PEROFORMANCE EVALUATION (EPE)
ISO 14061 INFORMATION TO ASSIST FORESTRY ORGANIZATIONS
IN THE USE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM STANDARDS 16
Scope of ISO 14040 is
ü Life Cycle Inventory
Analysis
ü Life Cycle Impact
Assessment
ü Life Cycle Interpretation
Phase, Reporting &
Critical Review of the
LCA
ü Limitations of the LCA

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OPTIMIZING ENERGY EFFICIENCY

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HEALTHIER SPACES FOR OCCUPANTS (GREEN BUILDINGS)

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WAY AHEAD FOR GREEN MANUFACTURING

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Product Reuse in Sustainable Manufacturing
Aerospace industry:
ü 50 wt% of aero-engine alloys are nickel-based

alloys – continuous efforts to substitute
materials.

ü Study on Stationary and rotating components
in the hot end of jet engines (e.g., turbine
disk)

ü Reveals the Predictability of cracks arises in


disks.Predictiblity science - allows reuse
options at a cost advantage of 16 times!!

ü The reused disks are as safe as, or even safer


than newly machined ones.
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BENEFITS OF GREEN MANUFACTURING

• Environmental benefits
• The goal of green manufacturing is to reduce waste to zero
• This will definitely improve the ecology and stop pollution
• Company benefits
• The company is said to have social responsibility and this reputation means a
lot to the company
• Zero waste policy
• Technological benefits
• Green Manufacturing spins off a lot of research and development projects
• Each of these projects enhances our technology

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CHALLENGES IN GREEN MANUFACTURING

LONG TERM
EFFORT

INVESTMENT

INCREASE IN
PRODUCTION
COST

ENGINEERS

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Barriers to Green Manufacturing

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Environmental Impact and Strategies for Green
Manufacturing

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IMPLEMENTATION OF GREEN MANUFACTURING
• PRODUCTION PROCESS
• Production process here involves the product design and process design
• Waste reduction
• Recyclable materials should be used
• Reduce wastes in energy
• INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION
• ISO 14000 environmental management standards exist to help organizations
• ISO 14001 is an internationally accepted specification for an Environmental
Management System (EMS)
• REGULATIONS
• WEEE- Waste Electrical and Electronics Equipment
• RoHS- Restriction of Hazardous Substances
• ELV- End of Life Vehicle Directives 29
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What is Sustainability?

“Sustainable development meets the needs of the present


Environmental without compromising the ability of future generations to
(Planet) meet their own needs.”1

In addition to its economic performance,

Social Economic a company must also account for and focus on its
(People) (Profit) environmental and social performance to be truly
sustainable.

Another common way of saying this is “people, planet,


Sustainability
profit” Sustainability is the intersection of these three
concepts.

1 Brundtland Commission of the United Nations


2 John Elkington, Cannibals with Forks: the Triple Bottom Line of 21st Century business
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Economy

Innovation Creativity
Technology
and
Human Resources

Environment Society

Education & Training

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Sustainable Design Strategies

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Sustainable Manufacturing Mean

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Green Products
üMaking “green products” can be seen as part of sustainable manufacturing,
üA green product can be any product that is designed to reduce its
environmental impact.
üenvironmental concerns and impacts are taken into account from the
beginning of the product design process.
üThe product made of recycled materials, can be easily recycled, made without
hazardous materials, or produced with less packaging.1
üThere are no accepted standards for what constitutes a “green product,”
although there are rules from the Federal Trade Commission about making
environmental marketing claims.
üThere are also many eco-labeling programs that are used to identify and
market green products, some of which are discussed in this module.
1 United Nations Environment Programme and Delft University of Technology “Design for Sustainability A Step-by-Step Approach.”
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Cradle to Cradle Cradle to Grave

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How to Implement Sustainable Manufacturing?
A spectrum of efforts in Green Manufacturing can make towards sustainable manufacturing.
Some involve more effort and investment than others.1

Raw Material
Substitution New Tec
Process king Shifting to more Enable l
h
n ol og i es
i zat i onMa es environmentally sound ower re New
e e pi ng rk Opti m
to proc
ess consum sour
ption, w ce Pr
Hou
se k n wo ents inputs as Min oduct
nts i adjustm ase efficiency generati
on, emis te thro imize i Desig
v eme s and to incre sions
out pacts n
ro ugh m
Imp ractice ce
p n lifec produ
aintena ycle ct
m

Generally easier More Difficult

1 “Government Strategies and Policies for Cleaner Production.” United Nations Environmental Programme and “Eco-Innovation in Industry: Enabling Green Growth” OECD 37
Industrial Ecology: Sustainable( Closed Loop System)
One of the goals of industrial ecology to become Linear System
sustainable manufacturer is to move industry from a
Resources Production Consumption Waste
linear to a cyclical or closed system where waste is used
as an input rather than disposed of.1
Closed-Loop System
Resources
An advanced version of this would be an Eco-Industrial
Energy
Park where companies design their products and
processes to use fewer virgin materials and use each Production Production

other’s byproducts, coproducts, or wastes as inputs.2

Consumption

1 Garner, Andy and Keoleian, Gregory A, Ph.D. National Pollution Prevention Center for Higher Education, “Industrial Ecology: An Introduction.”
2 “Eco-Innovation in Industry: Enabling Green Growth” OECD 38
House keeping
ü Housekeeping is the simplest method of implementing
sustainable manufacturing practices.1

ü Housekeeping can be as simple as better inventory


management.

ü better monitoring and scheduling of the production


process

ü reducing loss from leaks, spillage, and drag-out, and


making sure equipment is maintained properly.

ü It can also involve training your employees about


sustainable manufacturing.

1 “Government Strategies and Policies for Cleaner Production.” United Nations Environmental Programme and “Eco-Innovation in Industry: Enabling Green Growth” OECD
2 “Arctic Cat Inc. Reduces Water, Energy, and Chemical Use.” Minnesota Technical Assistance Program.
Process Optimization
• Process optimization involves changing your manufacturing process to minimize waste, conserve
raw materials, and capture and reuse waste materials.1

• There may be simple things you can do to change your production process to become more
sustainable.

• May be you can collect metal savings for recycling, change the steps in a painting process to use less
paint, or rearrange your machines to minimize movement.

• Texas Tile Manufacturing LLC, a vinyl flooring manufacturer, conducted


an assessment of its production processes and identified numerous
areas to conserve energy and cut costs. Replacing traditional pilot lights
Example
in material heaters with spark igniters, they were able to save
approximately $213,000 yearly on natural gas costs and through less
required maintenance on conveyor belts.2

1 “Government Strategies and Policies for Cleaner Production.” United Nations Environmental Programme and “Eco-Innovation in Industry: Enabling Green Growth” OECD
2 “Vinyl Flooring Texas Tile Manufacturing LLC, Additional Savings are a Pleasant Surprise.” DOE Industrial Technologies Program.
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Raw Material Substitution
ü Although it is challenging, we must able to find ways to substitute greener materials for
hazardous materials, chemicals with high environmental or health impacts, materials that are
non-renewable, or those that are scarce.1
ü To find ways to eliminate materials that are used during your production process but don’t
remain in the final product.
Example: use water-based solvents rather than chemical solvents.

• North American Decal had used solvent-based inks which have high levels of volatile
organic compounds (VOCs), a significant air pollutant. The company began transferring
to less harmful UV curable inks which are of a higher quality, have a longer shelf life,
andExample
cure faster. Switching to UV curable inks lowered maintenance costs, eliminated a
printing step, and even improved indoor air quality for the company’s employees.2

1 “Government Strategies and Policies for Cleaner Production.” United Nations Environmental Programme and “Eco-Innovation in Industry: Enabling Green Growth” OECD
2 “Raw Material Substitution: North American Decal” Environment Canada.
New Technologies
üUtilizing new technologies involves incorporating more
environmentally responsible technologies and equipment into
your production process.1
üThis can involve capital investments to purchase equipment that
uses less energy or materials or alternative energy production.
üFor example, you might invest in more energy-efficient production
equipment, systems that reuse heat and energy, or more
advanced water treatment systems.
• Harbec Plastics, a small injection molding company in
Ontario, New York, switched its traditional hydraulic
injection molding presses to electric ones. This
Example
technology change has resulted in up to 50% energy
savings over hydraulic presses, reduced noise, and
shorter changeover and startup times.2

1 “Government Strategies and Policies for Cleaner Production.” United Nations Environmental Programme and “Eco-Innovation in Industry: Enabling Green Growth” OECD
2 “Economic Opportunities of Sustainable Manufacturing” Bob Bechtold, HARBEC Plastics, Inc.
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New Product Design
üDesign your product to be greener from the ground
üinclude redesign involving rethinking how your product is used, and may
involve:
ØUsing recycled materials instead of new ones
ØUsing renewable materials
ØDesigning for easy disassembly, for recycling, or for remanufacturing
ØUsing less packaging and more recycled or recyclable packaging
üGreen product design can have the same benefits as other aspects of
sustainable manufacturing, including improved resource efficiency.

• Herman Miller used design-for-the-environment principles when it redesigned its well known Aeron chair. The chairs are now made up of up to
53% recycled materials and are 94% recyclable. They are easily disassembled, contain no PVC, and emit very low levels of VOCs.2

Example
1 “Government Strategies and Policies for Cleaner Production.” United Nations Environmental Programme and “Eco-Innovation in Industry: Enabling Green Growth” OECD
2 “Environmental Product Summary: Aeron Chair” Herman Miller
Emphasis on all four product life-cycle stages

Manufacturing Use

Pre-
manufacturing Post-use

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Closed-loop Material Flow – The 6R Approach

3R 6R
CONCEPT CONCEPT

Source: Jawahir et al. (2006)

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Design for Recyclability/
Remanufacturability

Design for Design for


Environmental Societal
Regional and Impact Impact
Global Impact Design for Social Impact

Energy Efficiency/
Sustainability Service Life/
Power Consumption Design for
Resource
(DFS) Durability

Utilization Design for


and Functionality
Economy
Design for
Manufacturability

Assembly

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Environmental Manufacturing
Friendliness Cost

Sustainable
Personnel Power
Health Manufacturing Consumption
Processes

Operational Waste
Safety Management

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Environmentally-friendly and safe coolant

Increased productivity

Better part surface quality

Cost-effective

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• New materials technologies for sustainable products
Molecular, microstructural and metallurgical transformation of materials;
self-healing materials and memory alloys
• Product innovation for sustainable manufacturing
Product sustainability metrics; product design for sustainability including
1R – 3R – 6R transformations
• Process innovation for sustainable manufacturing
Environmentally benign/responsible manufacturing process development – toxic-free, hazardless, safe
and secure technologies; minimal use of energy, water, including metal working fluids, chemicals, and
other resources
• Innovation and creativity in supply/value chain operations
Integrated manufacturing systems for sustainability; sustainable supply chain operations; sustainable
quality systems for manufacturing
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• Compliance with regulations (REACH, WEEE, RoHS, EuP, ELV, etc.)

• Economic analysis and business case for sustainable manufacturing


Marketing strategies and business economics for sustainable products and processes

• Safety, health, public policy and regulatory issues in sustainable


manufacturing
Societal Impact studies; legislative and administrative issues; policy implementation; product
and process liability; ethics

• Education and training issues

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• Sustainable manufacturing offers uniquely new kind of employment opportunities:

- Innovative 6R applications

- Total life-cycle consideration

- Sustainable manufacturing processes

Universities and colleges are well-positioned to provide educational and training programs

- Undergraduate and graduate education

- Non-credit professional continuing educational programs

• Incentives must be provided to academic institutions and manufacturing


companies to educate, train and develop the workforce for next generation manufacturing, and for
conducting relevant fundamental and applied research.
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ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES FOR GREEN MANUFACTURING

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Areas of applications

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Examples of GREEN Manufacturing

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Examples of GREEN Manufacturing

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ENVIROMENTAL BENEFITS

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Examples of GREEN Manufacturing

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TOP COMPANIES THAT ARE GOING GREEN
COMPANY GREEN ACTION & BENEFITS
McDonald’s the company uses energy-efficient appliances thereby cutting energy wastage by 25% during in their
business activities.
McDonald’s have also set up green parking lots by preserving them for only hybrid vehicles
The parking lots equally have permeable concrete with the capability of recharging the vehicles and
cleaning ground water.
Dell Dell has promoted the safe disposal of their products by coming up with an effective and efficient
recycling program.
Google Google has constructed the world’s most energy efficient data centers and continuously campaigns
for the need for energy conservation and the use of renewable energy sources as well as clean energy
products.
Honda The company has invested a lot of resources in producing fuel-efficient vehicles and is constantly
seeking ways to develop a hydrogen fuel cell powered vehicle.
Coca-Cola Coca-cola has made substantial strides in narrowing down to three most-important environmental
goals. These include water preservation, energy and climate protection, and sustainable packaging.
Toyota Toyota, the world’s largest car manufacturing company, has also come up with innovative cars that
reduce the overall carbon footprint. One of the most outstanding cars is the Prius model which is also
celebrated as the world’s first mass-market hybrid vehicle.
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Why to use Eco Friendly Products?

• Only 27% of plastic bottles are recycled. The rest sit in landfills where
they can take up to 1,000 years to decompose.

• One million seabirds and 100,000 marine mammals die each year
from plastic pollution in our oceans.

• In one study by the U.S. Centres for Disease Control, nearly 93


percent of people tested positive for BPA (Bisphenol-A)(a potentially
harmful chemical present in plastic products).
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• Clothes Made From Recycled
Fabric
• Wool Footwear
• Stainless Steel Drink Bottles
• Biodegradable / Disposable
Waste Bag
• Ballpoint Pens Made From
Recycled Water Bottles

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Sustainable homes built using recycled materials

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Questions????

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MVJ College of Engineering
Near ITPB, Whitefield
Thank You
Bangalore-560 067
M: principalengg@mvjce.edu.in
P: +91 80 4299 1040

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