Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 80

Environmental Protection Agency Pt. 60, App. B, Spec.

APPENDIX B TO PART 60—PERFORMANCE PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION 1—SPECIFICA-


SPECIFICATIONS TIONS AND TEST PROCEDURES FOR CONTIN-
UOUS OPACITY MONITORING SYSTEMS IN STA-
Performance Specification 1—Specifications TIONARY SOURCES
and test procedures for continuous opacity
monitoring systems in stationary sources 1.0 What Is the Purpose and Applicability of
Performance Specification 1?
Performance Specification 2—Specifications
and Test Procedures for SO2 and NOX Con- Performance Specification 1 (PS–1) pro-
tinuous Emission Monitoring Systems in vides (1) requirements for the design, per-
Stationary Sources formance, and installation of a continuous
Performance Specification 3—Specifications opacity monitoring system (COMS) and (2)
and Test Procedures for O2 and CO2 Contin- data computation procedures for evaluating
uous Emission Monitoring Systems in Sta- the acceptability of a COMS. It specifies ac-
tionary Sources tivities for two groups (1) the owner or oper-
Performance Specification 4—Specifications ator and (2) the opacity monitor manufac-
and Test Procedures for Carbon Monoxide turer.
Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems 1.1 Measurement Parameter. PS–1 covers
in Stationary Sources the instrumental measurement of opacity
Performance Specification 4A—Specifica- caused by attenuation of projected light due
to absorption and scatter of the light by par-
tions and Test Procedures for Carbon Mon-
ticulate matter in the effluent gas stream.
oxide Continuous Emission Monitoring
1.2 What COMS must comply with PS–1?
Systems in Stationary Sources
If you are an owner or operator of a facility
Performance Specification 4B—Specifica- with a COMS as a result of this Part, then
tions and Test Procedures for Carbon Mon- PS–1 applies to your COMS if one of the fol-
oxide and Oxygen Continuous Monitoring lowing is true:
Systems in Stationary Sources (1) Your facility has a new COMS installed
Performance Specification 5—Specifications after February 6, 2001; or
and Test Procedures for TRS Continuous (2) Your COMS is replaced, relocated, or
Emission Monitoring Systems in Sta- substantially refurbished (in the opinion of
tionary Sources the regulatory authority) after February 6,
Performance Specification 6—Specifications 2001; or
and Test Procedures for Continuous Emis- (3) Your COMS was installed before Feb-
sion Rate Monitoring Systems in Sta- ruary 6, 2001 and is specifically required by
tionary Sources regulatory action other than the promulga-
Performance Specification 7—Specifications tion of PS–1 to be recertified.
and Test Procedures for Hydrogen Sulfide If you are an opacity monitor manufac-
Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems turer, then paragraph 8.2 applies to you.
in Stationary Sources 1.3 Does PS–1 apply to a facility with an
Performance Specification 8—Performance applicable opacity limit less than 10 percent?
Specifications for Volatile Organic Com- If you are an owner or operator of a facility
pound Continuous Emission Monitoring with a COMS as a result of this Part and the
Systems in Stationary Sources applicable opacity limit is less than 10 per-
Performance Specification 8A—Specifica- cent, then PS–1 applies to your COMS as de-
tions and Test Procedures for Total Hydro- scribed in section 1.2; taking into account
carbon Continuous Monitoring Systems in (through statistical procedures or otherwise)
the uncertainties associated with opacity
Stationary Sources
measurements, and following the conditions
Performance Specification 9—Specifications for attenuators selection for low opacity ap-
and Test Procedures for Gas plications as outlined in Section 8.1(3)(ii). At
Chromatographic Continuous Emission your option, you, the source owner or oper-
Monitoring Systems in Stationary Sources ator, may select to establish a reduced full
Performance Specification 12A—Specifica- scale range of no less than 50 percent opacity
tions and Text Procedures for Total Vapor instead of the 80 percent as prescribed in sec-
Phase Mercury Continuous Emission Moni- tion 3.5, if the applicable opacity limit for
toring Systems in Stationary Sources your facility is less than 10 percent. The
Performance Specification 15—Performance EPA recognizes that reducing the range of
Specification for Extractive FTIR Contin- the analyzer to 50 percent does not nec-
uous Emissions Monitor Systems in Sta- essarily result in any measurable improve-
tionary Sources ment in measurement accuracy at opacity
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

levels less than 10 percent; however, it may


allow improved chart recorder interpreta-
tion.
1.4 What data uncertainty issues apply to
COMS data? The measurement uncertainties

641

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00651 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 1 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–09 Edition)
associated with COMS data result from sev- assessment of the COMS’s calibration and
eral design and performance factors includ- operation.
ing limitations on the availability of calibra- 3.5 Full Scale. The maximum data display
tion attenuators for opacities less than output of the COMS. For purposes of record-
about 6 percent (3 percent for single-pass in- keeping and reporting, full scale will be
struments), calibration error tolerances, zero greater than 80 percent opacity.
and upscale drift tolerances, and allowance 3.6 Operational Test Period. A period of
for dust compensation that are significant time (168 hours) during which the COMS is
relative to low opacity levels. The full scale expected to operate within the established
requirements of this PS may also contribute performance specifications without any un-
to measurement uncertainty for opacity scheduled maintenance, repair, or adjust-
measurements where the applicable limits ment.
are below 10 percent opacity. 3.7 Primary Attenuators. Those devices
(glass or grid filter that reduce the trans-
2.0 What Are the Basic Requirements of PS–1? mission of light) calibrated according to pro-
cedures in section 7.1.
PS–1 requires (1) opacity monitor manufac-
3.8 Secondary Attenuators. Those devices
turers comply with a comprehensive series of
(glass or grid filter that reduce the trans-
design and performance specifications and
mission of light) calibrated against primary
test procedures to certify opacity moni-
attenuators according to procedures in sec-
toring equipment before shipment to the end
tion 7.2.
user, (2) the owner or operator to follow in-
3.9 System Response Time. The amount of
stallation guidelines, and (3) the owner or
time the COMS takes to display 95 percent of
operator to conduct a set of field perform- a step change in opacity on the COMS data
ance tests that confirm the acceptability of recorder.
the COMS after it is installed.
2.1 ASTM D 6216–98 is the reference for de- 4.0 Interferences. Water Droplets
sign specifications, manufacturer’s perform-
ance specifications, and test procedures. The 5.0 What Do I Need To Know To Ensure the
opacity monitor manufacturer must periodi- Safety of Persons Using PS–1?
cally select and test an opacity monitor, The procedures required under PS–1 may
that is representative of a group of monitors involve hazardous materials, operations, and
produced during a specified period or lot, for equipment. PS–1 does not purport to address
conformance with the design specifications all of the safety problems associated with
in ASTM D 6216–98. The opacity monitor these procedures. Before performing these
manufacturer must test each opacity mon- procedures, you must establish appropriate
itor for conformance with the manufactur- safety and health practices, and you must
er’s performance specifications in ASTM D determine the applicable regulatory limita-
6216–98. tions. You should consult the COMS user’s
2.2 Section 8.1(2) provides guidance for lo- manual for specific precautions to take.
cating an opacity monitor in vertical and
horizontal ducts. You are encouraged to seek 6.0 What Equipment and Supplies Do I Need?
approval for the opacity monitor location
6.1 Continuous Opacity Monitoring System.
from the appropriate regulatory authority You, as owner or operator, are responsible
prior to installation. for purchasing an opacity monitor that
2.3 After the COMS is installed and cali- meets the specifications of ASTM D 6216–98,
brated, the owner or operator must test the including a suitable data recorder or auto-
COMS for conformance with the field per- mated data acquisition handling system. Ex-
formance specifications in PS–1. ample data recorders include an analog strip
3.0 What Special Definitions Apply to PS–1? chart recorder or more appropriately an
electronic data acquisition and reporting
3.1 All definitions and discussions from system with an input signal range compat-
section 3 of ASTM D 6216–98 are applicable to ible with the analyzer output.
PS–1. 6.2 Calibration Attenuators. You, as owner
3.2 Centroid Area. A concentric area that or operator, are responsible for purchasing a
is geometrically similar to the stack or duct minimum of three calibration attenuators
cross-section and is no greater than 1 per- that meet the requirements of PS–1. Calibra-
cent of the stack or duct cross-sectional tion attenuators are optical filters with neu-
area. tral spectral characteristics. Calibration at-
3.3 Data Recorder. That portion of the in- tenuators must meet the requirements in
stalled COMS that provides a permanent section 7 and must be of sufficient size to at-
record of the opacity monitor output in tenuate the entire light beam received by
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

terms of opacity. The data recorder may in- the detector of the COMS. For
clude automatic data reduction capabilities. transmissometers operating over a narrow
3.4 External Audit Device. The inherent de- bandwidth (e.g., laser), a calibration attenu-
sign, equipment, or accommodation of the ator’s value is determined for the actual op-
opacity monitor allowing the independent erating wavelengths of the transmissometer.

642

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00652 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Environmental Protection Agency Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 1
Some filters may not be uniform across the achieve this tolerance, do not use the filter
face. If errors result in the daily calibration in the calibration tests of the COMS.
drift or calibration error test, you may want (iii) Correct the tested filter transmittance
to examine the across-face uniformity of the values by dividing the average tested filter
filter. transmittance by the average blank filter
6.3 Calibration Spectrophotometer. Whoever transmittance at each 10 nm interval.
calibrates the attenuators must have a spec- (iv) Calculate the weighted (to the re-
trophotometer that meets the following min- sponse of the human eye), tested filter trans-
imum design specifications: mittance by multiplying the transmittance
value by the corresponding response factor
Parameter Specification shown in table 1–1, to obtain the Source C
Human Eye Response.
Wavelength range ........ 300–800 nm. (v) Recalibrate the primary attenuators
Detector angle of view <10°. semi-annually if they are used for the re-
Accuracy ...................... <0.5% transmittance, NIST trace-
quired calibration error test. Recalibrate the
able calibration.
primary attenuators annually if they are
used only for calibration of secondary atten-
7.0 What Reagents and Standards Do I Need? uators.
You will need to use attenuators (i.e., neu- 7.2 Attenuators are designated secondary
tral density filters) to check the daily cali- if the filter calibration is done using a lab-
oratory-based transmissometer. Conduct the
bration drift and calibration error of a
secondary attenuator calibration using a
COMS. Attenuators are designated as either
laboratory-based transmissometer calibrated
primary or secondary based on how they are
as follows:
calibrated.
(i) Use at least three primary filters of
7.1 Attenuators are designated primary in
nominal luminous transmittance 50, 70 and
one of two ways: 90 percent, calibrated as specified in section
(1) They are calibrated by NIST; or 7.1(2)(i), to calibrate the laboratory-based
(2) They are calibrated on a 6-month fre- transmissometer. Determine and record the
quency through the assignment of a lumi- slope of the calibration line using linear re-
nous transmittance value in the following gression through zero opacity. The slope of
manner: the calibration line must be between 0.99 and
(i) Use a spectrophotometer meeting the 1.01, and the laboratory-based transmis-
specifications of section 6.3 to calibrate the someter reading for each primary filter must
required filters. Verify the spectrophotom- not deviate by more than ±2 percent from the
eter calibration through use of a NIST 930D linear regression line. If the calibration of
Standard Reference Material (SRM). A SRM the laboratory-based transmissometer yields
930D consists of three neutral density glass a slope or individual readings outside the
filters and a blank, each mounted in a specified ranges, secondary filter calibra-
cuvette. The wavelengths and temperature tions cannot be performed. Determine the
to be used in the calibration are listed on the source of the variations (either transmis-
NIST certificate that accompanies the re- someter performance or changes in the pri-
ported values. Determine and record a trans- mary filters) and repeat the transmissometer
mittance of the SRM values at the NIST calibration before proceeding with the atten-
wavelengths (three filters at five wave- uator calibration.
lengths each for a total of 15 determina- (ii) Immediately following the laboratory-
tions). Calculate a percent difference be- based transmissometer calibration, insert
tween the NIST certified values and the the secondary attenuators and determine
spectrophotometer response. At least 12 of and record the percent effective opacity
the 15 differences (in percent) must be within value per secondary attenuator from the
±0.5 percent of the NIST SRM values. No dif- calibration curve (linear regression line).
ference can be greater than ±1.0 percent. Re- (iii) Recalibrate the secondary attenuators
calibrate the SRM or service the spectro- semi-annually if they are used for the re-
photometer if the calibration results fail the quired calibration error test.
criteria.
(ii) Scan the filter to be tested and the 8.0 What Performance Procedures Are
NIST blank from wavelength 380 to 780 nm, Required To Comply With PS–1?
and record the spectrophotometer percent Procedures to verify the performance of
transmittance responses at 10 nm intervals. the COMS are divided into those completed
Test in this sequence: blank filter, tested fil- by the owner or operator and those com-
ter, tested filter rotated 90 degrees in the pleted by the opacity monitor manufacturer.
plane of the filter, blank filter. Calculate the 8.1 What procedures must I follow as the
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

average transmittance at each 10 nm inter- Owner or Operator?


val. If any pair of the tested filter transmit- (1) You must purchase an opacity monitor
tance values (for the same filter and wave- that complies with ASTM D 6216–98 and ob-
length) differ by more than ±0.25 percent, tain a certificate of conformance from the
rescan the tested filter. If the filter fails to opacity monitor manufacturer.

643

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00653 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 1 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–09 Edition)
(2) You must install the opacity monitor at least 2 duct diameters upstream of a flow
a location where the opacity measurements disturbance, (3) where condensed water vapor
are representative of the total emissions is not present, and (4) accessible in order to
from the affected facility. You must meet permit maintenance.
this requirement by choosing a measurement (ii) Light Beam Path. Select a light beam
location and a light beam path as follows: path that passes through the centroidal area
(i) Measurement Location. Select a meas- of the stack or duct. Also, you must follow
urement location that is (1) at least 4 duct
these additional requirements or modifica-
diameters downstream from all particulate
tions for these measurement locations:
control equipment or flow disturbance, (2) at

If your measurement lo- And is: Then use a light beam path that is:
cation is in a:

1. Straight vertical section Less than 4 equivalent diameters downstream In the plane defined by the upstream bend (see
of stack or duct. from a bend. figure 1–1).
2. Straight vertical section Less than 4 equivalent diameters upstream from In the plane defined by the downstream bend
of stack or duct. a bend. (see figure 1–2).
3. Straight vertical section Less than 4 equivalent diameters downstream In the plane defined by the upstream bend (see
of stack or duct. and is also less than 1 diameter upstream figure 1–3).
from a bend.
4. Horizontal section of At least 4 equivalent diameters downstream from In the horizontal plane that is between 1⁄3 and 1⁄2
stack or duct. a vertical bend. the distance up the vertical axis from the bot-
tom of the duct (see figure 1–4).
5. Horizontal section of Less than 4 equivalent diameters downstream In the horizontal plane that is between 1⁄2 and 2⁄3
duct. from a vertical bend. the distance up the vertical axis from the bot-
tom of the duct for upward flow in the vertical
section, and is between 1⁄3 and 1⁄2 the dis-
tance up the vertical axis from the bottom of
the duct for downward flow (figure 1–5).

(iii) Alternative Locations and Light Beam tion of alignment is one that is objectively
Paths. You may select locations and light apparent relative to reference marks or con-
beam paths, other than those cited above, if ditions.
you demonstrate, to the satisfaction of the (ii) Calibration Error Check. Conduct a
Administrator or delegated agent, that the three-point calibration error test using three
average opacity measured at the alternative calibration attenuators that produce outlet
location or path is equivalent to the opacity pathlength corrected, single-pass opacity
as measured at a location meeting the cri- values shown in ASTM D 6216–98, section 7.5.
teria of sections 8.1(2)(i) and 8.1(2)(ii). The If your applicable limit is less than 10 per-
opacity at the alternative location is consid- cent opacity, use attenuators as described in
ered equivalent if (1) the average opacity ASTM D 6216–98, section 7.5 for applicable
value measured at the alternative location is
standards of 10 to 19 percent opacity. Con-
within ±10 percent of the average opacity
firm the external audit device produces the
value measured at the location meeting the
proper zero value on the COMS data re-
installation criteria, and (2) the difference
corder. Separately, insert each calibration
between any two average opacity values is
attenuators (low, mid, and high-level) into
less than 2 percent opacity (absolute). You
the external audit device. While inserting
use the following procedure to conduct this
demonstration: simultaneously measure the each attenuator, (1) ensure that the entire
opacities at the two locations or paths for a light beam passes through the attenuator, (2)
minimum period of time (e.g., 180-minutes) minimize interference from reflected light,
covering the range of normal operating con- and (3) leave the attenuator in place for at
ditions and compare the results. The opac- least two times the shortest recording inter-
ities of the two locations or paths may be val on the COMS data recorder. Make a total
measured at different times, but must rep- of five nonconsecutive readings for each at-
resent the same process operating condi- tenuator. At the end of the test, correlate
tions. You may use alternative procedures each attenuator insertion to the cor-
for determining acceptable locations if those responding value from the data recorder.
procedures are approved by the Adminis- Subtract the single-pass calibration attenu-
trator. ator values corrected to the stack exit condi-
(3) Field Audit Performance Tests. After tions from the COMS responses. Calculate
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

you install the COMS, you must perform the the arithmetic mean difference, standard de-
following procedures and tests on the COMS. viation, and confidence coefficient of the five
(i) Optical Alignment Assessment. Verify measurements value using equations 1–3, 1–4,
and record that all alignment indicator de- and 1–5. Calculate the calibration error as
vices show proper alignment. A clear indica- the sum of the absolute value of the mean

644

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00654 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Environmental Protection Agency Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 1
difference and the 95 percent confidence coef- any time. At the end of the operational test
ficient for each of the three test attenuators period, verify and record that the COMS op-
using equation 1–6. Report the calibration tical alignment is still correct. If the test pe-
error test results for each of the three atten- riod is interrupted because of COMS failure,
uators. record the time when the failure occurred.
(iii) System Response Time Check. Using a After the failure is corrected, you restart the
high-level calibration attenuator, alter- 168-hour period and tests from the beginning
nately insert the filter five times and re- (0-hour). During the operational test period,
move it from the external audit device. For perform the following test procedures:
each filter insertion and removal, measure (i) Zero Calibration Drift Test. At the out-
the amount of time required for the COMS to set of the 168-hour operational test period
display 95 percent of the step change in opac- and at each 24-hour interval, the automatic
ity on the COMS data recorder. For the calibration check system must initiate the
upscale response time, measure the time simulated zero device to allow the zero drift
from insertion to display of 95 percent of the to be determined. Record the COMS response
final, steady upscale reading. For the to the simulated zero device. After each 24-
downscale response time, measure the time hour period, subtract the COMS zero reading
from removal to display 5 percent of the ini- from the nominal value of the simulated zero
tial upscale reading. Calculate the mean of device to calculate the 24-hour zero drift
the five upscale response time measurements (ZD). At the end of the 168-hour period, cal-
and the mean of the five downscale response culate the arithmetic mean, standard devi-
time measurements. Report both the upscale ation, and confidence coefficient of the 24-
and downscale response times. hour ZDs using equations 1–3, 1–4, and 1–5.
(iv) Averaging Period Calculation and Re- Calculate the sum of the absolute value of
cording Check. After the calibration error the mean and the absolute value of the con-
check, conduct a check of the averaging pe- fidence coefficient using equation 1–6, and
riod calculation (e.g., 6-minute integrated report this value as the 24-hour ZD error.
average). Consecutively insert each of the
(ii) Upscale Calibration Drift Test. At each
calibration error check attenuators (low,
24-hour interval after the simulated zero de-
mid, and high-level) into the external audit
vice value has been checked, check and
device for a period of two times the aver-
record the COMS response to the upscale
aging period plus 1 minute (e.g., 13 minutes
calibration device. After each 24-hour period,
for a 6-minute averaging period). Compare
subtract the COMS upscale reading from the
the path length corrected opacity value of
nominal value of the upscale calibration de-
each attenuator to the valid average value
calculated by the COMS data recording de- vice to calculate the 24-hour calibration drift
vice for that attenuator. (CD). At the end of the 168-hour period, cal-
(4) Operational Test Period. Before con- culate the arithmetic mean, standard devi-
ducting the operational testing, you must ation, and confidence coefficient of the 24-
have successfully completed the field audit hour CD using equations 1–3, 1–4, and 1–5.
tests described in sections 8.1(3)(i) through Calculate the sum of the absolute value of
8.1(3)(iv). Then, you operate the COMS for an the mean and the absolute value of the con-
initial 168-hour test period while the source fidence coefficient using equation 1–6, and
is operating under normal operating condi- report this value as the 24-hour CD error.
tions. If normal operations contain routine (5) Retesting. If the COMS fails to meet the
source shutdowns, include the source’s down specifications for the tests conducted under
periods in the 168-hour operational test pe- the operational test period, make the nec-
riod. However, you must ensure that the fol- essary corrections and restart the oper-
lowing minimum source operating time is in- ational test period. Depending on the opinion
cluded in the operational test period: (1) For of the enforcing agency, you may have to re-
a batch operation, the operational test pe- peat some or all of the field audit tests.
riod must include at least one full cycle of 8.2 What are the responsibilities of the
batch operation during the 168-hour period Opacity Monitor Manufacturer?
unless the batch operation is longer than 168 You, the manufacturer, must carry out the
hours or (2) for continuous operating proc- following activities:
esses, the unit must be operating for at least (1) Conduct the verification procedures for
50 percent of the 168-hour period. Except dur- design specifications in section 6 of ASTM D
ing times of instrument zero and upscale 6216–98.
calibration drift checks, you must analyze (2) Conduct the verification procedures for
the effluent gas for opacity and produce a performance specifications in section 7 of
permanent record of the COMS output. Dur- ASTM D 6216–98.
ing this period, you may not perform un- (3) Provide to the owner or operator, a re-
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

scheduled maintenance, repair, or adjust- port of the opacity monitor’s conformance to


ment to the COMS. Automatic zero and cali- the design and performance specifications re-
bration adjustments (i.e., intrinsic adjust- quired in sections 6 and 7 of ASTM D 6216–98
ments), made by the COMS without operator in accordance with the reporting require-
intervention or initiation, are allowable at ments of section 9 in ASTM D 6216–98.

645

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00655 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 1 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–09 Edition)
9.0 What quality control measures are required OP2=Desired attenuator opacity value from
by PS–1? ASTM D 6216–98, section 7.5 at the opacity
limit required by the applicable subpart.
Opacity monitor manufacturers must ini-
tiate a quality program following the re- L1=Monitoring pathlength.
quirements of ASTM D 6216–98, section 8. The L2=Emission outlet pathlength.
quality program must include (1) a quality 12.2 Luminous Transmittance Value of a
system and (2) a corrective action program. Filter. Calculate the luminous transmit-
tance of a filter as follows:
10.0 Calibration and Standardization
[Reserved] i =800 nm

11.0 Analytical Procedure [Reserved] ∑ Ti


i = 300 nm
12.0 What Calculations Are Needed for PS–1? LT = Eq. 1-2
100,000
12.1 Desired Attenuator Values. Calculate
the desired attenuator value corrected to the Where:
emission outlet pathlength as follows: LT=Luminous transmittance
Ti=Weighted tested filter transmittance.
L2
12.3 Arithmetic Mean. Calculate the
L1 Eq. 1-1
OP2 = 1 − (1 − OP1 )
arithmetic mean of a data set as follows:

ER10AU00.016</MATH>
1 n
∑ xi
Where:
OP1=Nominal opacity value of required low-
x= Eq. 1-3
, mid-, or high-range calibration attenu-
n i =1
ators. Where:

ER10AU00.015</MATH>
x = Arithmetic mean
n = Number of data points

ER10AU00.014</MATH>
n
∑ x i = Algebraic sum of the individual measurements,
i=1
xi .

ER10AU00.013</MATH>
12.4 Standard Deviation. Calculate the 12.6 Calibration Error. Calculate the error
standard deviation as follows: (calibration error, zero drift error, and cali-
bration drift error) as follows:
2
⎛ n ⎞ Er = x + CC

ER10AU00.012</MATH>
Eq. 1-6
⎜∑ xi ⎟
n
⎝ ⎠ Where:
∑ x i − i=1 n
2
Er=Error.
i =1
Sd = Eq. 1-4 12.7 Conversion of Opacity Values for
n −1 Monitor Pathlength to Emission Outlet
ER10AU00.011</MATH>
Pathlength. When the monitor pathlength is
Where: different from the emission outlet
Sd=Standard deviation of a data set. pathlength, use either of the following equa-
tions to convert from one basis to the other
12.5 Confidence Coefficient. Calculate the (this conversion may be automatically cal-
2.5 percent error confidence coefficient (one- culated by the monitoring system):
tailed) as follows:
ER10AU00.010</MATH>

L2
t 0.975 S d log (1− Op 2 ) = log (1− Op1 ) Eq. 1-7
CC = Eq. 1-5 L1
n
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

Where: L2
OD 2 = × OD1 Eq. 1-8
ER10AU00.009</MATH>

CC=Confidence coefficient
t0.975=t ¥ value (see table 1–2).
L1
Where:

646
ER10AU00.008</MATH>

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00656 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8003 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Environmental Protection Agency Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 1
Op1=Opacity of the effluent based upon L1. (5) Operational Test Period. The COMS
Op2=Opacity of the effluent based upon L2. must be able to measure and record opacity
L1=Monitor pathlength. and to perform daily calibration drift assess-
L2=Emission outlet pathlength. ments for 168 hours without unscheduled
OD1=Optical density of the effluent based maintenance, repair, or adjustment.
upon L1. (6) Zero and Upscale Calibration Drift
OD2=Optical density of the effluent based Error. The COMS zero and upscale calibra-
upon L2. tion drift error must not exceed 2 percent
12.8 Mean Response Wavelength. Cal- opacity over a 24 hour period.
culate the mean of the effective spectral re-
sponse curve from the individual responses 14.0 Pollution Prevention [Reserved]
at the specified wavelength values as fol-
lows: 15.0 Waste Management [Reserved]

n 16.0 Which references are relevant to this

∑ Ligi method?
1. Experimental Statistics. Department of
i =1
L= n
Eq. 1-9 Commerce. National Bureau of Standards

∑ gi Handbook 91. Paragraph 3–3.1.4. 1963. 3–31 p.


2. Performance Specifications for Sta-
i =1 tionary Source Monitoring Systems for
Where: Gases and Visible Emissions, EPA–650/2–74–
L=mean of the effective spectral response 013, January 1974, U. S. Environmental Pro-
curve tection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC.
Li=The specified wavelength at which the re- 3. Koontz, E.C., Walton, J. Quality Assur-
sponse gi is calculated at 20 nm intervals. ance Programs for Visible Emission Evalua-
gi=The individual response value at Li. tions. Tennessee Division of Air Pollution
Control. Nashville, TN. 78th Meeting of the
13.0 What Specifications Does a COMS Have Air Pollution Control Association. Detroit,
To Meet for Certification? MI. June 16–21, 1985.
A COMS must meet the following design, 4. Evaluation of Opacity CEMS Reliability
manufacturer’s performance, and field audit and Quality Assurance Procedures. Volume
performance specifications: 1. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency.
13.1 Design Specifications. The opacity Research Triangle Park, NC. EPA–340/1–86–
monitoring equipment must comply with the 009a.
design specifications of ASTM D 6216–98. 5. Nimeroff, I. ‘‘Colorimetry Precision
13.2 Manufacturer’s Performance Speci- Measurement and Calibration.’’ NBS Special
fications. The opacity monitor must comply Publication 300. Volume 9. June 1972.
with the manufacturer’s performance speci- 6. Technical Assistance Document: Per-
fications of ASTM D 6216–98. formance Audit Procedures for Opacity Mon-
13.3 Field Audit Performance Specifica- itors. U. S. Environmental Protection Agen-
tions. The installed COMS must comply with cy. Research Triangle Park, NC. EPA–600/8–
the following performance specifications: 87–025. April 1987.
(1) Optical Alignment. Objectively indicate 7. Technical Assistance Document: Per-
proper alignment relative to reference marks formance Audit Procedures for Opacity Mon-
(e.g., bull’s-eye) or conditions. itors. U. S. Environmental Protection Agen-
(2) Calibration Error. The calibration error cy. Research Triangle Park, NC. EPA–450/4–
must be ≤3 percent opacity for each of the 92–010. April 1992.
three calibration attenuators.
8. ASTM D 6216–98: Standard Practice for
(3) System Response Time. The COMS
Opacity Monitor Manufacturers to Certify
upscale and downscale response times must
Conformance with Design and Performance
be ≤10 seconds as measured at the COMS data
Specifications. American Society for Testing
recorder.
and Materials (ASTM). April 1998.
(4) Averaging Period Calculation and Re-
cording. The COMS data recorder must aver- 17.0 What tables and diagrams are relevant to
age and record each calibration attenuator this method?
value to within ±2 percent opacity of the cer-
tified value of the attenuator. 17.1 Reference Tables.
TABLE 1–1—SOURCE C, HUMAN EYE RESPONSE FACTOR
Wavelength Weighting Wavelength Weighting
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

nanometers factor a nanometers factor a

380 ..................................................................... 0 590 6627


390 ..................................................................... 0 600 5316
400 ..................................................................... 2 610 4176

647
ER10AU00.017</MATH>

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00657 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 1 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–09 Edition)

TABLE 1–1—SOURCE C, HUMAN EYE RESPONSE FACTOR—Continued


Wavelength Weighting Wavelength Weighting
nanometers factor a nanometers factor a

410 ..................................................................... 9 620 3153


420 ..................................................................... 37 630 2190
430 ..................................................................... 122 640 1443
440 ..................................................................... 262 650 886
450 ..................................................................... 443 660 504
460 ..................................................................... 694 670 259
470 ..................................................................... 1058 680 134
480 ..................................................................... 1618 690 62
490 ..................................................................... 2358 700 29
500 ..................................................................... 3401 720 14
510 ..................................................................... 4833 720 6
520 ..................................................................... 6462 730 3
530 ..................................................................... 7934 740 2
540 ..................................................................... 9194 750 1
550 ..................................................................... 9832 760 1
560 ..................................................................... 9841 770 0
570 ..................................................................... 9147 780 0
580 ..................................................................... 7992 ........................................ ........................................
1 Total of weighting factors=100,000.

TABLE 1–2 T VALUES


na t 0.975 na t 0.975 na t 0.975

2 .................................................................................... 12.706 7 2.447 12 2.201


3 .................................................................................... 4.303 8 2.365 13 2.179
4 .................................................................................... 3.182 9 2.306 14 2.160
5 .................................................................................... 2.776 10 2.262 15 2.145
6 .................................................................................... 2.571 11 2.228 16 2.131
a The values in this table are already corrected for n-1 degrees of freedom. Use n equal to the number of individual values.

17.2 Diagrams.
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

648

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00658 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Environmental Protection Agency Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 1
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

649
ER10AU00.018</GPH>

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00659 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8006 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 1 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–09 Edition)
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

650
ER10AU00.019</GPH>

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00660 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8006 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Environmental Protection Agency Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 1
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

651
ER10AU00.020</GPH>

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00661 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8006 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 1 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–09 Edition)
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

652
ER10AU00.021</GPH>

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00662 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8006 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Environmental Protection Agency Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 2
PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION 2—SPECIFICA- of the analyzer output. The data recorder
TIONS AND TEST PROCEDURES FOR SO2 AND may include automatic data reduction capa-
NOX CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING bilities.
SYSTEMS IN STATIONARY SOURCES 3.5 Diluent Analyzer means that portion of
the CEMS that senses the diluent gas (i.e.,
1.0 Scope and Application CO2 or O2) and generates an output propor-
1.1 Analytes tional to the gas concentration.
3.6 Path CEMS means a CEMS that meas-
Analyte CAS Nos. ures the gas concentration along a path
greater than 10 percent of the equivalent di-
Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) .............................. 7449–09–5 ameter of the stack or duct cross section.
Nitrogen Oxides (NOX) .......................... 10102–44–0 (NO2),
10024–97–2 (NO)
3.7 Point CEMS means a CEMS that meas-
ures the gas concentration either at a single
point or along a path equal to or less than 10
1.2 Applicability.
percent of the equivalent diameter of the
1.2.1 This specification is for evaluating
stack or duct cross section.
the acceptability of SO2 and NOX continuous
3.8 Pollutant Analyzer means that portion
emission monitoring systems (CEMS) at the
of the CEMS that senses the pollutant gas
time of installation or soon after and when-
and generates an output proportional to the
ever specified in the regulations. The CEMS
gas concentration.
may include, for certain stationary sources,
3.9 Relative Accuracy (RA) means the abso-
a diluent (O2 or CO2) monitor.
lute mean difference between the gas con-
1.2.2 This specification is not designed to
centration or emission rate determined by
evaluate the installed CEMS performance
the CEMS and the value determined by the
over an extended period of time nor does it
reference method (RM), plus the 2.5 percent
identify specific calibration techniques and
error confidence coefficient of a series of
other auxiliary procedures to assess the
tests, divided by the mean of the RM tests or
CEMS performance. The source owner or op-
the applicable emission limit.
erator is responsible to calibrate, maintain,
3.10 Sample Interface means that portion of
and operate the CEMS properly. The Admin-
the CEMS used for one or more of the fol-
istrator may require, under Section 114 of
lowing: sample acquisition, sample delivery,
the Act, the operator to conduct CEMS per-
sample conditioning, or protection of the
formance evaluations at other times besides
monitor from the effects of the stack efflu-
the initial test to evaluate the CEMS per-
ent.
formance. See 40 CFR Part 60, § 60.13(c).
3.11 Span Value means the concentration
2.0 Summary of Performance Specification specified for the affected source category in
an applicable subpart of the regulations that
Procedures for measuring CEMS relative is used to set the calibration gas concentra-
accuracy and calibration drift are outlined. tion and in determining calibration drift.
CEMS installation and measurement loca-
tion specifications, equipment specifications, 4.0 Interferences [Reserved]
performance specifications, and data reduc-
tion procedures are included. Conformance of 5.0 Safety
the CEMS with the Performance Specifica- The procedures required under this per-
tion is determined. formance specification may involve haz-
ardous materials, operations, and equipment.
3.0 Definitions This performance specification may not ad-
3.1 Calibration Drift (CD) means the dif- dress all of the safety problems associated
ference in the CEMS output readings from with these procedures. It is the responsi-
the established reference value after a stated bility of the user to establish appropriate
period of operation during which no unsched- safety and health practices and determine
uled maintenance, repair, or adjustment the applicable regulatory limitations prior
took place. to performing these procedures. The CEMS
3.2 Centroidal Area means a concentric user’s manual and materials recommended
area that is geometrically similar to the by the reference method should be consulted
stack or duct cross section and is no greater for specific precautions to be taken.
than l percent of the stack or duct cross-sec-
tional area. 6.0 Equipment and Supplies
3.3 Continuous Emission Monitoring System 6.1 CEMS Equipment Specifications.
means the total equipment required for the 6.1.1 Data Recorder Scale. The CEMS data
determination of a gas concentration or recorder output range must include zero and
emission rate. The sample interface, pollut- a high-level value. The high-level value is
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

ant analyzer, diluent analyzer, and data re- chosen by the source owner or operator and
corder are the major subsystems of the is defined as follows:
CEMS. 6.1.1.1 For a CEMS intended to measure
3.4 Data Recorder means that portion of an uncontrolled emission (e.g., SO2 measure-
the CEMS that provides a permanent record ments at the inlet of a flue gas

653

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00663 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 2 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–09 Edition)
desulfurization unit), the high-level value that the CEMS will pass the RA test (see
should be between 1.25 and 2 times the max- Section 8.4). If the cause of failure to meet
imum potential emission level over the ap- the RA test is determined to be the measure-
propriate averaging time, unless otherwise ment location and a satisfactory correction
specified in an applicable subpart of the reg- technique cannot be established, the Admin-
ulations. istrator may require the CEMS to be relo-
6.1.1.2 For a CEMS installed to measure cated. Suggested measurement locations and
controlled emissions or emissions that are in points or paths that are most likely to pro-
compliance with an applicable regulation, vide data that will meet the RA require-
the high-level value between 1.5 times the ments are listed below.
pollutant concentration corresponding to the 8.1.2 CEMS Measurement Location. It is
emission standard level and the span value suggested that the measurement location be
given in the applicable regulations is ade- (1) at least two equivalent diameters down-
quate. stream from the nearest control device, the
6.1.1.3 Alternative high-level values may point of pollutant generation, or other point
be used, provided the source can measure at which a change in the pollutant con-
emissions which exceed the full-scale limit centration or emission rate may occur and
in accordance with the requirements of ap- (2) at least a half equivalent diameter up-
plicable regulations. stream from the effluent exhaust or control
6.1.1.4 If an analog data recorder is used, device.
the data recorder output must be established 8.1.2.1 Point CEMS. It is suggested that
so that the high-level value would read be- the measurement point be (1) no less than 1.0
tween 90 and 100 percent of the data recorder meter (3.3 ft) from the stack or duct wall or
full scale. (This scale requirement may not (2) within or centrally located over the cen-
be applicable to digital data recorders.) The troidal area of the stack or duct cross sec-
zero and high level calibration gas, optical tion.
filter, or cell values should be used to estab- 8.1.2.2 Path CEMS. It is suggested that
lish the data recorder scale. the effective measurement path (1) be totally
6.1.2 The CEMS design should also allow within the inner area bounded by a line 1.0
the determination of calibration drift at the meter (3.3 ft) from the stack or duct wall, or
zero and high-level values. If this is not pos- (2) have at least 70 percent of the path within
sible or practical, the design must allow the inner 50 percent of the stack or duct
these determinations to be conducted at a cross-sectional area, or (3) be centrally lo-
low-level value (zero to 20 percent of the cated over any part of the centroidal area.
high-level value) and at a value between 50 8.1.3 Reference Method Measurement Lo-
and 100 percent of the high-level value. In cation and Traverse Points.
special cases, the Administrator may ap- 8.1.3.1 Select, as appropriate, an acces-
prove a single-point calibration-drift deter- sible RM measurement point at least two
mination. equivalent diameters downstream from the
6.2 Other equipment and supplies, as need- nearest control device, the point of pollutant
ed by the applicable reference method(s) (see generation, or other point at which a change
Section 8.4.2 of this Performance Specifica- in the pollutant concentration or emission
tion), may be required. rate may occur, and at least a half equiva-
7.0 Reagents and Standards lent diameter upstream from the effluent ex-
haust or control device. When pollutant con-
7.1 Reference Gases, Gas Cells, or Optical centration changes are due solely to diluent
Filters. As specified by the CEMS manufac- leakage (e.g., air heater leakages) and pollut-
turer for calibration of the CEMS (these need ants and diluents are simultaneously meas-
not be certified). ured at the same location, a half diameter
7.2 Reagents and Standards. May be re- may be used in lieu of two equivalent diame-
quired as needed by the applicable reference ters. The CEMS and RM locations need not
method(s) (see Section 8.4.2 of this Perform- be the same.
ance Specification). 8.1.3.2 Select traverse points that assure
acquisition of representative samples over
8.0 Performance Specification Test Procedure
the stack or duct cross section. The min-
8.1 Installation and Measurement Loca- imum requirements are as follows: Establish
tion Specifications. a ‘‘measurement line’’ that passes through
8.1.1 CEMS Installation. Install the CEMS the centroidal area and in the direction of
at an accessible location where the pollutant any expected stratification. If this line inter-
concentration or emission rate measure- feres with the CEMS measurements, displace
ments are directly representative or can be the line up to 30 cm (12 in.) (or 5 percent of
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

corrected so as to be representative of the the equivalent diameter of the cross section,


total emissions from the affected facility or whichever is less) from the centroidal area.
at the measurement location cross section. Locate three traverse points at 16.7, 50.0, and
Then select representative measurement 83.3 percent of the measurement line. If the
points or paths for monitoring in locations measurement line is longer than 2.4 meters

654

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00664 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Environmental Protection Agency Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 2
(7.8 ft) and pollutant stratification is not ex- the CEMS the reference gases, gas cells, or
pected, the three traverse points may be lo- optical filters (these need not be certified).
cated on the line at 0.4, 1.2, and 2.0 meters Record the CEMS response and subtract this
from the stack or duct wall. This option value from the reference value (see example
must not be used after wet scrubbers or at data sheet in Figure 2–1).
points where two streams with different pol- 8.4 Relative Accuracy Test Procedure.
lutant concentrations are combined. If strat- 8.4.1 RA Test Period. Conduct the RA test
ification is suspected, the following proce- according to the procedure given in Sections
dure is suggested. For rectangular ducts, lo- 8.4.2 through 8.4.6 while the affected facility
cate at least nine sample points in the cross is operating at more than 50 percent of nor-
section such that sample points are the mal load, or as specified in an applicable sub-
centroids of similarly-shaped, equal area di- part. The RA test may be conducted during
visions of the cross section. Measure the pol- the CD test period.
lutant concentration, and, if applicable, the 8.4.2 Reference Methods. Unless otherwise
diluent concentration at each point using ap- specified in an applicable subpart of the reg-
propriate reference methods or other appro- ulations, Methods 3B, 4, 6, and 7, or their ap-
priate instrument methods that give re- proved alternatives, are the reference meth-
sponses relative to pollutant concentrations. ods for diluent (O2 and CO2), moisture, SO2,
Then calculate the mean value for all sample and NOX, respectively.
points. For circular ducts, conduct a 12-point 8.4.3 Sampling Strategy for RM Tests.
traverse (i.e., six points on each of the two Conduct the RM tests in such a way that
perpendicular diameters) locating the sam- they will yield results representative of the
ple points as described in 40 CFR 60, Appen- emissions from the source and can be cor-
dix A, Method 1. Perform the measurements related to the CEMS data. It is preferable to
and calculations as described above. Deter- conduct the diluent (if applicable), moisture
mine if the mean pollutant concentration is (if needed), and pollutant measurements si-
more than 10% different from any single multaneously. However, diluent and mois-
point. If so, the cross section is considered to ture measurements that are taken within an
be stratified, and the tester may not use the hour of the pollutant measurements may be
alternative traverse point locations (...0.4, used to calculate dry pollutant concentra-
1.2, and 2.0 meters from the stack or duct tion and emission rates. In order to correlate
wall.) but must use the three traverse points the CEMS and RM data properly, note the
at 16.7, 50.0, and 83.3 percent of the entire beginning and end of each RM test period of
measurement line. Other traverse points each run (including the exact time of day) on
may be selected, provided that they can be the CEMS chart recordings or other perma-
shown to the satisfaction of the Adminis- nent record of output. Use the following
trator to provide a representative sample strategies for the RM tests:
over the stack or duct cross section. Conduct 8.4.3.1 For integrated samples (e.g., Meth-
all necessary RM tests within 3 cm (1.2 in.) of ods 6 and Method 4), make a sample traverse
the traverse points, but no closer than 3 cm of at least 21 minutes, sampling for an equal
(1.2 in.) to the stack or duct wall. time at each traverse point (see Section
8.2 Pretest Preparation. Install the 8.1.3.2 for discussion of traverse points.
CEMS, prepare the RM test site according to 8.4.3.2 For grab samples (e.g., Method 7),
the specifications in Section 8.1, and prepare take one sample at each traverse point,
the CEMS for operation according to the scheduling the grab samples so that they are
manufacturer’s written instructions. taken simultaneously (within a 3-minute pe-
8.3 Calibration Drift Test Procedure. riod) or at an equal interval of time apart
8.3.1 CD Test Period. While the affected fa- over the span of time the CEM pollutant is
cility is operating, determine the magnitude measured. A test run for grab samples must
of the CD once each day (at 24-hour inter- be made up of at least three separate meas-
vals) for 7 consecutive calendar days accord- urements.
ing to the procedure given in Sections 8.3.2
NOTE: At times, CEMS RA tests are con-
through 8.3.4. Alternatively, the CD test may
ducted during new source performance stand-
be conducted over 7 consecutive unit oper-
ards performance tests. In these cases, RM
ating days.
results obtained during CEMS RA tests may
8.3.2 The purpose of the CD measurement
be used to determine compliance as long as
is to verify the ability of the CEMS to con-
the source and test conditions are consistent
form to the established CEMS calibration
with the applicable regulations.
used for determining the emission con-
centration or emission rate. Therefore, if 8.4.4 Number of RM Tests. Conduct a min-
periodic automatic or manual adjustments imum of nine sets of all necessary RM test
are made to the CEMS zero and calibration runs.
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

settings, conduct the CD test immediately NOTE: More than nine sets of RM tests may
before these adjustments, or conduct it in be performed. If this option is chosen, a max-
such a way that the CD can be determined. imum of three sets of the test results may be
8.3.3 Conduct the CD test at the two rejected so long as the total number of test
points specified in Section 6.1.2. Introduce to results used to determine the RA is greater

655

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00665 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 2 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–09 Edition)
than or equal to nine. However, all data Local agency for additional requirements, if
must be reported, including the rejected any), summarize in tabular form the results
data. of the CD tests and the RA tests or alter-
8.4.5 Correlation of RM and CEMS Data. native RA procedure, as appropriate. Include
Correlate the CEMS and the RM test data as all data sheets, calculations, charts (records
to the time and duration by first deter- of CEMS responses), cylinder gas concentra-
mining from the CEMS final output (the one tion certifications, and calibration cell re-
used for reporting) the integrated average sponse certifications (if applicable) nec-
pollutant concentration or emission rate for essary to confirm that the performance of
each pollutant RM test period. Consider sys- the CEMS met the performance specifica-
tem response time, if important, and confirm tions.
that the pair of results are on a consistent
moisture, temperature, and diluent con- 9.0 Quality Control [Reserved]
centration basis. Then, compare each inte-
grated CEMS value against the cor- 10.0 Calibration and Standardization
responding average RM value. Use the fol- [Reserved]
lowing guidelines to make these compari-
11.0 Analytical Procedure
sons.
8.4.5.1 If the RM has an integrated sam- Sample collection and analysis are concur-
pling technique, make a direct comparison of rent for this Performance Specification (see
the RM results and CEMS integrated average Section 8.0). Refer to the RM for specific an-
value. alytical procedures.
8.4.5.2 If the RM has a grab sampling tech-
nique, first average the results from all grab 12.0 Calculations and Data Analysis
samples taken during the test run, and then
compare this average value against the inte- Summarize the results on a data sheet
grated value obtained from the CEMS chart similar to that shown in Figure 2–2 (in Sec-
recording or output during the run. If the tion 18.0).
pollutant concentration is varying with time 12.1 All data from the RM and CEMS
over the run, the arithmetic average of the must be on a consistent dry basis and, as ap-
CEMS value recorded at the time of each plicable, on a consistent diluent basis and in
grab sample may be used. the units of the emission standard. Correct
8.4.6 Calculate the mean difference be- the RM and CEMS data for moisture and dil-
tween the RM and CEMS values in the units uent as follows:
of the emission standard, the standard devi- 12.1.1 Moisture Correction (as applicable).
ation, the confidence coefficient, and the rel- Correct each wet RM run for moisture with
ative accuracy according to the procedures the corresponding Method 4 data; correct
in Section 12.0. each wet CEMS run using the corresponding
8.5 Reporting. At a minimum (check with CEMS moisture monitor date using Equation
the appropriate regional office, State, or 2–1.

Concentration wet
Concentration ( dry ) = Eq. 2-1
(1 − Bws )

12.1.2 Correction to Units of Standard (as CEMS run using the corresponding CEMS
applicable). Correct each dry RM run to the diluent monitor data as follows:
units of the emission standard with the cor- 12.1.2.1 Correct to Diluent Basis. The fol-
responding Method 3B data; correct each dry lowing is an example of concentration (ppm)
correction to 7% oxygen.

⎡ 20.9 − 7.0 ⎤
ppm ( corr ) = ppm ( uncorr ) ⎢ ⎥ Eq. 2-2
⎢ 20.9 − %O 2( dry ) ⎥
⎣ ⎦
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

ER17OC00.454</MATH>

The following is an example of mass/gross 12.2 Arithmetic Mean. Calculate the


calorific value (lbs/million Btu) correction. arithmetic mean of the difference, d, of a
lbs/MMBtu=Conc(dry) (F-factor) (20.9/20.9-%02) data set as follows:

656
ER17OC00.453</MATH>

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00666 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Environmental Protection Agency Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 2
Where:
1 n
d = ∑ di
n=Number of data points.
Eq. 2-3
n i =1

n
∑ d i = Algebraic summation of the individual differences d i .
i =1

12.3 Standard Deviation. Calculate the (See Performance Specification 3 for the dil-
standard deviation, Sd, as follows: uent specifications), and none of the CDs
may exceed the specification.
⎡ ⎡ n ⎤2 ⎤1 13.2 Relative Accuracy Performance Spec-
⎢ ⎢∑ d i ⎥ ⎥2 ification. The RA of the CEMS must be no
⎢ n 2 ⎣ i =1 ⎦ ⎥ greater than 20 percent when RM̄ is used in
⎢ ∑ di −
the denominator of Eq. 2–6 (average emis-
⎥ sions during test are greater than 50 percent
n
Sd = ⎢ i =1 ⎥ Eq. 2-4 of the emission standard) or 10 percent when
⎢ n −1 ⎥ the applicable emission standard is used in
⎢ ⎥ the denominator of Eq. 2–6 (average emis-
⎢ ⎥ sions during test are less than 50 percent of
the emission standard). For SO2 emission
⎢ ⎥ standards of 130 to and including 86 ng/J (0.30
⎣ ⎦ and 0.20 lb/million Btu), inclusive, use 15 per-
12.4 Confidence Coefficient. Calculate the cent of the applicable standard; below 86 ng/
2.5 percent error confidence coefficient (one- J (0.20 lb/million Btu), use 20 percent of the
tailed), CC, as follows: emission standard.
13.3 For instruments that use common
Sd components to measure more than one efflu-
CC = t 0.975 Eq. 2-5 ent gas constituent, all channels must simul-
n taneously pass the RA requirement, unless it
Where: can be demonstrated that any adjustments
t̀0.975=t-value (see Table 2–1). made to one channel did not affect the oth-
12.5 Relative Accuracy. Calculate the RA ers.
of a set of data as follows:
14.0 Pollution Prevention [Reserved]

RA =
[ d + CC ] × 100 Eq. 2-6
15.0 Waste Management [Reserved]

16.0 Alternative Procedures


RM

ER17OC00.459</MATH>
Where: Paragraphs 60.13(j)(1) and (2) of 40 CFR part
|d|=Absolute value of the mean differences 60 contain criteria for which the reference
(from Equation 2–3). method procedure for determining relative
|CC|=Absolute value of the confidence coeffi- accuracy (see Section 8.4 of this Performance
cient (from Equation 2–3). Specification) may be waived and the fol-
RM=Average RM value. In cases where the lowing procedure substituted.
ER17OC00.458</MATH>
average emissions for the test are less than 16.1 Conduct a complete CEMS status
50 percent of the applicable standard, sub- check following the manufacturer’s written
stitute the emission standard value in the instructions. The check should include oper-
denominator of Eq. 2–6 in place of RM. In ation of the light source, signal receiver,
all other cases, use RM. timing mechanism functions, data acquisi-
tion and data reduction functions, data re-
ER17OC00.457</MATH>

13.0 Method Performance corders, mechanically operated functions


13.1 Calibration Drift Performance Speci- (mirror movements, zero pipe operation,
fication. The CEMS calibration must not calibration gas valve operations, etc.), sam-
drift or deviate from the reference value of ple filters, sample line heaters, moisture
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

the gas cylinder, gas cell, or optical filter by traps, and other related functions of the
more than 2.5 percent of the span value. If CEMS, as applicable. All parts of the CEMS
ER17OC00.456</MATH>

the CEMS includes pollutant and diluent shall be functioning properly before pro-
monitors, the CD must be determined sepa- ceeding to the alternative RA procedure.
rately for each in terms of concentrations 16.2 Alternative RA Procedure.

657
ER17OC00.455</MATH>

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00667 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 2 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–09 Edition)
16.2.1 Challenge each monitor (both pol- of Standards and Technology (NIST) gaseous
lutant and diluent, if applicable) with cyl- standard reference material (SRM) or NIST/
inder gases of known concentrations or cali- EPA approved gas manufacturer’s certified
bration cells that produce known responses reference material (CRM) (See Reference 2 in
at two measurement points within the Section 17.0) following EPA Traceability
ranges shown in Table 2–2 (Section 18). Protocol Number 1 (See Reference 3 in Sec-
16.2.2 Use a separate cylinder gas (for tion 17.0). As an alternative to Protocol
point CEMS only) or calibration cell (for Number 1 gases, CRM’s may be used directly
path CEMS or where compressed gas cyl- as alternative RA cylinder gases. A list of
inders can not be used) for measurement gas manufacturers that have prepared ap-
points 1 and 2. Challenge the CEMS and proved CRM’s is available from EPA at the
record the responses three times at each address shown in Reference 2. Procedures for
measurement point. The Administrator may preparation of CRM’s are described in Ref-
allow dilution of cylinder gas using the per- erence 2.
formance criteria in Test Method 205, 40 CFR 16.2.5 Use calibration cells certified by the
Part 51, Appendix M. Use the average of the manufacturer to produce a known response
three responses in determining relative accu- in the CEMS. The cell certification proce-
racy. dure shall include determination of CEMS
16.2.3 Operate each monitor in its normal response produced by the calibration cell in
sampling mode as nearly as possible. When direct comparison with measurement of
using cylinder gases, pass the cylinder gas gases of known concentration. This can be
through all filters, scrubbers, conditioners, accomplished using SRM or CRM gases in a
and other monitor components used during laboratory source simulator or through ex-
normal sampling and as much of the sam- tended tests using reference methods at the
pling probe as practical. When using calibra- CEMS location in the exhaust stack. These
tion cells, the CEMS components used in the procedures are discussed in Reference 4 in
normal sampling mode should not be by- Section 17.0. The calibration cell certifi-
passed during the RA determination. These cation procedure is subject to approval of the
include light sources, lenses, detectors, and Administrator.
reference cells. The CEMS should be chal- 16.3 The differences between the known
lenged at each measurement point for a suf- concentrations of the cylinder gases and the
ficient period of time to assure adsorption- concentrations indicated by the CEMS are
desorption reactions on the CEMS surfaces used to assess the accuracy of the CEMS.
have stabilized. The calculations and limits of acceptable
16.2.4 Use cylinder gases that have been relative accuracy are as follows:
certified by comparison to National Institute 16.3.1 For pollutant CEMS:

⎛ d ⎞
RA = ⎜ ⎟ 100 ≤ 15 percent Eq. 2-7
⎝ AC ⎠

Where: 2. ‘‘A Procedure for Establishing


d=Average difference between responses and Traceability of Gas Mixtures to Certain Na-
the concentration/responses (see Section tional Bureau of Standards Standard Ref-
16.2.2). erence Materials.’’ Joint publication by NBS
AC=The known concentration/response of and EPA. EPA 600/7–81–010. Available from
the cylinder gas or calibration cell. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
16.3.2 For diluent CEMS: Quality Assurance Division (MD–77), Re-
search Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711.
RA=|d| ≤ O.7 percent O2 or CO2, as applicable. 3. ‘‘Traceability Protocol for Establishing
NOTE: Waiver of the relative accuracy test True Concentrations of Gases Used for Cali-
in favor of the alternative RA procedure does bration and Audits of Continuous Source
not preclude the requirements to complete Emission Monitors. (Protocol Number 1).’’
the CD tests nor any other requirements June 1978. Protocol Number 1 is included in
specified in an applicable subpart for report- the Quality Assurance Handbook for Air Pol-
ing CEMS data and performing CEMS drift lution Measurement Systems, Volume III,
checks or audits. Stationary Source Specific Methods. EPA–
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

600/4–77–027b. August 1977.


17.0 References
4. ‘‘Gaseous Continuous Emission Moni-
1. Department of Commerce. Experimental toring Systems—Performance Specification
Statistics. Handbook 91. Washington, D.C. p. Guidelines for SO2, NOX, CO2, O2, and TRS.’’
3–31, paragraphs 3–3.1.4. EPA–450/3–82–026. Available from the U.S.

658
ER17OC00.460</MATH>

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00668 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Environmental Protection Agency Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 2
EPA, Emission Measurement Center, Emis- 18.0 Tables, Diagrams, Flowcharts, and
sion Monitoring and Data Analysis Division Validation Data
(MD–19), Research Triangle Park, North
Carolina 27711. Figure 2–1. Calibration Drift Determination

TABLE 2-1—T-VALUES
na t0.975 na t0.975 na t0.975

2 .................................................................................... 12.706 7 2.447 12 2.201


3 .................................................................................... 4.303 8 2.365 13 2.179
4 .................................................................................... 3.182 9 2.306 14 2.160
5 .................................................................................... 2.776 10 2.262 15 2.145
6 .................................................................................... 2.571 11 2.228 16 2.131
a The values in this table are already corrected for n-1 degrees of freedom. Use n equal to the number of individual values.
TABLE 2–2—MEASUREMENT RANGE
Diluent monitor for
Measurement point Pollutant monitor
CO2 O2

1 ....................................... 20–30% of span value ............. 5–8% by volume ....................... 4–6% by volume.
2 ....................................... 50–60% of span value ............. 10–14% by volume ................... 8–12% by volume.

Date and Calibration value Percent of span value (C-


Day Monitor value (M) Difference (C-M)
time (C) M)/span value × 100

Low-level.

High-level.

FIGURE 2–2. RELATIVE ACCURACY DETERMINATION.


SO2 NOX b CO2 or O2 a SO2 a NOX a
Date
Run No. and time RM CEMS Diff RM CEMS Diff RM CEMS RM CEMS Diff RM CEMS Diff

ppm c ppm c %c %c mass/GCV mass/GCV

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

11.

12.

659

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00669 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 3 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–09 Edition)

FIGURE 2–2. RELATIVE ACCURACY DETERMINATION.—Continued


SO2 NOX b CO2 or O2 a SO2 a NOX a
Date
Run No. and time RM CEMS Diff RM CEMS Diff RM CEMS RM CEMS Diff RM CEMS Diff

Average
Confidence
Interval
Accuracy
a For steam generators.
b Average of three samples.
c Make sure that RM and CEMS data are on a consistent basis, either wet or dry.

PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION 3—SPECIFICA- 3.0 Definitions


TIONS AND TEST PROCEDURES FOR O2 AND
Same as in Section 3.0 of PS 2.
CO2 CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING SYS-
TEMS IN STATIONARY SOURCES 4.0 Interferences [Reserved]
1.0 Scope and Application 5.0 Safety
1.1 Analytes. This performance specification may in-
volve hazardous materials, operations, and
Analytes CAS No. equipment. This performance specification
may not address all of the safety problems
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) ................................... 124–38–9
associated with its use. It is the responsi-
Oxygen (O2) ................................................... 7782–44–7
bility of the user to establish appropriate
safety and health practices and determine
1.2 Applicability. the applicable regulatory limitations prior
1.2.1 This specification is for evaluating to performing this performance specifica-
acceptability of O2 and CO2 continuous emis- tion. The CEMS users manual should be con-
sion monitoring systems (CEMS) at the time sulted for specific precautions to be taken
of installation or soon after and whenever with regard to the analytical procedures.
specified in an applicable subpart of the reg-
ulations. This specification applies to O2 or 6.0 Equipment and Supplies
CO2 monitors that are not included under Same as Section 6.0 of PS2.
Performance Specification 2 (PS 2).
1.2.2 This specification is not designed to 7.0 Reagents and Standards
evaluate the installed CEMS performance
Same as Section 7.0 of PS2.
over an extended period of time, nor does it
identify specific calibration techniques and 8.0 Sample Collection, Preservation, Storage,
other auxiliary procedures to assess the and Transport
CEMS performance. The source owner or op-
erator, is responsible to calibrate, maintain, 8.1 Relative Accuracy Test Procedure.
and operate the CEMS properly. The Admin- Sampling Strategy for reference method
istrator may require, under Section 114 of (RM) Tests, Correlation of RM and CEMS
the Act, the operator to conduct CEMS per- Data, and Number of RM Tests. Same as PS
formance evaluations at other times besides 2, Sections 8.4.3, 8.4.5, and 8.4.4, respectively.
the initial test to evaluate the CEMS per- 8.2 Reference Method. Unless otherwise
formance. See 40 CFR part 60, Section specified in an applicable subpart of the reg-
60.13(c). ulations, Method 3B or other approved alter-
native is the RM for O2 or CO2.
1.2.3 The definitions, installation and
measurement location specifications, cal- 9.0 Quality Control [Reserved]
culations and data analysis, and references
are the same as in PS 2, Sections 3, 8.1, 12, 10.0 Calibration and Standardization
and 17, respectively, and also apply to O2 and [Reserved]
CO2 CEMS under this specification. The per-
formance and equipment specifications and 11.0 Analytical Procedure
the relative accuracy (RA) test procedures Sample collection and analyses are concur-
for O2 and CO2 CEMS do not differ from those rent for this performance specification (see
for SO2 and NOX CEMS (see PS 2), except as Section 8). Refer to the RM for specific ana-
noted below. lytical procedures.
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

2.0 Summary of Performance Specification 12.0 Calculations and Data Analysis


The RA and calibration drift (CD) tests are Summarize the results on a data sheet
conducted to determine conformance of the similar to that shown in Figure 2.2 of PS2.
CEMS to the specification. Calculate the arithmetic difference between

660

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00670 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Environmental Protection Agency Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 4
the RM and the CEMS output for each run. 2.0 Summary of Performance Specification
The average difference of the nine (or more)
The CD and RA tests are conducted to de-
data sets constitute the RA.
termine conformance of the CEMS to the
13.0 Method Performance specification.

13.1 Calibration Drift Performance Speci- 3.0 Definitions


fication. The CEMS calibration must not Same as in Section 3.0 of PS 2.
drift by more than 0.5 percent O2 or CO2 from
the reference value of the gas, gas cell, or op- 4.0 Interferences [Reserved]
tical filter.
13.2 CEMS Relative Accuracy Perform- 5.0 Safety
ance Specification. The RA of the CEMS This performance specification may in-
must be no greater than 1.0 percent O2 or volve hazardous materials, operations, and
CO2. equipment. This performance specification
may not address all of the safety problems
14.0 Pollution Prevention [Reserved]
associated with its use. It is the responsi-
15.0 Waste Management [Reserved] bility of the user to establish appropriate
safety and health practices and determine
16.0 References the applicable regulatory limitations prior
to performing this performance specifica-
Same as in Section 17.0 of PS 2.
tion. The CEMS users manual should be con-
17.0 Tables, Diagrams, Flowcharts, and sulted for specific precautions to be taken
Validation Data [Reserved] with regard to the analytical procedures.

PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION 4—SPECIFICA- 6.0 Equipment and Supplies


TIONS AND TEST PROCEDURES FOR CARBON Same as Section 6.0 of PS 2.
MONOXIDE CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONI-
TORING SYSTEMS IN STATIONARY SOURCES 7.0 Reagents and Standards

1.0 Scope and Application Same as Section 7.0 of PS 2.

1.1 Analytes. 8.0 Sample Collection, Preservation, Storage,


and Transport
Analyte CAS No.
8.1 Relative Accuracy Test Procedure.
Carbon Monoxide (CO) ................................. 630–08–0 Sampling Strategy for reference method
(RM) Tests, Number of RM Tests, and Cor-
1.2 Applicability. relation of RM and CEMS Data are the same
1.2.1 This specification is for evaluating as PS 2, Sections 8.4.3, 8.4.4, and 8.4.5, respec-
the acceptability of carbon monoxide (CO) tively.
continuous emission monitoring systems 8.2 Reference Methods. Unless otherwise
(CEMS) at the time of installation or soon specified in an applicable subpart of the reg-
after and whenever specified in an applicable ulation, Method 10, 10A, 10B or other ap-
subpart of the regulations. This specification proved alternative are the RM for this PS.
was developed primarily for CEMS having When evaluating nondispersive infrared
span values of 1,000 ppmv CO. CEMS using Method 10 as the RM, the alter-
1.2.2 This specification is not designed to native interference trap specified in Section
evaluate the installed CEMS performance 16.0 of Method 10 shall be used.
over an extended period of time nor does it
identify specific calibration techniques and 9.0 Quality Control [Reserved]
other auxiliary procedures to assess CEMS 10.0 Calibration and Standardization
performance. The source owner or operator, [Reserved]
is responsible to calibrate, maintain, and op-
erate the CEMS. The Administrator may re- 11.0 Analytical Procedure
quire, under Section 114 of the Act, the
source owner or operator to conduct CEMS Sample collection and analysis are concur-
performance evaluations at other times be- rent for this performance specification (see
sides the initial test to evaluate the CEMS Section 8.0). Refer to the RM for specific an-
performance. See 40 CFR part 60, Section alytical procedures.
60.13(c). 12.0 Calculations and Data Analysis
1.2.3 The definitions, performance speci-
fication test procedures, calculations, and Same as Section 12.0 of PS 2.
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

data analysis procedures for determining


13.0 Method Performance
calibration drift (CD) and relative accuracy
(RA) of Performance Specification 2 (PS 2), 13.1 Calibration Drift. The CEMS calibra-
Sections 3, 8.0, and 12, respectively, apply to tion must not drift or deviate from the ref-
this specification. erence value of the calibration gas, gas cell,

661

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00671 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 4A 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–09 Edition)
or optical filter by more than 5 percent of was developed primarily for CEMS that com-
the established span value for 6 out of 7 test ply with low emission standards (less than
days (e.g., the established span value is 1000 200 ppmv).
ppm for Subpart J affected facilities). 1.2.2 This specification is not designed to
13.2 Relative Accuracy. The RA of the evaluate the installed CEMS performance
CEMS must be no greater than 10 percent over an extended period of time nor does it
when the average RM value is used to cal- identify specific calibration techniques and
culate RA or 5 percent when the applicable other auxiliary procedures to assess CEMS
emission standard is used to calculate RA. performance. The source owner or operator
is responsible to calibrate, maintain, and op-
14.0 Pollution Prevention [Reserved] erate the CEMS. The Administrator may re-
15.0 Waste Management [Reserved] quire, under Section 114 of the Act, the
source owner or operator to conduct CEMS
16.0 Alternative Procedures [Reserved] performance evaluations at other times be-
sides the initial test to evaluate CEMS per-
17.0 References formance. See 40 CFR Part 60, Section
1. Ferguson, B.B., R.E. Lester, and W.J. 60.13(c).
Mitchell. Field Evaluation of Carbon Mon- 1.2.3 The definitions, performance speci-
oxide and Hydrogen Sulfide Continuous fication, test procedures, calculations and
Emission Monitors at an Oil Refinery. U.S. data analysis procedures for determining
Environmental Protection Agency. Research calibration drifts (CD) and relative accuracy
Triangle Park, N.C. Publication No. EPA– (RA), of Performance Specification 2 (PS 2),
600/4–82–054. August 1982. 100 p. Sections 3, 8.0, and 12, respectively, apply to
2. ‘‘Gaseous Continuous Emission Moni- this specification.
toring Systems—Performance Specification
2.0 Summary of Performance Specification
Guidelines for SO2, NOX, CO2, O2, and TRS.’’
EPA–450/3–82–026. U.S. Environmental Pro- The CD and RA tests are conducted to de-
tection Agency, Technical Support Division termine conformance of the CEMS to the
(MD–19), Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. specification.
3. Repp, M. Evaluation of Continuous Mon-
itors for Carbon Monoxide in Stationary 3.0 Definitions
Sources. U.S. Environmental Protection Same as in Section 3.0 of PS 2.
Agency. Research Triangle Park, N.C. Publi-
cation No. EPA–600/2–77–063. March 1977. 155 4.0 Interferences [Reserved]
p.
4. Smith, F., D.E. Wagoner, and R.P. Dono- 5.0 Safety
van. Guidelines for Development of a Quality This performance specification may in-
Assurance Program: Volume VIII—Deter- volve hazardous materials, operations, and
mination of CO Emissions from Stationary equipment. This performance specification
Sources by NDIR Spectrometry. U.S. Envi- may not address all of the safety problems
ronmental Protection Agency. Research Tri- associated with its use. It is the responsi-
angle Park, N.C. Publication No. EPA–650/4– bility of the user to establish appropriate
74–005–h. February 1975. 96 p. safety and health practices and determine
18.0 Tables, Diagrams, Flowcharts, and the applicable regulatory limitations prior
Validation Data to performing this performance specifica-
tion. The CEMS users manual should be con-
Same as Section 18.0 of PS 2. sulted for specific precautions to be taken
with regard to the analytical procedures.
PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION 4A—SPECIFICA-
TIONS AND TEST PROCEDURES FOR CARBON 6.0 Equipment and Supplies
MONOXIDE CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONI-
TORING SYSTEMS IN STATIONARY SOURCES Same as Section 6.0 of PS 2 with the fol-
lowing additions.
1.0 Scope and Application 6.1 Data Recorder Scale.
6.1.1 This specification is the same as Sec-
1.1 Analytes. tion 6.1 of PS 2. The CEMS shall be capable
Analyte CAS No. of measuring emission levels under normal
conditions and under periods of short-dura-
Carbon Monoxide (CO) ................................. 630–80–0 tion peaks of high concentrations. This dual-
range capability may be met using two sepa-
1.2 Applicability. rate analyzers (one for each range) or by
1.2.1 This specification is for evaluating using dual-range units which have the capa-
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

the acceptability of carbon monoxide (CO) bility of measuring both levels with a single
continuous emission monitoring systems unit. In the latter case, when the reading
(CEMS) at the time of installation or soon goes above the full-scale measurement value
after and whenever specified in an applicable of the lower range, the higher-range oper-
subpart of the regulations. This specification ation shall be started automatically. The

662

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00672 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Environmental Protection Agency Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 4B
CEMS recorder range must include zero and Section 8.0). Refer to the RM for specific an-
a high-level value. Under applications of con- alytical procedures.
sistent low emissions, a single-range ana-
lyzer is allowed provided normal and spike 12.0 Calculations and Data Analysis. Same as
emissions can be quantified. In this case, set Section 12.0 of PS 2
an appropriate high-level value to include all
13.0 Method Performance
emissions.
6.1.2 For the low-range scale of dual-range 13.1 Calibration Drift. The CEMS calibra-
units, the high-level value shall be between tion must not drift or deviate from the ref-
1.5 times the pollutant concentration cor- erence value of the calibration gas, gas cell,
responding to the emission standard level or optical filter by more than 5 percent of
and the span value. For the high-range scale, the established span value for 6 out of 7 test
the high-level value shall be set at 2000 ppm, days.
as a minimum, and the range shall include 13.2 Relative Accuracy. The RA of the
the level of the span value. There shall be no CEMS must be no greater than 10 percent
concentration gap between the low-and high- when the average RM value is used to cal-
range scales. culate RA, 5 percent when the applicable
emission standard is used to calculate RA, or
7.0 Reagents and Standards within 5 ppmv when the RA is calculated as
Same as Section 7.0 of PS 2. the absolute average difference between the
RM and CEMS plus the 2.5 percent con-
8.0 Sample Collection, Preservation, Storage, fidence coefficient.
and Transport 13.3 Response Time. The CEMS response
time shall not exceed 1.5 min to achieve 95
8.1 Relative Accuracy Test Procedure.
percent of the final stable value.
Sampling Strategy for reference method
(RM) Tests, Number of RM Tests, and Cor- 14.0 Pollution Prevention [Reserved]
relation of RM and CEMS Data are the same
as PS 2, Sections 8.4.3, 8.4.4, and 8.4.5, respec- 15.0 Waste Management [Reserved]
tively.
8.2 Reference Methods. Unless otherwise 16.0 Alternative Procedures
specified in an applicable subpart of the reg- 16.1 Under conditions where the average
ulation, Methods 10, 10A, 10B, or other ap- CO emissions are less than 10 percent of the
proved alternative is the RM for this PS. standard and this is verified by Method 10, a
When evaluating nondispersive infrared cylinder gas audit may be performed in place
CEMS using Method 10 as the RM, the alter- of the RA test to determine compliance with
native interference trap specified in Section these limits. In this case, the cylinder gas
16.0 of Method 10 shall be used. shall contain CO in 12 percent carbon dioxide
8.3 Response Time Test Procedure. The as an interference check. If this option is ex-
response time test applies to all types of ercised, Method 10 must be used to verify
CEMS, but will generally have significance that emission levels are less than 10 percent
only for extractive systems. of the standard.
8.3.1 Introduce zero gas into the analyzer.
When the system output has stabilized (no 17.0 References
change greater than 1 percent of full scale
Same as Section 17 of PS 4.
for 30 sec), introduce an upscale calibration
gas and wait for a stable value. Record the 18.0 Tables, Diagrams, Flowcharts, and
time (upscale response time) required to Validation Data
reach 95 percent of the final stable value.
Next, reintroduce the zero gas and wait for a Same as Section 18.0 of PS 2.
stable reading before recording the response
PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION 4B—SPECIFICA-
time (downscale response time). Repeat the
TIONS AND TEST PROCEDURES FOR CARBON
entire procedure three times and determine
MONOXIDE AND OXYGEN CONTINUOUS MONI-
the mean upscale and downscale response
TORING SYSTEMS IN STATIONARY SOURCES
times. The slower or longer of the two means
is the system response time. a. Applicability and Principle
8.4 Interference Check. The CEMS must
be shown to be free from the effects of any 1.1 Applicability. a. This specification is
interferences. to be used for evaluating the acceptability of
carbon monoxide (CO) and oxygen (O2) con-
9.0 Quality Control [Reserved] tinuous emission monitoring systems
(CEMS) at the time of or soon after installa-
10.0 Calibration and Standardization tion and whenever specified in the regula-
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

[Reserved] tions. The CEMS may include, for certain


stationary sources, (a) flow monitoring
11.0 Analytical Procedure
equipment to allow measurement of the dry
Sample collection and analysis are concur- volume of stack effluent sampled, and (b) an
rent for this performance specification (see automatic sampling system.

663

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00673 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 4B 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–09 Edition)
b. This specification is not designed to the centroidal area of the stack or duct cross
evaluate the installed CEMS’ performance section.
over an extended period of time nor does it 3.1.3 Path CEMS. The effective measure-
identify specific calibration techniques and ment path should: (1) Have at least 70 per-
auxiliary procedures to assess the CEMS’ cent of the path within the inner 50 percent
performance. The source owner or operator, of the stack or duct cross sectional area, or
however, is responsible to properly calibrate, (2) be centrally located over any part of the
maintain, and operate the CEMS. To evalu- centroidal area.
ate the CEMS’ performance, the Adminis- 3.2 Reference Method (RM) Measurement
trator may require, under section 114 of the Location and Traverse Points. This specifica-
Act, the operator to conduct CEMS perform- tion is the same as PS 2 Section 3.2 with the
ance evaluations at times other than the ini- following additions. When pollutant con-
tial test. centration changes are due solely to diluent
c. The definitions, installation and meas- leakage and CO and O2 are simultaneously
urement location specifications, test proce- measured at the same location, one half di-
dures, data reduction procedures, reporting ameter may be used in place of two equiva-
requirements, and bibliography are the same lent diameters.
as in PS 3 (for O2) and PS 4A (for CO) except
3.3 Stratification Test Procedure. Stratifica-
as otherwise noted below.
tion is defined as the difference in excess of
1.2 Principle. Installation and measure-
10 percent between the average concentra-
ment location specifications, performance
tion in the duct or stack and the concentra-
specifications, test procedures, and data re-
tion at any point more than 1.0 meter from
duction procedures are included in this spec-
the duct or stack wall. To determine wheth-
ification. Reference method tests, calibra-
tion error tests, calibration drift tests, and er effluent stratification exists, a dual probe
interferant tests are conducted to determine system should be used to determine the aver-
conformance of the CEMS with the specifica- age effluent concentration while measure-
tion. ments at each traverse point are being made.
One probe, located at the stack or duct cen-
b. Definitions troid, is used as a stationary reference point
to indicate change in the effluent concentra-
2.1 Continuous Emission Monitoring System tion over time. The second probe is used for
(CEMS). This definition is the same as PS 2 sampling at the traverse points specified in
Section 2.1 with the following addition. A Method 1 (40 CFR part 60 appendix A). The
continuous monitor is one in which the sam- monitoring system samples sequentially at
ple to be analyzed passes the measurement the reference and traverse points throughout
section of the analyzer without interruption. the testing period for five minutes at each
2.2 Response Time. The time interval be-
point.
tween the start of a step change in the sys-
tem input and when the pollutant analyzer d. Performance and Equipment Specifications
output reaches 95 percent of the final value.
2.3 Calibration Error (CE). The difference 4.1 Data Recorder Scale. For O2, same as
between the concentration indicated by the specified in PS 3, except that the span must
CEMS and the known concentration gen- be 25 percent. The span of the O2 may be
erated by a calibration source when the en- higher if the O2 concentration at the sam-
tire CEMS, including the sampling interface pling point can be greater than 25 percent.
is challenged. A CE test procedure is per- For CO, same as specified in PS 4A, except
formed to document the accuracy and lin- that the low-range span must be 200 ppm and
earity of the CEMS over the entire measure- the high range span must be 3000 ppm. In ad-
ment range. dition, the scale for both CEMS must record
all readings within a measurement range
3. Installation and Measurement Location with a resolution of 0.5 percent.
Specifications 4.2 Calibration Drift. For O2, same as speci-
3.1 The CEMS Installation and Measurement fied in PS 3. For CO, the same as specified in
Location. This specification is the same as PS 4A except that the CEMS calibration
PS 2 Section 3.1 with the following additions. must not drift from the reference value of
Both the CO and O2 monitors should be in- the calibration standard by more than 3 per-
stalled at the same general location. If this cent of the span value on either the high or
is not possible, they may be installed at dif- low range.
ferent locations if the effluent gases at both 4.3 Relative Accuracy (RA). For O2, same as
sample locations are not stratified and there specified in PS 3. For CO, the same as speci-
is no in-leakage of air between sampling lo- fied in PS 4A.
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

cations. 4.4 Calibration Error (CE). The mean dif-


3.1.1 Measurement Location. Same as PS 2 ference between the CEMS and reference val-
Section 3.1.1. ues at all three test points (see Table I) must
3.1.2 Point CEMS. The measurement point be no greater than 5 percent of span value for
should be within or centrally located over CO monitors and 0.5 percent for O2 monitors.

664

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00674 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Environmental Protection Agency Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 5
4.5 Response Time. The response time for cumstances to waive the RA test and sub-
the CO or O2 monitor must not exceed 2 min- stitute the following procedure.
utes. Conduct a complete CEMS status check
following the manufacturer’s written in-
e. Performance Specification Test Procedure structions. The check should include oper-
ation of the light source, signal receiver,
5.1 Calibration Error Test and Response
timing mechanism functions, data acquisi-
Time Test Periods. Conduct the CE and re-
tion and data reduction functions, data re-
sponse time tests during the CD test period.
corders, mechanically operated functions,
F. The CEMS Calibration Drift and Response sample filters, sample line heaters, moisture
Time Test Procedures traps, and other related functions of the
CEMS, as applicable. All parts of the CEMS
The response time test procedure is given must be functioning properly before the RA
in PS 4A, and must be carried out for both requirement can be waived. The instrument
the CO and O2 monitors. must also successfully passed the CE and CD
7. Relative Accuracy and Calibration Error specifications. Substitution of the alternate
Test Procedures procedure requires approval of the Regional
7.1 Calibration Error Test Procedure. Chal- Administrator.
lenge each monitor (both low and high range 8. Bibliography
CO and O2) with zero gas and EPA Protocol 1. 40 CFR Part 266, Appendix IX, Section 2,
1 cylinder gases at three measurement points ‘‘Performance Specifications for Continuous
within the ranges specified in Table I. Emission Monitoring Systems.’’
PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION 5—SPECIFICA-
TABLE I. CALIBRATION ERROR CONCENTRATION
TIONS AND TEST PROCEDURES FOR TRS CON-
RANGES TINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING SYSTEMS IN
CO Low
STATIONARY SOURCES
Measurement CO High
range O2 (%)
point range (ppm) 1.0 Scope and Application
(ppm)

1 ........................... 0–40 0–600 0–2


1.1 Analytes.
2 ........................... 60–80 900–1200 8–10
Analyte CAS No.
3 ........................... 140–160 2100–2400 14–16
Total Reduced Sulfur (TRS) .......................... NA
Operate each monitor in its normal sampling
mode as nearly as possible. The calibration 1.2 Applicability. This specification is for
gas must be injected into the sample system evaluating the applicability of TRS contin-
as close to the sampling probe outlet as prac- uous emission monitoring systems (CEMS)
tical and should pass through all CEMS com- at the time of installation or soon after and
ponents used during normal sampling. Chal- whenever specified in an applicable subpart
lenge the CEMS three non-consecutive times of the regulations. The CEMS may include
at each measurement point and record the oxygen monitors which are subject to Per-
responses. The duration of each gas injection formance Specification 3 (PS 3).
should be sufficient to ensure that the CEMS 1.3 The definitions, performance specifica-
surfaces are conditioned. tion, test procedures, calculations and data
7.1.1 Calculations. Summarize the results analysis procedures for determining calibra-
on a data sheet. Average the differences be- tion drifts (CD) and relative accuracy (RA) of
tween the instrument response and the cer- PS 2, Sections 3.0, 8.0, and 12.0, respectively,
tified cylinder gas value for each gas. Cal- apply to this specification.
culate the CE results according to:
2.0 Summary of Performance Specification
CE = d / FS × 100 (1) The CD and RA tests are conducted to de-
termine conformance of the CEMS to the
where d is the mean difference between the specification.
CEMS response and the known reference
concentration and FS is the span value. 3.0 Definitions
7.2 Relative Accuracy Test Procedure. Fol- Same as in Section 3.0 of PS 2.
low the RA test procedures in PS 3 (for O2)
section 3 and PS 4A (for CO) section 4. 4.0 Interferences [Reserved]
7.3 Alternative RA Procedure. Under some
5.0 Safety
operating conditions, it may not be possible
to obtain meaningful results using the RA This performance specification may in-
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

test procedure. This includes conditions volve hazardous materials, operations, and
where consistent, very low CO emission or equipment. This performance specification
low CO emissions interrupted periodically by may not address all of the safety problems
short duration, high level spikes are ob- associated with its use. It is the responsi-
served. It may be appropriate in these cir- bility of the user to establish appropriate

665
ER30SE99.010</GPH>

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00675 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 6 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–09 Edition)
safety and health practices and determine 14.0 Pollution Prevention [Reserved]
the applicable regulatory limitations prior
to performing this performance specifica- 15.0 Waste Management [Reserved]
tion. The CEMS users manual should be con-
16.0 Alternative Procedures [Reserved]
sulted for specific precautions to be taken
with regard to the analytical procedures. 17.0 References
6.0 Equipment and Supplies 1. Department of Commerce. Experimental
Statistics, National Bureau of Standards,
Same as Section 6.0 of PS 2. Handbook 91. 1963. Paragraphs 3–3.1.4, p. 3–31.
2. A Guide to the Design, Maintenance and
7.0 Reagents and Standards
Operation of TRS Monitoring Systems. Na-
Same as Section 7.0 of PS 2. tional Council for Air and Stream Improve-
ment Technical Bulletin No. 89. September
8.0 Sample Collection, Preservation, Storage, 1977.
and Transport 3. Observation of Field Performance of
TRS Monitors on a Kraft Recovery Furnace.
8.1 Relative Accuracy Test Procedure.
National Council for Air and Stream Im-
Sampling Strategy for reference method provement Technical Bulletin No. 91. Janu-
(RM) Tests, Number of RM Tests, and Cor- ary 1978.
relation of RM and CEMS Data are the same
as PS 2, Sections 8.4.3, 8.4.4, and 8.4.5, respec- 18.0 Tables, Diagrams, Flowcharts, and
tively. Validation Data
NOTE: For Method 16, a sample is made up Same as Section 18.0 of PS 2.
of at least three separate injects equally
space over time. For Method 16A, a sample is PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION 6—SPECIFICA-
collected for at least 1 hour. TIONS AND TEST PROCEDURES FOR CONTIN-
UOUS EMISSION RATE MONITORING SYSTEMS
8.2 Reference Methods. Unless otherwise
IN STATIONARY SOURCES
specified in the applicable subpart of the reg-
ulations, Method 16, Method 16A, 16B or 1.0 Scope and Application
other approved alternative is the RM for
TRS. 1.1 Applicability. This specification is
used for evaluating the acceptability of con-
9.0 Quality Control [Reserved] tinuous emission rate monitoring systems
(CERMSs).
10.0 Calibration and Standardization 1.2 The installation and measurement lo-
[Reserved] cation specifications, performance specifica-
tion test procedure, calculations, and data
11.0 Analytical Procedure analysis procedures, of Performance Speci-
Sample collection and analysis are concur- fications (PS 2), Sections 8.0 and 12, respec-
rent for this performance specification (see tively, apply to this specification.
Section 8.0). Refer to the reference method 2.0 Summary of Performance Specification
for specific analytical procedures.
The calibration drift (CD) and relative ac-
12.0 Calculations and Data Analysis curacy (RA) tests are conducted to deter-
mine conformance of the CERMS to the
Same as Section 12.0 of PS 2.
specification.
13.0 Method Performance 3.0 Definitions
13.1 Calibration Drift. The CEMS detector The definitions are the same as in Section
calibration must not drift or deviate from 3 of PS 2, except this specification refers to
the reference value of the calibration gas by the continuous emission rate monitoring
more than 5 percent of the established span system rather than the continuous emission
value for 6 out of 7 test days. This cor- monitoring system. The following defini-
responds to 1.5 ppm drift for Subpart BB tions are added:
sources where the span value is 30 ppm. If 3.1 Continuous Emission Rate Monitoring
the CEMS includes pollutant and diluent System (CERMS). The total equipment re-
monitors, the CD must be determined sepa- quired for the determining and recording the
rately for each in terms of concentrations pollutant mass emission rate (in terms of
(see PS 3 for the diluent specifications). mass per unit of time).
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

13.2 Relative Accuracy. The RA of the 3.2 Flow Rate Sensor. That portion of the
CEMS must be no greater than 20 percent CERMS that senses the volumetric flow rate
when the average RM value is used to cal- and generates an output proportional to that
culate RA or 10 percent when the applicable flow rate. The flow rate sensor shall have
emission standard is used to calculate RA. provisions to check the CD for each flow rate

666

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00676 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Environmental Protection Agency Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 6
parameter that it measures individually 8.2.2 Reference Methods. Unless otherwise
(e.g., velocity, pressure). specified in the applicable subpart of the reg-
ulations, the RM for the pollutant gas is the
4.0 Interferences [Reserved] Appendix A method that is cited for compli-
5.0 Safety ance test purposes, or its approved alter-
natives. Methods 2, 2A, 2B, 2C, or 2D, as ap-
This performance specification may in- plicable, are the RMs for the determination
volve hazardous materials, operations, and of volumetric flow rate.
equipment. This performance specification
may not address all of the safety problems 9.0 Quality Control [Reserved]
associated with its use. It is the responsi-
bility of the user to establish appropriate 10.0 Calibration and Standardization
safety and health practices and determine [Reserved]
the applicable regulatory limitations prior
11.0 Analytical Procedure
to performing this performance specifica-
tion. The CERMS users manual should be Same as Section 11.0 of PS 2.
consulted for specific precautions to be
taken with regard to the analytical proce- 12.0 Calculations and Data Analysis
dures. Same as Section 12.0 of PS 2.
6.0 Equipment and Supplies 13.0 Method Performance
Same as Section 6.0 of PS 2. 13.1 Calibration Drift. Since the CERMS
7.0 Reagents and Standards includes analyzers for several measurements,
the CD shall be determined separately for
Same as Section 7.0 of PS 2. each analyzer in terms of its specific meas-
urement. The calibration for each analyzer
8.0 Sample Collection, Preservation, Storage,
associated with the measurement of flow
and Transport
rate shall not drift or deviate from each ref-
8.1 Calibration Drift Test Procedure. erence value of flow rate by more than 3 per-
8.1.1 The CD measurements are to verify cent of the respective high-level value. The
the ability of the CERMS to conform to the CD specification for each analyzer for which
established CERMS calibrations used for de- other PSs have been established (e.g., PS 2
termining the emission rate. Therefore, if for SO2 and NOX), shall be the same as in the
periodic automatic or manual adjustments applicable PS.
are made to the CERMS zero and calibration 13.2 CERMS Relative Accuracy. The RA
settings, conduct the CD tests immediately of the CERMS shall be no greater than 20
before these adjustments, or conduct them in percent of the mean value of the RM’s test
such a way that CD can be determined. data in terms of the units of the emission
8.1.2 Conduct the CD tests for pollutant standard, or 10 percent of the applicable
concentration at the two values specified in standard, whichever is greater.
Section 6.1.2 of PS 2. For other parameters
that are selectively measured by the CERMS 14.0 Pollution Prevention [Reserved]
(e.g., velocity, pressure, flow rate), use two
analogous values (e.g., Low: 0–20% of full 15.0 Waste Management [Reserved]
scale, High: 50–100% of full scale). Introduce 16.0 Alternative Procedures
to the CERMS the reference signals (these
need not be certified). Record the CERMS re- Same as in Section 16.0 of PS 2.
sponse to each and subtract this value from
the respective reference value (see example 17.0 References
data sheet in Figure 6–1). 1. Brooks, E.F., E.C. Beder, C.A. Flegal,
8.2 Relative Accuracy Test Procedure. D.J. Luciani, and R. Williams. Continuous
8.2.1 Sampling Strategy for reference Measurement of Total Gas Flow Rate from
method (RM) Tests, Correlation of RM and Stationary Sources. U.S. Environmental
CERMS Data, and Number of RM Tests are Protection Agency. Research Triangle Park,
the same as PS 2, Sections 8.4.3, 8.4.5, and North Carolina. Publication No. EPA–650/2–
8.4.4, respectively. Summarize the results on 75–020. February 1975. 248 p.
a data sheet. An example is shown in Figure
6–1. The RA test may be conducted during 18.0 Tables, Diagrams, Flowcharts, and
the CD test period. Validation Data

Emission rate (kg/hr)a


cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

Run No. Date and time Difference


CERMS RMs (RMs-CERMS)

667

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00677 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 7 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–09 Edition)

Emission rate (kg/hr)a


Run No. Date and time Difference
CERMS RMs (RMs-CERMS)

9
a The RMs and CERMS data as corrected to a consistent basis (i.e., moisture, temperature, and pressure conditions).

Figure 6–1—Emission Rate Determinations 4.0 Interferences [Reserved]

PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION 7—SPECIFICA- 5.0 Safety


TIONS AND TEST PROCEDURES FOR HYDROGEN The procedures required under this per-
SULFIDE CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING formance specification may involve haz-
SYSTEMS IN STATIONARY SOURCES ardous materials, operations, and equipment.
This performance specification may not ad-
1.0 Scope and Application dress all of the safety problems associated
1.1 Analytes. with these procedures. It is the responsi-
bility of the user to establish appropriate
Analyte CAS No. safety problems associated with these proce-
dures. It is the responsibility of the user to
Hydrogen Sulfide ........................................... 7783–06–4 establish appropriate safety and health prac-
tices and determine the application regu-
1.2 Applicability. latory limitations prior to performing these
1.2.1 This specification is to be used for procedures. The CEMS user’s manual and
evaluating the acceptability of hydrogen sul- materials recommended by the reference
fide (H2S) continuous emission monitoring method should be consulted for specific pre-
systems (CEMS) at the time of or soon after cautions to be taken.
installation and whenever specified in an ap-
6.0 Equipment and Supplies
plicable subpart of the regulations.
1.2.2 This specification is not designed to 6.1 Instrument Zero and Span. This speci-
evaluate the installed CEMS performance fication is the same as Section 6.1 of PS 2.
over an extended period of time nor does it 6.2 Calibration Drift. The CEMS calibra-
identify specific calibration techniques and tion must not drift or deviate from the ref-
other auxiliary procedures to assess CEMS erence value of the calibration gas or ref-
erence source by more than 5 percent of the
performance. The source owner or operator,
established span value for 6 out of 7 test days
however, is responsible to calibrate, main-
(e.g., the established span value is 300 ppm
tain, and operate the CEMS. To evaluate for Subpart J fuel gas combustion devices).
CEMS performance, the Administrator may 6.3 Relative Accuracy. The RA of the
require, under Section 114 of the Act, the CEMS must be no greater than 20 percent
source owner or operator to conduct CEMS when the average reference method (RM)
performance evaluations at other times be- value is used to calculate RA or 10 percent
sides the initial test. See Section 60.13(c). when the applicable emission standard is
used to calculate RA.
2.0 Summary
7.0 Reagents and Standards
Calibration drift (CD) and relative accu-
racy (RA) tests are conducted to determine Same as Section 7.0 of PS 2.
that the CEMS conforms to the specifica-
8.0 Sample Collection, Preservation, Storage,
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

tion.
and Transport.
3.0 Definitions 8.1 Installation and Measurement Loca-
Same as Section 3.0 of PS 2. tion Specification. Same as Section 8.1 of PS
2.

668

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00678 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Environmental Protection Agency Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 8
8.2 Pretest Preparation. Same as Section 17.0 Tables, Diagrams, Flowcharts, and
8.2 of PS 2. Validation Data
8.3 Calibration Drift Test Procedure.
Same as Section 18.0 of PS 2.
Same as Section 8.3 of PS 2.
8.4 Relative Accuracy Test Procedure. PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION 8—PERFORM-
8.4.1 Sampling Strategy for RM Tests, ANCE SPECIFICATIONS FOR VOLATILE OR-
Correlation of RM and CEMS Data, and GANIC COMPOUND CONTINUOUS EMISSION
Number of RM Tests. These are the same as MONITORING SYSTEMS IN STATIONARY
that in PS 2, Sections 8.4.3, 8.4.5, and 8.4.4, SOURCES
respectively.
8.4.2 Reference Methods. Unless otherwise 1.0 Scope and Application
specified in an applicable subpart of the reg-
1.1 Analytes. Volatile Organic Compounds
ulation, Method 11 is the RM for this PS.
(VOCs).
8.5 Reporting. Same as Section 8.5 of PS
2. 1.2 Applicability.
1.2.1 This specification is to be used for
9.0 Quality Control [Reserved] evaluating a continuous emission moni-
toring system (CEMS) that measures a mix-
10.0 Calibration and Standardizations ture of VOC’s and generates a single com-
[Reserved] bined response value. The VOC detection
principle may be flame ionization (FI),
11.0 Analytical Procedures photoionization (PI), non-dispersive infrared
Sample Collection and analysis are concur- absorption (NDIR), or any other detection
rent for this PS (see Section 8.0). Refer to principle that is appropriate for the VOC spe-
the RM for specific analytical procedures. cies present in the emission gases and that
meets this performance specification. The
12.0 Data Analysis and Calculations performance specification includes proce-
dures to evaluate the acceptability of the
Same as Section 12.0 of PS 2. CEMS at the time of or soon after its instal-
lation and whenever specified in emission
13.0 Method Performance [Reserved] regulations or permits. This specification is
not designed to evaluate the installed CEMS
14.0 Pollution Prevention [Reserved]
performance over an extended period of time,
15.0 Waste Management [Reserved] nor does it identify specific calibration tech-
niques and other auxiliary procedures to as-
16.0 References sess the CEMS performance. The source
owner or operator, however, is responsible to
1. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. calibrate, maintain, and operate the CEMS
Standards of Performance for New Sta- properly. To evaluate the CEMS perform-
tionary Sources; Appendix B; Performance ance, the Administrator may require, under
Specifications 2 and 3 for SO2, NOX, CO2, and Section 114 of the Act, the operator to con-
O2 Continuous Emission Monitoring Sys- duct CEMS performance evaluations in addi-
tems; Final Rule. 48 CFR 23608. Washington, tion to the initial test. See Section 60.13(c).
D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office. May 1.2.2 In most emission circumstances,
25, 1983. most VOC monitors can provide only a rel-
2. U.S. Government Printing Office. Gas- ative measure of the total mass or volume
eous Continuous Emission Monitoring Sys- concentration of a mixture of organic gases,
tems—Performance Specification Guidelines rather than an accurate quantification. This
for SO2, NOX, CO2, O2, and TRS. U.S. Envi- problem is removed when an emission stand-
ronmental Protection Agency. Washington, ard is based on a total VOC measurement as
D.C. EPA-450/3–82–026. October 1982. 26 p. obtained with a particular detection prin-
3. Maines, G.D., W.C. Kelly (Scott Environ- ciple. In those situations where a true mass
mental Technology, Inc.), and J.B. Homolya. or volume VOC concentration is needed, the
Evaluation of Monitors for Measuring H2S in problem can be mitigated by using the VOC
Refinery Gas. Prepared for the U.S. Environ- CEMS as a relative indicator of total VOC
mental Protection Agency. Research Tri- concentration if statistical analysis indi-
angle Park, N.C. Contract No. 68–02–2707. cates that a sufficient margin of compliance
1978. 60 p. exists for this approach to be acceptable.
4. Ferguson, B.B., R.E. Lester (Harmon En- Otherwise, consideration can be given to
gineering and Testing), and W.J. Mitchell. calibrating the CEMS with a mixture of the
Field Evaluation of Carbon Monoxide and same VOC’s in the same proportions as they
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

Hydrogen Sulfide Continuous Emission Mon- actually occur in the measured source. In
itors at an Oil Refinery. Prepared for the those circumstances where only one organic
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Re- species is present in the source, or where
search Triangle Park, N.C. Publication No. equal incremental amounts of each of the or-
EPA–600/4–82–054. August 1982. 100 p. ganic species present generate equal CEMS

669

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00679 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 8A 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–09 Edition)
responses, the latter choice can be more eas- of RM Tests. Follow PS 2, Sections 8.4.3,
ily achieved. 8.4.5, and 8.4.4, respectively.
8.5 Reporting. Same as Section 8.5 of PS
2.0 Summary of Performance Specification 2.
2.1 Calibration drift and relative accuracy
tests are conducted to determine adherence 9.0 Quality Control [Reserved]
of the CEMS with specifications given for
those items. The performance specifications 10.0 Calibration and Standardization
include criteria for installation and meas- [Reserved]
urement location, equipment and perform- 11.0 Analytical Procedure
ance, and procedures for testing and data re-
duction. Sample collection and analysis are concur-
rent for this PS (see Section 8.0). Refer to
3.0 Definitions. the RM for specific analytical procedures.
Same as Section 3.0 of PS 2.
12.0 Calculations and Data Analysis
4.0 Interferences [Reserved]
Same as Section 12.0 of PS 2.
5.0 Safety
13.0 Method Performance
The procedures required under this per-
formance specification may involve haz- 13.1 Calibration Drift. The CEMS calibra-
ardous materials, operations, and equipment. tion must not drift by more than 2.5 percent
This performance specification may not ad- of the span value.
dress all of the safety problems associated 13.2 CEMS Relative Accuracy. Unless
with these procedures. It is the responsi- stated otherwise in the regulation or permit,
bility of the user to establish appropriate the RA of the CEMS must not be greater
safety problems associated with these proce- than 20 percent of the mean value of the RM
dures. It is the responsibility of the user to test data in terms of the units of the emis-
establish appropriate safety and health prac- sion standard, or 10 percent of the applicable
tices and determine the application regu- standard, whichever is greater.
latory limitations prior to performing these
procedures. The CEMS user’s manual and 14.0 Pollution Prevention [Reserved]
materials recommended by the reference
15.0 Waste Management [Reserved]
method should be consulted for specific pre-
cautions to be taken. 16.0 References
6.0 Equipment and Supplies Same as Section 17.0 of PS 2.
6.1 VOC CEMS Selection. When possible,
17.0 Tables, Diagrams, Flowcharts, and
select a VOC CEMS with the detection prin-
Validation Data [Reserved]
ciple of the reference method specified in the
regulation or permit (usually either FI, PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION 8A—SPECIFICA-
NDIR, or PI). Otherwise, use knowledge of TIONS AND TEST PROCEDURES FOR TOTAL
the source process chemistry, previous emis- HYDROCARBON CONTINUOUS MONITORING
sion studies, or gas chromatographic anal- SYSTEMS IN STATIONARY SOURCES
ysis of the source gas to select an appro-
priate VOC CEMS. Exercise extreme caution 1. Applicability and Principle
in choosing and installing any CEMS in an
area with explosive hazard potential. 1.1 Applicability. These performance speci-
6.2 Data Recorder Scale. Same as Section fications apply to hydrocarbon (HC) contin-
6.1 of PS 2. uous emission monitoring systems (CEMS)
installed on stationary sources. The speci-
7.0 Reagents and Standards [Reserved] fications include procedures which are in-
tended to be used to evaluate the accept-
8.0 Sample Collection, Preservation, Storage, ability of the CEMS at the time of its instal-
and Transport lation or whenever specified in regulations
8.1 Installation and Measurement Loca- or permits. The procedures are not designed
tion Specifications. Same as Section 8.1 of to evaluate CEMS performance over an ex-
PS 2. tended period of time. The source owner or
8.2 Pretest Preparation. Same as Section operator is responsible for the proper cali-
8.2 of PS 2. bration, maintenance, and operation of the
8.3 Reference Method (RM). Use the meth- CEMS at all times.
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

od specified in the applicable regulation or 1.2 Principle. A gas sample is extracted


permit, or any approved alternative, as the from the source through a heated sample
RM. line and heated filter to a flame ionization
8.4 Sampling Strategy for RM Tests, Cor- detector (FID). Results are reported as vol-
relation of RM and CEMS Data, and Number ume concentration equivalents of propane.

670

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00680 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Environmental Protection Agency Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 8A
Installation and measurement location spec- 2.8 Calibration Error (CE). The difference
ifications, performance and equipment speci- between the concentration indicated by the
fications, test and data reduction proce- CEMS and the known concentration of the
dures, and brief quality assurance guidelines cylinder gas. A CE test procedure is per-
are included in the specifications. Calibra- formed to document the accuracy and lin-
tion drift, calibration error, and response earity of the monitoring equipment over the
time tests are conducted to determine con- entire measurement range.
formance of the CEMS with the specifica- 2.9 Performance Specification Test (PST) Pe-
tions. riod. The period during which CD, CE, and re-
sponse time tests are conducted.
2. Definitions 2.10 Centroidal Area. A concentric area
2.1 Continuous Emission Monitoring System that is geometrically similar to the stack or
(CEMS). The total equipment used to acquire duct cross section and is no greater than 1
data, which includes sample extraction and percent of the stack or duct cross-sectional
transport hardware, analyzer, data recording area.
and processing hardware, and software. The
3. Installation and Measurement Location
system consists of the following major sub-
Specifications
systems:
2.1.1 Sample Interface. That portion of the 3.1 CEMS Installation and Measurement Lo-
system that is used for one or more of the cations. The CEMS must be installed in a lo-
following: Sample acquisition, sample trans- cation in which measurements representa-
portation, sample conditioning, or protec- tive of the source’s emissions can be ob-
tion of the analyzer from the effects of the tained. The optimum location of the sample
stack effluent. interface for the CEMS is determined by a
2.1.2 Organic Analyzer. That portion of the number of factors, including ease of access
system that senses organic concentration for calibration and maintenance, the degree
and generates an output proportional to the to which sample conditioning will be re-
gas concentration. quired, the degree to which it represents
2.1.3 Data Recorder. That portion of the total emissions, and the degree to which it
system that records a permanent record of represents the combustion situation in the
the measurement values. The data recorder firebox (where applicable). The location
may include automatic data reduction capa- should be as free from in-leakage influences
bilities. as possible and reasonably free from severe
2.2 Instrument Measurement Range. The dif- flow disturbances. The sample location
ference between the minimum and maximum should be at least two equivalent duct diam-
concentration that can be measured by a eters downstream from the nearest control
specific instrument. The minimum is often device, point of pollutant generation, or
stated or assumed to be zero and the range other point at which a change in the pollut-
expressed only as the maximum. ant concentration or emission rate occurs
2.3 Span or Span Value. Full scale instru- and at least 0.5 diameter upstream from the
ment measurement range. The span value exhaust or control device. The equivalent
must be documented by the CEMS manufac- duct diameter is calculated as per 40 CFR
turer with laboratory data. part 60, appendix A, method 1, section 2.1. If
2.4 Calibration Gas. A known concentra- these criteria are not achievable or if the lo-
tion of a gas in an appropriate diluent gas. cation is otherwise less than optimum, the
2.5 Calibration Drift (CD). The difference in possibility of stratification should be inves-
the CEMS output readings from the estab- tigated as described in section 3.2. The meas-
lished reference value after a stated period of urement point must be within the centroidal
operation during which no unscheduled area of the stack or duct cross section.
maintenance, repair, or adjustment takes 3.2 Stratification Test Procedure. Stratifica-
place. A CD test is performed to demonstrate tion is defined as a difference in excess of 10
the stability of the CEMS calibration over percent between the average concentration
time. in the duct or stack and the concentration at
2.6 Response Time. The time interval be- any point more than 1.0 meter from the duct
tween the start of a step change in the sys- or stack wall. To determine whether effluent
tem input (e.g., change of calibration gas) stratification exists, a dual probe system
and the time when the data recorder displays should be used to determine the average ef-
95 percent of the final value. fluent concentration while measurements at
2.7 Accuracy. A measurement of agree- each traverse point are being made. One
ment between a measured value and an ac- probe, located at the stack or duct centroid,
cepted or true value, expressed as the per- is used as a stationary reference point to in-
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

centage difference between the true and dicate the change in effluent concentration
measured values relative to the true value. over time. The second probe is used for sam-
For these performance specifications, accu- pling at the traverse points specified in 40
racy is checked by conducting a calibration CFR part 60 appendix A, method 1. The moni-
error (CE) test. toring system samples sequentially at the

671

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00681 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 8A 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–09 Edition)
reference and traverse points throughout the 4.3 Daily Calibration Gas Values. The owner
testing period for five minutes at each point. or operator must choose calibration gas con-
centrations that include zero and high-level
4. CEMS Performance and Equipment calibration values.
Specifications 4.3.1 The zero level may be between zero
If this method is applied in highly explo- and 0.1 ppm (zero and 0.1 percent of the span
sive areas, caution and care must be exer- value).
cised in choice of equipment and installa- 4.3.2 The high-level concentration must
tion. be between 50 and 90 ppm (50 and 90 percent
4.1 Flame Ionization Detector (FID) Ana- of the span value).
lyzer. A heated FID analyzer capable of meet- 4.4 Data Recorder Scale. The strip chart re-
ing or exceeding the requirements of these corder, computer, or digital recorder must be
specifications. Heated systems must main- capable of recording all readings within the
tain the temperature of the sample gas be- CEMS’ measurement range and must have a
tween 150 °C (300 °F) and 175 °C (350 °F) resolution of 0.5 ppm (0.5 percent of span
throughout the system. This requires all sys- value).
tem components such as the probe, calibra- 4.5 Response Time. The response time for
tion valve, filter, sample lines, pump, and the CEMS must not exceed 2 minutes to
the FID to be kept heated at all times such achieve 95 percent of the final stable value.
that no moisture is condensed out of the sys- 4.6 Calibration Drift. The CEMS must
tem. The essential components of the meas- allow the determination of CD at the zero
urement system are described below: and high-level values. The CEMS calibration
4.1.1 Sample Probe. Stainless steel, or response must not differ by more than ±3
equivalent, to collect a gas sample from the ppm (±3 percent of the span value) after each
centroidal area of the stack cross-section. 24-hour period of the 7-day test at both zero
4.1.2 Sample Line. Stainless steel or Teflon and high levels.
tubing to transport the sample to the ana- 4.7 Calibration Error. The mean difference
lyzer. between the CEMS and reference values at
NOTE: Mention of trade names or specific all three test points listed below must be no
products does not constitute endorsement by greater than 5 ppm (±5 percent of the span
the Environmental Protection Agency. value).
4.7.1 Zero Level. Zero to 0.1 ppm (0 to 0.1
4.1.3 Calibration Valve Assembly. A heated
percent of span value).
three-way valve assembly to direct the zero
4.7.2 Mid-Level. 30 to 40 ppm (30 to 40 per-
and calibration gases to the analyzer is rec-
cent of span value).
ommended. Other methods, such as quick-
connect lines, to route calibration gas to the 4.7.3 High-Level. 70 to 80 ppm (70 to 80 per-
analyzers are applicable. cent of span value).
4.1.4 Particulate Filter. An in-stack or out- 4.8 Measurement and Recording Frequency.
of-stack sintered stainless steel filter is rec- The sample to be analyzed must pass
ommended if exhaust gas particulate loading through the measurement section of the ana-
is significant. An out-of-stack filter must be lyzer without interruption. The detector
heated. must measure the sample concentration at
4.1.5 Fuel. The fuel specified by the manu- least once every 15 seconds. An average emis-
facturer (e.g., 40 percent hydrogen/60 percent sion rate must be computed and recorded at
helium, 40 percent hydrogen/60 percent nitro- least once every 60 seconds.
gen gas mixtures, or pure hydrogen) should 4.9 Hourly Rolling Average Calculation. The
be used. CEMS must calculate every minute an hour-
4.1.6 Zero Gas. High purity air with less ly rolling average, which is the arithmetic
than 0.1 parts per million by volume (ppm) mean of the 60 most recent 1-minute average
HC as methane or carbon equivalent or less values.
than 0.1 percent of the span value, whichever 4.10 Retest. If the CEMS produces results
is greater. within the specified criteria, the test is suc-
4.1.7 Calibration Gases. Appropriate con- cessful. If the CEMS does not meet one or
centrations of propane gas (in air or nitro- more of the criteria, necessary corrections
gen). Preparation of the calibration gases must be made and the performance tests re-
should be done according to the procedures peated.
in EPA Protocol 1. In addition, the manufac-
5. Performance Specification Test (PST)
turer of the cylinder gas should provide a
Periods
recommended shelf life for each calibration
gas cylinder over which the concentration 5.1 Pretest Preparation Period. Install the
does not change by more than ±2 percent
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

CEMS, prepare the PTM test site according


from the certified value. to the specifications in section 3, and prepare
4.2 CEMS Span Value. 100 ppm propane. the CEMS for operation and calibration ac-
The span value must be documented by the cording to the manufacturer’s written in-
CEMS manufacturer with laboratory data. structions. A pretest conditioning period

672

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00682 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Environmental Protection Agency Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 8A
similar to that of the 7-day CD test is rec- adjustments, or conduct it in such a way
ommended to verify the operational status of that the CD can be determined. Record the
the CEMS. CEMS response and subtract this value from
5.2 Calibration Drift Test Period. While the the reference (calibration gas) value. To
facility is operating under normal condi- meet the specification, none of the dif-
tions, determine the magnitude of the CD at ferences may exceed 3 percent of the span of
24-hour intervals for seven consecutive days the CEM.
according to the procedure given in section 6.2.2 Calculations. Summarize the results
6.1. All CD determinations must be made fol- on a data sheet. An example is shown in Fig-
lowing a 24-hour period during which no un- ure 1. Calculate the differences between the
scheduled maintenance, repair, or adjust- CEMS responses and the reference values.
ment takes place. If the combustion unit is 6.3 Response Time. The entire system in-
taken out of service during the test period, cluding sample extraction and transport,
record the onset and duration of the down- sample conditioning, gas analyses, and the
time and continue the CD test when the unit data recording is checked with this proce-
resumes operation. dure.
5.3 Calibration Error Test and Response 6.3.1 Introduce the calibration gases at
Time Test Periods. Conduct the CE and re- the probe as near to the sample location as
sponse time tests during the CD test period. possible. Introduce the zero gas into the sys-
tem. When the system output has stabilized
6. Performance Specification Test Procedures (no change greater than 1 percent of full
6.1 Relative Accuracy Test Audit (RATA) scale for 30 sec), switch to monitor stack ef-
and Absolute Calibration Audits (ACA). The fluent and wait for a stable value. Record the
test procedures described in this section are time (upscale response time) required to
in lieu of a RATA and ACA. reach 95 percent of the final stable value.
6.2 Calibration Drift Test. 6.3.2 Next, introduce a high-level calibra-
6.2.1 Sampling Strategy. Conduct the CD tion gas and repeat the above procedure. Re-
test at 24-hour intervals for seven consecu- peat the entire procedure three times and de-
tive days using calibration gases at the two termine the mean upscale and downscale re-
daily concentration levels specified in sec- sponse times. The longer of the two means is
tion 4.3. Introduce the two calibration gases the system response time.
into the sampling system as close to the 6.4 Calibration Error Test Procedure.
sampling probe outlet as practical. The gas 6.4.1 Sampling Strategy. Challenge the
must pass through all CEM components used CEMS with zero gas and EPA Protocol 1 cyl-
during normal sampling. If periodic auto- inder gases at measurement points within
matic or manual adjustments are made to the ranges specified in section 4.7.
the CEMS zero and calibration settings, con- 6.4.1.1 The daily calibration gases, if Pro-
duct the CD test immediately before these tocol 1, may be used for this test.
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

673

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00683 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 8A 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–09 Edition)

6.4.1.2 Operate the CEMS as nearly as pos- certified cylinder gas value for each gas. Cal-
sible in its normal sampling mode. The cali- culate three CE results according to Equa-
bration gas should be injected into the sam- tion 1. No confidence coefficient is used in
pling system as close to the sampling probe CE calculations.
outlet as practical and must pass through all
filters, scrubbers, conditioners, and other 7. Equations
monitor components used during normal Calibration Error. Calculate CE using
sampling. Challenge the CEMS three non- Equation 1.
consecutive times at each measurement
point and record the responses. The duration
of each gas injection should be for a suffi-
CE = d / FS × 100 ( Eq. 1)
cient period of time to ensure that the CEMS Where:
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

surfaces are conditioned.


d=Mean difference between CEMS response
6.4.2 Calculations. Summarize the results
and the known reference concentration, de-
on a data sheet. An example data sheet is
ER30SE99.012</GPH>

termined using Equation 2.


shown in Figure 2. Average the differences
between the instrument response and the

674
ER30SE99.011</GPH>

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00684 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Environmental Protection Agency Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 8A
8. Reporting
1 n
d = ∑ di ( Eq. 2) At a minimum, summarize in tabular form
n i =1 the results of the CD, response time, and CE
test, as appropriate. Include all data sheets,
Where: calculations, CEMS data records, and cyl-
di=Individual difference between CEMS re- inder gas or reference material certifi-
sponse and the known reference concentra- cations.
tion.

9. References 3. Gasoline Vapor Emission Laboratory


1. Measurement of Volatile Organic Com- Evaluation-Part 2. U.S. Environmental Pro-
pounds-Guideline Series. U.S. Environmental tection Agency, OAQPS, Research Triangle
Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, Park, North Carolina, 27711, EMB Report No.
North Carolina, 27711, EPA–450/2–78–041, June 76–GAS–6, August 1975.
1978.
2. Traceability Protocol for Establishing
True Concentrations of Gases Used for Cali-
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

bration and Audits of Continuous Source


Emission Monitors (Protocol No. 1). U.S. En-
vironmental Protection Agency ORD/EMSL,
ER30SE99.014</GPH>

Research Triangle Park, North Carolina,


27711, June 1978.

675
ER30SE99.013</GPH>

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00685 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 9 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–09 Edition)
PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION 9—SPECIFICA- ardous materials, operations, and equipment.
TIONS AND TEST PROCEDURES FOR GAS This performance specification does not pur-
CHROMATOGRAPHIC CONTINUOUS EMISSION port to address all of the safety problems as-
MONITORING SYSTEMS IN STATIONARY sociated with these procedures. It is the re-
SOURCES sponsibility of the user to establish appro-
priate safety problems associated with these
1.0 Scope and Application procedures. It is the responsibility of the
1.1 Applicability. These requirements user to establish appropriate safety and
apply to continuous emission monitoring health practices and determine the applica-
systems (CEMSs) that use gas chroma- tion regulatory limitations prior to per-
tography (GC) to measure gaseous organic forming these procedures. The CEMS user’s
compound emissions. The requirements in- manual and materials recommended by the
clude procedures intended to evaluate the reference method should be consulted for
acceptability of the CEMS at the time of its specific precautions to be taken.
installation and whenever specified in regu-
lations or permits. Quality assurance proce- 6.0 Equipment and Supplies
dures for calibrating, maintaining, and oper-
ating the CEMS properly at all times are 6.1 Presurvey Sample Analysis and GC Se-
also given in this procedure. lection. Determine the pollutants to be mon-
itored from the applicable regulation or per-
2.0 Summary of Performance Specification mit and determine the approximate con-
centration of each pollutant (this informa-
2.1 Calibration precision, calibration
tion can be based on past compliance test re-
error, and performance audit tests are con-
sults). Select an appropriate GC configura-
ducted to determine conformance of the
tion to measure the organic compounds. The
CEMS with these specifications. Daily cali-
GC components should include a heated sam-
bration and maintenance requirements are
also specified. ple injection loop (or other sample introduc-
tion systems), separatory column, tempera-
3.0 Definitions ture-controlled oven, and detector. If the
source chooses dual column and/or dual de-
3.1 Gas Chromatograph (GC). That por- tector configurations, each column/detector
tion of the system that separates and detects
is considered a separate instrument for the
organic analytes and generates an output
purpose of this performance specification
proportional to the gas concentration. The
and thus the procedures in this performance
GC must be temperature controlled.
specification shall be carried out on each
NOTE: The term temperature controlled re- system. If this method is applied in highly
fers to the ability to maintain a certain tem- explosive areas, caution should be exercised
perature around the column. Temperature- in selecting the equipment and method of in-
programmable GC is not required for this stallation.
performance specification, as long as all
6.2 Sampling System. The sampling sys-
other requirements for precision, linearity
tem shall be heat traced and maintained at
and accuracy listed in this performance spec-
a minimum of 120 °C with no cold spots. All
ification are met. It should be noted that
system components shall be heated, includ-
temperature programming a GC will speed
ing the probe, calibration valve, sample
up peak elution, thus allowing increased
lines, sampling loop (or sample introduction
sampling frequency.
system), GC oven, and the detector block
3.1.1 Column. Analytical column capable (when appropriate for the type of detector
of separating the analytes of interest. being utilized, e.g., flame ionization detec-
3.1.2 Detector. A detection system capable tor).
of detecting and quantifying all analytes of
interest. 7.0 Reagents and Standards
3.1.3 Integrator. That portion of the sys-
tem that quantifies the area under a par- 7.1 Calibration Gases. Obtain three con-
ticular sample peak generated by the GC. centrations of calibration gases certified by
3.1.4 Data Recorder. A strip chart re- the manufacturer to be accurate to within 2
corder, computer, or digital recorder capable percent of the value on the label. A gas dilu-
of recording all readings within the instru- tion system may be used to prepare the cali-
ment’s calibration range. bration gases from a high concentration cer-
3.2 Calibration Precision. The error be- tified standard if the gas dilution system
tween triplicate injections of each calibra- meets the requirements specified in Test
tion standard. Method 205, 40 CFR Part 51, Appendix M. The
performance test specified in Test Method
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

4.0 Interferences [Reserved] 205 shall be repeated quarterly, and the re-
sults of the Method 205 test shall be included
5.0 Safety
in the report. The calibration gas concentra-
The procedures required under this per- tion of each target analyte shall be as fol-
formance specification may involve haz- lows (measured concentration is based on the

676

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00686 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Environmental Protection Agency Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 9
presurvey concentration determined in Sec- compound. The multi-point calibration shall
tion 6.1). meet the requirements in Section 13.3.
NOTE: If the low level calibration gas con- Throughout the 24-hour period, sample and
centration falls at or below the limit of de- analyze the stack gas at the sampling inter-
tection for the instrument for any target vals prescribed in the regulation or permit.
pollutant, a calibration gas with a con- At the end of the 24 hour period, inject the
centration at 4 to 5 times the limit of detec- three calibration gases for each compound in
tion for the instrument may be substituted triplicate and determine the average instru-
for the low-level calibration gas listed in ment response. Determine the CE for each
Section 7.1.1. pollutant at each level using the equation in
7.1.1 Low-level. 40–60 percent of measured Section 9–2.
concentration. Each CE shall be ≤ 10 percent. Repeat this
7.1.2 Mid-level. 90–110 percent of measured procedure six more times for a total of 7 con-
concentration. secutive days.
7.1.3 High-level. 140–160 percent of meas-
8.4 Performance Audit Test Periods. Con-
ured concentration, or select highest ex-
pected concentration. duct the performance audit once during the
7.2 Performance Audit Gas. A certified initial 7-day CE test and quarterly there-
EPA audit gas shall be used, when possible. after. Sample and analyze the EPA audit
A gas mixture containing all the target com- gas(es) (or the gas mixture prepared by
pounds within the calibration range and cer- EPA’s traceability protocol if an EPA audit
tified by EPA’s Traceability Protocol for gas is not available) three times. Calculate
Assay and Certification of Gaseous Calibra- the average instrument response. Report the
tion Standards may be used when EPA per- audit results as part of the reporting require-
formance audit materials are not available. ments in the appropriate regulation or per-
The instrument relative error shall be ≤ 10 mit (if using a gas mixture, report the cer-
percent of the certified value of the audit tified cylinder concentration of each pollut-
gas. ant).
8.5 Reporting. Follow the reporting re-
8.0 Sample Collection, Preservation, Storage,
and Transport quirements of the applicable regulation or
permit. If the reporting requirements in-
8.1 Installation and Measurement Loca- clude the results of this performance speci-
tion Specifications. Install the CEMs in a lo- fication, summarize in tabular form the re-
cation where the measurements are rep- sults of the CE tests. Include all data sheets,
resentative of the source emissions. Consider calculations, CEMS data records, perform-
other factors, such as ease of access for cali- ance audit results, and calibration gas con-
bration and maintenance purposes. The loca-
centrations and certifications.
tion should not be close to air in-leakages.
The sampling location should be at least two 9.0 Quality Control [Reserved]
equivalent duct diameters downstream from
the nearest control device, point of pollutant 10.0 Calibration and Standardization
generation, or other point at which a change
in the pollutant concentration or emission 10.1 Initial Multi-Point Calibration. After
rate occurs. The location should be at least initial startup of the GC, after routine main-
0.5 diameter upstream from the exhaust or tenance or repair, or at least once per
control device. To calculate equivalent duct month, conduct a multi-point calibration of
diameter, see Section 12.2 of Method 1 (40 the GC for each target analyte. The multi-
CFR Part 60, Appendix A). Sampling loca- point calibration for each analyte shall meet
tions not conforming to the requirements in the requirements in Section 13.3.
this section may be used if necessary upon 10.2 Daily Calibration. Once every 24
approval of the Administrator. hours, analyze the mid-level calibration
8.2 Pretest Preparation Period. Using the standard for each analyte in triplicate. Cal-
procedures described in Method 18 culate the average instrument response for
(40 CFR Part 60, Appendix A), perform initial each analyte. The average instrument re-
tests to determine GC conditions that pro-
sponse shall not vary more than 10 percent
vide good resolution and minimum analysis
from the certified concentration value of the
time for compounds of interest. Resolution
cylinder for each analyte. If the difference
interferences that may occur can be elimi-
nated by appropriate GC column and detec- between the analyzer response and the cyl-
tor choice or by shifting the retention times inder concentration for any target compound
through changes in the column flow rate and is greater than 10 percent, immediately in-
spect the instrument making any necessary
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

the use of temperature programming.


8.3 7-Day Calibration Error (CE) Test Pe- adjustments, and conduct an initial multi-
riod. At the beginning of each 24-hour period, point calibration as described in Section 10.1.
set the initial instrument setpoints by con-
ducting a multi-point calibration for each

677

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00687 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 11 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–09 Edition)
11.0 Analytical Procedure. Sample Collection r2=Coefficient of determination.
and Analysis Are Concurrent for This Per- V=Sample system volume, in Liters, which is
formance Specification (See Section 8.0) the volume inside the sample probe and
tubing leading from the stack to the sam-
12.0 Calculations and Data Analysis pling loop.
12.1 Nomenclature. x=CEMS response.
Cm=average instrument response, ppm. y=Actual value of calibration standard.
Ca=cylinder gas value, ppm. 12.2 Coefficient of Determination. Cal-
F=Flow rate of stack gas through sampling culate r2 using linear regression analysis and
system, in Liters/min. the average concentrations obtained at three
n=Number of measurement points. calibration points as shown in Equation 9–1.

⎛ ⎞ 2

r =⎜
2 (∑ x i )(∑ y i )
n∑ xi yi −
⎟ Eq. 9-1

⎝ (n∑ y i − ∑ y i ∑ y i ) (n∑ x i − ∑ x i ∑ x i ) ⎟⎠
2 2

12.3 Calibration Error Determination. De- 14.0 Pollution Prevention [Reserved]


termine the percent calibration error (CE) at
each concentration for each pollutant using 15.0 Waste Management [Reserved]
the following equation. 16.0 References [Reserved]

C m − Ca 17.0 Tables, Diagrams, Flowcharts, and


CE = × 100 Eq. 9-2 Validation Data [Reserved]
Ca
PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION 11—SPECIFICA-
12.4 Sampling System Time Constant (T). TIONS AND TEST PROCEDURES FOR PARTICU-
LATE MATTER CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONI-
F TORING SYSTEMS AT STATIONARY SOURCES
T= Eq. 9-3
V 1.0 What Are the Purpose and Applicability of
Performance Specification 11?
13.0 Method Performance
The purpose of Performance Specification
13.1 Calibration Error (CE). The CEMS 11 (PS–11) is to establish the initial installa-
must allow the determination of CE at all tion and performance procedures that are re-
three calibration levels. The average CEMS quired for evaluating the acceptability of a
calibration response must not differ by more particulate matter (PM) continuous emis-
than 10 percent of calibration gas value at sion monitoring system (CEMS); it is not to
each level after each 24-hour period of the evaluate the ongoing performance of your
initial test. PM CEMS over an extended period of time,
nor to identify specific calibration tech-
13.2 Calibration Precision and Linearity.
niques and auxiliary procedures to assess
For each triplicate injection at each con-
CEMS performance. You will find procedures
centration level for each target analyte, any
for evaluating the ongoing performance of a
one injection shall not deviate more than 5 PM CEMS in Procedure 2 of Appendix F—
percent from the average concentration Quality Assurance Requirements for Partic-
measured at that level. The linear regression ulate Matter Continuous Emission Moni-
curve for each organic compound at all three toring Systems Used at Stationary Sources.
levels shall have an r2 ≥0.995 (using Equation 1.1 Under what conditions does PS–11
9–1). apply to my PM CEMS? The PS–11 applies to
13.3 Measurement Frequency. The sample your PM CEMS if you are required by any
to be analyzed shall flow continuously provision of Title 40 of the Code of Federal
ER17OC00.463</MATH>

through the sampling system. The sampling Regulations (CFR) to install and operate PM
system time constant shall be ≤5 minutes or CEMS.
the sampling frequency specified in the ap- 1.2 When must I comply with PS–11? You
plicable regulation, whichever is less. Use must comply with PS–11 when directed by
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

Equation 9–3 to determine T. The analytical the applicable rule that requires you to in-
stall and operate a PM CEMS.
ER17OC00.462</MATH>

system shall be capable of measuring the ef-


fluent stream at the frequency specified in 1.3 What other monitoring must I per-
form? To report your PM emissions in units
the appropriate regulation or permit.
of the emission standard, you may need to

678
ER17OC00.461</MATH>

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00688 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Environmental Protection Agency Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 11
monitor additional parameters to correct the milliamps). At the appropriate PM CEMS re-
PM concentration reported by your PM sponse specified in section 13.2 of this per-
CEMS. Your CEMS may include the compo- formance specification, you must calculate
nents listed in paragraphs (1) through (3) of the confidence interval half range and toler-
this section: ance interval half range as a percentage of
(1) A diluent monitor (i.e., O2, CO2, or other the applicable PM concentration emission
CEMS specified in the applicable regulation), limit and compare the confidence interval
which must meet its own performance speci- and tolerance interval percentages with the
fications (also found in this appendix), performance criteria. Also, you must cal-
(2) Auxiliary monitoring equipment to culate the correlation coefficient and com-
allow measurement, determination, or input pare the correlation coefficient with the ap-
of the flue gas temperature, pressure, mois- plicable performance criterion specified in
ture content, and/or dry volume of stack ef- section 13.2 of this performance specifica-
fluent sampled, and tion.
(3) An automatic sampling system. The Situations may arise where you will need
performance of your PM CEMS and the es- two or more correlations. If you need mul-
tablishment of its correlation to manual ref- tiple correlations, you must collect suffi-
erence method measurements must be deter- cient data for each correlation, and each cor-
mined in units of mass concentration as relation must satisfy the performance cri-
measured by your PM CEMS (e.g., milli- teria specified in section 13.2 of this perform-
grams per actual cubic meter (mg/acm) or ance specification.
milligrams per dry standard cubic meter 2.4 How do I design my PM CEMS correla-
(mg/dscm)). tion program? When planning your PM
CEMS correlation effort, you must address
2.0 What Are the Basic Requirements of PS–11? each of the items in paragraphs (1) through
The PS–11 requires you to perform initial (7) of this section to enhance the probability
installation and calibration procedures that of success. You will find each of these ele-
confirm the acceptability of your CEMS ments further described in this performance
when it is installed and placed into oper- specification or in the applicable reference
ation. You must develop a site-specific cor- method procedure.
relation of your PM CEMS response against (1) What type of PM CEMS should I select?
manual gravimetric reference method meas- You should select a PM CEMS that is appro-
urements (including those made using EPA priate for your source with technical consid-
Methods 5, 5I, or 17). eration for potential factors such as inter-
2.1 What types of PM CEMS technologies ferences, site-specific configurations, instal-
are covered? Several different types of PM lation location, flue gas conditions, PM con-
CEMS technologies (e.g., light scattering, centration range, and other PM characteris-
Beta attenuation, etc.) can be designed with tics. You can find guidance on which tech-
in-situ or extractive sample gas handling nology is best suited for specific situations
systems. Each PM CEMS technology and in our report ‘‘Current Knowledge of Partic-
sample gas handling technology has certain ulate Matter (PM) Continuous Emission
site-specific advantages. You should select Monitoring’’ (PM CEMS Knowledge Docu-
and install a PM CEMS that is appropriate ment, see section 16.5).
for the flue gas conditions at your source. (2) Where should I install my PM CEMS?
2.2 How is PS–11 different from other per- Your PM CEMS must be installed in a loca-
formance specifications? The PS–11 is based tion that is most representative of PM emis-
on a technique of correlating PM CEMS re- sions, as determined by the reference meth-
sponses relative to emission concentrations od, such that the correlation between PM
determined by the reference method. This CEMS response and emissions determined by
technique is called ‘‘the correlation.’’ This the reference method will meet these per-
differs from CEMS used to measure gaseous formance specifications. Care must be taken
pollutants that have available calibration in selecting a location and measurement
gases of known concentration. Because the point to minimize problems due to flow dis-
type and characteristics of PM vary from turbances, cyclonic flow, and varying PM
source to source, a single PM correlation, ap- stratification.
plicable to all sources, is not possible. (3) How should I record my CEMS data?
2.3 How are the correlation data handled? You need to ensure that your PM CEMS and
You must carefully review your manual ref- data logger are set up to collect and record
erence method data and your PM CEMS re- all normal emission levels and excursions.
sponses to include only valid, high-quality You must ensure that your data logger and
data. For the correlation, you must convert PM CEMS have been properly programmed
the manual reference method data to meas- to accept and transfer status signals of valid
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

urement conditions (e.g., wet or dry basis) monitor operation (e.g., flags for internal
that are consistent with your PM CEMS. calibration, suspect data, or maintenance pe-
Then, you must correlate the manual meth- riods).
od and PM CEMS data in terms of the output (4) What CEMS data should I review? You
as received from the monitor (e.g., must review drift data daily to document

679

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00689 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 11 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–09 Edition)
proper operation. You must also ensure that the typical minimum test run duration of 1
any audit material is appropriate for the hour.
typical operating range of your PM CEMS. (8) What do I do with the manual reference
(5) How long should I operate my PM method data and PM CEMS data? You must
CEMS before conducting the initial correla- complete each of the activities in paragraphs
tion test? You should allow sufficient time (8)(i) through (v) of this section.
for your PM CEMS to operate for you to be- (i) Screen the manual reference method
come familiar with your PM CEMS. data for validity (e.g., isokinetics, leak
(i) You should observe PM CEMS response checks), quality assurance, and quality con-
over time during normal and varying process trol (e.g., outlier identification).
conditions. This will ensure that your PM (ii) Screen your PM CEMS data for valid-
CEMS has been properly set up to operate at ity (e.g., daily drift check requirements) and
a range that is compatible with the con- quality assurance (e.g., flagged data).
centrations and characteristics of PM emis- (iii) Convert the manual reference method
sions for your source. You should use this in- test data into measurement units (e.g., mg/
formation to establish the range of operating acm) consistent with the measurement con-
conditions necessary to determine the cor- ditions of your PM CEMS.
relations of PM CEMS data to manual ref- (iv) Calculate the correlation equation(s)
erence method measurements over a wide op- as specified in section 12.3.
erating range. (v) Calculate the correlation coefficient,
(ii) You must determine the types of proc- confidence interval half range, and tolerance
ess changes that will influence, on a defin- interval half range for the complete set of
able and repeatable basis, flue gas PM con- PM CEMS and reference method correlation
centrations and the resulting PM CEMS re- data for comparison with the correlation
sponses. You may find this period useful to performance criteria specified in section 13.2.
make adjustments to your planned approach 2.5 What other procedures must I per-
for operating your PM CEMS at your source. form? Before conducting the initial correla-
For instance, you may change the measure- tion test, you must successfully complete a
ment range or batch sampling period to 7-day drift test (See section 8.5).
something other than those you initially
planned to use. 3.0 What Special Definitions Apply to PS–11?
(6) How do I conduct the initial correlation 3.1 ‘‘Appropriate Measurement Range of
test? When conducting the initial correlation your PM CEMS’’ means a measurement
test of your PM CEMS response to PM emis- range that is capable of recording readings
sions determined by the reference method, over the complete range of your source’s PM
you must pay close attention to accuracy emission concentrations during routine oper-
and details. Your PM CEMS must be oper- ations. The appropriate range is determined
ating properly. You must perform the man- during the pretest preparations as specified
ual reference method testing accurately, in section 8.4.
with attention to eliminating site-specific 3.2 ‘‘Appropriate Data Range for PM
systemic errors. You must coordinate the CEMS Correlation’’ means the data range
timing of the manual reference method test- that reflects the full range of your source’s
ing with the sampling cycle of your PM PM emission concentrations recorded by
CEMS. You must complete a minimum of 15 your PM CEMS during the correlation test
manual reference method tests. You must planning period or other normal operations
perform the manual reference method test- as defined in the applicable regulations.
ing over the full range of PM CEMS re- 3.3 ‘‘Batch Sampling’’ means that gas is
sponses that correspond to normal operating sampled on an intermittent basis and con-
conditions for your source and control device centrated on a collection medium before
and will result in the widest range of emis- intermittent analysis and follow-up report-
sion concentrations. ing. Beta gauge PM CEMS are an example of
(7) How should I perform the manual ref- batch sampling devices.
erence method testing? You must perform 3.4 ‘‘Confidence Interval Half Range (CI)’’
the manual reference method testing in ac- is a statistical term and means one-half of
cordance with specific rule requirements, co- the width of the 95 percent confidence inter-
ordinated closely with PM CEMS and process val around the predicted mean PM con-
operations. It is highly recommended that centration (y value) calculated at the PM
you use paired trains for the manual ref- CEMS response value (x value) where the
erence method testing. You must perform confidence interval is narrowest. Procedures
the manual reference method testing over a for calculating CI are specified in section
suitable PM concentration range that cor- 12.3. The CI as a percent of the emission
responds to the full range of normal process limit value (CI%) is calculated at the appro-
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

and control device operating conditions. Be- priate PM CEMS response value and must
cause the manual reference method testing satisfy the criteria specified in Section 13.2
for this correlation test is not for compli- (2).
ance reporting purposes, you may conduct 3.5 ‘‘Continuous Emission Monitoring
the reference method test runs for less than System (CEMS)’’ means all of the equipment

680

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00690 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Environmental Protection Agency Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 11
required for determination of PM mass con- is not in source-measurement operating
centration in units of the emission standard. mode.
The sample interface, pollutant monitor, dil- 3.14 ‘‘Linear Correlation’’ means a first-
uent monitor, other auxiliary data mon- order mathematical relationship between
itor(s), and data recorder are the major sub- your PM CEMS output and the reference
systems of your CEMS. method PM concentration that is linear in
3.6 ‘‘Correlation’’ means the primary form, as indicated by Equation 11–3.
mathematical relationship for correlating 3.15 ‘‘Logarithmic Correlation’’ means a
the output from your PM CEMS to a PM first-order mathematical relationship be-
concentration, as determined by the PM ref- tween the natural logarithm of your PM
erence method. The correlation is expressed CEMS output and the reference method PM
in the measurement units that are con- concentration that is linear in form, as indi-
sistent with the measurement conditions cated by Equation 11–34.
(e.g., mg/dscm, mg/acm) of your PM CEMS. 3.16 ‘‘Low-Emitting Source’’ means a
3.7 ‘‘Correlation Coefficient (r)’’ means a source that operated at no more than 50 per-
quantitative measure of the association be- cent of the emission limit during the most
tween your PM CEMS outputs and the ref- recent performance test, and, based on the
erence method measurements. Equations for PM CEMS correlation, the daily average
calculating the r value are provided in sec- emissions for the source, measured in the
tion 12.3(1)(iv) for linear correlations and in units of the applicable emission limit, have
section 12.3(2)(iv) for polynomial correla- not exceeded 50 percent of the emission limit
tions. for any day since the most recent perform-
3.8 ‘‘Cycle Time’’ means the time required ance test.
to complete one sampling, measurement, and 3.17 ‘‘Paired Trains’’ means two reference
reporting cycle. For a batch sampling PM method trains that are used to conduct si-
CEMS, the cycle time would start when sam- multaneous measurements of PM concentra-
ple gas is first extracted from the stack/duct tions. Guidance on the use of paired sam-
and end when the measurement of that batch pling trains can be found in the PM CEMS
sample is complete and a new result for that Knowledge Document (see section 16.5).
batch sample is produced on the data re- 3.18 ‘‘Polynomial Correlation’’ means a
corder. second-order equation used to define the re-
3.9 ‘‘Data Recorder’’ means the portion of lationship between your PM CEMS output
your CEMS that provides a permanent and reference method PM concentration, as
record of the monitor output in terms of re- indicated by Equation 11–16.
sponse and status (flags). The data recorder 3.19 ‘‘Power Correlation’’ means an equa-
may also provide automatic data reduction tion used to define a power function relation-
and CEMS control capabilities (see section ship between your PM CEMS output and the
6.6). reference method concentration, as indicated
3.10 ‘‘Diluent Monitor and Other Auxil- by Equation 11–42.
iary Data Monitor(s) (if applicable)’’ means 3.20 ‘‘Reference Method’’ means the meth-
the portion of your CEMS that provides the od defined in the applicable regulations, but
diluent gas concentration (such as O2 or CO2, commonly refers to those methods collec-
as specified by the applicable regulations), tively known as EPA Methods 5, 5I, and 17
temperature, pressure, and/or moisture con- (for particulate matter), found in Appendix A
tent, and generates an output proportional of 40 CFR 60. Only the front half and dry fil-
to the diluent gas concentration or gas prop- ter catch portions of the reference method
erty. can be correlated to your PM CEMS output.
3.11 ‘‘Drift Check’’ means a check of the 3.21 ‘‘Reference Standard’’ means a ref-
difference between your PM CEMS output erence material or procedure that produces a
readings and the established reference value known and unchanging response when pre-
of a reference standard or procedure after a sented to the pollutant monitor portion of
stated period of operation during which no your CEMS. You must use these standards to
unscheduled maintenance, repair, or adjust- evaluate the overall operation of your PM
ment took place. The procedures used to de- CEMS, but not to develop a PM CEMS cor-
termine drift are specific to the operating relation.
principles of your specific PM CEMS. A drift 3.22 ‘‘Response Time’’ means the time in-
check includes both a zero drift check and an terval between the start of a step change in
upscale drift check. the system input and the time when the pol-
3.12 ‘‘Exponential Correlation’’ means an lutant monitor output reaches 95 percent of
exponential equation used to define the rela- the final value (see sections 6.5 and 13.3 for
tionship between your PM CEMS output and procedures and acceptance criteria).
the reference method PM concentration, as 3.23 ‘‘Sample Interface’’ means the por-
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

indicated by Equation 11–37. tion of your CEMS used for one or more of
3.13 ‘‘Flagged Data’’ means data marked the following: sample acquisition, sample de-
by your CEMS indicating that the response livery, sample conditioning, or protection of
value(s) from one or more CEMS subsystems the monitor from the effects of the stack ef-
is suspect or invalid or that your PM CEMS fluent.

681

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00691 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 11 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–09 Edition)
3.24 ‘‘Sample Volume Check’’ means a you should have a configuration simulating
check of the difference between your PM the reference method to ensure that:
CEMS sample volume reading and the sam- (1) No formation of new PM or deposition
ple volume reference value. of PM occurs in sample delivery from the
3.25 ‘‘Tolerance Interval half range (TI)’’ stack or duct; and
means one-half of the width of the tolerance (2) No condensate accumulates in the sam-
interval with upper and lower limits, within ple flow measurement apparatus.
which a specified percentage of the future 4.3 What PM CEMS measurement tech-
data population is contained with a given nologies should I use? You should use a PM
level of confidence, as defined by the respec- CEMS measurement technology that is free
tive tolerance interval half range equations of interferences from any condensible con-
in section 12.3(1)(iii) for linear correlations stituent in the flue gas.
and in section 12.3(2)(iii) for polynomial cor-
relations. The TI as a percent of the emis- 5.0 What Do I Need To Know To Ensure the
sion limit value (TI%) is calculated at the Safety of Persons Using PS–11?
appropriate PM CEMS response value speci- People using the procedures required under
fied in Section 13.2(3). PS–11 may be exposed to hazardous mate-
3.26 ‘‘Upscale Check Value’’ means the ex- rials, operations, site conditions, and equip-
pected response to a reference standard or ment. This performance specification does
procedure used to check the upscale response not purport to address all of the safety issues
of your PM CEMS. associated with its use. It is your responsi-
3.27 ‘‘Upscale Drift (UD) Check’’ means a bility to establish appropriate safety and
check of the difference between your PM health practices and determine the applica-
CEMS output reading and the upscale check ble regulatory limitations before performing
value. these procedures. You must consult your
3.28 ‘‘Zero Check Value’’ means the ex- CEMS user’s manual and other reference ma-
pected response to a reference standard or terials recommended by the reference meth-
procedure used to check the response of your od for specific precautions to be taken.
PM CEMS to particulate-free or low-particu-
late concentration conditions. 6.0 What Equipment and Supplies Do I Need?
3.29 ‘‘Zero Drift (ZD) Check’’ means a Different types of PM CEMS use different
check of the difference between your PM operating principles. You should select an
CEMS output reading and the zero check appropriate PM CEMS based on your site-
value. specific configurations, flue gas conditions,
3.30 ‘‘Zero Point Correlation Value’’ and PM characteristics.
means a value added to PM CEMS correla- (1) Your PM CEMS must sample the stack
tion data to represent low or near zero PM effluent continuously or, for batch sampling
concentration data (see section 8.6 for ra- PM CEMS, intermittently.
tionale and procedures). (2) You must ensure that the averaging
time, the number of measurements in an av-
4.0 Are There Any Potential Interferences for
erage, the minimum data availability, and
My PM CEMS?
the averaging procedure for your CEMS con-
Yes, condensible water droplets or con- form with those specified in the applicable
densible acid gas aerosols (i.e., those with emission regulation.
condensation temperatures above those spec- (3) Your PM CEMS must include, as a min-
ified by the reference method) at the meas- imum, the equipment described in sections
urement location can be interferences for 6.1 through 6.7.
your PM CEMS if the necessary precautions 6.1 What equipment is needed for my PM
are not met. CEMS’s sample interface? Your PM CEMS’s
4.1 Where are interferences likely to sample interface must be capable of deliv-
occur? Interferences may develop if your ering a representative sample of the flue gas
CEMS is installed downstream of a wet air to your PM CEMS. This subsystem may be
pollution control system or any other condi- required to heat the sample gas to avoid PM
tions that produce flue gases, which, at your deposition or moisture condensation, provide
PM CEMS measurement point, normally or dilution air, perform other gas conditioning
occasionally contain entrained water drop- to prepare the sample for analysis, or meas-
lets or condensible salts before release to the ure the sample volume or flow rate.
atmosphere. (1) If your PM CEMS is installed down-
4.2 How do I deal with interferences? We stream of a wet air pollution control system
recommend that you use a PM CEMS that such that the flue gases normally or occa-
extracts and heats representative samples of sionally contain entrained water droplets,
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

the flue gas for measurement to simulate re- we recommend that you select a sampling
sults produced by the reference method for system that includes equipment to extract
conditions such as those described in section and heat a representative sample of the flue
4.1. Independent of your PM CEMS measure- gas for measurement so that the pollutant
ment technology and extractive technique, monitor portion of your CEMS measures

682

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00692 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Environmental Protection Agency Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 11
only dry PM. Heating should be sufficient to switching, you must configure the data re-
raise the temperature of the extracted flue corder to handle the recording of data values
gas above the water condensation tempera- in multiple ranges during range-switching
ture and should be maintained at all times intervals.
and at all points in the sample line from 6.5 What averaging time and sample in-
where the flue gas is extracted, including the tervals should be used? Your CEMS must
pollutant monitor and any sample flow sample the stack effluent such that the aver-
measurement devices. aging time, the number of measurements in
(2) You must consider the measured condi- an average, the minimum sampling time,
tions of the sample gas stream to ensure and the averaging procedure for reporting
that manual reference method test data are and determining compliance conform with
converted to units of PM concentration that those specified in the applicable regulation.
are appropriate for the correlation calcula- Your PM CEMS must be designed to meet
tions. Additionally, you must identify what, the specified response time and cycle time
if any, additional auxiliary data from other established in this performance specification
monitoring and handling systems are nec- (see section 13.3).
essary to convert your PM CEMS response 6.6 What type of equipment is needed for
into the units of the PM standard. my data recorder? Your CEMS data recorder
(3) If your PM CEMS is an extractive type must be able to accept and record electronic
and your source’s flue gas volumetric flow signals from all the monitors associated with
rate varies by more than 10 percent from your PM CEMS.
nominal, your PM CEMS should maintain an (1) Your data recorder must record the sig-
isokinetic sampling rate (within 10 percent nals from your PM CEMS that can be cor-
of true isokinetic). If your extractive-type related to PM mass concentrations. If your
PM CEMS does not maintain an isokinetic PM CEMS uses multiple ranges, your data
sampling rate, you must use actual site-spe- recorder must identify what range the meas-
cific data or data from a similar installation urement was made in and provide range-ad-
to prove to us, the State, and/or local en- justed results.
forcement agency that isokinetic sampling (2) Your data recorder must accept and
is not necessary.
record monitor status signals (flagged data).
6.2 What type of equipment is needed for
(3) Your data recorder must accept signals
my PM CEMS? Your PM CEMS must be ca-
from auxiliary data monitors, as appro-
pable of providing an electronic output that
priate.
can be correlated to the PM concentration.
6.7 What other equipment and supplies
(1) Your PM CEMS must be able to perform
zero and upscale drift checks. You may per- might I need? You may need other sup-
form these checks manually, but performing porting equipment as defined by the applica-
these checks automatically is preferred. ble reference method(s) (see section 7) or as
(2) We recommend that you select a PM specified by your CEMS manufacturer.
CEMS that is capable of performing auto- 7.0 What Reagents and Standards Do I Need?
matic diagnostic checks and sending instru-
ment status signals (flags) to the data re- You will need reference standards or proce-
corder. dures to perform the zero drift check, the
(3) If your PM CEMS is an extractive type upscale drift check, and the sample volume
that measures the sample volume and uses check.
the measured sample volume as part of cal- 7.1 What is the reference standard value
culating the output value, your PM CEMS for the zero drift check? You must use a zero
must be able to perform a check of the sam- check value that is no greater than 20 per-
ple volume to verify the accuracy of the cent of the PM CEMS’s response range. You
sample volume measuring equipment. The must obtain documentation on the zero
sample volume check must be conducted check value from your PM CEMS manufac-
daily and at the normal sampling rate of turer.
your PM CEMS. 7.2 What is the reference standard value
6.3 What is the appropriate measurement for the upscale drift check? You must use an
range for my PM CEMS? Initially, your PM upscale check value that produces a response
CEMS must be set up to measure over the between 50 and 100 percent of the PM CEMS’s
expected range of your source’s PM emission response range. For a PM CEMS that pro-
concentrations during routine operations. duces output over a range of 4 mA to 20 mA,
You may change the measurement range to the upscale check value must produce a re-
a more appropriate range prior to correla- sponse in the range of 12 mA to 20 mA. You
tion testing. must obtain documentation on the upscale
6.4 What if my PM CEMS does automatic check value from your PM CEMS manufac-
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

range switching? Your PM CEMS may be turer.


equipped to perform automatic range switch- 7.3 What is the reference standard value
ing so that it is operating in a range most for the sample volume check? You must use
sensitive to the detected concentrations. If a reference standard value or procedure that
your PM CEMS does automatic range produces a sample volume value equivalent

683

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00693 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 11 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–09 Edition)
to the normal sampling rate. You must ob- (1) You must select a measurement loca-
tain documentation on the sample volume tion that minimizes problems due to flow
value from your PM CEMS manufacturer. disturbances, cyclonic flow, and varying PM
stratification (refer to Method 1 for guid-
8.0 What Performance Specification Test ance).
Procedure Do I Follow? (2) If you plan to achieve higher emissions
You must complete each of the activities for correlation test purposes by adjusting
in sections 8.1 through 8.8 for your perform- the performance of the air pollution control
ance specification test. device (per section 8.6(4)(i)), you must locate
8.1 How should I select and set up my your PM CEMS and reference method sam-
equipment? You should select a PM CEMS pling points well downstream of the control
that is appropriate for your source, giving device (e.g., downstream of the induced draft
consideration to potential factors such as fan), in order to minimize PM stratification
flue gas conditions, interferences, site-spe- that may be created in these cases.
cific configuration, installation location, PM 8.3 How do I select the reference method
concentration range, and other PM charac- measurement location and traverse points?
teristics. Your PM CEMS must meet the You must follow EPA Method 1 for identi-
equipment specifications in sections 6.1 and fying manual reference method traverse
6.2. points. Ideally, you should perform your
(1) You should select a PM CEMS that is manual reference method measurements at
appropriate for the flue gas conditions at locations that satisfy the measurement site
your source. If your source’s flue gas con- selection criteria specified in EPA Method 1
tains entrained water droplets, we rec- of at least eight duct diameters downstream
ommend that your PM CEMS include a sam- and at least two duct diameters upstream of
ple delivery and conditioning system that is any flow disturbance. Where necessary, you
capable of extracting and heating a rep- may conduct testing at a location that is
resentative sample. two diameters downstream and 0.5 diameters
(i) Your PM CEMS must maintain the sam- upstream of flow disturbances. If your loca-
ple at a temperature sufficient to prevent tion does not meet the minimum down-
moisture condensation in the sample line be- stream and upstream requirements, you
fore analysis of PM. must obtain approval from us to test at your
(ii) If condensible PM is an issue, we rec- location.
ommend that you operate your PM CEMS to 8.4 What are my pretest preparation
maintain the sample gas temperature at the steps? You must install your CEMS and pre-
same temperature as the reference method pare the reference method test site accord-
filter. ing to the specifications in sections 8.2 and
(iii) Your PM CEMS must avoid condensa- 8.3.
tion in the sample flow rate measurement
(1) After completing the initial field instal-
lines.
lation, we recommend that you operate your
(2) Some PM CEMS do not have a wide
PM CEMS according to the manufacturer’s
measurement range capability. Therefore,
instructions to familiarize yourself with its
you must select a PM CEMS that is capable
of measuring the full range of PM concentra- operation before you begin correlation test-
tions expected from your source from normal ing.
levels through the emission limit concentra- (i) During this initial period of operation,
tion. we recommend that you conduct daily
(3) Some PM CEMS are sensitive to par- checks (zero and upscale drift and sample
ticle size changes, water droplets in the gas volume, as appropriate), and, when any
stream, particle charge, stack gas velocity check exceeds the daily specification (see
changes, or other factors. Therefore, you section 13.1), make adjustments and perform
should select a PM CEMS appropriate for the any necessary maintenance to ensure reli-
emission characteristics of your source. able operation.
(4) We recommend that you consult your (2) When you are confident that your PM
PM CEMS vendor to obtain basic rec- CEMS is operating properly, we recommend
ommendations on the instrument capabili- that you operate your CEMS over a correla-
ties and setup configuration. You are ulti- tion test planning period of sufficient dura-
mately responsible for setup and operation of tion to identify the full range of operating
your PM CEMS. conditions and PM emissions to be used in
8.2 Where do I install my PM CEMS? You your PM CEMS correlation test.
must install your PM CEMS at an accessible (i) During the correlation test planning pe-
location downstream of all pollution control riod, you should operate the process and air
equipment. You must perform your PM pollution control equipment over the normal
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

CEMS concentration measurements from a range of operating conditions, except when


location considered representative or be able you attempt to produce higher emissions.
to provide data that can be corrected to be (ii) Your data recorder should record PM
representative of the total PM emissions as CEMS response during the full range of rou-
determined by the manual reference method. tine process operating conditions.

684

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00694 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Environmental Protection Agency Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 11
(iii) You should try to establish the rela- need not be certified) or by using other ap-
tionships between operating conditions and propriate procedures.
PM CEMS response, especially those condi- (ii) You must record your PM CEMS zero
tions that produce the highest PM CEMS re- and upscale response and evaluate them
sponse over 15-minute averaging periods, and against the zero check value and upscale
the lowest PM CEMS response as well. The check value.
objective is to be able to reproduce the con- (3) When must I conduct the 7-day drift
ditions for purposes of the actual correlation test? You must complete a valid 7-day drift
testing discussed in section 8.6. test before attempting the correlation test.
(3) You must set the response range of your 8.6 How do I conduct my PM CEMS cor-
PM CEMS such that the instrument meas- relation test? You must conduct the correla-
ures the full range of responses that cor- tion test according to the procedure given in
respond to the range of source operating con- paragraphs (1) through (5) of this section. If
ditions that you will implement during cor- you need multiple correlations, you must
relation testing. conduct testing and collect at least 15 sets of
(4) We recommend that you perform pre- reference method and PM CEMS data for cal-
liminary reference method testing after the culating each separate correlation.
correlation test planning period. During this (1) You must use the reference method for
preliminary testing, you should measure the PM (usually EPA Methods 5, 5I, or 17) that is
PM emission concentration corresponding to prescribed by the applicable regulations. You
the highest PM CEMS response observed dur- may need to perform other reference meth-
ing the full range of normal operation, when ods or performance specifications (e.g., Meth-
perturbing the control equipment, or as the od 3 for oxygen, Method 4 for moisture, etc.)
result of PM spiking. depending on the units in which your PM
CEMS reports PM concentration.
(5) Before performing correlation testing,
(i) We recommend that you use paired ref-
you must perform a 7-day zero and upscale
erence method trains when collecting man-
drift test (see section 8.5).
ual PM data to identify and screen the ref-
(6) You must not change the response erence method data for imprecision and bias.
range of the monitor once the response range Procedures for checking reference method
has been set and the drift test successfully data for bias and precision can be found in
completed. the PM CEMS Knowledge Document (see sec-
8.5 How do I perform the 7-day drift test? tion 16.5).
You must check the zero (or low-level value (ii) You may use test runs that are shorter
between 0 and 20 percent of the response than 60 minutes in duration (e.g., 20 or 30
range of the instrument) and upscale (be- minutes). You may perform your PM CEMS
tween 50 and 100 percent of the instrument’s correlation tests during new source perform-
response range) drift. You must perform this ance standards performance tests or other
check at least once daily over 7 consecutive compliance tests subject to the Clean Air
days. Your PM CEMS must quantify and Act or other statutes, such as the Resource
record the zero and upscale measurements Conservation and Recovery Act. In these
and the time of the measurements. If you cases, your reference method results ob-
make automatic or manual adjustments to tained during the PM CEMS correlation test
your PM CEMS zero and upscale settings, may be used to determine compliance so
you must conduct the drift test immediately long as your source and the test conditions
before these adjustments, or conduct it in and procedures (e.g., reference method sam-
such a way that you can determine the ple run durations) are consistent with the
amount of drift. You will find the calcula- applicable regulations and the reference
tion procedures for drift in section 12.1 and method.
the acceptance criteria for allowable drift in (iii) You must convert the reference meth-
section 13.1. od results to units consistent with the condi-
(1) What is the purpose of 7-day drift tests? tions of your PM CEMS measurements. For
The purpose of the 7-day drift test is to dem- example, if your PM CEMS measures and re-
onstrate that your system is capable of oper- ports PM emissions in the units of mass per
ating in a stable manner and maintaining its actual volume of stack gas, you must con-
calibration for at least a 7-day period. vert your reference method results to those
(2) How do I conduct the 7-day drift test? units (e.g., mg/acm). If your PM CEMS ex-
To conduct the 7-day drift test, you must de- tracts and heats the sample gas to eliminate
termine the magnitude of the drift once each water droplets, then measures and reports
day, at 24-hour intervals, for 7 consecutive PM emissions under those actual conditions,
days while your source is operating nor- you must convert your reference method re-
mally. sults to those same conditions (e.g., mg/acm
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

(i) You must conduct the 7-day drift test at at 160 °C).
the two points specified in section 8.5. You (2) During each test run, you must coordi-
may perform the 7-day drift tests automati- nate process operations, reference method
cally or manually by introducing to your PM sampling, and PM CEMS operations. For ex-
CEMS suitable reference standards (these ample, you must ensure that the process is

685

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00695 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 11 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–09 Edition)
operating at the targeted conditions, both • Level 1: From no PM (zero concentra-
reference method trains are sampling simul- tion) emissions to 50 percent of the max-
taneously (if paired sampling trains are imum PM concentration;
being used), and your PM CEMS and data • Level 2: 25 to 75 percent of the maximum
logger are operating properly. PM concentration; and
(i) You must coordinate the start and stop • Level 3: 50 to 100 percent of the maximum
times of each run between the reference PM concentration.
method sampling and PM CEMS operation. (iv) Although the above levels overlap, you
For a batch sampling PM CEMS, you must may only apply individual run data to one
start the reference method at the same time level.
as your PM CEMS sampling. (5) If you cannot obtain three distinct lev-
(ii) You must note the times for port els of PM concentration as described, you
changes (and other periods when the ref- must perform correlation testing over the
erence method sampling may be suspended) maximum range of PM concentrations that
on the data sheets so that you can adjust is practical for your PM CEMS. To ensure
your PM CEMS data accordingly, if nec- that the range of data used to establish the
essary. correlation for your PM CEMS is maximized,
(iii) You must properly align the time peri- you must follow one or more of the steps in
ods for your PM CEMS and your reference paragraphs (5)(i) through (iv) of this section.
method measurements to account for your (i) Zero point data for in-situ instruments
PM CEMS response time. should be obtained, to the extent possible, by
(3) You must conduct a minimum of 15 removing the instrument from the stack and
valid runs each consisting of simultaneous monitoring ambient air on a test bench.
PM CEMS and reference method measure- (ii) Zero point data for extractive instru-
ment sets. ments should be obtained by removing the
extractive probe from the stack and drawing
(i) You may conduct more than 15 sets of
in clean ambient air.
CEMS and reference method measurements.
If you choose this option, you may reject (iii) Zero point data also can be obtained
certain test results so long as the total num- by performing manual reference method
ber of valid test results you use to determine measurements when the flue gas is free of
the correlation is greater than or equal to 15. PM emissions or contains very low PM con-
centrations (e.g., when your process is not
(ii) You must report all data, including the
operating, but the fans are operating or your
rejected data.
source is combusting only natural gas).
(iii) You may reject the results of up to (iv) If none of the steps in paragraphs (5)(i)
five test runs without explanation. through (iii) of this section are possible, you
(iv) If you reject the results of more than must estimate the monitor response when no
five test runs, the basis for rejecting the re- PM is in the flue gas (e.g., 4 mA = 0 mg/acm).
sults of the additional test runs must be ex- 8.7 What do I do with the initial correla-
plicitly stated in the reference method, this tion test data for my PM CEMS? You must
performance specification, Procedure 2 of ap- calculate and report the results of the cor-
pendix F, or your quality assurance plan. relation testing, including the correlation
(4) Simultaneous PM CEMS and reference coefficient, confidence interval, and toler-
method measurements must be performed in ance interval for the PM CEMS response and
a manner to ensure that the range of data reference method correlation data that are
that will be used to establish the correlation use to establish the correlation, as specified
for your PM CEMS is maximized. You must in section 12. You must include all data
first attempt to maximize your correlation sheets, calculations, charts (records of PM
range by following the procedures described CEMS responses), process data records in-
in paragraphs (4)(i) through (iv) of this sec- cluding PM control equipment operating pa-
tion. If you cannot obtain the three levels as rameters, and reference media certifications
described in paragraphs (i) through (iv), then necessary to confirm that your PM CEMS
you must use the procedure described in sec- met the requirements of this performance
tion 8.6(5). specification. In addition, you must:
(i) You must attempt to obtain the three (1) Determine the integrated (arithmetic
different levels of PM mass concentration by average) PM CEMS output over each ref-
varying process operating conditions, vary- erence method test period;
ing PM control device conditions, or by (2) Adjust your PM CEMS outputs and ref-
means of PM spiking. erence method test data to the same clock
(ii) The three PM concentration levels you time (considering response time of your PM
use in the correlation tests must be distrib- CEMS);
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

uted over the complete operating range expe- (3) Confirm that the reference method re-
rienced by your source. sults are consistent with your PM CEMS re-
(iii) At least 20 percent of the minimum 15 sponse in terms of, where applicable, mois-
measured data points you use should be con- ture, temperature, pressure, and diluent con-
tained in each of the following levels: centrations; and

686

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00696 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Environmental Protection Agency Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 11
(4) Determine whether any of the reference (4) If your source generates consecutive
method test results do not meet the test PM CEMS hourly responses that are greater
method criteria. than 125 percent of the highest PM CEMS re-
8.8 What is the limitation on the range of sponse used to develop the correlation curve
my PM CEMS correlation? Although the for 24 hours or for a cumulative period that
data you collect during the correlation test- amounts to more than 5 percent of the PM
ing should be representative of the full range CEMS operating hours for the previous 30-
of normal operating conditions at your day period, you must report the reason for
source, you must conduct additional correla- the higher PM CEMS responses.
tion testing if either of the conditions speci-
fied in paragraphs (1) and (2) of this section 9.0 What Quality Control Measures Are
occurs. Required?
(1) If your source is a low-emitting source, Quality control measures for PM CEMS are
as defined in section 3.16 of this specifica- specified in 40 CFR 60, Appendix F, Proce-
tion, you must conduct additional correla- dure 2.
tion testing if either of the events specified
in paragraphs (1)(i) or (ii) of this section oc- 10.0 What Calibration and Standardization
curs while your source is operating under Procedures Must I Perform? [Reserved]
normal conditions.
(i) Your source generates 24 consecutive 11.0 What Analytical Procedures Apply to This
hourly average PM CEMS responses that are Procedure?
greater than 125 percent of the highest PM Specific analytical procedures are outlined
CEMS response (e.g., mA reading) used for in the applicable reference method(s).
the correlation curve or are greater than the
PM CEMS response that corresponds to 50 12.0 What Calculations and Data Analyses Are
percent of the emission limit, whichever is Needed?
greater, or
(ii) The cumulative hourly average PM You must determine the primary relation-
CEMS responses generated by your source ship for correlating the output from your PM
are greater than 125 percent of the highest CEMS to a PM concentration, typically in
PM CEMS response used for the correlation units of mg/acm or mg/dscm of flue gas,
curve or are greater than the PM CEMS re- using the calculations and data analysis
sponse that corresponds to 50 percent of the process in sections 12.2 and 12.3. You develop
emission limit, whichever is greater, for the correlation by performing an appropriate
more than 5 percent of your PM CEMS oper- regression analysis between your PM CEMS
ating hours for the previous 30-day period. response and your reference method data.
(2) If your source is not a low-emitting 12.1 How do I calculate upscale drift and
source, as defined in section 3.16 of this spec- zero drift? You must determine the dif-
ification, you must conduct additional cor- ference in your PM CEMS output readings
relation testing if either of the events speci- from the established reference values (zero
fied in paragraph (i) or (ii) of this section oc- and upscale check values) after a stated pe-
curs while your source is operating under riod of operation during which you per-
normal conditions. formed no unscheduled maintenance, repair,
(i) Your source generates 24 consecutive or adjustment.
hourly average PM CEMS responses that are (1) Calculate the upscale drift (UD) using
greater than 125 percent of the highest PM Equation 11–1:
CEMS response (e.g., mA reading) used for
the correlation curve, or R CEM − R U
(ii) The cumulative hourly average PM UD = × 100 (Eq. 11-1)
CEMS responses generated by your source RU
are greater than 125 percent of the highest
PM CEMS response used for the correlation Where:
curve for more than 5 percent of your PM UD = The upscale (high-level) drift of your
CEMS operating hours for the previous 30- PM CEMS in percent,
day period. RCEM = The measured PM CEMS response to
(3) If additional correlation testing is re- the upscale reference standard, and
quired, you must conduct at least three addi- RU = The preestablished numerical value of
tional test runs under the conditions that the upscale reference standard.
caused the higher PM CEMS response. (2) Calculate the zero drift (ZD) using
(i) You must complete the additional test- Equation 11–2:
ing and use the resulting new data along
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

with the previous data to calculate a revised


R CEM − R L
correlation equation within 60 days after the
ZD = × 100 (Eq. 11-2)
ER12JA04.004</MATH>

occurrence of the event that requires addi- RU


tional testing, as specified in paragraphs
8.8(1) and (2). Where:

687
ER12JA04.003</MATH>

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00697 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8003 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 11 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–09 Edition)
ZD = The zero (low-level) drift of your PM This performance specification describes
CEMS in percent, procedures for evaluating five types of cor-
RCEM = The measured PM CEMS response to relation models: linear, polynomial, loga-
the zero reference standard, rithmic, exponential, and power. Procedures
RL = The preestablished numerical value of for selecting the most appropriate correla-
the zero reference standard, and tion model are presented in section 12.4 of
RU = The preestablished numerical value of this specification.
the upscale reference standard. (1) How do I evaluate a linear correlation
(3) Summarize the results on a data sheet for my correlation test data? To evaluate a
similar to that shown in Table 2 (see section linear correlation, follow the procedures de-
17). scribed in paragraphs (1)(i) through (iv) of
12.2 How do I perform the regression anal- this section.
ysis? You must couple each reference method (i) Calculate the linear correlation equa-
PM concentration measurement, y, in the tion, which gives the predicted PM con-
appropriate units, with an average PM CEMS centration () as a function of the PM CEMS
response, x, over corresponding time periods. response (x), as indicated by Equation 11–3:
You must complete your PM CEMS correla-
tion calculations using data deemed accept- ŷ = b 0 + b1x (Eq. 11-3)
able by quality control procedures identified
in 40 CFR 60, Appendix F, Procedure 2. Where:
(1) You must evaluate all flagged or sus- ŷ = the predicted PM concentration,
pect data produced during measurement pe- b0 = the intercept for the correlation curve,
riods and determine whether they should be as calculated using Equation 11–4,
excluded from your PM CEMS’s average. b1 = the slope of the correlation curve, as
(2) You must assure that the reference calculated using Equation 11–6, and
method and PM CEMS results are on a con- x = the PM CEMS response value.
sistent moisture, temperature, and diluent
basis. You must convert the reference meth- Calculate the y intercept (b0) of the cor-
od PM concentration measurements (dry relation curve using Equation 11–4:
standard conditions) to the units of your PM
CEMS measurement conditions. The condi- b 0 = y − b1 ⋅ x (Eq. 11-4)
tions of your PM CEMS measurement are Where:
monitor-specific. You must obtain from your
PM CEMS vendor or instrument manufac- x̄ = the mean value of the PM CEMS response
turer the conditions and units of measure- data, as calculated using Equation 11–5,
ment for your PM CEMS. and
(i) If your sample gas contains entrained ȳ = the mean value of the PM concentration
water droplets and your PM CEMS is an ex- data, as calculated using Equation 11–5:
tractive system that measures at actual con-
1 n 1 n
∑ xi , y = ∑ yi
ditions (i.e., wet basis), you must use the
measured moisture content determined from x= (Eq. 11-5)
the impinger analysis when converting your n i =1 n i=1
reference method PM data to PM CEMS con- Where:
ditions; do not use the moisture content cal-
culated from a psychrometric chart based on xi = the PM CEMS response value for run i,
saturated conditions. yi = the PM concentration value for run i,

ER12JA04.009</MATH>
12.3 How do I determine my PM CEMS and
correlation? To predict PM concentrations n = the number of data points.
from PM CEMS responses, you must use the Calculate the slope (b1) of the correlation
calculation method of least squares pre- curve using Equation 11–6:
sented in paragraphs (1) through (5) of this
section. When performing the calculations, S xy
ER12JA04.008</MATH>
each reference method PM concentration b1 = (Eq. 11-6)
measurement must be treated as a discrete S xx
data point; if using paired sampling trains,
do not average reference method data pairs Where:
for any test run. Sxx, Sxy = as calculated using Equation 11–7:
ER12JA04.007</MATH>

n n
S xx = ∑ (x i − x ) , S xy = ∑ (x i − x ) ( y i − y )
2
(Eq. 11-7)
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

i=1 i =1
ER12JA04.006</MATH>

688
ER12JA04.005</MATH>

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00698 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8006 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Environmental Protection Agency Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 11
(ii) Calculate the half range of the 95 per- n′ = the number of test runs (n),
cent confidence interval (CI) for the pre- un′ = the tolerance factor for 75 percent cov-
dicted PM concentration () at the mean erage at 95 percent confidence provided in
value of x, using Equation 11–8: Table 1 for df = (n¥2), and
vdf = the value from Table 1 for df = (n¥2).
1 Calculate the half range of the tolerance
CI = t df ,1− a / 2 ⋅ SL (Eq. 11-8) interval for the predicted PM concentration
n () at the mean x value as a percentage of the
Where: emission limit (TI%) using Equation 11–13:
CI = the half range of the 95 percent con-
fidence interval for the predicted PM con- TI
centration at the mean x value, TI % = ⋅100% (Eq. 11-13)
tdf,1-a/2 = the value for the t statistic provided EL
in Table 1 for df = (n - 2), and Where:
SL = the scatter or deviation of values about TI = the half range of the tolerance interval
the correlation curve, which is determined for the predicted PM concentration () at
using Equation 11–9: the mean x value, and
EL = PM emission limit, as described in sec-
tion 13.2.

ER25MR09.069</MATH>
(iv) Calculate the linear correlation coeffi-
cient (r) using Equation 11–14:
Calculate the confidence interval half range
for the predicted PM concentration () at the
mean x value as a percentage of the emission r = 1−
S2L ( Eq. 11-14)
S2y

ER12JA04.017</MATH>
limit (CI%) using Equation 11–10:

CI Where:
CI% = ⋅100% (Eq. 11-10) SL = as calculated using Equation 11–9, and
EL Sy = as calculated using Equation 11–15:
Where:

ER12JA04.016</MATH>
CI = the half range of the 95 percent con- n
∑ (y i − y )
fidence interval for the predicted PM con- 2
centration at the mean x value, and
i =1
EL = PM emission limit, as described in sec- Sy = ( Eq. 11-15)
tion 13.2. n −1

ER25MR09.068</MATH>
(iii) Calculate the half range of the toler- (2) How do I evaluate a polynomial correla-
ance interval (TI) for the predicted PM con- tion for my correlation test data? To evalu-
centration () at the mean x value using ate a polynomial correlation, follow the pro-
Equation 11–11: cedures described in paragraphs (2)(i)
through (iv) of this section.
TI = k T ⋅ SL (Eq. 11-11) (i) Calculate the polynomial correlation

ER25MR09.067</MATH>
equation, which is indicated by Equation 11–
Where: 16, using Equations 11–17 through 11–22:
TI = the half range of the tolerance interval
for the predicted PM concentration () at
the mean x value,
Where:
kT = as calculated using Equation 11–12, and
SL = as calculated using Equation 11–9: = the PM CEMS concentration predicted by
ER25MR09.066</MATH>
the polynomial correlation equation, and
b0, b1, b2 = the coefficients determined from
k T = u n ′ ⋅ vdf (Eq. 11-12) the solution to the matrix equation Ab=B
Where: Where:
ER25MR09.065</MATH>
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

ER25MR09.064</MATH>

689
ER25MR09.063</MATH>

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00699 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 11 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–09 Edition)

⎡ n S1 S2 ⎤ ⎡ b0 ⎤ ⎡S5 ⎤
A = ⎢⎢ S1 S2 S3 ⎥⎥ , b = ⎢⎢ b1 ⎥⎥ , B = ⎢⎢S6 ⎥⎥ .
⎢⎣S2 S3 S4 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ b 2 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣S7 ⎥⎦

n n n n
( )
S1 = ∑ ( x i ) , S2 = ∑ x i2 , S3 =∑ x i3 , S4 =∑ x i4 ( ) ( ) (Eq. 11-17)
i =1 i =1 i =1 i =1

n n n
S5 = ∑ ( yi ) , S6 = ∑ ( x i yi ) , S7 =∑ x i2 yi . ( ) (Eq. 11-18)
i =1 i =1 i =1

Where: n = the number of test runs.


Xi = the PM CEMS response for run i, Calculate the polynomial correlation curve
Yi = the reference method PM concentration coefficients (b0, b1, and b2) using Equations
for run i, and 11–19 through 11–21, respectively:

( S5 ⋅ S2 ⋅ S4 + S1 ⋅ S3 ⋅ S7 + S2 ⋅ S6 ⋅ S3 − S7 ⋅ S2 ⋅ S2 − S3 ⋅ S3 ⋅ S5 − S4 ⋅ S6 ⋅ S1 )
b0 = (Eq. 11-19)
det A

( n ⋅ S6 ⋅ S4 + S5 ⋅ S3 ⋅ S2 + S2 ⋅ S1 ⋅ S7 − S2 ⋅ S6 ⋅ S2 − S7 ⋅ S3 ⋅ n − S4 ⋅ S1 ⋅ S5 )
b1 = (Eq. 11-20)
det A

( n ⋅ S2 ⋅ S7 + S1 ⋅ S6 ⋅ S2 + S5 ⋅ S1 ⋅ S3 − S2 ⋅ S2 ⋅ S5 − S3 ⋅ S6 ⋅ n − S7 ⋅ S1 ⋅ S1 )
b2 = (Eq. 11-21)
det A

Where:

det A = n ⋅ S2 ⋅ S4 − S2 ⋅ S2 ⋅ S2 + S1 ⋅ S3 ⋅ S2 − S3 ⋅ S3 ⋅ n+ S2 ⋅ S1 ⋅ S3 − S4 ⋅ S1 ⋅ S1 (Eq. 11-22)

ER25MR09.073</MATH>
(ii) Calculate the 95 percent confidence in- C coefficients (Co to C5) using Equations 11–
terval half range (CI) by first calculating the 23 and 11–24:

C0 =
(S 2 ⋅ S4 − S32 ), C1 =
(S3 ⋅ S2 − S1 ⋅ S4 )
C2 =
(S ⋅ S
1 3 − S22 ),
ER25MR09.072</MATH>

,
D D D

C3 =
( nS 4 − S22 ), C4 =
(S1 ⋅ S2 − nS3 )
C5 =
( nS 2 − S12 )
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

, (Eq. 11-23)
D D D
ER25MR09.071</MATH>

690
ER25MR09.070</MATH>

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00700 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8006 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Environmental Protection Agency Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 11
Where:

( ) (
D = n S2 ⋅ S4 − S32 + S1 ( S3 ⋅ S2 − S1 ⋅ S4 ) + S2 S1 ⋅ S3 − S22 ) (Eq. 11-24)

Calculate D using Equation 11–25 for each x


value:

Δ = C0 + 2C1 x + ( 2C2 + C3 ) x 2 + 2C4 x 3 + C5 x 4 (Eq. 11-25)

Determine the x value that corresponds to nomial correlation curve (SP) using Equation
the minimum value of D (Dmin). Determine the 11–26:
scatter or deviation of values about the poly-

ER25MR09.081</MATH>
Calculate the half range of the 95 percent Where:
confidence interval (CI) for the predicted PM
concentration () at the x value that cor- k T = u n ′ ⋅ vdf (Eq. 11-30)

ER25MR09.080</MATH>
responds to Dmin using Equation 11–27:

CI = t df ⋅ Sp Δ min (Eq. 11-27) 1


Where: n′ = (Eq. 11-31)
Δ

ER25MR09.079</MATH>
df = (n–3), and
tdf = as listed in Table 1 (see section 17). un′ = the value indicated in Table 1 for df =
(n′–3), and
Calculate the half range of the 95 percent
vdf = the value indicated in Table 1 for df =
confidence interval for the predicted PM
(n′—3).
concentration at the x value that cor-
responds to Dmin as a percentage of the emis- Calculate the tolerance interval half range

ER25MR09.078</MATH>
sion limit (CI%) using Equation 11–28: for the predicted PM concentration at the x
value that corresponds to Dmin as a percent-
CI age of the emission limit (TI%) using Equa-
CI % = ⋅100% (Eq. 11-28) tion 11–32:
EL
TI
( Eq. 11-32 )
Where:
TI % = ⋅ 100
ER25MR09.077</MATH>
CI = the half range of the 95 percent con-
fidence interval for the predicted PM con-
EL
centration at the x value that corresponds Where:
to Dmin, and TI = the tolerance interval half range for the
EL = PM emission limit, as described in sec- predicted PM concentration at the x value
tion 13.2. that corresponds to Dmin, and
ER25MR09.076</MATH>

(iii) Calculate the tolerance interval half EL = PM emission limit, as described in sec-
range (TI) for the predicted PM concentra- tion 13.2.
tion at the x value that corresponds to Dmin,
as indicated in Equation 11–29 for the poly- (iv) Calculate the polynomial correlation
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

nomial correlation, using Equations 11–30 coefficient (r) using Equation 11–33:
and 11–31:
ER25MR09.075</MATH>

TI = kT ⋅ S P (Eq. 11-29)

691
ER25MR09.074</MATH>

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00701 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 11 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–09 Edition)

S
2
yi′ = Ln ( yi ) ( Eq. 11-38)
r = 1 − P
2 ( Eq. 11-33)
S y
Where:
y′i = is the transformed value of yi, and
Ln(yi) = the natural logarithm of the PM
Where:
concentration measurement for run i.
SP = as calculated using Equation 11–26, and
Sy = as calculated using Equation 11–15. (ii) Using the values for y′i in place of the
values for yi, perform the same procedures
(3) How do I evaluate a logarithmic cor- used to develop the linear correlation equa-
relation for my correlation test data? To tion described in paragraph (1)(i) of this sec-
evaluate a logarithmic correlation, which tion. The resulting equation will have the
has the form indicated by Equation 11–34, form indicated by Equation 11–39.
follow the procedures described in para-

ER25MR09.088</GPH>
graphs (3)(i) through (iii) of this section.
Where:
ŷ = b 0 + b1Ln (x) (Eq. 11-34) ′ = the predicted log PM concentration value,
(i) Perform a logarithmic transformation b′0 = the natural logarithm of b0, and the
of each PM CEMS response value (x values) variables b0, b1, and x are as defined in

ER25MR09.087</GPH>
paragraph (1)(i) of this section.
using Equation 11–35:
(iii) Using the values for y ′i in place of the
x i ′ = Ln (x i ) (Eq. 11-35) values for yi, calculate the half range of the
95 percent confidence interval (CI′), as de-
Where: scribed in paragraph (1)(ii) of this section for

ER25MR09.086</GPH>
xi′ = is the transformed value of xi, and CI. Note that CI′ is on the log scale. Next,
Ln(xi) = the natural logarithm of the PM calculate the upper and lower 95 percent con-
fidence limits for the mean value y′ using
CEMS response for run i.
Equations 11–40 and 11–41:
(ii) Using the values for xi′ in place of the
values for xi, perform the same procedures
LCL′ = y′ − CI′ ( Eq. 11-40 )

ER25MR09.085</MATH>
used to develop the linear correlation equa-
tion described in paragraph (1)(i) of this sec-
tion. The resulting equation has the form in-
dicated by Equation 11–36:
UCL′ = y′ + CI′ ( Eq. 11-41)
Where:
ŷ = b 0 + b1x ′ (Eq. 11-36) LCL′ = the lower 95 percent confidence limit

ER25MR09.084</MATH>
Where: for the mean value y′,
UCL′ = the upper 95 percent confidence limit
x′ = the natural logarithm of the PM CEMS
for the mean value y′,
response, and the variables , b0, and b1 are
y′ = the mean value of the log-transformed
as defined in paragraph (1)(i) of this sec- PM concentrations, and
tion. CI′ = the half range of the 95 percent con-

ER25MR09.083</MATH>
(iii) Using the values for xi′ in place of the fidence interval for the predicted PM con-
values for xi, calculate the confidence inter- centration (′), as calculated in Equation 11–
val half range at the mean x′ value as a per- 8.
centage of the emission limit (CI%), the tol- Calculate the half range of the 95 percent
erance interval half range at the mean x′ confidence interval (CI) on the original PM
value as a percentage of the emission limit concentration scale using Equation 11–42:
(TI%), and the correlation coefficient (r) ER12JA04.036</MATH>
using the procedures described in paragraphs
e UCL′ − e LCL′
(1)(ii) through (iv) of this section. CI = ( Eq. 11-42 )
(4) How do I evaluate an exponential cor- 2
relation for my correlation test data? To Where:
evaluate an exponential correlation, which
ER12JA04.035</MATH>

CI = the half range of the 95 percent con-


has the form indicated by Equation 11–37,
fidence interval on the original PM con-
follow the procedures described in para-
centration scale, and UCL′ and LCL′ are as
graphs (4)(i) through (v) of this section: defined previously.
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

Calculate the half range of the 95 percent


confidence interval for the predicted PM
ER12JA04.034</MATH>

(i) Perform a logarithmic transformation concentration corresponding to the mean


of each PM concentration measurement (y value of x as a percentage of the emission
values) using Equation 11–38: limit (CI%) using Equation 11–10.

692
ER25MR09.082</MATH>

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00702 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8003 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Environmental Protection Agency Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 11
(iv) Using the values for y′ i in place of the Where:
values for yi, calculate the half range toler- ′ = the predicted log PM concentration value,
ance interval (TI′), as described in paragraph and
(1)(iii) of this section for TI. Note that TI′ is x′ = the natural logarithm of the PM CEMS
on the log scale. Next, calculate the half response values,
range tolerance limits for the mean value y′ b′0 = the natural logarithm of b0, and the
using Equations 11–43 and 11–44: variables b0, b1, and x are as defined in
paragraph (1)(i) of this section.
LTL′ = y′ − TI′ ( Eq. 11-43) (iii) Using the same procedure described
for exponential models in paragraph (4)(iii)
of this section, calculate the half range of
UTL′ = y′ + TI′ ( Eq. 11-44 ) the 95 percent confidence interval for the
predicted PM concentration corresponding
Where: to the mean value of x′ as a percentage of the
LTL′ = the lower 95 percent tolerance limit emission limit.
for the mean value y′, (iv) Using the same procedure described for
UTL′ = the upper 95 percent tolerance limit exponential models in paragraph (4)(iv) of
for the mean value y′, this section, calculate the tolerance interval
y′, = the mean value of the log-transformed half range for the predicted PM concentra-
PM concentrations, and tion corresponding to the mean value of x′ as
TI′ = the half range of the 95 percent toler- a percentage of the emission limit.
ance interval for the predicted PM con- (v) Using the values for y ′i in place of the
centration (′), as calculated in Equation 11– values for yi, calculate the correlation coeffi-
11. cient (r) using the procedure described in
Calculate the half range tolerance interval paragraph (1)(iv) of this section.
(TI) on the original PM concentration scale Note: PS–11 does not address the applica-
using Equation 11–45: tion of correlation equations to calculate
PM emission concentrations using PM CEMS
e UTL′ − e LTL′
response data during normal operations of a
TI = ( Eq. 11-45) PM CEMS. However, we will provide guid-
ance on the use of specific correlation mod-
2 els (i.e., logarithmic, exponential, and power
TI = the half range of the 95 percent toler- models) to calculate PM concentrations in
ance interval on the original PM scale, and an operating PM CEMS in situations when
UTL′ and LTL′ are as defined previously. the PM CEMS response values are equal to
Calculate the tolerance interval half range or less than zero, and the correlation model
for the predicted PM concentration cor- is undefined.
responding to the mean value of x as a per- 12.4 Which correlation model should I
centage of the emission limit (TI%) using use? Follow the procedures described in para-
Equation 11–13. graphs (1) through (4) of this section to de-
(v) Using the values for y ′ i in place of the termine which correlation model you should
values for yi, calculate the correlation coeffi- use.
cient (r) using the procedure described in (1) For each correlation model that you de-
paragraph (1)(iv) of this section. velop using the procedures described in sec-
(5) How do I evaluate a power correlation tion 12.3 of this specification, compare the
for my correlation test data? To evaluate a confidence interval half range percentage,

ER25MR09.093</GPH>
power correlation, which has the form indi- tolerance interval half range percentage, and
cated by Equation 11–46, follow the proce- correlation coefficient to the performance
dures described in paragraphs (5)(i) through criteria specified in section 13.2 of this speci-
(v) of this section. fication. You can use the linear, logarithmic,
exponential, or power correlation model if
the model satisfies all of the performance ER25MR09.092</GPH>

(i) Perform logarithmic transformations of criteria specified in section 13.2 of this speci-
each PM CEMS response (x values) and each fication. However, to use the polynomial
PM concentration measurement (y values) model you first must check that the poly-
using Equations 11–35 and 11–38, respectively. nomial correlation curve satisfies the cri-
(ii) Using the values for x ′i in place of the teria for minimum and maximum values
specified in paragraph (3) of this section.
ER25MR09.091</GPH>

values for xi, and the values for y ′i in place of


the values for yi, perform the same proce- (2) If you develop more than one correla-
dures used to develop the linear correlation tion curve that satisfy the performance cri-
equation described in paragraph (1)(i) of this teria specified in section 13.2 of this speci-
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

section. The resulting equation will have the fication, you should use the correlation
form indicated by Equation 11–47: curve with the greatest correlation coeffi-
ER25MR09.090</GPH>

cient. If the polynomial model has the great-


est correlation coefficient, you first must
check that the polynomial correlation curve

693
ER25MR09.089</GPH>

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00703 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 11 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–09 Edition)
satisfies the criteria for minimum and max- nomial correlation curve to predict PM con-
imum values specified in paragraph (3) of centrations. If the correlation curve max-
this section. imum value is less than the extrapolation
(3) You can use the polynomial model that limit, you cannot use the polynomial cor-
you develop using the procedures described relation curve to predict PM concentrations.
in section 12.3(2) if the model satisfies the (4) You may petition the Administrator for
performance criteria specified in section 13.2 alternative solutions or sampling rec-
of this specification, and the minimum or ommendations if the correlation models de-
maximum value of the polynomial correla- scribed in section 12.3 of this specification do
tion curve does not occur within the ex- not satisfy the performance criteria specified
panded data range. The minimum or max- in section 13.2 of this specification.
imum value of the polynomial correlation
curve is the point where the slope of the 13.0 What Are the Performance Criteria for
curve equals zero. To determine if the min- My PM CEMS?
imum or maximum value occurs within the You must evaluate your PM CEMS based
expanded data range, follow the procedure on the 7-day drift check, the accuracy of the
described in paragraphs (3)(i) through (iv) of correlation, and the sampling periods and
this section. cycle/response time.
(i) Determine if your polynomial correla- 13.1 What is the 7-day drift check per-
tion curve has a minimum or maximum formance specification? Your daily PM
point by comparing the polynomial coeffi- CEMS internal drift checks must dem-
cient b2 to zero. If b2 is less than zero, the onstrate that the average daily drift of your
curve has a maximum value. If b2 is greater PM CEMS does not deviate from the value of
than zero, the curve has a minimum value. the reference light, optical filter, Beta at-
(Note: If b2 equals zero, the correlation curve tenuation signal, or other technology-suit-
is linear.) able reference standard by more than 2 per-
(ii) Calculate the minimum value using cent of the upscale value. If your CEMS in-
Equation 11–48. cludes diluent and/or auxiliary monitors (for
temperature, pressure, and/or moisture) that
b1 are employed as a necessary part of this per-
min or max = − (Eq. 11-48) formance specification, you must determine
2b2 the calibration drift separately for each an-
cillary monitor in terms of its respective
(iii) If your polynomial correlation curve output (see the appropriate performance
has a minimum point, you must compare the specification for the diluent CEMS specifica-
minimum value to the minimum PM CEMS tion). None of the calibration drifts may ex-
response used to develop the correlation ceed their individual specification.
curve. If the correlation curve minimum 13.2 What performance criteria must my
value is less than or equal to the minimum PM CEMS correlation satisfy? Your PM
PM CEMS response value, you can use the CEMS correlation must meet each of the
polynomial correlation curve, provided the minimum specifications in paragraphs (1),
correlation curve also satisfies all of the per- (2), and (3) of this section. Before confidence
formance criteria specified in section 13.2 of and tolerance interval half range percentage
this specification. If the correlation curve calculations are made, you must convert the
minimum value is greater than the min- emission limit to the appropriate units of
imum PM CEMS response value, you cannot your PM CEMS measurement conditions
use the polynomial correlation curve to pre- using the average of emissions gas property
dict PM concentrations. values (e.g., diluent concentration, tempera-
(iv) If your polynomial correlation curve ture, pressure, and moisture) measured dur-
has a maximum, the maximum value must ing the correlation test.
be greater than the allowable extrapolation (1) The correlation coefficient must satisfy
limit. If your source is not a low-emitting the criterion specified in paragraph (1)(i) or
source, as defined in section 3.16 of this spec- (ii), whichever applies.
ification, the allowable extrapolation limit (i) If your source is not a low-emitting
is 125 percent of the highest PM CEMS re- source, as defined in section 3.16 of this spec-
sponse used to develop the correlation curve. ification, the correlation coefficient (r) must
If your source is a low-emitting source, the be greater than or equal to 0.85.
allowable extrapolation limit is 125 percent (ii) If your source is a low-emitting source,
of the highest PM CEMS response used to de- as defined in section 3.16 of this specifica-
velop the correlation curve or the PM CEMS tion, the correlation coefficient (r) must be
response that corresponds to 50 percent of greater than or equal to 0.75.
the emission limit, whichever is greater. If (2) The confidence interval half range must
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

the polynomial correlation curve maximum satisfy the applicable criterion specified in
value is greater than the extrapolation limit, paragraph (2)(i), (ii), or (iii) of this section,
and the correlation curve satisfies all of the based on the type of correlation model.
performance criteria specified in section 13.2 (i) For linear or logarithmic correlations,
of this specification, you can use the poly- the 95 percent confidence interval half range

694
ER25MR09.106</GPH>

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00704 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Environmental Protection Agency Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 11
at the mean PM CEMS response value from be no longer than 15 minutes. In addition,
the correlation test must be within 10 per- the delay between the end of the sampling
cent of the PM emission limit value specified time and reporting of the sample analysis
in the applicable regulation. Therefore, the must be no greater than 3 minutes. You must
CI% calculated using Equation 11–10 must be document any changes in the response time
less than or equal to 10 percent. following installation.
(ii) For polynomial correlations, the 95 (ii) The sampling time of your PM CEMS
percent confidence interval half range at the must be no less than 30 percent of the cycle
PM CEMS response value from the correla- time. If you have a batch sampling PM
tion test that corresponds to the minimum CEMS, sampling must be continuous except
value for D must be within 10 percent of the during pauses when the collected pollutant
PM emission limit value specified in the ap- on the capture media is being analyzed and
plicable regulation. Therefore, the CI% cal- the next capture medium starts collecting a
culated using Equation 11–28 must be less new sample.
than or equal to 10 percent. 13.4 What PM compliance monitoring
(iii) For exponential or power correlations, must I do? You must report your CEMS
the 95 percent confidence interval half range measurements in the units of the standard
at the mean of the logarithm of the PM expressed in the regulations (e.g., mg/dscm @
CEMS response values from the correlation 7 percent oxygen, pounds per million Btu (lb/
test must be within 10 percent of the PM mmBtu), etc.). You may need to install aux-
emission limit value specified in the applica- iliary data monitoring equipment to convert
ble regulation. Therefore, the CI% calculated the units reported by your PM CEMS into
using Equation 11–10 must be less than or units of the PM emission standard.
equal to 10 percent.
(3) The tolerance interval half range must 14.0 Pollution Prevention [Reserved]
satisfy the applicable criterion specified in
paragraph (3)(i), (ii), or (iii) of this section, 15.0 Waste Management [Reserved]
based on the type of correlation model.
(i) For linear or logarithmic correlations, 16.0 Which References Are Relevant to This
the half range tolerance interval with 95 per- Performance Specification?
cent confidence and 75 percent coverage at
16.1 Technical Guidance Document: Com-
the mean PM CEMS response value from the
pliance Assurance Monitoring. U.S. Environ-
correlation test must be within 25 percent of
mental Protection Agency Office of Air
the PM emission limit value specified in the
Quality Planning and Standards Emission
applicable regulation. Therefore, the TI%
Measurement Center. August 1998.
calculated using Equation 11–13 must be less
than or equal to 25 percent. 16.2 40 CFR 60, Appendix B, ‘‘Performance
(ii) For polynomial correlations, the half Specification 2—Specifications and Test Pro-
range tolerance interval with 95 percent con- cedures for SO2, and NOX, Continuous Emis-
fidence and 75 percent coverage at the PM sion Monitoring Systems in Stationary
CEMS response value from the correlation Sources.’’
test that corresponds to the minimum value 16.3 40 CFR 60, Appendix B, ‘‘Performance
for D must be within 25 percent of the PM Specification 1—Specification and Test Pro-
emission limit value specified in the applica- cedures for Opacity Continuous Emission
ble regulation. Therefore, the TI% cal- Monitoring Systems in Stationary Sources.’’
culated using Equation 11–32 must be less 16.4 40 CFR 60, Appendix A, ‘‘Method 1—
than or equal to 25 percent. Sample and Velocity Traverses for Sta-
(iii) For exponential or power correlations, tionary Sources.’’
the half range tolerance interval with 95 per- 16.5 ‘‘Current Knowledge of Particulate
cent confidence and 75 percent coverage at Matter (PM) Continuous Emission Moni-
the mean of the logarithm of the PM CEMS toring.’’ EPA–454/R–00–039. U.S. Environ-
response values from the correlation test mental Protection Agency, Research Tri-
must be within 25 percent of the PM emis- angle Park, NC. September 2000.
sion limit value specified in the applicable 16.6 40 CFR 266, Appendix IX, Section 2,
regulation. Therefore, the TI% calculated ‘‘Performance Specifications for Continuous
using Equation 11–13 must be less than or Emission Monitoring Systems.’’
equal to 25 percent. 16.7 ISO 10155, ‘‘Stationary Source Emis-
13.3 What are the sampling periods and sions—Automated Monitoring of Mass Con-
cycle/response time? You must document centrations of Particles: Performance Char-
and maintain the response time and any acteristics, Test Procedures, and Specifica-
changes in the response time following in- tions.’’ American National Standards Insti-
stallation. tute, New York City. 1995.
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

(1) If you have a batch sampling PM CEMS, 16.8 Snedecor, George W. and Cochran,
you must evaluate the limits presented in William G. (1989), Statistical Methods,
paragraphs (1)(i) and (ii) of this section. Eighth Edition, Iowa State University Press.
(i) The response time of your PM CEMS, 16.9 Wallis, W. A. (1951) ‘‘Tolerance Inter-
which is equivalent to the cycle time, must vals for Linear Regression,’’ in Second

695

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00705 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 11 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–09 Edition)
Berkeley Symposium on Mathematical Sta- 17.0 What Reference Tables and Validation
tistics and Probability, ed. J. Neyman, Data Are Relevant to PS–11?
Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. Use the information in Table 1 for deter-
43–51. mining the confidence and tolerance interval
half ranges. Use Table 2 to record your 7-day
drift test data.
TABLE 1—FACTORS FOR CALCULATION OF CONFIDENCE AND TOLERANCE INTERVAL HALF RANGES
Tolerance interval with 75% coverage and 95%
confidence level
df Student’s t, tdf
vdf (95%) un′ (75%) kT

3 ............................................................................................ 3.182 2.920 1.266 3.697


4 ............................................................................................ 2.776 2.372 1.247 2.958
5 ............................................................................................ 2.571 2.089 1.233 2.576
6 ............................................................................................ 2.447 1.915 1.223 2.342
7 ............................................................................................ 2.365 1.797 1.214 2.183
8 ............................................................................................ 2.306 1.711 1.208 2.067
9 ............................................................................................ 2.262 1.645 1.203 1.979
10 .......................................................................................... 2.228 1.593 1.198 1.909
11 .......................................................................................... 2.201 1.551 1.195 1.853
12 .......................................................................................... 2.179 1.515 1.192 1.806
13 .......................................................................................... 2.160 1.485 1.189 1.766
14 .......................................................................................... 2.145 1.460 1.186 1.732
15 .......................................................................................... 2.131 1.437 1.184 1.702
16 .......................................................................................... 2.120 1.418 1.182 1.676
17 .......................................................................................... 2.110 1.400 1.181 1.653
18 .......................................................................................... 2.101 1.384 1.179 1.633
19 .......................................................................................... 2.093 1.370 1.178 1.614
20 .......................................................................................... 2.086 1.358 1.177 1.597
21 .......................................................................................... 2.080 1.346 1.175 1.582
22 .......................................................................................... 2.074 1.335 1.174 1.568
23 .......................................................................................... 2.069 1.326 1.173 1.555
24 .......................................................................................... 2.064 1.316 1.172 1.544
25 .......................................................................................... 2.060 1.308 1.172 1.533
26 .......................................................................................... 2.056 1.300 1.171 1.522
27 .......................................................................................... 2.052 1.293 1.170 1.513
28 .......................................................................................... 2.048 1.286 1.170 1.504
29 .......................................................................................... 2.045 1.280 1.169 1.496
30 .......................................................................................... 2.042 1.274 1.168 1.488
31 .......................................................................................... 2.040 1.268 1.168 1.481
32 .......................................................................................... 2.037 1.263 1.167 1.474
33 .......................................................................................... 2.035 1.258 1.167 1.467
34 .......................................................................................... 2.032 1.253 1.166 1.461
35 .......................................................................................... 2.030 1.248 1.166 1.455
36 .......................................................................................... 2.028 1.244 1.165 1.450
37 .......................................................................................... 2.026 1.240 1.165 1.444
38 .......................................................................................... 2.024 1.236 1.165 1.439
39 .......................................................................................... 2.023 1.232 1.164 1.435
40 .......................................................................................... 2.021 1.228 1.164 1.430
41 .......................................................................................... 2.020 1.225 1.164 1.425
42 .......................................................................................... 2.018 1.222 1.163 1.421
43 .......................................................................................... 2.017 1.218 1.163 1.417
44 .......................................................................................... 2.015 1.215 1.163 1.413
45 .......................................................................................... 2.014 1.212 1.163 1.410
46 .......................................................................................... 2.013 1.210 1.162 1.406
47 .......................................................................................... 2.012 1.207 1.162 1.403
48 .......................................................................................... 2.011 1.204 1.162 1.399
49 .......................................................................................... 2.010 1.202 1.162 1.396
50 .......................................................................................... 2.009 1.199 1.161 1.393
51 .......................................................................................... 2.008 1.197 1.161 1.390
52 .......................................................................................... 2.007 1.195 1.161 1.387
53 .......................................................................................... 2.006 1.192 1.161 1.384
54 .......................................................................................... 2.005 1.190 1.161 1.381
55 .......................................................................................... 2.004 1.188 1.160 1.379
56 .......................................................................................... 2.003 1.186 1.160 1.376
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

57 .......................................................................................... 2.002 1.184 1.160 1.374


58 .......................................................................................... 2.002 1.182 1.160 1.371
59 .......................................................................................... 2.001 1.180 1.160 1.369
60 .......................................................................................... 2.000 1.179 1.160 1.367
References 16.8 (t values) and 16.9 (vdf and un′ values).

696

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00706 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Environmental Protection Agency Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 12A

TABLE 2—7-DAY DRIFT TEST DATA


Date Zero check PM CEMS Zero drift
Difference
Zero drift day # and value response ((RCEMS¥RL) /RU) ×
(RCEMS¥RL)
time (RL) (RCEMS) 100

Upscale
Date PM CEMS Upscale drift
check Difference
Upscale drift day # and response ((RCEMS¥RU)/RU) ×
value (RCEMS¥RU)
time (RCEMS) 100%
(RU)

PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION 12A—SPECIFICA- is responsible to calibrate, maintain, and op-


TIONS AND TEXT PROCEDURES FOR TOTAL erate the CEMS properly. The Administrator
VAPOR PHASE MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMIS- may require, under Clean Air Act (CAA) sec-
SION MONITORING SYSTEMS IN STATIONARY tion 114, the operator to conduct CEMS per-
SOURCES formance evaluations at other times besides
the initial test to evaluate the CEMS per-
1.0 Scope and Application formance. See § 60.13(c).
1.1 Analyte. 1.2.2 For an affected facility that is also
subject to the requirements of subpart I of
Analyte CAS No. part 75 of this chapter, the owner or operator
may conduct the performance evaluation of
Mercury (Hg) ........................................................ 7439–97–6 the Hg CEMS according to § 75.20(c)(1) of this
chapter and section 6 of appendix A to part
1.2 Applicability. 75 of this chapter, in lieu of following the
1.2.1 This specification is for evaluating procedures in this performance specification.
the acceptability of total vapor phase Hg
continuous emission monitoring systems 2.0 Summary of Performance Specification.
(CEMS) installed on the exit gases from fos-
sil fuel fired boilers at the time of or soon Procedures for measuring CEMS relative
after installation and whenever specified in accuracy, measurement error and drift are
the regulations. The Hg CEMS must be capa- outlined. CEMS installation and measure-
ble of measuring the total concentration in ment location specifications, and data reduc-
μgm/m3 (regardless of speciation) of vapor tion procedures are included. Conformance of
phase Hg, and recording that concentration the CEMS with the Performance Specifica-
on a wet or dry basis. Particle bound Hg is tion is determined.
not included in the measurements.
3.0 Definitions.
This specification is not designed to evalu-
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

ate an installed CEMS’s performance over an 3.1 Continuous Emission Monitoring System
extended period of time nor does it identify (CEMS) means the total equipment required
specific calibration techniques and auxiliary for the determination of a pollutant con-
procedures to assess the CEMS’s perform- centration. The system consists of the fol-
ance. The source owner or operator, however, lowing major subsystems:

697

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00707 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 12A 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–09 Edition)
3.2 Sample Interface means that portion of 4.0 Interferences. [Reserved]
the CEMS used for one or more of the fol-
lowing: sample acquisition, sample trans- 5.0 Safety.
port, sample conditioning, and protection of The procedures required under this per-
the monitor from the effects of the stack ef- formance specification may involve haz-
fluent. ardous materials, operations, and equipment.
3.3 Hg Analyzer means that portion of the This performance specification may not ad-
Hg CEMS that measures the total vapor dress all of the safety problems associated
phase Hg mass concentration and generates with these procedures. It is the responsi-
a proportional output. bility of the user to establish appropriate
3.4 Data Recorder means that portion of safety and health practices and determine
the CEMS that provides a permanent elec- the applicable regulatory limitations prior
tronic record of the analyzer output. The to performing these procedures. The CEMS
user’s manual and materials recommended
data recorder may provide automatic data
by the RM should be consulted for specific
reduction and CEMS control capabilities.
precautions to be taken.
3.5 Span Value means the upper limit of
the intended Hg concentration measurement 6.0 Equipment and Supplies.
range. The span value is a value equal to two
6.1 CEMS Equipment Specifications.
times the emission standard. Alternatively,
6.1.1 Data Recorder Scale. The Hg CEMS
for an affected facility that is also subject to data recorder output range must include zero
the requirements of subpart I of part 75 of and a high level value. The high level value
this chapter, the Hg span value(s) may be de- must be approximately two times the Hg
termined according to section 2.1.7 of appen- concentration corresponding to the emission
dix A to part 75 of this chapter. standard level for the stack gas under the
3.6 Measurement Error (ME) means the ab- circumstances existing as the stack gas is
solute value of the difference between the sampled. A lower high level value may be
concentration indicated by the Hg analyzer used, provided that the measured values do
and the known concentration generated by a not exceed 95 percent of the high level value.
reference gas, expressed as a percentage of Alternatively, for an affected facility that is
the span value, when the entire CEMS, in- also subject to the requirements of subpart I
cluding the sampling interface, is chal- of part 75 of this chapter, the owner or oper-
lenged. An ME test procedure is performed to ator may set the full-scale range(s) of the Hg
document the accuracy and linearity of the analyzer according to section 2.1.7 of appen-
Hg CEMS at several points over the measure- dix A to part 75 of this chapter.
ment range. 6.1.2 The CEMS design should also provide
3.7 Upscale Drift (UD) means the absolute for the determination of calibration drift at
value of the difference between the CEMS a zero value (zero to 20 percent of the span
output response and an upscale Hg reference value) and at an upscale value (between 50
gas, expressed as a percentage of the span and 100 percent of the high-level value).
value, when the entire CEMS, including the 6.2 Reference Gas Delivery System. The
sampling interface, is challenged after a reference gas delivery system must be de-
stated period of operation during which no signed so that the flowrate of reference gas
unscheduled maintenance, repair, or adjust- introduced to the CEMS is the same at all
three challenge levels specified in Section 7.1
ment took place.
and at all times exceeds the flow require-
3.8 Zero Drift (ZD) means the absolute
ments of the CEMS.
value of the difference between the CEMS 6.3 Other equipment and supplies, as need-
output response and a zero-level Hg reference ed by the applicable reference method used.
gas, expressed as a percentage of the span See Section 8.6.2.
value, when the entire CEMS, including the
sampling interface, is challenged after a 7.0 Reagents and Standards.
stated period of operation during which no
7.1 Reference Gases. Reference gas stand-
unscheduled maintenance, repair, or adjust-
ards are required for both elemental and
ment took place. oxidized Hg (Hg and mercuric chloride,
3.9 Relative Accuracy (RA) means the abso- HgCl2). The use of National Institute of
lute mean difference between the pollutant Standards and Technology (NIST)-certified
concentration(s) determined by the CEMS or NIST-traceable standards and reagents is
and the value determined by the reference required. The following gas concentrations
method (RM) plus the 2.5 percent error con- are required.
fidence coefficient of a series of tests divided 7.1.1 Zero-level. 0 to 20 percent of the span
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

by the mean of the RM tests. Alternatively, value.


for low concentration sources, the RA may 7.1.2 Mid-level. 50 to 60 percent of the span
be expressed as the absolute value of the dif- value.
ference between the mean CEMS and RM 7.1.3 High-level. 80 to 100 percent of the
values. span value.

698

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00708 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Environmental Protection Agency Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 12A
7.2 Reference gas standards may also be 8.4.1 UD Test Period. While the affected
required for the reference methods. See Sec- facility is operating at more than 50 percent
tion 8.6.2. of normal load, or as specified in an applica-
ble subpart, determine the magnitude of the
8.0 Performance Specification (PS) Test UD once each day (at 24-hour intervals, to
Procedure. the extent practicable) for 7 consecutive unit
8.1 Installation and Measurement Loca- operating days according to the procedure
tion Specifications. given in Sections 8.4.2 through 8.4.3. The 7
8.1.1 CEMS Installation. Install the CEMS consecutive unit operating days need not be
at an accessible location downstream of all 7 consecutive calendar days. Use either Hg°
pollution control equipment. Since the Hg or HgCl2 standards for this test.
8.4.2 The purpose of the UD measurement
CEMS sample system normally extracts gas
is to verify the ability of the CEMS to con-
from a single point in the stack, use a loca-
form to the established CEMS response used
tion that has been shown to be free of strati-
for determining emission concentrations or
fication for SO2 and NOX through concentra-
emission rates. Therefore, if periodic auto-
tion measurement traverses for those gases.
matic or manual adjustments are made to
If the cause of failure to meet the RA test re-
the CEMS zero and response settings, con-
quirement is determined to be the measure-
duct the UD test immediately before these
ment location and a satisfactory correction
adjustments, or conduct it in such a way
technique cannot be established, the Admin-
that the UD can be determined.
istrator may require the CEMS to be relo- 8.4.3 Conduct the UD test at either the
cated. mid-level or high-level point specified in
Measurement locations and points or paths Section 7.1. Introduce the reference gas to
that are most likely to provide data that the CEMS. Record the CEMS response and
will meet the RA requirements are listed subtract the reference value from the CEMS
below. value, and express the absolute value of the
8.1.2 Measurement Location. The meas- difference as a percentage of the span value
urement location should be (1) at least two (see example data sheet in Figure 12A–1). For
equivalent diameters downstream of the the reference gas, the absolute value of the
nearest control device, point of pollutant difference between the CEMS response and
generation or other point at which a change the reference value shall not exceed 5 per-
of pollutant concentration may occur, and cent of the span value. If this specification is
(2) at least half an equivalent diameter up- not met, identify and correct the problem be-
stream from the effluent exhaust. The equiv- fore proceeding.
alent duct diameter is calculated as per 40 8.5 ZD Test Procedure.
CFR part 60, appendix A, Method 1. 8.5.1 ZD Test Period. While the affected
8.1.3 Hg CEMS Sample Extraction Point. facility is operating at more than 50 percent
Use a sample extraction point (1) no less of normal load, or as specified in an applica-
than 1.0 meter from the stack or duct wall, ble subpart, determine the magnitude of the
or (2) within the centroidal velocity traverse ZD once each day (at 24-hour intervals, to
area of the stack or duct cross section. the extent practicable) for 7 consecutive unit
8.2 RM Measurement Location and Tra- operating days according to the procedure
verse Points. Refer to PS 2 of this appendix. given in Sections 8.5.2 through 8.5.3. The 7
The RM and CEMS locations need not be im- consecutive unit operating days need not be
mediately adjacent. 7 consecutive calendar days. Use either ni-
8.3 ME Test Procedure. The Hg CEMS trogen, air, Hg° , or HgCl2 standards for this
must be constructed to permit the introduc- test.
tion of known concentrations of Hg and 8.5.2 The purpose of the ZD measurement
HgCl2 separately into the sampling system of is to verify the ability of the CEMS to con-
the CEMS immediately preceding the sample form to the established CEMS response used
extraction filtration system such that the for determining emission concentrations or
entire CEMS can be challenged. Sequentially emission rates. Therefore, if periodic auto-
inject each of the three reference gases (zero, matic or manual adjustments are made to
mid-level, and high level) for each Hg spe- the CEMS zero and response settings, con-
cies. Record the CEMS response and subtract duct the ZD test immediately before these
the reference value from the CEMS value, adjustments, or conduct it in such a way
and express the absolute value of the dif- that the ZD can be determined.
ference as a percentage of the span value (see 8.5.3 Conduct the ZD test at the zero level
example data sheet in Figure 12A–1). For specified in Section 7.1. Introduce the zero
each reference gas, the absolute value of the gas to the CEMS. Record the CEMS response
difference between the CEMS response and and subtract the zero value from the CEMS
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

the reference value shall not exceed 5 per- value and express the absolute value of the
cent of the span value. If this specification is difference as a percentage of the span value
not met, identify and correct the problem be- (see example data sheet in Figure 12A–1). For
fore proceeding. the zero gas, the absolute value of the dif-
8.4 UD Test Procedure. ference between the CEMS response and the

699

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00709 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 12A 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–09 Edition)
reference value shall not exceed 5 percent of to the time and duration by first deter-
the span value. If this specification is not mining from the CEMS final output (the one
met, identify and correct the problem before used for reporting) the integrated average
proceeding. pollutant concentration for each RM test pe-
8.6 RA Test Procedure. riod. Consider system response time, if im-
8.6.1 RA Test Period. Conduct the RA test portant, and confirm that the results are on
according to the procedure given in Sections a consistent moisture basis with the RM
8.6.2 through 8.6.6 while the affected facility
test. Then, compare each integrated CEMS
is operating at normal full load, or as speci-
value against the corresponding RM value.
fied in an applicable subpart. The RA test
may be conducted during the ZD and UD test When Method 29, Method 30A, Method 30B, or
period. ASTM D6784–02 is used, compare each CEMS
8.6.2 RM. Unless otherwise specified in an value against the corresponding average of
applicable subpart of the regulations, use the paired RM values.
Method 29, Method 30A, or Method 30B in ap- 8.6.6 Paired RM Outliers.
pendix A to this part or American Society of 8.6.6.1 When Method 29, Method 30B, or
Testing and Materials (ASTM) Method ASTM D6784–02 is used, outliers are identi-
D6784–02 (incorporated by reference, see fied through the determination of relative
§ 60.17) as the RM for Hg concentration. Do deviation (RD) of the paired RM tests. Data
not include the filterable portion of the sam- that do not meet the criteria should be
ple when making comparisons to the CEMS flagged as a data quality problem. The pri-
results. When Method 29, Method 30B, or mary reason for performing paired RM sam-
ASTM D6784–02 is used, conduct the RM test
pling is to ensure the quality of the RM data.
runs with paired or duplicate sampling sys-
The percent RD of paired data is the param-
tems. When Method 30A is used, paired sam-
pling systems are not required. If the RM eter used to quantify data quality. Deter-
and CEMS measure on a different moisture mine RD for two paired data points as fol-
basis, data derived with Method 4 in appen- lows:
dix A to this part shall also be obtained dur-
ing the RA test. Ca − C b
8.6.3 Sampling Strategy for RM Tests. RD = × 100 Eq. 12A-1
Conduct the RM tests in such a way that Ca + C b
they will yield results representative of the
emissions from the source and can be com- where Ca and Cb are concentration values de-
pared to the CEMS data. It is preferable to termined from each of the two samples, re-
conduct moisture measurements (if needed) spectively.
and Hg measurements simultaneously, al- 8.6.6.2 A minimum performance criteria
though moisture measurements that are for RM Hg data is that RD for any data pair
taken within an hour of the Hg measure- must be ≤10 percent as long as the mean Hg
ments may be used to adjust the Hg con- concentration is greater than 1.0 μgm/m3. If
centrations to a consistent moisture basis. the mean Hg concentration is less than or
In order to correlate the CEMS and RM data equal to 1.0 μgm/m3, the RD must be ≤20 per-
properly, note the beginning and end of each cent. Pairs of RM data exceeding these RD
RM test period for each paired RM run (in- criteria should be eliminated from the data
cluding the exact time of day) on the CEMS
set used to develop a Hg CEMS correlation or
chart recordings or other permanent record
to assess CEMS RA.
of output.
8.6.4 Number and Length of RM and Tests. 8.6.7 Calculate the mean difference be-
Conduct a minimum of nine RM test runs. tween the RM and CEMS values in the units
When Method 29, Method 30B, or ASTM of micrograms per cubic meter (μgm/m3), the
D6784–02 is used, only test runs for which the standard deviation, the confidence coeffi-
paired RM trains meet the relative deviation cient, and the RA according to the proce-
criteria (RD) of this PS shall be used in the dures in Section 12.0.
RA calculations. In addition, for Method 29 8.7 Reporting. At a minimum (check with
and ASTM D6784–02, use a minimum sample the appropriate EPA Regional Office, State
time of 2 hours and for Method 30A use a or local Agency for additional requirements,
minimum sample time of 30 minutes. if any), summarize in tabular form the re-
NOTE: More than nine sets of RM tests may sults of the RD tests and the RA tests or al-
be performed. If this option is chosen, paired ternative RA procedure, as appropriate. In-
RM test results may be excluded so long as clude all data sheets, calculations, charts
the total number of paired RM test results (records of CEMS responses), reference gas
used to determine the CEMS RA is greater concentration certifications, and any other
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

than or equal to nine. However, all data


information necessary to confirm that the
must be reported including the excluded
performance of the CEMS meets the per-
data.
8.6.5 Correlation of RM and CEMS Data. formance criteria.
Correlate the CEMS and the RM test data as

700
ER07SE07.035</MATH>

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00710 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Environmental Protection Agency Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 12A
9.0 Quality Control. [Reserved] 12.0 Calculations and Data Analysis.

10.0 Calibration and Standardization. Summarize the results on a data sheet


[Reserved] similar to that shown in Figure 2–2 for PS 2.
12.1 Consistent Basis. All data from the
11.0 Analytical Procedure. RM and CEMS must be compared in units of
μgm/m3, on a consistent and identified mois-
Sample collection and analysis are concur- ture and volumetric basis (STP = 20 °C, 760
rent for this PS (see Section 8.0). Refer to millimeters (mm) Hg).
the RM employed for specific analytical pro- 12.1.1 Moisture Correction (as applicable).
cedures. If the RM and CEMS measure Hg on a dif-
ferent moisture basis, use Equation 12A–2 to
make the appropriate corrections to the Hg
concentrations.

Concentration (wet)
Concentration (dry) = (Eq. 12A-2)
(1−Bws )

In Equation 12–A–2, Bws is the moisture


content of the flue gas from Method 4, ex- 1
pressed as a decimal fraction (e.g., for 8.0 per- ⎡ ⎡n ⎤
2 ⎤2
⎢ ⎢∑ d i ⎥ ⎥
cent H2O, Bws = 0.08).
12.2 Arithmetic Mean. Calculate the
⎢ n 2 ⎣ i =1 ⎦ ⎥
⎢∑ di −
arithmetic mean of the difference, d, of a
data set as follows: ⎥
n
S d = ⎢ i =1 ⎥ (Eq. 12A-4)
1 n ⎢ n −1 ⎥
d= ∑ di (Eq. 12A-3) ⎢ ⎥

ER18MY05.032</MATH>
n i =1 ⎢ ⎥
Where: ⎢ ⎥
n = Number of data points. ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦
12.3 Standard Deviation. Calculate the
Where:
standard deviation, Sd, as follows:

ER18MY05.011</MATH>
n
∑ d i = Algebraic summation of the individual differences d i .
i =1

ER18MY05.010</MATH>
12.4 Confidence Coefficient (CC). Calculate 12.5 RA. Calculate the RA of a set of data
the 2.5 percent error confidence coefficient as follows:
(one-tailed), CC, as follows:

CC = t 0.975
Sd
(Eq. 12A-5) RA =
[ d + CC ] × 100 (Eq. 12A-6) ER18MY05.009</MATH>

n RM
Where:
ER18MY05.008</MATH>

d = Absolute value of the mean differences (from Equation 12A-3).


CC = Absolute value of the confidence coefficient (from Equation 12A-5).
RM = Average RM value.
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

ER18MY05.007</MATH>

701
ER18MY05.006</MATH>

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00711 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8006 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 12A 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–09 Edition)
13.0 Method Performance. 14.0 Pollution Prevention. [Reserved]
13.1 ME. ME is assessed at zero-level, mid- 15.0 Waste Management. [Reserved]
level and high-level values as given below
using standards for both Hg0 and HgCl2. The 16.0 Alternative Procedures. [Reserved]
mean difference between the indicated CEMS
concentration and the reference concentra- 17.0 Bibliography.
tion value for each standard shall be no
greater than 5 percent of the span value. 17.1 40 CFR part 60, appendix B, ‘‘Per-
13.2 UD. The UD shall not exceed 5 per- formance Specification 2—Specifications and
cent of the span value on any of the 7 days Test Procedures for SO2 and NOX Continuous
of the UD test. Emission Monitoring Systems in Stationary
13.3 ZD. The ZD shall not exceed 5 percent Sources.’’
of the span value on any of the 7 days of the 17.2 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, ‘‘Method
ZD test. 29—Determination of Metals Emissions from
13.4 RA. The RA of the CEMS must be no Stationary Sources.’’
greater than 20 percent of the mean value of 17.3 ASTM Method D6784–02, ‘‘Standard
the RM test data in terms of units of μgm/ Test Method for Elemental, Oxidized, Par-
m3. Alternatively, if the mean RM is less ticle-Bound and Total Mercury in Flue Gas
than 5.0 μgm/m3, the results are acceptable if Generated from Coal-Fired Stationary
the absolute value of the difference between Sources (Ontario Hydro Method).’’
the mean RM and CEMS values does not ex-
ceed 1.0 μgm/m3. 18.0 Tables and Figures.

TABLE 12A–1—T-VALUES
na t0.975 na t0.975 na t0.975

2 ........................................................................................................ 12.706 7 2.447 12 2.201


3 ........................................................................................................ 4.303 8 2.365 13 2.179
4 ........................................................................................................ 3.182 9 2.306 14 2.160
5 ........................................................................................................ 2.776 10 2.262 15 2.145
6 ........................................................................................................ 2.571 11 2.228 16 2.131
a The values in this table are already corrected for n–1 degrees of freedom. Use n equal to the number of individual values.

FIGURE 12A–1—ME, ZD AND UD DETERMINATION

Drift or
Reference CEMS Absolute measurement
Date Time Gas value measured difference error (% of
μgm/m3 value μgm/m3 span value)

Zero
level.

Mid
level.

High
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

level.

702

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00712 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Environmental Protection Agency Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 15

FIGURE 12A–1—ME, ZD AND UD DETERMINATION—Continued

Drift or
Reference CEMS Absolute measurement
Date Time Gas value measured difference error (% of
μgm/m3 value μgm/m3 span value)

PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION 15—PERFORM- from the FTIR Protocol or from documents


ANCE SPECIFICATION FOR EXTRACTIVE FTIR cited in the Protocol. Additional definitions
CONTINUOUS EMISSIONS MONITOR SYSTEMS are given below.
IN STATIONARY SOURCES 3.1 FTIR Continuous Emission Moni-
toring System (FTIR CEM).
1.0 Scope and Application 3.1.1 FTIR System. Instrument to measure
1.1 Analytes. This performance specifica- spectra in the mid-infrared spectral region
tion is applicable for measuring all haz- (500 to 4000 cm¥1). It contains an infrared
ardous air pollutants (HAPs) which absorb in source, interferometer, sample gas contain-
the infrared region and can be quantified ment cell, infrared detector, and computer.
using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectros- The interferometer consists of a beam split-
copy (FTIR), as long as the performance cri- ter that divides the beam into two paths, one
teria of this performance specification are path a fixed distance and the other a vari-
met. This specification is to be used for eval- able distance. The computer is equipped with
uating FTIR continuous emission moni- software to run the interferometer and store
toring systems for measuring HAPs regu- the raw digitized signal from the detector
lated under Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act (interferogram). The software performs the
Amendments. This specification also applies mathematical conversion (the Fourier trans-
to the use of FTIR CEMs for measuring other form) of the interferogram into a spectrum
volatile organic or inorganic species. showing the frequency dependent sample ab-
1.2 Applicability. A source which can sorbance. All spectral data can be stored on
demonstrate that the extractive FTIR sys- computer media.
tem meets the criteria of this performance 3.1.2 Gas Cell. A gas containment cell that
specification for each regulated pollutant can be evacuated. It contains the sample as
may use the FTIR system to continuously the infrared beam passes from the inter-
monitor for the regulated pollutants. ferometer, through the sample, and to the
detector. The gas cell may have multi-pass
2.0 Summary of Performance Specification
mirrors depending on the required detection
For compound-specific sampling require- limit(s) for the application.
ments refer to FTIR sampling methods (e.g., 3.1.3 Sampling System. Equipment used to
reference 1). For data reduction procedures extract sample from the test location and
and requirements refer to the EPA FTIR transport the gas to the FTIR analyzer.
Protocol (reference 2), hereafter referred to Sampling system components include probe,
as the ‘‘FTIR Protocol.’’ This specification heated line, heated non-reactive pump, gas
describes sampling and analytical procedures distribution manifold and valves, flow meas-
for quality assurance. The infrared spectrum urement devices and any sample condi-
of any absorbing compound provides a dis- tioning systems.
tinct signature. The infrared spectrum of a 3.2 Reference CEM. An FTIR CEM, with
mixture contains the superimposed spectra sampling system, that can be used for com-
of each mixture component. Thus, an FTIR parison measurements.
CEM provides the capability to continuously 3.3 Infrared Band (also Absorbance Band or
measure multiple components in a sample Band). Collection of lines arising from rota-
using a single analyzer. The number of com- tional transitions superimposed on a vibra-
pounds that can be speciated in a single spec- tional transition. An infrared absorbance
trum depends, in practice, on the specific band is analyzed to determine the analyte
compounds present and the test conditions. concentration.
3.4 Sample Analysis. Interpreting infrared
3.0 Definitions
band shapes, frequencies, and intensities to
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

For a list of definitions related to FTIR obtain sample component concentrations.


spectroscopy refer to Appendix A of the This is usually performed by a software rou-
FTIR Protocol. Unless otherwise specified, tine using a classical least squares (cls), par-
spectroscopic terms, symbols and equations tial least squares (pls), or K- or P- matrix
in this performance specification are taken method.

703

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00713 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 15 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–09 Edition)
3.5 (Target) Analyte. A compound whose product, ppm (molar) concentration multi-
measurement is required, usually to some es- plied by the path length of the FTIR gas cell.
tablished limit of detection and analytical Expressing concentration in these units pro-
uncertainty. vides a way to directly compare measure-
3.6 Interferant. A compound in the sample ments made using systems with different op-
matrix whose infrared spectrum overlaps at tical configurations. Another useful expres-
least part of an analyte spectrum compli- sion is (ppm-meters)/K, where K is the abso-
cating the analyte measurement. The lute temperature of the sample in the gas
interferant may not prevent the analyte cell.
measurement, but could increase the analyt- 3.16 CEM Measurement Time Constant. The
ical uncertainty in the measured concentra- Time Constant (TC, minutes for one cell vol-
tion. Reference spectra of interferants are ume to flow through the cell) determines the
used to distinguish the interferant bands minimum interval for complete removal of
from the analyte bands. An interferant for an analyte from the FTIR cell. It depends on
one analyte may not be an interferant for
the sampling rate (Rs in Lpm), the FTIR cell
other analytes.
volume (Vcell in L) and the chemical and
3.7 Reference Spectrum. Infrared spectra of
physical properties of an analyte.
an analyte, or interferant, prepared under
controlled, documented, and reproducible
Vcell
laboratory conditions (see Section 4.6 of the
FTIR Protocol). A suitable library of ref-
TC = Eq. 1
erence spectra can be used to measure target
Rs
analytes in gas samples. For example, if the sample flow rate
3.8 Calibration Spectrum. Infrared spec- (through the FTIR cell) is 5 Lpm and the cell
trum of a compound suitable for character- volume is 7 liters, then TC is equal to 1.4
izing the FTIR instrument configuration minutes (0.71 cell volumes per minute). This
(Section 4.5 in the FTIR Protocol). performance specification defines 5 * TC as
3.9 One hundred percent line. A double the minimum interval between independent
beam transmittance spectrum obtained by samples.
combining two successive background single 3.17 Independent Measurement. Two inde-
beam spectra. Ideally, this line is equal to pendent measurements are spectra of two
100 percent transmittance (or zero absorb- independent samples. Two independent sam-
ance) at every point in the spectrum. The ples are separated by, at least 5 cell volumes.
zero absorbance line is used to measure the
The interval between independent measure-
RMS noise of the system.
ments depends on the cell volume and the
3.10 Background Deviation. Any deviation
sample flow rate (through the cell). There is
(from 100 percent) in the one hundred percent
no mixing of gas between two independent
line (or from zero absorbance). Deviations
samples. Alternatively, estimate the analyte
greater than ±5 percent in any analytical re-
residence time empirically: (1) Fill cell to
gion are unacceptable. Such deviations indi-
ambient pressure with a (known analyte con-
cate a change in the instrument throughput
relative to the single-beam background. centration) gas standard, (2) measure the
3.11 Batch Sampling. A gas cell is alter- spectrum of the gas standard, (3) purge the
nately filled and evacuated. A Spectrum of cell with zero gas at the sampling rate and
each filled cell (one discreet sample) is col- collect a spectrum every minute until the
lected and saved. analyte standard is no longer detected
3.12 Continuous Sampling. Sample is con- spectroscopically. If the measured time cor-
tinuously flowing through a gas cell. Spectra responds to less than 5 cell volumes, use 5 *
of the flowing sample are collected at reg- TC as the minimum interval between inde-
ular intervals. pendent measurements. If the measured time
3.13 Continuous Operation. In continuous is greater than 5 * TC, then use this time as
operation an FTIR CEM system, without the minimum interval between independent
user intervention, samples flue gas, records measurements.
spectra of samples, saves the spectra to a 3.18 Test Condition. A period of sampling
disk, analyzes the spectra for the target where all process, and sampling conditions,
analytes, and prints concentrations of target and emissions remain constant and during
analytes to a computer file. User interven- which a single sampling technique and a sin-
tion is permitted for initial set-up of sam- gle analytical program are used. One Run
pling system, initial calibrations, and peri- may include results for more than one test
odic maintenance. condition. Constant emissions means that
3.14 Sampling Time. In batch sampling— the composition of the emissions remains ap-
the time required to fill the cell with flue proximately stable so that a single analyt-
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

gas. In continuous sampling—the time re- ical program is suitable for analyzing all of
quired to collect the infrared spectrum of the the sample spectra. A greater than two-fold
sample gas. change in analyte or interferant concentra-
3.15 PPM-Meters. Sample concentration tions or the appearance of additional com-
expressed as the concentration-path length pounds in the emissions, may constitute a

704
ER17OC00.464</MATH>

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00714 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Environmental Protection Agency Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 15
new test condition and may require modi- analytes, diluting the sample, or using more
fication of the analytical program. than one gas cell.
3.19 Run. A single Run consists of spectra 6.3 Data Storage Requirements. The sys-
(one spectrum each) of at least 10 inde- tem must have sufficient capacity to store
pendent samples over a minimum of one all data collected in one week of routine
hour. The concentration results from the sampling. Data must be stored to a write-
spectra can be averaged together to give a protected medium, such as write-once-read-
run average for each analyte measured in the many (WORM) optical storage medium or to
test run. a password protected remote storage loca-
tion. A back-up copy of all data can be tem-
4.0 Interferences porarily saved to the computer hard drive.
Several compounds, including water, car- The following items must be stored during
bon monoxide, and carbon dioxide, are testing.
known interferences in the infrared region in • At least one sample interferogram per
which the FTIR instrument operates. Follow sampling Run or one interferogram per hour,
the procedures in the FTIR protocol for sub- whichever is greater. This assumes that no
tracting or otherwise dealing with these and sampling or analytical conditions have
other interferences. changed during the run.
• All sample absorbance spectra (about 12
5.0 Safety per hr, 288 per day).
• All background spectra and
The procedures required under this per- interferograms (variable, but about 5 per
formance specification may involve haz- day).
ardous materials, operations, and equipment. • All CTS spectra and interferograms (at
This performance specification may not ad- least 2 each 24 hour period).
dress all of the safety problems associated • Documentation showing a record of reso-
with these procedures. It is the responsi- lution, path length, apodization, sampling
bility of the user to establish appropriate time, sampling conditions, and test condi-
safety and health practices and determine tions for all sample, CTS, calibration, and
the applicable regulatory limitations prior background spectra.
to performing these procedures. The CEMS
Using a resolution of 0.5 cm¥1, with analyt-
users manual and materials recommended by
ical range of 3500 cm¥1, assuming about 65
this performance specification should be con-
Kbytes per spectrum and 130 Kb per
sulted for specific precautions to be taken.
interferogram, the storage requirement is
6.0 Equipment and Supplies about 164 Mb for one week of continuous
sampling. Lower spectral resolution requires
6.1 Installation of sampling equipment less storage capacity. All of the above data
should follow requirements of FTIR test must be stored for at least two weeks. After
Methods such as references 1 and 3 and the two weeks, storage requirements include: (1)
EPA FTIR Protocol (reference 2). Select test all analytical results (calculated concentra-
points where the gas stream composition is tions), (2) at least 1 sample spectrum with
representative of the process emissions. If corresponding background and sample
comparing to a reference method, the probe interferograms for each test condition, (3)
tips for the FTIR CEM and the RM should be CTS and calibration spectra with at least
positioned close together using the same one interferogram for CTS and all
sample port if possible. interferograms for calibrations, (4) a record
6.2 FTIR Specifications. The FTIR CEM of analytical input used to produce results,
must be equipped with reference spectra and (5) all other documentation. These data
bracketing the range of path length-con- must be stored according to the require-
centrations (absorbance intensities) to be ments of the applicable regulation.
measured for each analyte. The effective
concentration range of the analyzer can be 7.0 Reagents and Standards [Reserved]
adjusted by changing the path length of the
gas cell or by diluting the sample. The opti- 8.0 Sample Collection, Preservation, Storage,
cal configuration of the FTIR system must and Transport [Reserved]
be such that maximum absorbance of any 9.0 Quality Control
target analyte is no greater than 1.0 and the
minimum absorbance of any target analyte These procedures shall be used for periodic
is at least 10 times the RMSD noise in the quarterly or semiannual QA/QC checks on
analytical region. For example, if the meas- the operation of the FTIR CEM. Some proce-
ured RMSD in an analytical region is equal dures test only the analytical program and
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

to 10¥3, then the peak analyte absorbance is are not intended as a test of the sampling
required to be at least 0.01. Adequate meas- system.
urement of all of the target analytes may re- 9.1 Audit Sample. This can serve as a
quire changing path lengths during a run, check on both the sampling system and the
conducting separate runs for different analytical program.

705

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00715 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 15 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–09 Edition)
9.1.1 Sample Requirements. The audit sequent FTIR CEM analyses of effluent sam-
sample can be a mixture or a single compo- ples.
nent. It must contain target analyte(s) at 9.3 Submit Spectra For Independent Anal-
approximately the expected flue gas con- ysis. This procedure tests only the analytical
centration(s). If possible, each mixture com- program and not the FTIR CEM sampling
ponent concentration should be NIST trace- system. The analyst can submit FTIR CEM
able (±2 percent accuracy). If a cylinder mix- spectra for independent analysis by EPA. Re-
ture standard(s) cannot be obtained, then, al- quirements for submission include; (1) three
ternatively, a gas phase standard can be gen- representative absorbance spectra (and
erated from a condensed phase analyte sam- stored interferograms) for each test period to
ple. Audit sample contents and concentra- be reviewed, (2) corresponding CTS spectra,
tions are not revealed to the FTIR CEM op- (3) corresponding background spectra and
erator until after successful completion of interferograms, (4) spectra of associated
procedures in 5.3.2. spiked samples if applicable, and (5) analyt-
9.1.2 Test Procedure. An audit sample is ical results for these sample spectra. The an-
obtained from the Administrator. Spike the alyst will also submit documentation of
audit sample using the analyte spike proce- process times and conditions, sampling con-
dure in Section 11. The audit sample is meas- ditions associated with each spectrum, file
ured directly by the FTIR system (undiluted) names and sampling times, method of anal-
and then spiked into the effluent at a known ysis and reference spectra used, optical con-
dilution ratio. Measure a series of spiked and figuration of FTIR CEM including cell path
unspiked samples using the same procedures length and temperature, spectral resolution
as those used to analyze the stack gas. Ana- and apodization used for every spectrum.
lyze the results using Sections 12.1 and 12.2. Independent analysis can also be performed
The measured concentration of each analyte on site in conjunction with the FTIR CEM
must be within ±5 percent of the expected sampling and analysis. Sample spectra are
concentration (plus the uncertainty), i.e., the stored on the independent analytical system
calculated correction factor must be within as they are collected by the FTIR CEM sys-
0.93 and 1.07 for an audit with an analyte un- tem. The FTIR CEM and the independent
certainty of ±2 percent. analyses are then performed separately. The
9.2 Audit Spectra. Audit spectra can be two analyses will agree to within ±120 per-
used to test the analytical program of the cent for each analyte using the procedure in
FTIR CEM, but provide no test of the sam-
Section 12.3. This assumes both analytical
pling system.
routines have properly accounted for dif-
9.2.1 Definition and Requirements. Audit
ferences in optical path length, resolution,
spectra are absorbance spectra that; (1) have
and temperature between the sample spectra
been well characterized, and (2) contain ab-
and the reference spectra.
sorbance bands of target analyte(s) and po-
tential interferants at intensities equivalent 10.0 Calibration and Standardization
to what is expected in the source effluent.
Audit spectra are provided by the adminis- 10.1 Calibration Transfer Standards. For
trator without identifying information. CTS requirements see Section 4.5 of the
Methods of preparing Audit spectra include; FTIR Protocol. A well characterized absorb-
(1) mathematically adding sample spectra or ance band in the CTS gas is used to measure
adding reference and interferant spectra, (2) the path length and line resolution of the in-
obtaining sample spectra of mixtures pre- strument. The CTS measurements made at
pared in the laboratory, or (3) they may be the beginning of every 24 hour period must
sample spectra collected previously at a agree to within ±5 percent after correction
similar source. In the last case it must be for differences in pressure.
demonstrated that the analytical results are Verify that the frequency response of the
correct and reproducible. A record associated instrument and CTS absorbance intensity
with each Audit spectrum documents its are correct by comparing to other CTS spec-
method of preparation. The documentation tra or by referring to the literature.
must be sufficient to enable an independent 10.2 Analyte Calibration. If EPA library
analyst to reproduce the Audit spectra. reference spectra are not available, use cali-
9.2.2 Test Procedure. Audit spectra con- bration standards to prepare reference spec-
centrations are measured using the FTIR tra according to Section 6 of the FTIR Pro-
CEM analytical program. Analytical results tocol. A suitable set of analyte reference
must be within ±5 percent of the certified data includes spectra of at least 2 inde-
audit concentration for each analyte (plus pendent samples at each of at least 2 dif-
the uncertainty in the audit concentration). ferent concentrations. The concentrations
If the condition is not met, demonstrate how bracket a range that includes the expected
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

the audit spectra are unrepresentative of the analyte absorbance intensities. The linear fit
sample spectra. If the audit spectra are rep- of the reference analyte band areas must
resentative, modify the FTIR CEM analyt- have a fractional calibration uncertainty
ical program until the test requirement is (FCU in Appendix F of the FTIR Protocol) of
met. Use the new analytical program in sub- no greater than 10 percent. For requirements

706

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00716 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Environmental Protection Agency Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 15
of analyte standards refer to Section 4.6 of measurements. Collect a CTS spectrum. Use
the FTIR Protocol. a neutral density filter to attenuate the in-
10.3 System Calibration. The calibration frared beam (either immediately after the
standard is introduced at a point on the sam- source or the interferometer) to approxi-
pling probe. The sampling system is purged mately 1⁄2 its original intensity. Collect a
with the calibration standard to verify that second CTS spectrum. Use another filter to
the absorbance measured in this way is equal attenuate the infrared beam to approxi-
to the absorbance in the analyte calibration. mately 1⁄4 its original intensity. Collect a
Note that the system calibration gives no in- third background and CTS spectrum. Com-
dication of the ability of the sampling sys- pare the CTS spectra as above. Another
tem to transport the target analyte(s) under check on linearity is to observe the single
the test conditions. beam background in frequency regions where
10.4 Analyte Spike. The target analyte(s) the optical configuration is known to have a
is spiked at the outlet of the sampling probe, zero response. Verify that the detector re-
upstream of the particulate filter, and com- sponse is ‘‘flat’’ and equal to zero in these re-
bined with effluent at a ratio of about 1 part gions. If detector response is not linear, de-
spike to 9 parts effluent. The measured ab- crease aperture, or attenuate the infrared
sorbance of the spike is compared to the ex- beam. Repeat the linearity check until sys-
pected absorbance of the spike plus the tem passes the requirement.
analyte concentration already in the efflu-
ent. This measures sampling system bias, if 11.0 Analytical Procedure
any, as distinguished from analyzer bias. It
is important that spiked sample pass 11.1 Initial Certification. First, perform
through all of the sampling system compo- the evaluation procedures in Section 6.0 of
nents before analysis. the FTIR Protocol. The performance of an
10.5 Signal-to-Noise Ratio (S/N). The FTIR CEM can be certified upon installation
measure of S/N in this performance specifica- using EPA Method 301 type validation (40
tion is the root-mean-square (RMS) noise CFR, Part 63, Appendix A), or by comparison
level as given in Appendix C of the FTIR to a reference Method if one exists for the
Protocol. The RMS noise level of a contig- target analyte(s). Details of each procedure
uous segment of a spectrum is defined as the are given below. Validation testing is used
RMS difference (RMSD) between the n con- for initial certification upon installation of a
tiguous absorbance values (Ai) which form new system. Subsequent performance checks
the segment and the mean value (AM) of that can be performed with more limited analyte
segment. spiking. Performance of the analytical pro-
gram is checked initially, and periodically as
n required by EPA, by analyzing audit spectra
⎛ 1⎞
RMSD =
⎝ n⎠ ∑ ( A i − A m )2 Eq. 2 or audit gases.
11.1.1 Validation. Use EPA Method 301
i =1 type sampling (reference 4, Section 5.3 of
A decrease in the S/N may indicate a loss in Method 301) to validate the FTIR CEM for
optical throughput, or detector or inter- measuring the target analytes. The analyte
ferometer malfunction. spike procedure is as follows: (1) a known
10.6 Background Deviation. The 100 per- concentration of analyte is mixed with a
cent baseline must be between 95 and 105 per- known concentration of a non-reactive trac-
cent transmittance (absorbance of 0.02 to er gas, (2) the undiluted spike gas is sent di-
¥0.02) in every analytical region. When rectly to the FTIR cell and a spectrum of
background deviation exceeds this range, a this sample is collected, (3) pre-heat the
new background spectrum must be collected spiked gas to at least the sample line tem-
using nitrogen or other zero gas. perature, (4) introduce spike gas at the back
10.7 Detector Linearity. Measure the of the sample probe upstream of the particu-
background and CTS at three instrument ap- late filter, (5) spiked effluent is carried
erture settings; one at the aperture setting through all sampling components down-
to be used in the testing, and one each at set- stream of the probe, (6) spike at a ratio of
tings one half and twice the test aperture roughly 1 part spike to 9 parts flue gas (or
setting. Compare the three CTS spectra. CTS more dilute), (7) the spike-to-flue gas ratio is
band areas should agree to within the uncer- estimated by comparing the spike flow to
tainty of the cylinder standard. If test aper- the total sample flow, and (8) the spike ratio
ture is the maximum aperture, collect CTS is verified by comparing the tracer con-
spectrum at maximum aperture, then close centration in spiked flue gas to the tracer
the aperture to reduce the IR through-put by concentration in undiluted spike gas. The
half. Collect a second background and CTS analyte flue gas concentration is unimpor-
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

at the smaller aperture setting and compare tant as long as the spiked component can be
the spectra as above. Instead of changing the measured and the sample matrix (including
aperture neutral density filters can be used interferences) is similar to its composition
to attenuate the infrared beam. Set up the under test conditions. Validation can be per-
FTIR system as it will be used in the test formed using a single FTIR CEM analyzing

707
ER17OC00.465</MATH>

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00717 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 15 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–09 Edition)
sample spectra collected sequentially. Since measurements. The difficulty may be avoid-
flue gas analyte (unspiked) concentrations ed by: (1) Averaging the measurements over
can vary, it is recommended that two sepa- long sampling periods and using the aver-
rate sampling lines (and pumps) are used; aged results in the statistical analysis, (2)
one line to carry unspiked flue gas and the modifying the sampling system to reduce TC
other line to carry spiked flue gas. Even with by, for example, using a smaller volume cell
two sampling lines the variation in unspiked or increasing the sample flow rate, (3) using
concentration may be fast compared to the two sample lines (4) use two analyzers to per-
interval between consecutive measurements. form synchronized measurements. This per-
Alternatively, two FTIR CEMs can be oper- formance specification permits modifica-
ated side-by-side, one measuring spiked sam- tions in the sampling system to minimize TC
ple, the other unspiked sample. In this ar- if the other requirements of the validation
rangement spiked and unspiked measure- sampling procedure are met.
ments can be synchronized to minimize the 11.1.1.2 Validation With a Single Analyzer
affect of temporal variation in the unspiked
and Two Sampling Lines. An alternative
analyte concentration. In either sampling
sampling procedure uses two separate sample
arrangement, the interval between measured
lines, one carrying spiked flue gas, the other
concentrations used in the statistical anal-
carrying unspiked gas. A valve in the gas
ysis should be, at least, 5 cell volumes (5 *
distribution manifold allows the operator to
TC in equation 1). A validation run consists
choose either sample. A short heated line
of, at least, 24 independent analytical re-
connects the FTIR cell to the 3-way valve in
sults, 12 spiked and 12 unspiked samples. See
the manifold. Both sampling lines are con-
Section 3.17 for definition of an ‘‘inde-
pendent’’ analytical result. The results are tinuously purged. Each sample line has a ro-
analyzed using Sections 12.1 and 12.2 to de- tameter and a bypass vent line after the ro-
termine if the measurements passed the vali- tameter, immediately upstream of the valve,
dation requirements. Several analytes can be so that the spike and unspiked sample flows
spiked and measured in the same sampling can each be continuously monitored. Begin
run, but a separate statistical analysis is sampling by collecting spectra of 2 inde-
performed for each analyte. In lieu of 24 pendent unspiked samples. Turn the sam-
independent measurements, averaged results pling valve to close off the unspiked gas flow
can be used in the statistical analysis. In and allow the spiked flue gas to enter the
this procedure, a series of consecutive spiked FTIR cell. Isolate and evacuate the cell and
measurements are combined over a sampling fill with the spiked sample to ambient pres-
period to give a single average result. The re- sure. (While the evacuated cell is filling, pre-
lated unspiked measurements are averaged vent air leaks into the cell by making sure
in the same way. The minimum 12 spiked that the spike sample rotameter always indi-
and 12 unspiked result averages are obtained cates that a portion of the flow is directed
by averaging measurements over subsequent out the by-pass vent.) Open the cell outlet
sampling periods of equal duration. The valve to allow spiked sample to continuously
averaged results are grouped together and flow through the cell. Measure spectra of 2
statistically analyzed using Section 12.2. independent spiked samples. Repeat this pro-
11.1.1.1 Validation with a Single Analyzer cedure until at least 24 samples are col-
and Sampling Line. If one sampling line is lected.
used, connect the sampling system compo- 11.1.1.3 Synchronized Measurements With
nents and purge the entire sampling system Two Analyzers. Use two FTIR analyzers,
and cell with at least 10 cell volumes of sam- each with its own cell, to perform syn-
ple gas. Begin sampling by collecting spectra chronized spiked and unspiked measure-
of 2 independent unspiked samples. Introduce ments. If possible, use a similar optical con-
the spike gas into the back of the probe, up- figuration for both systems. The optical con-
stream of the particulate filter. Allow 10 cell figurations are compared by measuring the
volumes of spiked flue gas to purge the cell same CTS gas with both analyzers. Each
and sampling system. Collect spectra of 2 FTIR system uses its own sampling system
independent spiked samples. Turn off the including a separate sampling probe and
spike flow and allow 10 cell volumes of sampling line. A common gas distribution
unspiked flue gas to purge the FTIR cell and manifold can be used if the samples are never
sampling system. Repeat this procedure 6 mixed. One sampling system and analyzer
times until the 24 samples are collected. measures spiked effluent. The other sam-
Spiked and unspiked samples can also be pling system and analyzer measures
measured in groups of 4 instead of in pairs. unspiked flue gas. The two systems are syn-
Analyze the results using Sections 12.1 and chronized so that each measures spectra at
12.2. If the statistical analysis passes the val- approximately the same times. The sample
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

idation criteria, then the validation is com- flow rates are also synchronized so that both
pleted. If the results do not pass the valida- sampling rates are approximately the same
tion, the cause may be that temporal vari- (TC1 ∼ TC2 in equation 1). Start both systems
ations in the analyte sample gas concentra- at the same time. Collect spectra of at least
tion are fast relative to the interval between 12 independent samples with each (spiked

708

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00718 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Environmental Protection Agency Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 15
and unspiked) system to obtain the min- RM grab sample was collected. Measure at
imum 24 measurements. Analyze the analyt- least 5 independent samples with both the
ical results using Sections 12.1 and 12.2. Run FTIR CEM and the RM for each of the min-
averages can be used in the statistical anal- imum 9 Runs. Compare the Run concentra-
ysis instead of individual measurements. tion averages by using the relative accuracy
11.1.1.4 Compare to a Reference Method analysis procedure in 40 CFR, Part 60, App.
(RM). Obtain EPA approval that the method B.
qualifies as an RM for the analyte(s) and the 11.1.1.4.3 Continuous Emission Monitors
source to be tested. Follow the published (CEMs) as RMs. If the RM is a CEM, syn-
procedures for the RM in preparing and set- chronize the sampling flow rates of the RM
ting up equipment and sampling system, per- and the FTIR CEM. Each run is at least 1-
forming measurements, and reporting re- hour long and consists of at least 10 FTIR
sults. Since FTIR CEMS have multicompo- CEM measurements and the corresponding 10
nent capability, it is possible to perform RM measurements (or averages). For the sta-
more than one RM simultaneously, one for tistical comparison use the relative accuracy
each target analyte. Conduct at least 9 runs analysis procedure in 40 CFR, Part 60, App.
where the FTIR CEM and the RM are sam- B. If the RM time constant is <1⁄2 the FTIR
pling simultaneously. Each Run is at least 30 CEM time constant, brief fluctuations in
minutes long and consists of spectra of at analyte concentrations which are not ade-
least 5 independent FTIR CEM samples and quately measured with the slower FTIR CEM
the corresponding RM measurements. If time constant can be excluded from the run
more than 9 runs are conducted, the analyst average along with the corresponding RM
may eliminate up to 3 runs from the analysis measurements. However, the FTIR CEM run
if at least 9 runs are used. average must still include at least 10 meas-
11.1.1.4.1 RMs Using Integrated Sampling. urements over a 1-hr period.
Perform the RM and FTIR CEM sampling si-
multaneously. The FTIR CEM can measure 12.0 Calculations and Data Analysis
spectra as frequently as the analyst chooses
(and should obtain measurements as fre- 12.1 Spike Dilution Ratio, Expected Con-
quently as possible) provided that the meas- centration. The Method 301 bias is calculated
urements include spectra of at least 5 inde- as follows.
pendent measurements every 30 minutes.
Concentration results from all of the FTIR B = Sm − M m − CS Eq. 3
CEM spectra within a run may be averaged Where:
for use in the statistical comparison even if B=Bias at the spike level
all of the measurements are not independent. Sm=Mean of the observed spiked sample con-
When averaging the FTIR CEM concentra- centrations
tions within a run, it is permitted to exclude Mm=Mean of the observed unspiked sample
some measurements from the average pro- concentrations
vided the minimum of 5 independent meas- CS=Expected value of the spiked concentra-
urements every 30 minutes are included: The tion.
Run average of the FTIR CEM measurements
depends on both the sample flow rate and the The CS is determined by comparing the
measurement frequency (MF). The run aver- SF6 tracer concentration in undiluted spike
age of the RM using the integrated sampling gas to the SF6 tracer concentrations in the
method depends primarily on its sampling spiked samples;
rate. If the target analyte concentration
fluctuates significantly, the contribution to [SF6 ]direct
the run average of a large fluctuation de- DF = Eq. 4
pends on the sampling rate and measurement
frequency, and on the duration and mag-
[SF6 ]spiked
nitude of the fluctuation. It is, therefore, im- The expected concentration (CS) is the meas-
portant to carefully select the sampling rate ured concentration of the analyte in undi-
for both the FTIR CEM and the RM and the luted spike gas divided by the dilution factor
measurement frequency for the FTIR CEM.
The minimum of 9 run averages can be com-
[anal]dir
pared according to the relative accuracy test CS = Eq. 5
procedure in Performance Specification 2 for DF
ER17OC00.468</MATH>

SO2 and NOX CEMs (40 CFR, Part 60, App. B).
Where:
11.1.1.4.2 RMs Using a Grab Sampling
Technique. Synchronize the RM and FTIR [anal]dir=The analyte concentration in undi-
CEM measurements as closely as possible. luted spike gas measured directly by fill-
ing the FTIR cell with the spike gas.
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

For a grab sampling RM record the volume


collected and the exact sampling period for If the bias is statistically significant (Sec-
ER17OC00.467</MATH>

each sample. Synchronize the FTIR CEM so tion 12.2), Method 301 requires that a correc-
that the FTIR measures a spectrum of a tion factor, CF, be multiplied by the analyt-
similar cell volume at the same time as the ical results, and that 0.7 ≤ CF ≤ 1.3.

709
ER17OC00.466</MATH>

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00719 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8003 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 15 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–09 Edition)

1
CF = Eq. 6
B
1+
CS

12.2 Statistical Analysis of Validation statistical significance of the bias. Deter-


Measurements. Arrange the independent mine the statistical significance of the bias
measurements (or measurement averages) as at the 95 percent confidence level by calcu-
in Table 1. More than 12 pairs of measure- lating the t-value for the set of measure-
ments can be analyzed. The statistical anal- ments. First, calculate the differences, di, for
ysis follows EPA Method 301, Section 6.3. each pair of spiked and each pair of unspiked
Section 12.1 of this performance specification measurements. Then calculate the standard
shows the calculations for the bias, expected deviation of the spiked pairs of measure-
spike concentration, and correction factor.
ments.
This Section shows the determination of the

SDs =
∑ di 2 Eq. 7
2n

Where: n=The number of spiked pairs, 2n=12 for the


di=The differences between pairs of spiked minimum of 12 spiked and 12 unspiked
measurements. measurements.
SDs=The standard deviation in the di values. Calculate the relative standard deviation,
RSD, using SDs and the mean of the spiked
concentrations, Sm. The RSD must be ≤50%.

⎛ SD ⎞
RSD = ⎜ ⎟ Eq. 8
⎝ Sm ⎠

Repeat the calculations in equations 7 and 8 ard deviation of the mean using SDs and SDu
to determine SDu and RSD, respectively, for from equation 7.
the unspiked samples. Calculate the stand-

ER17OC00.473</MATH>
SD = SDs 2 + SD u 2 Eq. 9

ER17OC00.472</MATH>
The t-statistic is calculated as follows to
test the bias for statistical significance;
ER17OC00.471</MATH>

B
t= Eq. 10
SDM
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

where the bias, B, and the correction factor, Method 301 requires that t ≤2.201. If the t-sta-
ER17OC00.470</MATH>

CF, are given in Section 12.1. For 11 degrees tistic indicates the bias is statistically sig-
of freedom, and a one-tailed distribution, nificant, then analytical measurements must

710
ER17OC00.469</MATH>

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00720 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8003 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Environmental Protection Agency Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 15
be multiplied by the correction factor. There 2. ‘‘EPA Protocol for the Use of Extractive
is no limitation on the number of measure- Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spec-
ments, but there must be at least 12 inde- trometry in Analyses of Gaseous Emissions
pendent spiked and 12 independent unspiked from Stationary Industrial Sources,’’ Feb-
measurements. Refer to the t-distribution ruary, 1995.
(Table 2) at the 95 percent confidence level 3. ‘‘Measurement of Gaseous Organic and
and appropriate degrees of freedom for the Inorganic Emissions by Extractive FTIR
critical t-value.
Spectroscopy,’’ EPA Contract No. 68–D2–0165,
16.0 References Work Assignment 3–08.
4. ‘‘Method 301—Field Validation of Pollut-
1. Method 318, 40 CFR, Part 63, Appendix A
ant Measurement Methods from Various
(Draft), ‘‘Measurement of Gaseous Formalde-
Waste Media,’’ 40 CFR 63, App A.
hyde, Phenol and Methanol Emissions by
FTIR Spectroscopy,’’ EPA Contract No. 17.0 Tables, Diagrams, Flowcharts, and
68D20163, Work Assignment 2–18, February,
Validation Data
1995.
TABLE 1—ARRANGEMENT OF VALIDATION MEASUREMENTS FOR STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
Measurement Spiked Unspiked
Time di spiked di unspiked
(or average) (ppm) (ppm)

1 ................................................................ S1 U1

2 ................................................................ S2 S2¥S1 U2 U2¥U1

3 ................................................................ S3 U3

4 ................................................................ S4 S4¥S3 U4 U4¥U3

5 ................................................................ S5 U5

6 ................................................................ S6 S6¥S5 U6 U6¥U5

7 ................................................................ S7 U7

8 ................................................................ S8 S8¥S7 U8 U8¥U7

9 ................................................................ S9 U9

10 .............................................................. S10 S10¥S9 U10 U10¥U9

11 .............................................................. S11 U11

12 .............................................................. S12 S12¥S11 U12 U12¥U11

Average ¥> .............................................. Sm Mm

TABLE 2—T=VALUES
n¥1 a t¥value n¥1 a t¥value n¥1 a t¥value n¥1 a t¥value

11 2.201 17 2.110 23 2.069 29 2.045


12 2.179 18 2.101 24 2.064 30 2.042
13 2.160 19 2.093 25 2.060 40 2.021
14 2.145 20 2.086 26 2.056 60 2.000
15 2.131 21 2.080 27 2.052 120 1.980
16 2.120 22 2.074 28 2.048 8 1.960
(a) n is the number of independent pairs of measurements (a pair consists of one spiked and its corresponding unspiked meas-
urement). Either discreet (independent) measurements in a single run, or run averages can be used.

PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION 16—SPECIFICA- a predictive emission monitoring system


TIONS AND TEST PROCEDURES FOR PRE- (PEMS) to show compliance with your emis-
DICTIVE EMISSION MONITORING SYSTEMS IN sion limitation under 40 CFR 60, 61, or 63,
STATIONARY SOURCES you must use the procedures in this perform-
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

ance specification (PS) to determine whether


1.0 Scope and Application
your PEMS is acceptable for use in dem-
1.1 Does this performance specification apply onstrating compliance with applicable re-
to me? If you, the source owner or operator, quirements. Use these procedures to certify
intend to use (with any necessary approvals)

711

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00721 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 15 40 CFR Ch. I (7–1–09 Edition)
your PEMS after initial installation and pe- ongoing PEMS operation. The frequency of
riodically thereafter to ensure the PEMS is these periodic assessments may be shortened
operating properly. If your PEMS contains a by successful operation during a prior year.
diluent (O2 or CO2) measuring component and
your emissions limitation is in units that re- 3.0 Definitions
quire a diluent measurement (e.g. lbs/mm The following definitions apply:
Btu), the diluent component must be tested 3.1 Centroidal Area means that area in the
as well. These specifications apply to PEMS center of the stack (or duct) comprising no
that are installed under 40 CFR 60, 61, and 63 more than 1 percent of the stack cross-sec-
after the effective date of this performance tional area and having the same geometric
specification. These specifications do not shape as the stack.
apply to parametric monitoring systems, 3.2 Data Recorder means the equipment
these are covered under PS–17. that provides a permanent record of the
1.1.1 How do I certify my PEMS after it is in- PEMS output. The data recorder may in-
stalled? PEMS must pass a relative accuracy clude automatic data reduction capabilities
(RA) test and accompanying statistical tests and may include electronic data records,
in the initial certification test to be accept- paper records, or a combination of electronic
able for use in demonstrating compliance data and paper records.
with applicable requirements. Ongoing qual- 3.3 Defective sensor means a sensor that is
ity assurance tests also must be conducted responsible for PEMS malfunction or that
to ensure the PEMS is operating properly. operates outside the approved operating en-
An ongoing sensor evaluation procedure velope. A defective sensor may be func-
must be in place before the PEMS certifi- tioning properly, but because it is operating
cation is complete. The amount of testing outside the approved operating envelope, the
and data validation that is required depends resulting predicted emission is not validated.
upon the regulatory needs, i.e., whether pre- 3.4 Diluent PEMS means the total equip-
cise quantification of emissions will be need- ment required to predict a diluent gas con-
ed or whether indication of exceedances of centration or emission rate.
some regulatory threshold will suffice. Per- 3.5 Operating envelope means the defined
formance criteria are more rigorous for range of a parameter input that is estab-
PEMS used in determining continual compli- lished during PEMS development. Emission
ance with an emission limit than those used data generated from parameter inputs that
to measure excess emissions. You must per- are beyond the operating envelope are not
form the initial certification test on your considered quality assured and are therefore
PEMS before reporting any PEMS data as unacceptable.
quality-assured. 3.6 PEMS means all of the equipment re-
1.1.2 Is other testing required after certifi- quired to predict an emission concentration
cation? After you initially certify your or emission rate. The system may consist of
PEMS, you must pass additional periodic any of the following major subsystems: sen-
performance checks to ensure the long-term sors and sensor interfaces, emission model,
quality of data. These periodic checks are algorithm, or equation that uses process
listed in the table in Section 9. You are al- data to generate an output that is propor-
ways responsible for properly maintaining tional to the emission concentration or
and operating your PEMS. emission rate, diluent emission model, data
recorder, and sensor evaluation system. Sys-
2.0 Summary of Performance Specification
tems that use fewer than 3 variables do not
The following performance tests are re- qualify as PEMS unless the system has been
quired in addition to other equipment and specifically approved by the Administrator
measurement location requirements. for use as a PEMS. A PEMS may predict
2.1 Initial PEMS Certification. emissions data that are corrected for diluent
2.1.1 Excess Emissions PEMS. For a if the relative accuracy and relevant QA
PEMS that is used for excess emission re- tests are passed in the emission units cor-
porting, the owner or operator must perform rected for diluent. Parametric monitoring
a minimum 9-run, 3-level (3 runs at each systems that serve as indicators of compli-
level) RA test (see Section 8.2). ance and have parametric limits but do not
2.1.2 Compliance PEMS. For a PEMS that predict emissions to comply with an emis-
is used for continual compliance standards, sions limit are not included in this defini-
the owner or operator must perform a min- tion.
imum 27-run, 3-level (9 runs at each level) 3.7 PEMS training means the process of de-
RA test (see Section 8.2). Additionally, the veloping or confirming the operation of the
data must be evaluated for bias and by F- PEMS against a reference method under
test and correlation analysis. specified conditions.
cprice-sewell on DSK2BSOYB1PROD with CFR

2.2 Periodic Quality Assurance (QA) As- 3.8 Quarter means a quarter of a calendar
sessments. Owners and operators of all year in which there are at least 168 unit op-
PEMS are required to conduct quarterly rel- erating hours.
ative accuracy audits (RAA) and yearly rel- 3.9 Reconciled Process Data means sub-
ative accuracy test audits (RATA) to assess stitute data that are generated by a sensor

712

VerDate Nov<24>2008 14:47 Aug 31, 2009 Jkt 217149 PO 00000 Frm 00722 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8002 Y:\SGML\217149.XXX 217149
Environmental Protection Agency Pt. 60, App. B, Spec. 15
evaluation system to replace that of a failed 6.1.2 Parameter Operating Envelopes. Be-
sensor. Reconciled process data may not be fore you evaluate your PEMS through the
used without approval from the Adminis- certification test, you must specify the in