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1.

An ideal gas initially at 600 K and 10 bar undergoes a four-step mechanically reversible
cycle in a closed system. In step 12, pressure decreases isothermally to 3 bar; in step 23,
pressure decreases at constant volume to 2 bar; in step 34, volume decreases at constant
pressure; and in step 41, the gas returns adiabatically to its initial state.
a. Sketch the cycle on a PV diagram.
b. Determine (where unknown) both T and P for states 1, 2, 3, and 4.
c. Calculate Q, W, AU, and AH for each step of the cycle.
Data: Cp = (7/2)R and Cv = (5/2)R.

Penyelesaian:

a. Diagram PV:

1
10
600 K

P
(bar)

600 K

3 2
2 3
4

C P 3,5R
b.    1,4
C V 2,5R
R = 8,1345 J mol-1 K-1
Hubungan antara titik 2 dan 3:
P2 P3

T2 T3

P3 2
T3  T2   600  400 K
P2 3
Hubungan antara titik 1 dan 4:
T1P11    T4 P41  
1    11, 4  1, 4
P   10 
T4  T1  1   600 K     378,8 K
 P4  2
c. Langkah 1-2 (proses isotermal)
U = H = 0

P2  J 
 600 K  ln
3
Q   RT ln    8,1345  5876,3 J mol
P1  mol K  10

U  Q  W  0
W = – Q = – 5876,3 J/mol
Langkah 2-3 (proses isokoris)
T3

 
U   C V dT  C V T3  T2   1,5 8,1345 J mol 1 K 1 400  600 K  2440,4 J mol
T2
T3


H   C P dT  C P T3  T2   2,5 8,1345 J mol 1 K 1 400  600 K  4067,3 J mol 
T2

W=0
U  Q  W  Q
Q = – 2440,4 J/mol
Langkah 3-4 (proses isobaris)

 
T4

U   C V dT  C V T4  T3   1,5 8,1345 J mol 1 K 1 378,8  400 K  258,7 J mol


T3

 
T4

H   C P dT  C P T4  T3   2,5 8,1345 J mol 1 K 1 378,8  400K  431,1 J mol


T3

Q = H = – 431,1 J/mol
U  Q  W

W  U  Q   258,7  431,1 J mol  172,6 J mol


Langkah 4-1 (proses adiabatis)
Q=0

 
T1

U   C V dT  C V T1  T4   1,5 8,1345 J mol 1 K 1 600  378,8K  2699 J mol


T4
 
T1

H   C P dT  C P T1  T4   2,5 8,1345 J mol 1 K 1 600  378,8K  4498,4 J mol


T4

U  Q  W = W
W = U = – 258,7 J/mol