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411-2133-123

CDMA
Six Sector Cell Applications
Handbook
NBSS 7.0 Standard 01.01 September 1998
CDMA
Six Sector Cell Applications
Handbook

Product release: NBSS 7.0


Document release: Standard 01.01
Date: September 1998
Document Number: 411-2133-123

Copyright Country of printing Confidentiality Legal statements Trademarks

.  1998 Northern Telecom

. Printed in the United States of America

. NORTHERN TELECOM CONFIDENTIAL: The information contained in this document is the property of Northern
Telecom. Except as specifically authorized in writing by Northern Telecom, the holder of this document shall keep the information
contained herein confidential and shall protect same in whole or in part from disclosure and dissemination to third parties and use
same for evaluation, operation, and maintenance purposes only.

. Information is subject to change without notice.

. DMS, DMS SuperNode, DMS-MTX, DMS-100, and MAP are trademarks of Northern Telecom.
iv

Publication history
September 1998
Standard 01.01

June 1998
Preliminary 01.00

May 1998
First Draft 01.00

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vii

Contents
Introduction 1-1
Overview of Nortel’s CDMA System 1-1
Funtionality of the BTS 1-3
Functionality of the BSC 1-3
Six Sector Application 1-3
The BTS for a Six Sector Site 1-4
Suitable Morphology Sites for Six Sector Deployment 1-5
Diminishing Returns 1-6
Deploying Second Carrier Over Six Sector 1-7
Antennas 2-1
Antenna Beamwidth 2-1
Antenna Gain 2-1
Reconfiguring a Three Sector to Six Sector 2-1
New Six Sector site 2-2
Diversity Options for Six Sector 2-2
Antenna Orientation 2-2
Six Sector cell in a cluster of Six Sector cells. 2-2
Six sector cell in a cluster of three sector cells 2-5
Transition from Three Sector to Six Sector 3-1
First Step 3-1
Six Sector with Space Diversity Antenna 3-1
Six Sector with Dual Polarized Antennas 3-4
Six Sector Capacity 4-1
Forward Link Capacity 4-1
Reverse Link Capacity 4-1
Three Sector Cell Calculation 4-2
Fully Embedded six sector cell Calculation 4-2
A six sector embedded in three sector cells 4-3
Impact on the neighbor cell forward link capacity 4-4
Datafill 4-4
Channel Element (CE) Usage 4-5
Reverse Link Budget 4-5
T1 Link Requirement 4-5
References: 4-6

CDMA Six Sector Cell Applications Handbook NBSS 7.0


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viii

List of Figures
High level overview of Nortel’s CDMA System 1-1
High level overview of Nortel’s CDMA System functionality 1-2
Arranging two BTSs to make a Six Sector fort optimum performance 1-5
Deploying a Six Sector cell at a traffic Junction in downtown area with high-rises. 1-6
Six Sector cell orientation for optimum capacity/coverage Performance 2-3
Another type of antenna which results in poor coverage and capacity 2-4
Another type of antenna which results in poor coverage and capacity 2-5
A typical three sector cell 2-6
Deploying a Six Sector in a cluster of three sectors 2-7
Hexagonal platform for six sector antennas, using space diversity 3-3
Space diversity on three sector platform IS NOT RECOMMENDED 3-4
Phase 1 of the installation: the 2nd BTS is installed, but not connected to antennas 3-6
Installing the Six Sector Antennas on a Triangular (Three Sector) Platform 3-6
Phase 2 of the installation, the site is configured as a Six Sector site 3-7
Computing the Frequency Reuse Factor of a six sector in a cluster of three sectors 4-4
List of Tables
Frequency Reuse Factor for three sector cell cluster 4-2
Frequency Reuse Factor For six sector Cluster 4-2
Frequency Reuse Factors of Lettered Sectors in Figure 4-1 4-3

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1

About this document


1

This document describes the guidelines for deploying Six Sector cells in a
CDMA application. It discusses and explains how to deploy a Six Sector cell
and the conditions and parameters that needs to be verified for a successful
deployment. To achieve optimum performance of a Six Sector Cell, users of
this document are advised to read through the document carefully.

This document must be treated as a general CDMA Six Sector Deployment


Guideline. It is the duty of the user of this document to work out the required
steps for applying this guideline for his/her own specific needs. It is one in a
suite of manuals required for successful installation, commissioning,
operation, and maintenance of equipment comprising the NORTEL CDMA
network. Consult other manuals in the suite when referenced.

This document shall not be used for deploying Six Sector Cells in other
technologies, such as AMPS, TDMA, GSM, and any other Cellular or PCS
technologies.

Who should use this manual


Information contained in this manual is intended to provide engineers and
technicians an overview of for deploying Six Sector cells in a CDMA
application concepts and features.

Document revisions
This manual is revised periodically to maintain consistency with system
hardware and software releases, operational enhancements, and to incorporate
customer suggestions.

When changes are required, the number and scope of changes dictate whether
individual change pages are issued or a new manual is released. When
individual change pages are issued, change bars appear in the right-hand
margin to mark the revised text. An accompanying Page Change Notice
contains instructions regarding proper placement of the change pages. The
change pages or complete re-release includes an updated Revision History
page that summarizes the changes.

CDMA Six Sector Cell Applications Handbook NBSS 7.0


1

vi About this document

Conventions used in this manual


Throughout this manual and others in the suite, the following symbols
precede procedures or topics to which they apply:

Note: A policy or procedure that deserves emphasis.

Graphics
Graphics contained in this manual are preliminary. They are provided as an
aid in developing concepts discussed. Future versions of this document will
provide updated graphics drawn to scale.

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1-1

Introduction
1

This chapter provides a general description of the Base Station Transceiver


(BTS) and Base Station Controller (BSC) and their function in the CDMA
MTX architecture. This chapter will help you understand the BTS and BSC
relationships to other CDMA MTX subsystems for inter-system soft handoff
ISSHO) deployment.

Overview of Nortel’s CDMA System


In Nortel’s CDMA network voice trunks allow users in one cellular system to
communicate with users in another system using IS-41 messaging to access
Home Location Register/Visitor Location Register (HLR/VLR) and inter-
system handoffs. An HLR is a permanent database of subscriber information
while a VLR is a dynamic database containing subscriber information and
their location.
Figure 1-1
High level overview of Nortel’s CDMA System

CDMA Six Sector Cell Applications Handbook NBSS 7.0


1-2 Introduction

Nortel’s CDMA System is illustrated in figure 1-1 and is comprised of the


following:

• MTX (Mobile Telephone Exchange) - Provides call processing functions


for AMPS/TDMA/CDPD/and CDMA cellular systems, and connectivity
to the Public Switch Telephone Network (PTSN) and cellular networks.
• BSM/MAP (Base Station Manager/Maintenance Administrative Position)
- Provide graphical user interface (GUI) for operations, administration,
and maintenance of the BSC, BTS, and itself to the service provider. It
contains the MTX database and provides MTX statistics used in
troubleshooting.
• The BSC controls the message and signaling routing between itself, the
MTX, and the BTS. It also provides the voice coding and decoding
between the IS-95 mobiles (via the BTSs) and the PCM T1s from the
MTX. The BSC provides cellular-specific call processing functions such
as power control, service optionality, and intrasystem handoffs. Only one
BSC is supported for the system and it is normally co-located with the
MTX.
• BTS (Base Station Transceiver Subsystem) - Provides the air interface
(RF link) between mobile subscribers and the CDMA system.
Figure 1-2
High level overview of Nortel’s CDMA System functionality

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1-3

Funtionality of the BTS


Figure 1-2 provides a high level overview of Nortel’s CDMA system
funtionality. The Base Station Transceiver (BTS) provides the following
funtionality in the MTX-CDMA system:

• over-the-air RF interface with the subscriber unit.


• additional over-the-air functions such as pilot, sync, paging, and access
channels.
• call processing functions to control the subscriber unit operation over the
paging and access channels.
• communication of subscriber information.
• control and management of BTS resources.
• control and management communication between the BTS and other base
station subsystems.
• monitoring and configuration functions.
The next chapter, Second Carrier Overlay Concepts, discusses deployment
issues. Other chapters include distributing traffic among two carriers, second
architecture, installation, and specifications.

Functionality of the BSC


The Base Station Controller (BSC) provides the following functionality in the
MTX-CDMA system:

• Data routing
— routes signaling and control message packets
– Messages are routed internally, to/from the LPP/FLIS of the MTX
and the BTS
• System interface i.e. the voice PCM/IS-95A interface
• Mobility management
— intra-system handoff (soft), power control and service
Six Sector Application
Six Sector is a solution to provide service in areas where there is a higher than
average demand for service. The original Three Sector site is configured to a
Six Sector site by adding another BTS and reconfiguring the antenna
arrangement.

Six Sectorcell deployment is a good solution for small hot spots. Hot spots are
small areas, where the capacity demand is higher than average. Second
Carrier Overlay is a good solution for large areas within which the demand
for service is higher than the network can provide. For this reason, if service
demand is high in a small area, Six Sector can be a good option. This

CDMA Six Sector Cell Applications Handbook NBSS 7.0


1-4 Introduction

statement should be taken with consideration that there are cases where
deploying a single Six Sector cell may not be advantagous.

The BTS for a Six Sector Site


Currently Nortel does not have a true Six Sector BTS. To deploy a Six Sector
cell, two BTSs are deployed back to back. There are a number of ways that
the 6 sectors (2x3 sectors of each BTS) of the two BTSs can be configured.
All 3 sectors of one BTS can also be placed on one side (180o) and the second
BTS on the other side. Another option is to mix them, where a sector of one
BTS will be adjacent to two sectors of the 2nd BTS (interleaving the sectors).
The way these sectors are arranged impacts the performance of the Six Sector.
Of the two options stated here, the first one yields the best performance,
resulting in the least amount of channel element usage, more softer handoff
than soft handoff (compared to the latter option), improved signal
demodulation and lower power requirements, all resulting in improved
performance. This option is shown in Figure 1-3. Please note that a patent has
been filed for this type of Six Sector BTS configuration.

An argument can be made that by interleaving the sectors of the two BTSs,
some redundancy is provided. That is, if one BTS goes down, then the second
BTS provides coverage, and everything is not lost. This is partially true, since
the antennas of the Six Sector are narrow beam (about 33 degrees), resulting
in having coverage holes, if one BTS of the interleaved Six Sector goes down.
However, the BTSs are robust enough compared to degradation on capacity
(if interleaved), that the benefit of having partial coverage does not
overwhelm the benefits of having better performance.Therefore, it is
imperative that the BTSs are arranged as shown in Figure 1-3, if we want to
achieve the best performance.

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1-5

Figure 1-3
Arranging two BTSs to make a Six Sector fort optimum performance

BTS #1
β1 γ1

α1 α2

γ2 β2
BTS #2

Suitable Morphology Sites for Six Sector Deployment


There are some restrictions regarding the deployment of Six Sector cells. Six
Sector cells may cause extra pilot pollution, and for this reason care must be
given as to where they are deployed. The rule of thumb is that a site should be
chosen where the antenna mast is much taller than buildings around it. For
example, there might be some difficulty in deploying a Six Sector cell in
downtown areas with high rise buildings where antennas are deployed on the
side (face) of the buildings. Assuming that the building has 2 sides facing the
streets (if located on a traffic junction) or one side facing the street (in the
middle of the road), with buildings with similar heights, then putting 6
antennas on the side of the building to cover an area is a difficult task,
generally resulting in extreme pilot pollution. This point is highlighted in
Figure 1-4, where each sector of the BTS covers one end of the street where
the BTS is deployed. Such a scenario requires a 4 sector cell and not a 6
sector cell. Overall the best sites are urban or suburban sites where antenna
masts are generally taller than most of the buildings. Note that the terms
urban or suburban refer to the morphology (building heights/types and their
concentration). It is quite possible to have a suburban/urban morphology with
high capacity demand. It is not anticipated to deploy Six Sector in rural areas,
where there is no capacity demand.

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1-6 Introduction

Figure 1-4
Deploying a Six Sector cell at a traffic Junction in downtown area with high-rises.

Sector #1

Sector #2

Sector #4

Sector #3

Diminishing Returns
There are two options available to service providers if there is a capacity
problem. One solution includes re-configuring an existing three sector cell to
a six sector cell. The second option is to deploy a second carrier overlay on
the top of the first carrier. This advances the question of when to deploy a Six
Sector and when to deploy a second carrier overlay.

If hot spots are isolated, a three sector site can be reconfigured to a six sector
site using dual polarized antennas. As demand for service grows and
neighbour cells reach maximum capacity, the six sector cell and its neighbour
cells can be configured as a second carrier overlay.

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1-7

Note: The six sector site can be configured as two three sector sites (first
and second carrier) or two six sector sites overlayed on the top of each
other (which requires two extra BTSs), provided that the six sector cell is
not a border cell in second carrier deployment.

The primary disadvantage of six sector over second carrier is that the six
sector capacity improves by about 1.7-1.8 times, while the second carrier
improves by two times that of the first carrier. This is provided that the second
carrier is not a border cell. In border cell, the second carrier will lose part of
its capacity advantage, which is dependent on the size of the cell, and the
RTD distance from the border cell. Please note that the second carrier
advantage (2 times capacity improvement Vs. 1.7 times for Six Sector) comes
at a cost, which is, the use of 2.5 MHz in two carriers Vs. 1.25 MHz in a six
sector. Another disadvantage of a six sector over second carrier is that the six
sector degrades the capacity of its first tier neighbour sectors in the range of 5
to 10%.

Six sector does have certain advantages over the second carrier. The first is
that the second carrier has hardhandoff at the border cells, which is unreliable
in comparison with the soft handoff in six sector deployment. Another
advantage is that the second carrier does not make full use of its capacity at
the border cell caused by the shrinkage of the usable area due to hardhandoff
limitations.

If six sector has limitations with deployment in Dense Urban areas, second
carriers cannot be deployed with its border cell passing through dense urban
areas. These points are raised to show that there is no rule to stress where to
deploy a six sector and where to deploy a second carrier. Field engineers are
responsible for determining impacts and future growth in consultation with
the service provider and the decision to deploy a six sector or a second carrier.

Deploying Second Carrier Over Six Sector


Technically a second carrier can overlay a six sector first carrier provided that
the overlay is not a border cell. The reason for this constraint is that
hardhandoff has limited success and six sector overlay adds to the problem of
target ambiguity resulting in more hardhandoff failures. This condition should
be corrected after the introduction of multi-pilot hardhandoff, which is
expected to improve the hardhandoff performance.

The antennas of the six sector underlay can be shared with the antennas of the
second carrier overly (which is also a Six Sector)as in a normal Three Sector
overlay, where the antennas are shared.

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1-8 Introduction

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2-1

Antennas
2

Antenna Beamwidth
The choice of antennas for six sector is depends upon whether achieving
maximum capacity or good coverage is the goal. To increase capacity,
narrower beamwidth antennas are used. The recommended antenna
beamwidth is 33 degrees for this type of deployment. Both space diversity or
polarization diversity can be used. However, polarization diversity may cause
some degradation in the forward link; especially if deployed in rural areas or
some suburban areas where there is inadequate cluttering. Cluttering causes
cross polarization, resulting in the mobile to receiving the signal in either
plane. In rural application it is not recommended to use polarization diversity.

Note: The general expectation is that in rural deployment the coverage


and not the capacity, is the main objective in most cases.

Narrow beam antennas, such as 33 degrees, may cause holes within the
coverage area if the antenna orientation is not performed properly. If the
intention is to achieve good coverage by sacrificing improvement in capacity,
then wider beam antennas such as 45 degree antenna can be deployed. This
choice must be made in consultation with the service provider, and they
should be made aware of the impact on the capacity of the Six Sector cell.
Using a 45 degree antenna may result in 10% drop in the capacity of the Six
Sector cell vs. its capacity with 33 degree antenna. Please note that with using
proper cell orientation (see Figure 2-1), it is possible to reduce the risk of
creating holes within the coverage area using 33 degree antennas.

Antenna Gain
The choice of antenna gain depends upon whether the site is being re-
configured from a three sector to six sector, or the site was configured
originally as a six sector.

Reconfiguring a Three Sector to Six Sector


When a three sector site is re-configured to a six sector site, the antenna gain
should be chosen as close to the antenna gain of the original three sector site
as possible. This ensures that the link budgets are similar for the original three
sector as well as for the six sector.

CDMA Six Sector Cell Applications Handbook NBSS 7.0


2-2 Antennas

New Six Sector site


When the site is new and chosen to operate as a six sector, the antenna gain
chosen should be close to the antenna gain of its neighbour cells (which in
most cases happen to be three sector site). Otherwise, the guide on the
antenna gain is the link budget, which includes the assumed antenna gain for
the majority of sites.

Diversity Options for Six Sector


Two types of diversity can be used in six sector applications. These are: space
diversity and dual polarization diversity. Both options have advantages and
disadvantages:

Space diversity has a small diversity gain advantage (around 0.2 to 0.5 dB)
compared to dual polarization diversity. This gap may be larger in rural areas
where there is less cluttering (resulting in less cross polarization between the
polarized antennas). In rural areas or some suburban areas (very flat with
scattered low rise houses) where there is less cluttering on the forward link,
dual polarization may be degraded further than space diversity by the lack of
cluttering.

Cost-wise, the space diversity is more expensive than the dual-polarized


option. In space diversity 12 single polarization antennas are needed, while in
dual polarization only 6 antennas are needed. Furthermore in mast mount
applications, space diversity needs hexagonal platforms, while dual
polarization can use the original triangular platform of the three sector cell.
The hexagonal platform is bigger than the triangular (see Figure 2-1 for
comparison), which will make it more expensive. Additionally, withstanding
wind, size, and other environmental and mechanical issues related to the
larger size will make the hexagonal platform more expensive. Time-wise, it is
easier and faster to deploy dual polarized antennas, especially, since there is
no need to dismantel the original triangular platform. This significantly
reduces the interruption in service, a major issue with the service provider.

Antenna Orientation
Six Sector cell in a cluster of Six Sector cells.
To achieve best performance (capacity and coverage) the antenna of a six
sector cell must be oriented in so that the sectors do not face each other.
Figure 2-1 shows the orientation which achieves the best performance
regarding both capacity and coverage. This type of orientation is useful when
narrow beam antennas are used since every antenna is beaming in a direction
without facing directly other antennas. A patent has been filed for this type of
Six Sector antenna orientation.

Figure 2-2 shows a sub-optimum antenna orientation resulting in poor


coverage areas (coverage holes). In this configuration each sector of each
BTS is directly facing a sector of a neighbour BTS resulting in greater

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2-3

interference and a reduction in capacity. There are also locations at the


intersecting edges of the three antennas which may result in coverage holes.

Figure 2-3 shows another sub-optimum antenna orientation, which results in


poor coverage areas (coverage holes), as well as areas with high pilot
pollution. In this configuration, three sectors of adjacent BTSs are directly
facing each other resuling in greater interference and lower capacity numbers.
There are also locations at the intersecting edges of the three antennas which
may result in coverage holes.

It is preferred to deploy the antennas as close as possible to the orientation


shown in Figure 2-1.
Figure 2-1
Six Sector cell orientation for optimum capacity/coverage Performance

Antenna Beam
for Each Sector

CDMA Six Sector Cell Applications Handbook NBSS 7.0


2-4 Antennas

Figure 2-2
Another type of antenna which results in poor coverage and capacity

poor coverage area


Antenna Beam
for Each Sector

Antennas facing each other, increasing


interference and reducing capacity

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2-5

Figure 2-3
Another type of antenna which results in poor coverage and capacity

poor coverage area Antenna Beam


for Each Sector

pilot pollution area

Six sector cell in a cluster of three sector cells


In most cases a single Six Sector cell or a very limited number of six sector
cells will be deployed in a cluster of three sector cells. Figure 2-4 shows a
cluster of three sector cells with the central cell configured as a six sector cell.
One option available to orient antennas to optimize performance is to divide
each sector of the three sector cells into two sectors to establish a six sector
cell. This option is shown in Figure 2-5, option A. This type of Six Sector
orientation results in a condition where none of the antennas of the six sectors
directly face any antenna of the neighbour three sector cells. This is important
in controlling interference and achieving good capacity numbers. However,
there are coverage holes where no antenna is radiating as highlighted in
Figure 2-5, option A.

CDMA Six Sector Cell Applications Handbook NBSS 7.0


2-6 Antennas

A solution is to rotate (in horizontal plane) the six sector antennas by 30o
(clockwise or counterclockwise) as shown in Figure 2-5, option B to cover
the holes. However, three sectors of the six sector cell will directly face
neighbour sectors, increasing the interference between them and those sectors
that they are facing. An option is to downtilt these antennas so that the
coverage area of these sectors shrinks, reducing interference into
neighbouring sectors.

The diagrams shown here, depict a very uniform and perfect cell layout. In
reality cells are not layed out perfectly, and their antenna orientation is not so
well defined. Field engineers must consider the antenna angles and
orientation of surrounding three sector cells with those of the six sector cell.
The antennae of the six sector cell must be oriented so that no coverage holes
are created between the six sector cell and its neighbour. This helps in using
narrower beam antennas to improve capacity. If by rotating the antennas,
some of the six sector antennas directly face neighbouring three sector
antennas, then those six sector antennae should be downtilted (only those that
are directly facing the neighbour Three Sector cells).
Figure 2-4
A typical three sector cell

This cell will be


configured to a
Six Sector Cell

Antenna Beam
for Each Sector

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2-7

Figure 2-5
Deploying a Six Sector in a cluster of three sectors

poor coverage
Area

A Antenna Beam
for Each Sector

B
Sectors facing each
other, increasing
interference to each
other.

Downtilt these Sectors


to reduce interference

Antenna Beam
for Each Sector

CDMA Six Sector Cell Applications Handbook NBSS 7.0


2-8 Antennas

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3-1

Transition from Three Sector to Six


3

Sector
Certain procedures must be followed to successfully deploy a six sector cell
in a cluster of three sector cells. These steps are required to ensure that there
is minimum service interruption where the six sector is being deployed. If the
antennas are roof-mounted where no special platform is needed, field
engineers can choose either the space diversity or dual polarization option,
since deployment of both types of antennas is much easier than a mast-
mounted condition. The roof mount condition is simple and variable (in terms
of the position of the antenna w.r.t., the roof, and where they are deployed).
For this reason the transition for the “roof mount condition” is not covered
here. The following sub-sections discuss the transition from a three sector to a
six sector for mast-mount antennas.

First Step
The first step is to find out whether the six sector with the recommended
antenna provides proper coverage. To achieve this some analysis can be done
using PLANET. If PLANET is used, orient the antenna w.r.t. to the neighbour
cells. The analysis should indicate if there are coverage holes. For a good
comparison, run an analysis for the cell when it was configured as a three
sector cell to see if there is degradation or improvement in coverage if the cell
is configured as a six sector. While PLANET is used for analysis, ensure that
capacity is not sacrificed for coverage.

Six Sector with Space Diversity Antenna


If space diversity antennas are installed, then the platform should be modified
to a hexagonal type as shown in Figure 3-1. Here the platform is larger than
the normal triangular platform since there is a minimum required spacing
between the main antenna and the diversity antenna.

The minimum distance between the antennas (main vs. diversity) of the same
sector should follow the following equation: d> h/11, where d is the antenna
separation and h is the antenna height. Also note that the antennas of the
adjacent sector at the vertex should be mounted in such a way that the best
isolation is achieved between the two antennas. Sometimes, antennas have

CDMA Six Sector Cell Applications Handbook NBSS 7.0


3-2 Transition from Three Sector to Six Sector

high peak sidelobes which may fall into the neighbour sector antenna. This
may reduce the margin of antenna isolation. Some tuning of the position
where the antennas are mounted may be needed with respect to the neighbour
sector to ensure that there is enough isolation between the two antennas.

As shown in Figure 3-1, in order to meet the minimum requirement for space
diversity antenna separation, the edge of the hexagonal platform will be the
same length as that of the triangular platform. Mounting such a huge platform
may cause some problems, especially in meeting the wind and load
requirements of the mast. It is recommended that before installing such a
platform that the issues of wind, weight, and other mechanical metrics are
investigated and approved to reduce the delay in installing the BTS and cost
to the service provider.

Use of the three sector platform to mount space diversity antennas is NOT
recommended (see Figure 3-2 for details). The reason for this is that by
installing the six sector antenna on three sector platform, the spacing between
the main antenna and the diversity is significantly reduced. Furthermore,
antennas mounted in the central part of the platform need to be extended
significantly outward so that they see the cell edge, further complicating the
wind and other mechanical issues.

Note: Antennas for six sector are rotated by 30 degrees.

Steps to be taken:

1. Before installation, ensure that the direction of the six sector antennas
with respect to its neighbour are worked out to achieve best capacity/
coverage performance.
2. Install the 2nd BTS in the cell-site which will be configured as a six
sector.
3. Wilt and disconnect the three sector from its antennas.
4. Mount the six sector platform (the three sector platform may require
dismantling).
5. Install the antennas of the six sector.
6. Update the neighbour list to include the PN number of the second BTS.
7. Connect the RFFEs of both BTSs to six sector antennas.
8. Blossom both BTSs and verify by drive testing that:
• both BTSs are operational.
• coverage is provided by both BTSs (six sector).
• handoff occurs between the six sector cell and its neighbour.
• there are no excess access failures near the antenna mast of the six sector
cell.

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3-3

Note: The above steps will result in severe service interruption while the
three sector antennas and their platform are dismantled and the six sector
antennas (with their new platform) are mounted.
Figure 3-1
Hexagonal platform for six sector antennas, using space diversity

three sector six sector


Antennas Antennas

three sector Equal side platforms


Platform six sector
Platform

CDMA Six Sector Cell Applications Handbook NBSS 7.0


3-4 Transition from Three Sector to Six Sector

Figure 3-2
Space diversity on three sector platform IS NOT RECOMMENDED

six sector
Antennas

e
ac
Sp f
na e o
ten ag
An rink
Sh
three sector
Antennas

three sector
Platform

Not Recommended

Six Sector with Dual Polarized Antennas


If dual polarized antennas are installed, the triangular platform of the three
sector can be used to install the six sector dual polarized antennas. The
following steps explain how to install the six sector with minimum
interruption:

Phase 1: Installing the Second BTS:

1. Install the 2nd BTS (in the cell-site which will be configured as a six
sector). Do not connect the second BTS to any antenna, see Figure 3-3.
2. Modify the datafill so that new datafill includes the PNs of the new sectors
of the second BTS.

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3-5

3. Connect the 2nd BTS to a dummy load and verify that it is functional in
all its three sectors.
Phase 2: Configuring the site as a six sector BTS:

1. Before installation ensure that the direction of the six sector antennas with
respect to its neighbour are worked out to achieve the best capacity/
coverage performance.
2. If the results of Phase 1 are positive and satisfactory, in a maintenance
window wilt the first BTS and disconnect it’s RFFE cable from the three
sector antennas (all three sectors and both diversity and main antenna).
3. Update the neighbour list to include the PN number of the second BTS.
4. Next install the narrow-beam dual polarized six sector antennas, as shown
in Figure 3-4.
5. Connect all sectors of the two BTSs (the six sector) to the six sector
antennas as shown in Figure 3-5.
6. Blossom the two BTSs.
7. Ensure that the two BTSs are functional and verify by drive testing that:
• both BTSs are operational.
• coverage is provided by Both BTSs (six sector).
• handoff takes place between the six sector cell and its neighbour.
• that there are no EXCESS access failure near the antenna mast of the six
sector cell.
8. The antennas of the three sector (the old antennas) can be removed or be
left on the antenna mast. This action should be taken in consultation with
the customer. If the decision is to leave the three sector antennas on the
mast, then the mechanical issues of the extra load on the mast should be
reviewed.

CDMA Six Sector Cell Applications Handbook NBSS 7.0


3-6 Transition from Three Sector to Six Sector

Figure 3-3
Phase 1 of the installation: the 2nd BTS is installed, but not connected to antennas

three sector
Antennas

Dummy
Load

RFFE RFFE RFFE


Sect #1 Sect #2 Sect #3 RFFE RFFE RFFE
Sect #1 Sect #2 Sect #3

BTS #1 BTS #2
Only BTS #1 is connected to the antennas.BTS#2 is installed,
but it IS NOT CONNECTED to the antennas.

Figure 3-4
Installing the Six Sector Antennas on a Triangular (Three Sector) Platform

Sector #1 Sector #2
Brackets

Sector #6 Sector #3

three sector
Antennas six sector
Antennas

Sector #5 Sector #4

six sector antennas (Dual polarized) are mounted


on brackets and tilted by 30 degree, if necessary.

411-2133-123 Standard 01.01 September 1998


3-7

Figure 3-5
Phase 2 of the installation, the site is configured as a Six Sector site

three sector six sector


Antennas Antennas

RFFE RFFE RFFE


Sect #1 Sect #2 Sect #3 RFFE RFFE RFFE
Sect #1 Sect #2 Sect #3

BTS #1 BTS #2

Both BTS #1 and BTS #2 are connected to the six sector antennas.
three sector antennas are either removed or left disconnected.

CDMA Six Sector Cell Applications Handbook NBSS 7.0


3-8 Transition from Three Sector to Six Sector

411-2133-123 Standard 01.01 September 1998


4-1

Six Sector Capacity


4

Forward Link Capacity


Analysis show that the forward link capacity of a six sector embedded in a
cluster of six sector cells (using 33 degree antennas) is approximately 1.7
times that of a three sector cell. This number was confirmed in a series of tests
carried out in Kansas City. The test in Kansas City was carried out for a
partially embedded six sector cell in a cluster of three sector Cells (4 three
sector cells). The tests in kansas City showed a capacity increase of 1.8 times
for 33 degree antenna beam width.

Reverse Link Capacity


The Reverse Link Pole capacity of a CDMA cell is given by:
W 1 1
N = ----- • ------------ • --- • F • G
R  Eb v
------
 N o

W/R is the processing gain, Eb is the energy per bit, No is the noise power
spectral density, v is the voice activity factor, G is the sectorization gain, and
F is the frequency reuse factor. From the equation, it is obvious that the
reverse link capacity has a linear relation with the frequency reuse factor.
Analysis shows that the re-configuration of a three sector cell to a six sector
cell results in a decrease in Frequency Reuse factor F. In the following section
the frequency reuse factor of a three sector cell, as well as that of a six sector
cell (in a cluster of six sector cells as well as in a cluster of three sector cells)
are tabled. In these calculations G is assumed to be equal to 3 (and not 2.55 as
quoted in some other CDMA literature, which inherently has the reduction in
F factor). Furthermore, the frequency reuse factors are calculated based on the
Hata model, which works out to a path loss exponent of about 3.5.

CDMA Six Sector Cell Applications Handbook NBSS 7.0


4-2 Six Sector Capacity

Three Sector Cell Calculation


The following table summarizes the Frequency Reuse Factor for a three
sector Cell (calculated for different antenna Beam width):
Table 4-1
Frequency Reuse Factor for three sector cell cluster

Antenna Beam width Frequency Reuse


(Horizontal) Factor
60o 0.55

70o 0.53

80o 0.51

90o 0.49

100o 0.47

110o 0.45

120o 0.43

The results indicate that in order to have the best reverse link capacity
number, it is important to use narrower beam width antennas. This point
should be taken with caution, and that in planning the cells and their antenna
orientation, the designer should attempt to orient the antennas in such a way
that the antennas of the neighbor cells do not face each other. This way,
narrower beam antennas has a better chance in providing better coverage.
Otherwise, we may face having some holes within our coverage area, forcing
us to use wider beam antennas, which will result in lower reverse link
capacity numbers.

Fully Embedded six sector cell Calculation


The following table summarizes the Frequency Reuse Factor for a six sector
Cell embedded in a cluster of six sector cells (for different antenna beam
width):
Table 4-2
Frequency Reuse Factor For six sector Cluster

Antenna Beam width Frequency Reuse


(Horizontal) Factor
30o 0.51

40o 0.49

50o 0.44

60o 0.40

411-2133-123 Standard 01.01 September 1998


4-3

Six sector cells require narrower beam width antennas than that of the three
sector cells. For this reason the analysis for six sector is restricted to beam
width from 30o to 60o range. Like for three sector cell, the results indicate that
under similar conditions, the 30o antenna would provide about 5% more
reverse link capacity than the 40o antenna.

A six sector embedded in three sector cells


The following table summarizes the Frequency Reuse Factor for a six sector
Cell embedded in a cluster of three sector cells (for different antenna beam
width. The results show the frequency Reuse Factor of the sector (c), and
Sector (d) of the six sector cell (see Figure 4-1), as well the frequency Reuse
Factor of the sector (a), and Sector (b) of the three sector cell as shown in
Figure 4-1.
Table 4-3
Frequency Reuse Factors of Lettered Sectors in Figure 4-1

Frequency Reuse Factor of Sectors


Horizontal Antenna BW
3 sectors/6 sectors three sector six sector
Sector a Sector b Sector c Sector d
60o(in 3 sector)/30o(in 6 sector) 0.43 0.49 0.65 0.62

90o(in 3 sector)/30o(in 6 sector) 0.40 0.44 0.69 0.67

90o(in 3 sector)/40o(in 6 sector) 0.41 0.45 0.64 0.62

The results indicate a drop in the Frequency Reuse Factor of the three sector
cell, while the central six sector cell shows an increase. Please note that the
Frequency Reuse Factor of those three sector Cells facing the six sector cell
decreases. The reason for this decrease and increase is that each Sector of the
six sector cell is now facing half of a Sector of the three sector cell (hence less
interference seen by the six sector, and better Frequency Reuse Factor), while
just the opposite happens, where each Sector of a three sector cell faces 2
sectors of a six sector cell (more interference seen by the three sector, and
worse Frequency Reuse Factor).

CDMA Six Sector Cell Applications Handbook NBSS 7.0


4-4 Six Sector Capacity

Figure 4-1
Computing the Frequency Reuse Factor of a six sector in a cluster of three sectors

Freq Reuse factors of these


Sectors of a six sector
cell is computed.

a c

Antenna Beam
Freq Reuse factors of these
Sectors of a three sector for Each Sector
cell is computed.

Impact on the neighbor cell forward link capacity


Analysis indicate that the forward link capacity of the neighbor cells will
decrease by about 5 to 10%, when a three sector is configured as a six sector.
These numbers are based on simulation only. Attempts have been made in the
field to measure the impact, but no conclusion could be made on the impact,
due to the data corruption. This section will be updated, once more reliable
field information is collected.

Datafill
The deployment of a six sector should be treated like adding a new cell site,
as far as the datafill is concerned. For this reason the six sector deployment

411-2133-123 Standard 01.01 September 1998


4-5

involves a small amount of work. The following issues/steps must be taken


for the datafill:

• PN Numbers for the second BTS.


• Cell_id numbers for the second BTS.
• Pilot database updated to include the new PN numbers
• Ports on CIS allocated.
Channel Element (CE) Usage
The CE usage of a six sector site is about 10% more than that of a three sector
site. However, the number of users in a sector of a six sector site is about 10%
less than of a Sector of a three sector. For this reason, the combined CE usage
will not change for a six sector site. This statement is valid as far as a six
sector is deployed using two three sector BTSs.

Reverse Link Budget


There is no change in the reverse link budget of the cell site, when the six
sector is being deployed, provided the antenna gain and feeder loss are the
same. If any of these factors change, then the link budget should be verified,
to ensure that the link budget is valid for the new cell condition. Please note
that the statement in Section on Frequency Reuse Factor of the reverse link
capacity should not be confused with the reverse link budget.

T1 Link Requirement
At present a six sector is made by putting two three sectors back to back. By
re-configuring a three sector to a six sector, there is a greater load on the T1
link, and for this reason, 2 T1s are required (1 for each BTS). It is not
recommended to daisy chain the two BTSs to one T1 link.

The following inputs and calculations were used to determine if one (daisy
chained BTSs) or two T1s should be deployed to support a six-sector
configuration. Since this configuration is typically deployed in high traffic
regions, the inputs reflect heavy loading almost to the point of blocking due to
a lack of power on the RF air link on two sectors of the six sector cell.

Inputs:

2. 2 BTSs configured a six sector cell.


3. 2.2 CE/user (average)
4. 11 users/sector on 2 sectors (see note below)
5. 5.2 users/sector on 4 sectors (see note below)
6. T1 Capacity (13K vocoder, 1.344Mbps effective BW) = 86 Calls (Each
call uses one CE on a single BTS)

CDMA Six Sector Cell Applications Handbook NBSS 7.0


4-6 Six Sector Capacity

Note: When determining the users/sector, 5.2 is used as the average value
on all 6 sectors. However, for traffic loading that approaches a blocking
point (from a lack of RF power), at most two sectors may peak to a value
of 11 while the other four remain near the average.

Calculations:

Total CEs = (11)*(2)*(2.2) + (5.2)*(4)*(2.2) = 94 > 86.

Therefore, based on the inputs, two T1s should be deployed.

Note: One T1 could be deployed if the expectation is that the six sector
site will not provide service to higher than average number of users, or if
the CE usage is improved. Please also note that there is no DISCO port
advantage since two ports must be assigned no matter if one or two T1s
are used.

References:
1. “six sector Analysis”, issue 0.1, 25 February 1998, by Ashvin Chheda.
2. “Diminishing Return of six sector and Second Carrier”, by Farhad
Bassirat, 10 September 1997.
3. Mobile Communications Engineering, by W.C.Y. Lee, McGraw-Hill
Book co.
4. “Communication System Having Optimum Resource Arrangement in a
Multi-Sectored Environment and Method Therefor”, by Ashvin Chheda
and Farhad Bassirat, Attorney Docket No. RR-2063, 28 May 1997.
5. “Enhanced Cellular Layout for CDMA Networks Having six sectored
Cells”, by Ashvin Chheda and Farhad Bassirat, Attorney Docket No. RR-
2057, 20 May 1997.
6. PLANET is a simulation Tools by MSI International.
7. NTP 411-2133-121; Inter-system/Inter-BSC Soft Handoff (ISSHO)
Handbook
8. NTP 411-2133-122; Second Carrier Overlay Handbook

411-2133-123 Standard 01.01 September 1998


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8

CDMA
Six Sector Cell
Applications
Handbook
Nortel,
Department 3431
4300 Emperor
Morrisville, NC 27560
Phone: 1-800-684-2273
Fax: (919) 905-5854 attn: Wireless documentation
Copyright  1998 Northern Telecom
NORTHERN TELECOM CONFIDENTIAL: The
information contained in this document is the property of
Northern Telecom. Except as specifically authorized in writing
by Northern Telecom, the holder of this document shall keep the
information contained herein confidential and shall protect same
in whole or in part from disclosure and dissemination to third
parties and use same for evaluation, operation, and
maintenance purposes only.
Information is subject to change without notice.
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trademarks of Northern Telecom.
411-2133-123
NBSS 7.0
Standard 01.01
September 1998
Printed in the United States of America