Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 22

SERVICE BULLETIN

TOPIC: Cylinder Heads


IDENT NO: 7-2984B
SUPERSEDES: 7-2984A
DATE: October 15, 2008
SUBJECT: Cylinder Head Overhaul Procedures
MODELS AFFECTED: All Non Series Four® VHP Engines

NOTE: Table 5 lists all special tools required. NOTE: Current head assemblies do not use oil
deflectors. If the head being disassembled has oil
INTAKE AND EXHAUST VALVES deflectors on the intake valves, proceed with Step 2.
INTAKE AND EXHAUST VALVE REMOVAL Otherwise, go to Step 3.
2. GSI only – Remove and discard retaining rings, O-
WARNING rings, and oil deflectors from intake valves, if
equipped.
Use caution when removing or installing the valve
springs. They are under tension and can eject 3. Install spring compressor center guide stud in
from the cylinder head during the removal cylinder head.
process. Use the correct valve spring compressor Look through the holes
for this procedure. Wear safety goggles. CAUTION in the pressure plate to
Disregarding this information could result in ensure that they are aligned with the valve stems,
severe personal injury or death. threaded studs, and valve bridge guide studs. Fail-
ure to align the pressure plate properly could
Valve spring compressor (P/N 474031 or P/N 474033)
cause damage to equipment. Disregarding this
is available for use on P/N 204702 series cylinder
information could result in product damage and/or
heads. This tool is designed so that all four valve
springs can be compressed at once. Use of this tool personal injury.
greatly reduces service time for such tasks as valve
4. Position pressure plate over valve stems, threaded
stem seal replacement, valve replacement, and cylin-
studs, and valve bridge guide studs. Ensure large
der head overhaul. The tool may be used with the cyl-
diameter countersunk holes are facing up and are
inder heads on or off the engine.
aligned over valve stems (see Figure 1).
If removing the valve
CAUTION tapers, springs, or 5. Apply engine oil to threads of center guide stud.
valve stem seals with the cylinder heads on the
engine, the piston below each cylinder head must PRESSURE NUT
PLATE
be at top dead center. If each piston is not at top
dead center, the valves will fall into the combus-
tion chamber, damaging the valves. Cylinder head
removal will be required to remove the valves from
the combustion chamber. Disregarding this infor-
mation could result in product damage and/or per- THRUST
BEARING
sonal injury.

1. If not already removed, refer to the appropriate


Repair and Overhaul Manual, and remove rocker arm
assemblies, valve bridge assemblies, and spark plug
CENTER
sleeve. GUIDE STUD

Figure 1. Valve Spring Compressor

WAUKESHA ENGINE
DRESSER, INC.
Page 1 of 22
WAUKESHA, WI 53188-4999
Service Bulletin No. 7-2984B
6. Install thrust bearing and compression nut on TAPERS SPRING
center guide stud. RETAINER
7. Tighten compression nut down until pressure plate
compresses valve springs just enough to release valve
INNER VALVE
tapers (see Figure 1 and Figure 2). SPRING
8. Remove valve tapers from valve stems (see
Figure 2). OUTER VALVE
SPRING
9. Loosen and remove compression nut and thrust
bearing from center guide stud.
10. Remove pressure plate from cylinder head. VALVE SPRING
Remove two nuts and center guide stud from cylinder WASHERS
head.
VALVE STEM
SEAL
11. Remove valve spring retainers (see Figure 3).
INTAKE
VALVE GUIDE
VALVE TAPER

EXHAUST
VALVE GUIDE
VALVE TAPER

Figure 2. Remove Valve Taper CYLINDER


HEAD
12. Tag and remove inner and outer valve springs and
washers.
13. Tag and remove valves. VALVE SEAT
INSERT
14. Remove valve stem seals from tops of valve
guides (see Figure 3).
INTAKE
15. Inspect intake and exhaust valves for wear. VALVE
EXHAUST
Discard any valve with visible signs of stem galling, VALVE
overheating, or other abnormalities.

Figure 3. Cylinder Head Assembly

Page 2 of 22 WAUKESHA ENGINE


DRESSER, INC.
WAUKESHA, WI 53188-4999
Service Bulletin No. 7-2984B
VALVE SEAT INSERT AND VALVE GUIDE If a cracked weld
REMOVAL CAUTION breaks during the
1. Move cylinder head to a suitable workbench. removal of the insert, the seat may turn, causing it
to break or to become lodged in the counterbore.
2. Grind or machine the head diameter of several A crooked or broken seat may make removal more
discarded valves until they fit within the valve seat difficult and can cause damage to the seat coun-
inserts.
terbore. Disregarding this information could result
3. Apply anti-spatter compound to protect the in product damage and/or personal injury.
cylinder head deck surface and to facilitate the
removal of weld spatter. 6. Tap on the welds to check for cracks.
4. Insert the ground-down valves into the cylinder
head until the valve head makes contact with the valve WARNING
seat bore. Use a soft-faced hammer and wear proper eye
protection to avoid severe personal injury or death
WARNING when removing the valve seat insert.
Always wear protective eye shields when welding, 7. Tap the valve stem seat insert with a soft-faced
cutting, or watching a welding operation. hammer to remove the valve seat insert (see
Protective clothing and a face shield must be Figure 5).
worn. Never weld or cut near combustible
materials. Disregarding this information could
result in severe personal injury or death.

5. Using a mild steel rod, weld a series of tack welds


around the perimeter of each valve head where it
contacts the valve seat bore (see Figure 4).

VALVE HEAD TACK WELD

TACK WELD THREE PLACES


TO REMOVE INSERT

VALVE SEAT INSERTS

Figure 5. Valve Seat Insert Removal

8. Wipe off the anti-spatter compound. Use crocus


cloth to remove all dirt, slag, weld spatter, and debris
from the lower deck surface and the valve seat insert
counterbore.

Figure 4. Tack Weld Valve to Valve Seat

WAUKESHA ENGINE
DRESSER, INC.
Page 3 of 22
WAUKESHA, WI 53188-4999
Service Bulletin No. 7-2984B
The exhaust valve
CAUTION guides are machined
with two outside diameters and can only be 3
removed in one direction. Failure to press out the
valve guides through the bottom of the cylinder
head (piston side) can cause damage to the equip-
ment.
2
9. Using a valve guide remover (P/N 494257), press
out the valve guides. Guides must be pressed out 4
through the bottom of the cylinder head toward the
piston side.
CYLINDER HEAD CLEANING AND
INSPECTION
Generally, the cylinder head casting does not require
any unusual maintenance other than resurfacing of the 1
lower deck, if necessary (see “Cylinder Head Lower
Deck Reconditioning” on page 7). Items needing 5
6
replacement within the casting are removable fittings,
such as valve guides and valve seats. All core plugs
Figure 6. Core Plug Location – Top
and removable fittings may be removed to adequately
clean the casting.
NOTE: Core plug removal is necessary only if
excessive scale or deposits are found in the coolant
passages.
Scale buildup in a cylinder head can cause it to fail. An
accumulation of scale deposits within the cylinder
head inhibits the proper transfer of heat around critical
engine parts, causing overheating. This overheating
and expansion cause the casting to crack. Preventing
scale buildup will help prevent a cracked cylinder
head. During an engine overhaul, hot tank the compo-
nent to remove any scale.
7
When the cylinder head is cleaned and air dried,
check thoroughly for cracks. Magnaflux® products can Figure 7. Core Plug Location – Front
assist with such an inspection. When checking for
cracks, special attention must be paid to the combus-
tion side of the cylinder head. The area between the
valve inserts must be inspected carefully. Only after
the cylinder head casting is found to be free of cracks
can the removable fittings be replaced. These fittings
must also meet the required specifications. If they do
not meet the specifications or guidelines for the reuse
of used parts, replace with new genuine Waukesha
Engine parts.
1. If excessive scale or deposits are found in the
coolant passages, it may be necessary to remove the 8
eleven countersunk headless core plugs from each
Figure 8. Core Plug Location – Right
cylinder head (eight 3/4 in. NPT, three 1 in. NPT (see
Figure 6 through Figure 10).

Page 4 of 22 WAUKESHA ENGINE


DRESSER, INC.
WAUKESHA, WI 53188-4999
Service Bulletin No. 7-2984B
2. Submerse cylinder heads in a hot tank to remove
9
all paint, dirt, grease, oil, carbon, and varnish deposits.
Follow up with a thorough hot rinse. Dry cylinder
heads with moisture-free compressed air.
3. Inspect cylinder head through a water passage
opening for accumulation of lime and mineral scale
deposits. Scale buildup in a cylinder head can cause it
to fail. An accumulation of scale deposits within the
cylinder head inhibits the proper transfer of heat
around critical engine parts, causing overheating. This
10 overheating and expansion cause the casting to crack.
Preventing scale buildup will help prevent a cracked
Figure 9. Core Plug Location – Left cylinder head. During an engine overhaul, hot tank the
component to remove any scale. If use of an untested
11
water supply or lack of a suitable water treatment
program resulted in an accumulation of deposits, then
special cleaning may be required. Special procedures
and biodegradable products are available to safely
dissolve water scale, lime, and rust deposits from the
water passages inside the cylinder head.
4. Buff gasket surfaces to ensure a tight seal at the
crankcase, rocker arm cover, and intake and exhaust
ports.
5. With valve seat side facing upward, position a
straightedge across the length of the cylinder head,
intersecting the seats of one intake and one exhaust
valve (see Figure 11). Slide a feeler gauge beneath
the straightedge to check the head for warpage. Place
the straightedge across the other intake and exhaust
valve seats and repeat the procedure. If the gap
between the straightedge and the lower deck surface
exceeds 0.002 in. (0.051 mm), (see “Cylinder Head
Lower Deck Reconditioning” on page 7).

Figure 10. Core Plug Location – Bottom

WARNING
Use of chemical cleaning solutions should be
restricted to a well-ventilated area. Contact with
skin, clothing, and eyes could result in severe
personal injury or death.

WARNING
Compressed air can pierce the skin and cause
severe personal injury or death. Never use your
hand to check for leaks or to determine air flow
rates. Wear safety glasses to shield your eyes from
flying dirt and debris. Wear safety goggles.
Disregarding this information could result in
severe personal injury or death.

WAUKESHA ENGINE
DRESSER, INC.
Page 5 of 22
WAUKESHA, WI 53188-4999
Service Bulletin No. 7-2984B
seven water passage openings. The rubber grommets
METAL
STRAIGHTEDGE in the head gasket point out the location of the water
EXHAUST passage openings.
VALVE SEAT

Figure 12. Cylinder Head Pressure Test Plates

2. Fabricate a steel plate 3/4 to 1 in. thick


(19 to 25 mm) to cover the water outlet elbow
INTAKE connection at top of cylinder head. Drill and tap plate
VALVE SEAT to accept a 3/8 in. or 1/2 in. pipe fitting. Fit pipe fitting
with a male air line fitting.
METAL
STRAIGHTEDGE 3. Using plates as a stencil, cut rubber gaskets to
seal the plates onto the cylinder head.
4. Bolt plates onto cylinder head.
5. Fabricate a small plate or plug to close off the
water outlet hole centered below exhaust outlet port
(see Figure 13).

WATER OUTLET
ELBOW CONNECTION

CYLINDER HEAD

Figure 11. Check Cylinder Head Deck for Warpage

CYLINDER HEAD CASTING PRESSURE TESTING


Water test the cylinder head casting for leaks.
NOTE: Core plugs and exhaust guides must be
installed prior to pressure testing.
1. Make a deck plate using 3/4 to 1 in. thick (19 to
EXHAUST
25 mm) steel (use cylinder head gasket as a pattern) PORT
(see Figure 12). Drill holes in plate to match all eight
cylinder head capscrew holes. Plate should have an
WATER OUTLET
open center so any leakage around the exhaust valve HOLE TO EXHAUST
guides or between valve seat inserts can be observed. MANIFOLD CYLINDER
Do not drill holes for the two locating dowels or the HEAD

Page 6 of 22 WAUKESHA ENGINE


DRESSER, INC.
WAUKESHA, WI 53188-4999
Service Bulletin No. 7-2984B
Figure 13. Water Outlet Hole to dry completely. The proper application dries to an
even white layer.
5. Carefully inspect test area for cracks. A bright-
DANGER colored solid or dotted line marks a crack. Fine cracks
Never use air pressure alone to test a cylinder may take up to 15 minutes to appear. Large cracks can
head casting. The cylinder head must be filled with be seen almost immediately. If the crack is wide and
water prior to applying air pressure or the casting deep, the indication will grow and spread.
will break, hurling fragments in all directions. Air 6. Wipe test area clean if cracks are not found.
pressure cannot exceed 50 psi (345 kPa). Failure
Do not weld cracked
to follow proper procedures will result in severe
personal injury or death.
CAUTION cylinder heads. Weld-
ing has been found to be an unsuccessful repair.
6. Fill cylinder head with water. Disregarding this information could result in prod-
uct damage and/or personal injury.
7. Attach an air source to male air fitting and apply
50 psi (345 kPa) air pressure on top of water. 7. Discard cylinder head if cracks are found.
8. Inspect cylinder head for leaks. Carefully check CYLINDER HEAD LOWER DECK
lower deck surface between two exhaust seats and
between intake and exhaust seats. Look for leakage at
RECONDITIONING
both ends of exhaust guides. On rare occasions, leaks If it is determined that the lower deck needs to be
may be found around the core plugs or inside the reconditioned by milling, this reconditioning should be
spark plug carrier bore. done prior to any other cylinder head reconditioning.
9. Carefully release air pressure. The lower deck should be reconditioned until the sur-
face is clean. Remove only sufficient material to clean
10. Drain water from cylinder head. up the lower deck surface.
CYLINDER HEAD CASTING MAGNAFLUX® If the lower deck of the
CAUTION cylinder head is recon-
ditioned, the valve seat insert counterbore depth
WARNING will have to be recut, as required, to maintain the
Always carefully read the manufacturer’s proper depth of the valve heads in the cylinder
instructions to avoid severe personal injury or head. Failure to recut the valve seat insert counter-
death.
bore depth could cause damage to equipment.
Disregarding this information could result in prod-
NOTE: The Magnaflux® Dye Penetrant Test Kit
uct damage and/or personal injury.
(P/N 494283) is used to inspect the cylinder head for
surface cracks. The small area between the exhaust The height of a new cylinder head is 8.469 in.
seat inserts is the location where most cracks occur. (215.113 mm) (see Figure 14). During reconditioning,
1. To remove oily residues, apply Magnaflux® Spot- not more than 0.020 in. (0.508 mm) may be removed
check Cleaner/Remover (SKC-S) directly to test area. from the lower deck. If more material is removed from
Thoroughly wipe area with a clean cloth. Repeat the lower deck, the casting strength will be reduced,
procedure as necessary. Final wiping should result in making it incapable of withstanding the firing pressure
a clean cloth. Allow test area to dry. of rated horsepower. In addition, this may cause mis-
alignment problems. These misalignment problems
NOTE: Wear rubber gloves to avoid hard-to-remove include misalignment between the exhaust manifold
stains on hands. and intake manifold. The cylinder head must be
marked to indicate it has been reconditioned.
2. Spray test area with Magnaflux® Spotcheck
Penetrant (SKL-SP). Wait 1 to 30 minutes.
3. Spray Magnaflux® Spotcheck Cleaner/Remover
(SKC-S) on a clean cloth (not on the test area). Wiping
in one direction, remove all surface penetrant. Repeat
as necessary.

4. Spray test area with Magnaflux® Spotcheck


Developer (SKD-S2). Apply a thin, even film. Allow film

WAUKESHA ENGINE
DRESSER, INC.
Page 7 of 22
WAUKESHA, WI 53188-4999
Service Bulletin No. 7-2984B
can also cause the same type of guide wear. In addi-
tion, combustion air or fuel gas can contain abrasives
that can also wear the valve face, seat, and the lower
end of the guide.
Worn guides can cause the valves to meet the valve
seat at a variety of angles, causing a sliding motion
8.469" (215.113 mm) that will further wear the valve and its seat. This
HEIGHT (NEW HEAD) improper seating leads to blow-by of combustion
gases and seat burning or torching. Other reasons for
worn valve guides are:
• Improperly adjusted valves, which cause excessive
side thrust on the valve stems.
• Poor lubrication in the guide, either too much or too
little.
Figure 14. Cylinder Head – Intake Port Side
• Carbon deposits on the valve stem that cause the
If the lower deck is reconditioned, it may be necessary valve guide to wear into a bell-mouthed shape at the
to recut the valve seat insert counterbore depth to lower end.
maintain the proper depth of the valve heads in the • Incorrect valve or seat angle due to grinding during
cylinder head. The valve seat insert counterbore depth rebuilding.
will have to be recut to the amount as was taken off the
cylinder head. Valve Stem Scuffing

VALVE FAILURE ANALYSIS Scuffing of the valve stem can result from a lack of
lubrication and too much (or too little) stem-to-guide
The major causes for valve failures include: clearance. Poor disassembly or assembly practices
can cause damage to the surface finish of the valve
• Valve recession stem or valve guide, which will scuff the valve or guide.
• Wear Valve Deposits
• Scuffing of the valve stem Valve deposits are normal. Deposits on exhaust valves
• Excessive deposits on the valve should be dry, and white to tan in color. Deposits typi-
cally occur on the head of the valve and the blended
• Carbon buildup in the guide area between the valve head and stem. The seating
• Distortion of the valve seat surface of the valve will typically exhibit a matted
appearance with some small pockmarks due to depos-
• Incorrect valve adjustment its being caught between the valve and the seat. This
• Torching is also considered normal unless the pitting allows gas
leakage.
• Heat fatigue/cracking
Deposits will also build up on intake valves; however,
• Valve erosion they are typically darker in color and on the blended
• Other area between the head and the valve stem. They will
be black and carbonaceous with some oil present.
Valve Recession
The majority of combustion chamber deposits are
Valve recession is a normal process and is expected made up of burnt lube oil and lube oil additives. These
over time. Typically 0.0015 to 0.002 in. (0.0381 to deposits are commonly called ash, and the proper
0.0508 mm) of wear per 1000 hours of operation on amount of ash is desirable to retard valve recession or
the valve and seat faces is acceptable and will result in wear. Ash deposits should be seen on the valve face
a normal top end overhaul life. and seat.
Valve and Guide Wear Valve Guide Deposits
Abnormal component wear leads to excessive valve Deposits (carbon or lacquering) in the valve guide can
recession. Wear can occur on the valve face, valve cause the valve to stick in the guide, causing the valve
stems, valve guides, and valve seats. Valve guides to be held in the open position. Inspect the valve
typically wear from poor valve-to-seat contact, causing guides for deposits or wear. Replace worn guides.
a side thrust on the guide. Out-of-round valve seats

Page 8 of 22 WAUKESHA ENGINE


DRESSER, INC.
WAUKESHA, WI 53188-4999
Service Bulletin No. 7-2984B
Valve Seat Distortion VALVE INSPECTION
Distortion of a valve seat can lead to burnt valves. This At overhaul, it is recommended that all valves be
is usually caused by: replaced. If the valves are to be reused, they must be
inspected before grinding. The valve must be cleaned
• Poor grinding practice.
thoroughly prior to inspection. The following checks
• Loose or improperly seated valve seats that may should be made for each valve.
reduce or stop the transfer of heat between the
• Valve stem thickness: The diameter should be
valve seat insert and the cylinder head.
measured in three locations along wear area length.
• Failure of the cooling system. In addition, each location should consist of two
measurements, 90° to each other, to check for stem
Torching
roundness.
Burnt or torched valves are always caused by combus-
• Valve stem straightness: Valve stem straightness
tion gases leaking between the valve and seat. This
can be examined using two V-blocks and a dial
leakage occurs when the valve is supposed to be
indicator (see Figure 15). Total indicator reading
closed but is, in fact, held open due to excessive
must not exceed 0.002 in. (0.050 mm). Never
deposits, improper adjustment, or sticking valves. It
attempt to straighten a bent valve. Bent valves must
can also be caused by improper valve grinding prac-
be discarded.
tices or valve adjustment procedures.
Valve Heat Fatigue/Cracking
Heat fatigue, caused by overheating, can lead to valve
head cracking, burning, or breakage. Heat fatigue can
include worn valve guides, distorted valve seats,
excessive deposits, and/or improper air/fuel ratios. ROTATE

Valve Breaks
When a valve breaks, it generally is from a bending
fatigue or impact with the piston. Fatigue occurs usu-
ally from mechanical damage where the valve and pis-
ton have made contact, bending the valve slightly, and
over a period of time, the flexing at the stem-head
interface breaks the valve stem. Impact with the pis- Figure 15. Checking Valve Stems for Straightness
ton, if severe enough, will break the valve immediately
or induce the condition that causes a bending fatigue • Head perpendicularity: The head must be
type failure. perpendicular to the valve stem, or improper seating
will result (see Figure 16). Total runout must be
Valve Erosion within 0.002 in. (0.050 mm).
Erosion of the valve stem under the valve head can
cause valve breakage. Causes of valve erosion
include fuel gas with high hydrogen sulfide levels,
faulty combustion, or excessively high valve tempera-
tures. Improper air/fuel mixture ratios that overheat
and erode valves can cause such high-temperature
valve failure as well.
Other
Only a few of the reasons why valves fail are listed
here; there are, obviously, many others. The list above
identifies ten of the most common causes; however,
they are not necessarily in any priority of probable
occurrence.

WAUKESHA ENGINE
DRESSER, INC.
Page 9 of 22
WAUKESHA, WI 53188-4999
Service Bulletin No. 7-2984B

HARDENED STEM END IS PERPENDICULAR


TO STEM CENTERLINE

} RETAINER GROOVES

STEEL

WELD

HARDENED
FACE

SEAT MARGIN
ANGLE

HEAD PERPENDICULAR
TO STEM CENTERLINE
HEAD STAMPED FOR
INTAKE/EXHAUST PLUS P/N
Figure 16. Checking Head Perpendicularity
Figure 17. Cylinder Head Valve
• Stem end perpendicularity: It is important that this
surface must be flat and perpendicular to prolong 0.156" (3.96 mm) NEW VALVES
the life of the valve and tappet ball (see Figure 17). 0.128" (3.25 mm) AFTER GRINDING

• Margin wear: After the valve face is ground until all


wear marks are removed, it is important to inspect
the margin (see Figure 18). The valve face is MARGIN
hardened, and it is important that there is enough
hardening left on the valve face. A margin of 0.128
in. (3.25 mm) or less indicates that too much
hardening has been removed and the valve will
have a tendency to burn. The valve should be
discarded.
• Cracks: The valves must be inspected for hairline
cracks, which cannot be readily seen under
conventional light. They must be inspected using a
dye penetrant process. Ordinary magnetic particle Figure 18. Checking Margin Wear
inspection will not locate fissures or cracks in non-
ferrous materials. GUIDE BORE INSPECTION
• Valve stem retainer groove wear: The two retainer Inspect cylinder head guide bores for material removal
grooves must be examined to determine if they have and galling. If galling is present, remove the high spots
become distorted. The grooves are machined with a with a round or semi-round file. Be careful not to
0.094 in. (2.388 mm) radius. Any valve with remove material from bore ID so that the diameter
distorted grooves must be discarded (see becomes oversized. The specification for guide bore
Figure 17). ID is 1.000 – 1.001 in. (25.400 – 25.425 mm).

Page 10 of 22 WAUKESHA ENGINE


DRESSER, INC.
WAUKESHA, WI 53188-4999
Service Bulletin No. 7-2984B
VALVE TAPER INSPECTION VALVE SPRING INSPECTION

INSPECT BOSS
INSPECT BOSS WARNING
Always use approved cleaning solvents in a well-
ventilated area. Avoid contact with skin. Failure to
follow proper procedures could cause severe
INSPECT OD
personal injury or death.

1. Clean inner and outer valve springs, washers,


INSPECT retainers, and tapers in a non-volatile cleaning solution
BOSS INSPECT BOSS
or solvent. Inspect for damage, rust pits, or excessive
INSPECT EDGE
wear. Replace as necessary.
Figure 19. Valve Taper 2. Position intake and exhaust valve springs on a
level surface and use a straightedge to check for
During cylinder head overhaul, be certain to inspect
proper squareness and height (see Figure 20).
the valve tapers before installing the valves in the cyl-
Springs that are less than the required minimum
inder head (see Figure 19). These parts are subject to
height will result in reduced preload on spring. Load
wear and should be inspected carefully before installa-
test springs in a valve spring tester.
tion.
Inspect the tapers at the following locations: STRAIGHTEDGE

• The upper edges of the inside bosses for grooves.


• The lower circumference of the tapers for burrs.
• The outer circumference of the tapers for radial
scoring.
If signs of wear are found, replace the tapers.
SCRAP
VALVE SEAT BORE AND INSERT INSPECTION
NOTE: Before inspection, all parts must be thoroughly OK
cleaned. OK
1. Inspect the cylinder head valve seat bore for VALVE SPRING
cracks, pits, wear, or any deformities. The bore must
be perfectly smooth. Figure 20. Checking Valve Spring Height

2. Refer to Table 1 for the proper measurements of


the valve seat bore.

WAUKESHA ENGINE
DRESSER, INC.
Page 11 of 22
WAUKESHA, WI 53188-4999
Service Bulletin No. 7-2984B
Table 1. Valve Springs

NOTE: Visually inspect springs for broken


ends or obvious damage. Recommend
appropriate dye penetrant or Magnaflux®
A
inspection process to inspect for cracks.

MEASUREMENT INCHES (in.) METRIC (mm)


(A) Intake and exhaust valve spring free length:
204235 and 204235A (inner) 3.719 – 3.844 94.46 – 97.64
204135 (outer) 4.219 – 4.344 107.16 – 110.34
204135A (outer) 4.094 – 4.219 103.99 – 107.01
Intake valve closed spring length:
204035A (inner) New 3.000 @ 63.4 – 69.4 lb. New 76.20 @ 28.76 – 31.48 kg
204135A (outer) New 3.422 @ 115.0 – 125.0 lb. New 86.91 @ 52.16 – 56.70 kg
Exhaust valve closed spring length:
204035 (inner) New 3.000 @ 54.2 – 59.2 lb. New 76.20 @ 24.36 – 27.80 kg
204135 (outer) New 3.422 @ 106.0 – 116.0 lb. New 86.90 @ 48.08 – 52.62 kg
Intake valve open spring length:
204035A (inner) New 2.297 @ 121.2 – 131.2 lb. New 58.34 @ 54.97 – 59.51 kg
204135B (outer) New 2.719 @ 225.0 – 245.0 lb. New 69.06 @ 102.06 – 111.14 kg
Exhaust valve open spring length:
204035 (inner) New 2.266 @ 105.0 – 115.0 lb. New 57.56 @ 47.53 – 52.07 kg
204135 (outer) New 2.688 @ 195.0 – 215.0 lb. New 68.28 @ 88.45 – 97.53 kg

Page 12 of 22 WAUKESHA ENGINE


DRESSER, INC.
WAUKESHA, WI 53188-4999
Service Bulletin No. 7-2984B
Table 1. Valve Train Specifications

INTAKE G G

J K
F*
E E
I
K*

F F

L L
B
M*

M M

N N
D, D*

C
O O
EXHAUST INTAKE

MEASUREMENT INCHES (in.) METRIC (mm)


New New
Specification Wear Limit Specification Wear Limit

(A) Valve overall length


G/GSI engines (intake and exhaust) 10.883 – 276.428 –
GL engines
(intake) 10.883 – 276.428 –
(exhaust) 10.837 275.260
(B) Valve stem diameter
G/GSI engines
(intake) 0.557 – 0.558 0.5565 14.148 – 14.173 14.135
(exhaust top) 0.5591 – 0.5598 0.5585 14.2011 – 14.2189 14.186
(exhaust bottom) 0.5573 – 0.5580 0.5567 14.1554 – 14.1732 14.140
GL engines (intake and exhaust) 0.557 – 0.558 0.5565 14.148 – 14.173 14.135
(C) Valve seat diameter (intake and exhaust) 2.825 – 2.835 – 71.755 – 72.009 –
(D) Valve face angle
G/GSI engines (intake and exhaust) 30° ±15′ – 30° ±15′ –
GL engines
(intake) 30° ±15′ – 30° ±15′ –
(exhaust) 20° ±15′ 20° ±15′
(D*) Valve seat width
G/GSI engines 30°(intake and exhaust) 0.265 – 6.731 –
GL engines
(intake) 30° 0.265 – 6.731 –
(exhaust) 20° 0.281 7.137

WAUKESHA ENGINE
DRESSER, INC.
Page 13 of 22
WAUKESHA, WI 53188-4999
Service Bulletin No. 7-2984B
Table 1. Valve Train Specifications
MEASUREMENT INCHES (in.) METRIC (mm)
New New
Specification Wear Limit Specification Wear Limit

(E) Valve guide length (intake and exhaust) 5.188 – 131.775 –


(F) Valve guide outside diameter (intake and exhaust) 1.0015 – 1.0025 1.001 25.438 – 25.464 25.425
(F*) Exhaust guide upper outside diameter 0.997 – 0.998 0.9965 25.324 – 25.350 25.311
(G) Guide inside diameter (reamed in assembly, except
0.5612 – 0.5619 – 14.2545 – 14.2723 –
hardened gudes in landfill applications)
(G) Valve guide to valve stem clearance
G/GSI engines
(intake) 0.0032 – 0.0049 0.0079 0.081 – 0.124 0.201
(exhaust top) 0.0014 – 0.0031 0.0061 0.035 – 0.079 0.155
(exhaust bottom) 0.0032 – 0.0049 0.0079 0.081 – 0.124 0.201
GL engines (intake and exhaust) 0.0032 – 0.0049 0.0079 0.081 – 0.124 0.201
(H) Valve seat insert outside diameter (intake and 3.002 – 3.003 – 76.251 – 76.276 –
exhaust)
(I) Valve seat insert inside diameter (intake and
exhaust) 2.441 – 2.451 – 62.001 – 62.255 –
(J) Valve seat insert height (intake and exhaust) 0.550 – 0.555 – 13.970 – 14.097 –
(K) Valve seat insert seat angle
29° 45′ – 30° 15′ 29° 45′ – 30° 15′
– –
G/GSI engines (30° intake and 30° exhaust)
GL engines
(intake) 29° 45′ – 30° 15′ – 29° 45′ – 30° 15′ –
(exhaust) 19° 45′ – 20° 15′ 19° 45′ – 20° 15′
(K*) Valve seat insert seat width
G/GSI engines (30° intake and 30° exhaust) 0.172 – 0.203 – 4.369 – 5.160 –
GL engines
(intake) 30° 0.172 – 0.203 – 4.365 – 5.159 –
(exhaust) 20° 0.188 – 0.250 4.780 – 6.350
(L) Valve guide extension above boss 1.720 – 1.780 – 43.688 – 45.212 –
(M) Valve guide bore in head (intake and exhaust) 1.000 – 1.001 – 25.400 – 25.425 –
(M*) Valve guide bore in head (upper exhaust) 0.995 – 0.996 – 25.273 – 25.298 –
(N) Valve seat insert counterbore depth (intake and 0.82545 –
exhaust) 0.8285 – 20.966 – 21.044 –
(O) Valve seat insert counterbore diameter 3.000 – 3.001 – 76.20 – 76.23 –

Page 14 of 22 WAUKESHA ENGINE


DRESSER, INC.
WAUKESHA, WI 53188-4999
Service Bulletin No. 7-2984B
CYLINDER HEAD ASSEMBLY
The correct order of assembly for a cylinder head is:
• Valve guides
• Water plugs
• Valve seat inserts
• Valves with springs
CYLINDER
• Prechamber assembly VALVE GUIDE HEAD BOTTOM
REMOVAL TOOL
• Spark plug carrier assembly (P/N 494257)

• Rocker arm assemblies VALVE


GUIDE

WARNING
The cylinder head weighs approximately 195 lb.
(86 kg). Use a suitable lifting device and exercise
caution during removal or installation to prevent
sever personal injury or death. Figure 21. Installing Valve Guides

Always start the


VALVE GUIDE INSTALLATION CAUTION reamer from the valve
Only a small amount of seat insert side of the cylinder head and never turn
CAUTION grease is required; do the reamer backwards. Failure to follow these pro-
not apply grease to necked-down portion of the cedures will cause product damage.
exhaust guide. Disregarding this information The valve guides
could result in product damage. CAUTION P/N 204109G (intake)
and P/N 204109F (exhaust) used in landfill applica-
1. Apply a small amount of grease to outside surface
tions (cylinder head assemblies P/N AF204802C,
of new intake and exhaust valve guides.
CF204802C, and AC204802N) are specially hard-
Ensure that the ened. These guides are pre-sized and should not
CAUTION exhaust valve guide is be reamed, to preserve the hardened surface. Dis-
pressed in from the valve seat insert side of the regarding this information could result in product
cylinder head. Ensure that the correct end of the
damage.
guide is inserted first. Failure to follow these pro-
cedures will cause product damage. 4. Using a Carboloy-tip reamer (P/N 474046), ream
2. Position a shop towel to prevent metal chips and valve guides, starting from the valve seat insert side of
debris from falling into cylinder heads. the cylinder head.

3. Start the new valve guides in their respective 5. Carefully remove shop towel to prevent metal
bores. Always press in the valve guides from the valve chips and debris from falling into cylinder head.
seat insert side of the cylinder head. Use a 20-ton NOTE: See service bulletin 7-2938A (or latest
hydraulic press and the valve guide removal/ revision) for checking valve guide straightness and
installation tool (P/N 494257) (see Figure 21). Any finished inside diameter using gauge tool P/N 474044.
contact between the press and the lower deck of the
cylinder head must be avoided. CYLINDER HEAD CASTING PLUG
INSTALLATION
1. Apply removable pipe thread sealant (Loctite
Removable Threadlocker 242) to the threads of the
countersunk headless core plugs (see Figure 6
through Figure 10).
2. Install eleven core plugs in each cylinder head
(eight 3/4 in. NPT, three 1 in. NPT). Tighten the core
plugs to 600 in-lb (68 N·m).

WAUKESHA ENGINE
DRESSER, INC.
Page 15 of 22
WAUKESHA, WI 53188-4999
Service Bulletin No. 7-2984B
VALVE SEAT INSERT INSTALLATION Install the valve seat
CAUTION insert with the beveled
side facing outward. Disregarding this information
DANGER could result in product damage.
Comply with the liquid nitrogen manufacturer’s NOTE: The insert warms up rapidly and must be
recommendations for proper use and handling of properly installed before its diameter increases to the
liquid nitrogen. Improper handling or use of liquid point where installation becomes too difficult.
nitrogen will result in severe personal injury or
3. Use a wire bent in the shape of a hook to pick up
death.
the valve seat insert and position it into the
counterbore with the beveled side facing outward (see
Figure 22).
WARNING
BEVEL
Liquid nitrogen is -320° F (-196° C) and will cause
severe burns if it comes into contact with human
skin. To prevent burns to the skin, wear protective
equipment when working with liquid nitrogen.
Disregarding this information could result in
severe personal injury or death.

Do not drive the valve


CAUTION seat insert into the cyl-
inder head at room temperature. The valve seat
inserts are a shrink fit in the valve seat counter-
bore and must be cooled with liquid nitrogen
before installation. Disregarding this information
could result in product damage

1. Chill each valve seat insert prior to installation.


Chilling decreases the diameter of the insert to ensure
BEVEL
an easy fit. Submerse the valve seat insert in liquid CHECK WITH A 0.001" (0.0254 mm)
nitrogen. FEELER GAUGE TO ENSURE
PROPER INSTALLATION
NOTE: Liquid nitrogen is recommended for shrink
fitting valve seat inserts and is the method used in the
factory for seat installation. The low temperatures
provided by liquid nitrogen guarantee maximum
shrinkage, thereby reducing the risk of damage to the Figure 22. Valve Seat Insert
counterbore or improper seating of the valve seat
insert. 4. Wait for several minutes for the valve seat insert to
warm to the temperature of the cylinder head. As the
2. Allow the insert to remain submersed until the insert warms, it expands to form a metal-to-metal
solution stops boiling. At this point, the temperature of contact with the counterbore. Use a 0.001 in.
the insert will not drop any further. (0.0254 mm) feeler gauge to ensure that the insert is
in contact with the bottom of the counterbore. Verify
that insert fits tightly around its circumference.

Page 16 of 22 WAUKESHA ENGINE


DRESSER, INC.
WAUKESHA, WI 53188-4999
Service Bulletin No. 7-2984B
VALVE SEAT GRINDING Table 2. Valve Seat Insert Grinding Stones

NOTE: Use of the Hall-Toledo EDP valve seat grinder TYPE STONE ANGLE TOOL P/N
(P/N 494277) is a factory-approved service method of
Seat Angle 20 Degrees 494014
grinding valve seats (an eccentric grinder, diamond
dresser, stand, and necessary wrenches are 494305
Seat Angle 30 Degrees
included). Other commercially available devices such (current wide bridge heads)
as the SERDI machining system may be used.
Machining accuracy
CAUTION depends upon the fit of
the pilot mandrel. The pilot mandrel should fit
snugly in the guide and in the hub of the grinder
stone. Be sure that the upper end of the mandrel TIGHTEN PILOT
MANDREL
does not wobble during the grinding procedure.
Upper end movement will produce a seat that is
not ground true, causing damage to equipment.
Disregarding this information could result in prod-
uct damage and/or personal injury.

NOTE: The pilot mandrel allows each valve seat to be


ground concentric with the valve guide. The
Waukesha-supplied pilot mandrels (P/N 494344) are
made only for use with the Hall-Toledo EDP valve seat
grinder. REMOVE HANDLE
1. Install handle on pilot mandrel. Insert mandrel
0.564 in. (14.325 mm) into intake or exhaust valve
guide. Turn round knob until mandrel is snug (see
Figure 23).
2. Remove handle from pilot mandrel. Position a dial
indicator gauge graduated in thousandths of an inch
(P/N 494278) on pilot mandrel.
3. Measure valve seat concentricity to determine
amount of valve seat grinding required (see
Figure 23). INSTALL DIAL
INDICATOR GAUGE
Do not grind the valve
CAUTION seats too long and do
not apply too much pressure to the grinding stone.
Disregarding this information could result in prod-
uct damage and/or personal injury.

Always dress the stone


CAUTION before grinding; fail-
ure to dress the stone could cause damage to
equipment. The stone should be dressed to the
proper angle after each seat is ground. Disregard-
Figure 23. Measure Valve Seat Concentricity
ing this information could result in product dam-
age and/or personal injury. 5. Install a fine dressed stone for a final cut. Grind
valve seats until a highly polished seat with a total
4. Refer to Table 2 to select the proper degree angle indicator runout less than 0.002 in. (0.0508 mm) is
grinding stone. Rough grind valve seat insert to obtain achieved.
a total indicator runout of 0.002 in. (0.0508 mm)
maximum. 6. Repeat grinding procedure as necessary.

WAUKESHA ENGINE
DRESSER, INC.
Page 17 of 22
WAUKESHA, WI 53188-4999
Service Bulletin No. 7-2984B
2. Install a light lifting spring over valve stem. Apply a
WARNING small amount of lubricating oil into valve guide bore
and slide valve into cylinder head. The spring should
Compressed air can pierce the skin and cause just barely hold the valve off its seat.
severe personal injury or death. Never use your
hand to check for leaks or to determine air flow 3. Press down until valve is seated. Rotate valve a
rates. Wear safety glasses to shield your eyes from quarter turn, first in one direction, then in the other. Do
flying dirt and debris. Disregarding this this three or four times.
information could result in severe personal injury 4. Release pressure on valve stem, so that the spring
or death. lifts valve straight off its seat. Turn valve about 10 to 15
degrees clockwise and repeat grinding procedure.
Continue this operation until valve has been rotated a
WARNING complete 360 degrees and all grinding compound has
Always use approved cleaning solvents in a well- been rubbed off valve seat.
ventilated area. Contact with skin could result in Ensure that all lapping
severe personal injury or death. CAUTION compound is com-
pletely removed from the valve and valve seat.
7. Use compressed air to blow away all loose dust. Failure to completely clean all lapping compound
Wipe down valve seat and seat insert surfaces with a from the valve and valve seat could cause damage
non-volatile cleaning solution or solvent and dry with a
to equipment. Disregarding this information could
clean cloth.
result in product damage and/or personal injury.
VALVE SEAT LAPPING
5. Remove valve and spring from cylinder head and
1. Apply a good fine grinding compound sparingly thoroughly clean valve and valve seat insert of any
around entire valve face. lapping compound.
6. Carefully inspect mating surfaces. A properly
lapped valve will show a gray, frosty seating surface
located either near center of valve face for 30° valves,
or near valve head end for 20° valves. If properly
lapped, the lapped surface width will equal valve seat
width values listed in Table 3.
7. Repeat lapping procedure if necessary. Regrind
valve seat insert if results are not acceptable.

8. Apply Permatex® Prussian Blue dye sparingly


around entire circumference of valve seat surface.
Figure 24. Valve Lapping 9. Install valve in cylinder head. Gently push down on
valve stem until valve face just contacts valve seat. Do
NOTE: Lap the valves in the locations in which they
not rotate or turn valve. Carefully pull valve straight out
will be installed. The valve type, whether (INT)ake or
of cylinder head.
(EXH)aust, is stamped on the head of the valve.
I

Table 3. Cylinder Head Bore Specifications

INTAKE AND EXHAUST


Measurement Inches Metric (mm)

Valve seat width:


G/GSI engines 30° (intake and exhaust) 0.265 6.731
GL engines
(intake) 30° 0.265 6.731
(exhaust) 20° 0.281 7.137

Valve face angle:


G/GSI engines (intake and exhaust) 29° 45′ – 30° 15′ 29° 45′ – 30° 15′
GL engines
(intake) 29° 45′ – 30° 15′ 29° 45′ – 30° 15′
(exhaust) 19° 45′ – 20° 15′ 19° 45′ – 20° 15′

Page 18 of 22 WAUKESHA ENGINE


DRESSER, INC.
WAUKESHA, WI 53188-4999
Service Bulletin No. 7-2984B
10. Inspect valve face for Permatex® Prussian Blue
transfer (see Figure 25). The dye transfers from valve
seat to valve face wherever a good face-to-seat OUTER BAND
contact exists. A definite Prussian Blue transfer
around entire valve face circumference is desirable.

VALVE
FACE

WIDTH OF
PRUSSIAN BLUE
TRANSFER

Figure 25. Good Valve and Seat Contact

11. Repeat lapping procedure if necessary. If results


are not acceptable, regrind valve seat insert before
relapping.
INTAKE AND EXHAUST VALVE
INSTALLATION Figure 26. Install Valve Stem Seal

NOTE: See Service Bulletin 7-2949C (or latest 4. Position the valve stem seal installation tool (P/N
revision) when selecting application specific TL82158) over the valve stem and seal. The tool bore
components. allows insertion of the valve stem, while the
counterbore fits over the valve stem seal.
1. Apply a small amount of lubricating oil into the
valve guide bores and install the valves in the cylinder 5. With the palm of your hand, lightly strike the end of
head, in the locations from which they were removed. the tool to seat the seal evenly on the valve guide.
To distribute the lubricating oil around the valve stem, 6. Install two washers over the valve guide shoulders
hand spin the valves as they are installed. Work the until they come to rest on the cylinder head casting.
valves back and forth to verify that they slide smoothly The washers are needed to retain proper tension on
and seat properly. the inner spring (see Figure 27).
2. Clean inner and outer valve springs, washers,
retainers, and tapers in a non-volatile cleaning solution
or solvent. Inspect for damage, rust pits, or excessive
wear. Replace as necessary (see Table 1).
To avoid cracking the
CAUTION valve stem seals,
always use the proper valve stem seal installation
tool. See Table 6 for proper valve stem installation
tool selection. Use of an ordinary socket may dam-
age the seals, resulting in leakage around the
valve stem and excessive oil consumption.
NOTE: See Service Bulletin 7-2949C (or latest
revision) for valve stem seal applications.
3. Position the new valve stem seal on top of each
valve guide with the outer band facing downward (see
Figure 26). The outer band holds the seal in place on
the guide, while the spring maintains even tension on
the valve stem.

WAUKESHA ENGINE
DRESSER, INC.
Page 19 of 22
WAUKESHA, WI 53188-4999
Service Bulletin No. 7-2984B
Table 4. Valve Spring Reference
TAPERS
SPRING DIRECTION OF HELIX
RETAINER VALVE COLOR
(TOP TO BOTTOM)

INNER VALVE INTAKE


SPRING
Inner Orange Right

OUTER VALVE Outer Orange Left


SPRING
EXHAUST

Inner Black Left


VALVE SPRING Outer Black Right
WASHER

8. Install the spring retainer on top of the inner and


outer valve springs. The smaller diameter flange fits
inside the inner valve spring. The larger diameter
flange separates inner and outer springs.
Look through the holes
CAUTION in the pressure plate to
ensure that they are aligned with the valve stems,
threaded studs, and valve bridge guide studs. Fail-
ure to align the pressure plate properly could
cause damage to equipment. Disregarding this
information could result in product damage and/or
CYLINDER personal injury.
HEAD

9. Install center guide stud.


EXHAUST
VALVE 10. Position pressure plate over valve stems, threaded
INTAKE studs, and valve bridge guide studs. Ensure large
VALVE
diameter countersunk holes are facing up and are
aligned over valve stems (see Figure 28).

PRESSURE NUT
PLATE
Figure 27. Cylinder Head Assembly

WARNING
Use caution when removing or installing the valve
springs. They are under tension and can eject THRUST
BEARING
from the cylinder head during the removal
process. Use the special valve spring compressor
tools for this procedure. Wear safety goggles.
Failure to take adequate precautions can result in
severe personal injury. CENTER
GUIDE STUD
7. Install the inner and outer valve springs on the
intake and exhaust valve guides. The intake valve Figure 28. Position Pressure Plate Compression Nut
springs are dyed orange. and Thrust Bearing

NOTE: Do not intermix the intake and exhaust valve 11. Apply engine oil to threads of center guide stud.
springs. Intake valve springs can be distinguished
12. Install thrust bearing and compression nut on
from the exhaust valve springs by the direction of the
center guide stud.
helix (see Table 4 for valve spring reference).

Page 20 of 22 WAUKESHA ENGINE


DRESSER, INC.
WAUKESHA, WI 53188-4999
Service Bulletin No. 7-2984B
13. Tighten compression nut down until pressure plate
compresses valve springs just enough to install valve VALVE TAPER
spring tapers.
14. Install valve spring tapers on valve stems (see
Figure 29). VALVE TAPER

15. Loosen compression nut, and remove


compression nut and thrust bearing from center guide
stud.
16. Remove pressure plate from cylinder head.
17. Remove center guide stud from cylinder head.
18. Inspect to ensure valve spring tapers are fully
seated in valve spring retainers and valve grooves.
Figure 29. Install Tapers

TAPERS SPRING
RETAINER

VALVE STEM SEAL

INNER VALVE SPRING


OUTER VALVE SPRING

CYLINDER HEAD

VALVE SPRING
WASHERS

WATER PASSAGES

VALVE GUIDE

EXHAUST VALVE VALVE SEAT INSERT

Figure 30. Assembled Cylinder Head – Cross Sectional View of Exhaust Valve

WAUKESHA ENGINE
DRESSER, INC.
Page 21 of 22
WAUKESHA, WI 53188-4999
Service Bulletin No. 7-2984B
Table 5. Special Tools
DESCRIPTION P/N
Valve Spring Compressor (G/GSI) 474031
Valve Spring Compressor (GL) 474033
Valve Guide Reamer 474046
20 Degrees Seat Angle Grinding Stone 494014
Valve Guide Removal/Installation Tool 494257
Valve Seat Grinder 494277
Dial Indicator Gauge (thousandths) 494278
Magnaflux® Dye Penetrant 494283
Valve Adjusting Wrench 494287
30 Degree Seat Angle Grinding Stone 494305
Pilot Mandrel 494344
Valve Stem Seal Installation Tool TL82158
Valve Seat Installation Tool TL982981
Straightness and Finished I.D. Gauge 474044

Page 22 of 22 WAUKESHA ENGINE


DRESSER, INC.
WAUKESHA, WI 53188-4999

Похожие интересы