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Drilling Optimization Workflow

Vibrations—Recognize Conventional Cures Vibrations—Recognize Conventional Cures Vibrations—Recognize Conventional Cures


the Symptoms While Drilling the Symptoms While Drilling the Symptoms While Drilling

SURFACE MEASUREMENT SURFACE MEASUREMENT LATERAL VIBRATION SURFACE MEASUREMENT TORSIONAL VIBRATION
AXIAL VIBRATION (bounce)
OR SYMPTOM OR SYMPTOM (bit/BHA whirl) OR SYMPTOM (stick/slip)

• Large WOB fluctuations • Increased mean surface torque • Topdrive stalling Place topdrive in high gear;
ensure soft torque operational.
• Rig/topdrive shaking Increase • Loss of toolface Decrease rpm • Increased delta surface torque
WOB by 1 ton by 10%
• Loss of toolface • Reduced ROP • Rpm/torque cycling Decrease
Decrease rpm by Increase
• Reduced ROP­­­ • Loss of toolface WOB by 5%
same percentage WOB by 10%
• Reduced ROP Increase
Repeat three Repeat three rpm by 10%
times unless times unless
WOB limit is WOB limit is Repeat three
exceeded exceeded times unless
WOB limit is
Yes Yes exceeded
Does Does
vibration vibration Yes Does
continue? continue?
No No vibration
Yes Yes continue?
No
DOWNHOLE DOWNHOLE DOWNHOLE Yes
Pick up off bottom Pick up off bottom
MEASUREMENT and allow string MEASUREMENT and allow string MEASUREMENT
Pick up off bottom
• Loss of real-time data/ torque to unwind • Increased mean downhole torque torque to unwind • Increased delta downhole torque and allow string
measurement torque to unwind
Set rpm at 40 to 50% • High-frequency downhole Restart drilling • Increased torsional acceleration
• Increased shock count of original shocks—10 to 50 Hz with 70 rpm Restart drilling with
• Increased stick/slip indicator 10% increased rpm
• Increased axial vibrations Increase WOB by • Increased lateral shocks Increase WOB
10 to 20% of original by 10% of original • Downhole collar rpm greater Decrease WOB
• Increased torsional acceleration than surface rpm 15 to 20%
­­­Gradually return Increase rpm
rpm to original • Loss of real-time to original value • Loss of real-time data/measurement
data/measurement No
• Increased lateral shocks Vibration
No Vibration No Vibration resumes?
• Increased shock count
resumes? resumes? • Increased shock count
Yes
Yes Yes
POSTRUN EVIDENCE POSTRUN EVIDENCE POSTRUN EVIDENCE Pick up off bottom
Pick up off bottom Pick up off bottom and allow string
• Early bearing failure and allow string • Cutters/inserts damaged and allow string • Cutters/inserts damaged torque to unwind
torque to unwind typically on shoulder or gauge torque to unwind typically on nose and taper
• Broken/chipped cutters and Restart drilling with
inserts—no specific location Set rpm at 40 to 50% • Broken PDC blades Restart drilling • Overtorqued connections 70 rpm
of original with 70 rpm
• BHA failure • Worn hybrids (equivalents) with • Twistoffs and washouts Increase WOB to
Increase WOB by minimal cutter wear Increase WOB 25% below original
10 to 20% of original to original value • BHA failure value
• Overgauge hole from calipers
­­­Gradually return Increase rpm to Gradually return
rpm to 25% • One-sided wear on stabilizers 25% below rpm to 15% above
below original and BHA original value original
• BHA failure
CONTINUE DRILLING CONTINUE DRILLING CONTINUE DRILLING

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Shock and Vibration Information
Mode of Real-Time Typical Potential Other DRILLING DYNAMIC GUIDELINES FACTORS AFFECTING VIBRATIONS
Vibration Diagnosis Environment Cure Solutions Lateral vibration, gn RMS (cumulative during a bit run)
Generalizations only—vibrations often result from
Axial Topdrive or Hard formations, STOP Change Vib Lat (gn RMS) Risk Time limit
complex interplay of factors
shocks kelly shaking, vertical holes, Change WOB and to less-aggres-
downhole roller cone bits change rpm sive bit, use a <1 Low None
shocks shock sub • Inclination—more axial vibrations closer to vertical;
1–3 Medium Recommended to mitigate. More than 24 h,
Bit whirl LWD caliper Aggressive STOP Change bit, use medium risk of tool failure. tendency for more vibrations as angle increases, but
shows overgauge
hole but bit is
side-cutting bit Increase WOB full-gauge
3–6 High Mandatory to mitigate. More than 12 h, high risk
can also be dampened by angle
and decrease NB stabilizer
undergauge rpm of tool failure.
• BHA design—higher vibrations with slick and pendulum
>6 Severe 30 minutes (formal notification)
BHA whirl Large downhole Washed out hole, STOP Use a stiffer
assemblies
shocks, increased BHA pendulum or Increase WOB BHA
STOR unstabilized and reduce rpm
Lateral vibration, gn RMS (cumulative during a bit run) • BHA components—undergauge stabilization generates
Stick/slip Large surface Aggressive PDC STOP Increase mud
torque and rpm bits, high wellbore Reduce WOB and lubricity, use Vib X (gn RMS) Risk Time limit vibrations; straight-blade stabilizers, smaller drill collars
fluctuations, BHA friction less-aggressive
MWD peak-peak
increase rpm
bit, improve <1 Low None usually have higher vibrations; high-torque and
rpm hole cleaning
1–2 Medium Recommended to mitigate. More than 24 h,
aggressive mud motors may have higher vibrations
medium risk of tool failure.
Bit Bit
Bounce
Bounce Bending Bit Bounce
Stick/Slip BHA Whirl • Bits—PDC bits generate higher vibrations, as do
2–4 High Mandatory to mitigate. More than 12 h, high risk
of tool failure. aggressive features like larger cutter size, lower number
>4 Severe 30 minutes (formal notification)
of cutters, fewer blades, and low backrake angle
Backward
or • Higher friction factors will generate higher vibrations
Forward IWOB torsional vibration, ft.lbf
Vib Tor 63⁄4-in Vib Tor 8-in Vib Tor 91⁄2-in
• Expect higher vibrations in formations that are hard/
abrasive and/or have high coefficients of friction
Low < 1,500 < 1,650 < 1,750
and restitution—conglomerates, boulders, cherts,
Medium 1,500–2,500 1,650–2,600 1,750–2,800
interbedded/intercalated formations, sandstones,
High 2,500–3,000 2,600–3,100 2,800–3,200
and limestones
Severe > 3,000 > 3,100 > 3,200
Axial
Axial Lateral
Lateral Axial
Torsional Eccentered
Eccentered
• Large ratio of hole size to BHA/tool OD size will generate
Stick/slip severity levels (consecutive) more vibrations

Stick/slip (Stick_RT) = Maximum Downhole RPM – Minimum Downhole RPM • Poor hole conditions, such as poor hole cleaning,
Stick/slip % = [ (Stick/slip) / (2 x Average Surface RPM) ] x 100 washouts, and ledges, can sometimes generate
Stick/slip % Mode Severity level Time limit vibrations
0–40 Low None

40–60 Torsional Medium None


oscillations

60–80 Medium Recommended to mitigate

80–100 Stick/slip High Onset of full stall stick/slip,


mandatory to mitigate

100+ Stick/slip Severe 30 minutes (formal notification)

Shock risk levels (consecutive)


Total shock levels
PowerPulse, TeleScope, ImPulse, (cumulative only reset after
LWD, and RSS tools appropriate tool service levels)

Shock risk Risk level Shocks > 50 gn Value Number of shocks > 50 gn

0 No risk cps < 1 0 0—tshk—50,000

1 Medium risk 1 ≤ cps < 5 1 50,000 ≤ tshk < 100,000

2 High risk 5 ≤ cps < 10 2 100,000 ≤ tshk < 200,000

3 Risk of tool cps ≥ 10 3 > 200,000


failure

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Shock and Vibration Mitigation Total Flow Area
VIBRATION PREVENTION Size, in Flow Area, in2, with Number of Jets
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
• Run DOX software/BHA-V—This software analyzes BHA 7⁄32 0.038 0.075 0.113 0.150 0.188 0.225 0.263 0.301 0.338
and predicts resonant frequencies—stay away from bad 8⁄32 0.049 0.098 0.147 0.196 0.245 0.295 0.344 0.393 0.442
rpm; compare calculated with actual values
9⁄32 0.062 0.124 0.186 0.249 0.311 0.373 0.435 0.497 0.559
• Always run multivibration chassis (MVC) in MWD tools 10⁄32 0.077 0.153 0.230 0.307 0.383 0.460 0.537 0.614 0.690
for real-time vibration communication 11⁄32 0.093 0.186 0.278 0.371 0.464 0.557 0.650 0.742 0.835
• Within limitations, design BHA, especially stabilization, 12⁄32 0.110 0.221 0.331 0.442 0.552 0.663 0.773 0.884 0.994
and select PDC bit with vibration prevention in mind 13⁄32 0.130 0.259 0.389 0.518 0.648 0.778 0.907 1.037 1.167
• Help train drillers in vibration reduction—ensure LWD 14⁄32 0.150 0.301 0.451 0.601 0.752 0.902 1.052 1.203 1.353
engineers have vibration training 15⁄32 0.173 0.345 0.518 0.690 0.863 1.035 1.208 1.381 1.553
16⁄32 0.196 0.393 0.589 0.785 0.982 1.178 1.374 1.571 1.767
• Be aware of high-vibration operations—backreaming,
opening a pilot hole, reaming, hole opening while drilling, 17⁄32 0.222 0.443 0.665 0.887 1.108 1.330 1.552 1.773 1.995
drilling out of casing/liner 18⁄32 0.249 0.497 0.746 0.994 1.243 1.491 1.740 1.988 2.237
19⁄32 0.277 0.554 0.831 1.108 1.384 1.661 1.938 2.215 2.492
• Know vibration reduction procedures for each type
of vibration 20⁄32 0.307 0.614 0.920 1.227 1.534 1.841 2.148 2.454 2.761
22⁄32 0.371 0.742 1.114 1.485 1.856 2.227 2.599 2.970 3.341
• Know procedures for dealing with high vibrations
from drilling hard streaks and reaming

• Identify vibration generation mechanism—bit, BHA,


formation, drilling parameters, on or off bottom—and
use counteractive measures

• Optimize correct real-time shock/vibration variables


from MWD tool for predicted vibration environment

• Set tight alarms on all vibration variables and monitor


closely—display for driller to see

• Optimize drilling parameters—WOB, rpm, flow rate—


for vibration prevention/reduction and ROP

• Torque feedback—soft-torque system (may mask


stick/slip)

• Increase mud lubricity to reduce friction and,


thereby, vibrations

• Keep offset log of formations if available—track


lithology for upcoming vibration risks

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