Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 34

Power System Protection

Lectures
by
Pratap Mysore, P.E.
Fault Analysis -1
What will be covered
• Vector Representation – polar, Cartesian
and exponential
• Mathematical manipulations

Power System Protection Lecture-


Fault Analysis-1 Copyright@2015
• Operators ‘j’ and ‘a’
• Representation of Current and voltages
• Per unit and percent quantities
• Impedance networks – network reduction
• Introduction to Symmetrical Components 2
Vector Representation
• Polar – r/θ
Terminus
• Magnitude and
Direction
• Rectangular – x+jy
θ • r = SQRT(x2 +y2 )

Power System Protection Lecture-


Fault Analysis-1 Copyright@2015
Origin (x2 + y2 )
• θ = tan-1 (y/x)
• Trigonometric –
r(cosθ +jsin θ)
Imaginary Axis

y Exponential – r e jθ

x Real Axis

3
Operators “j” and “a”
• j - Rotates a vector by 90 degrees in counterclockwise direction
• Unit vector has a magnitude of 1.0

• j*j = j2 - Rotates a unit vector by 180 degrees in counter clockwise.

Power System Protection Lecture-


Fault Analysis-1 Copyright@2015
V J2 V /0 = V/180

• ‘a’ is an operator that rotates a vector by 120 degree in counter


clockwise direction
a3 = 1
aV
a = cos120 +j sin 120
a = -0.5 +j0.866
V
a2 V
a2 =- 0.5-j 0.866 4
Mathematical operations on Vectors
A+B A

B
A-B
A -B

Power System Protection Lecture-


Fault Analysis-1 Copyright@2015
Multiplication – r1 e jθ1 * r2 e jθ2 = r1r2 e j(θ1+ θ2 )

Division - r1 e jθ1 / r2 e jθ2 = (r1/r2) e j(θ1- θ2 )

Power and roots


[r/ θ]n = rn/n θ
[r/ θ ]1/n = r1/n / θ /n
5
Relationship between voltages in a
three phase system
VA @0 deg.
C
-B AB VB @-120 deg. Or @240 deg.
VB = a2* VA
VC @-240 deg. Or @120 deg.
VC= a* VA
A VAB = VA -a2* VA = (1-a2)VA

Power System Protection Lecture-


Fault Analysis-1 Copyright@2015
VAB is √3 <mes the VA magnitude
and leads VA by 30 degrees
B

6
Sinusoidal currents and Voltages
i(t)= Im sin(ωt +θ); ω =2πf
Period, T =1/f

Im

Power System Protection Lecture-


Fault Analysis-1 Copyright@2015
i
i Im
θ
θ
t

-Im

Effective value or the root mean square value, I, instead of peak value is used.
I2 R ( power loss) is the same the power loss in DC circuits
7
Sinusoidal representation
2
(Im sin θ )
• Irms = ∫
[ dθ ]1/ 2 The integral limits are
2π from 0 deg. To 2π

• Irms = Im /√2 -typically represented as I

• In a three phase system, the phase sequence or order is the

Power System Protection Lecture-


Fault Analysis-1 Copyright@2015
order in which they reach crest values. The generators are
designed ( or windings are placed) to generate voltages that
reach the crest successively at equal time intervals. These are
120 degrees apart (360/3)
• The positive sequence is the phase order rotation of generated
voltage - Counter clockwise direction ( just a convention)
• Phase nomenclature - A,B,C or 1,2,3 or R,S,T or R,Y,B
8
3-Phase Systems
• Balanced – If the voltages and currents are balanced at every
point in the system – Same peak magnitude and are 120
degrees time displaced. – Positive sequence
• For this to be true – network impedance should be balanced
and the generated voltage should be balanced

Power System Protection Lecture-


Fault Analysis-1 Copyright@2015
• Abnormal situations – unbalanced faults, unbalanced
generation or network.
• In all these situations- frequency is still constant
• Voltages – VPh-G or Vph Phase to ground or phase to neutral
voltages. The higher voltage designation is the first letter. VA
This is the voltage drop from phase A to ground or neutral
(Zero potential reference point) 9
• VAB = VA –VB ;
Network representation
• A balanced three phase can be represented as a single phase
and the results can be phase shifted to reflect voltages and
currents in other phases.
• Three phase voltages- phase to phase values are √3 times the
phase to ground values. Make use of the operators figure in
slide 6.

Power System Protection Lecture-


Fault Analysis-1 Copyright@2015
• Power is the product of current through a branch (resistor,
capacitor or an inductor) and voltage the voltage drop across
the branch. This is the rate at which the energy is exchanged
between the branch and the reminder of the circuit.

10
Power – Active and Reactive power
• p= v.i = Vm sinωt * Im sin(ωt+Φ); where Φ is the phase angle
difference between voltage and current
• p = P[1-Cos(2ωt)] +Q Sin(2ωt)] where P =VI CosΦ and
Q=VI SinΦ; V and I are the rms voltage and current values.
• P varies from 0 to 2P and Q varies from –Q to +Q in one
cycle; the frequency is twice the system frequency

Power System Protection Lecture-


Fault Analysis-1 Copyright@2015
• The average power in one cycle =P This is the product of
voltage and current that is in phase with voltage – Active
power.
• The average value of Q is zero over one cycle. The energy is
stored in one half cycle and returned in the next half cycle –
product of voltage and the quadrature current – Reactive
power.
11
Three phase power
• V*I is single phase power, V-Ph-N voltage , I –Phase current
• Three phase is 3*VI or √3*VPh-PH IPH

Power System Protection Lecture-


Fault Analysis-1 Copyright@2015
12
Per unit and percent value
• Per unit value is the ratio of a value to a reference value
• Ex; 100KV voltage in a115 kV nominal system; Per unit value,
V(PU) = 100kV/115kV = 0.89PU
• It is a unit less value

Power System Protection Lecture-


Fault Analysis-1 Copyright@2015
• Percent = PUX100; 100kV is 89%
• In calculations, per unit is used- percent can also be used but it
is required to keep track of the multiplier -100
• In per unit system, we need to assign a reference value

13
Power system one line

230 kV system Distribution


Transmission line Transformer
Generator
230kV/13.8kV
Shunt
G Reactor

Power System Protection Lecture-


Fault Analysis-1 Copyright@2015
GSU
transformer
800MVA
23kV/230KV
23KV

Shunt
Capacitor 14
Per unit quantities
• We have several system voltage levels, impedances connected
at these voltages. The calculation becomes difficult.
• Define a reference value called base value. We need two
numbers out of Power (MVA), voltage (kV), impedance
(ohms), current (amps).
• Base KV, base Power – For three phase system, phase to
phase voltage and three phase power are used.

Power System Protection Lecture-


Fault Analysis-1 Copyright@2015
• Base Impedance- That value which produces 1PU (100%)
voltage drop when 1Pu current flows through the impedance.
• Base Current I, Amps = 103*MVA/[√3*KVBASE]
• Base Impedance, Ohms = 103*√3*kVBase/IBase
• ZBASE = (KV)2/MVA; MVA and KV are base values

15
System one line Base quantities
• Generator – 23kV, 800MVA
• Base Current = 800,000/(√3*23) = 20,082A
• Base Impedance = (23)2/800 = 0.66125 ohms
• Generally, Base MVA of the system is chosen as 100MVA and
not an individual equipment rating

Power System Protection Lecture-


Fault Analysis-1 Copyright@2015
• On 100MVA base – Base current is 2510A
• Generator voltage is 1.0PU, Current is 8PU on 100MVA, 23
kV base.
• On 230 kV system, Base current on 100MVA =251A
• The generator current at 230 kV = 800,000/(√3*230)
=2008.2A This is 8PU on 100MVA , 230 kV base.
• Per unit values remain unchanged over voltage levels.
16
Advantages of per unit representation
• Characteristic of various types of electrical apparatus could be
easily compared. Most of the manufacturers provide data in per
unit quantities.
• Ex: two transformers operating in parallel will generally have
same impedance to allow equal sharing of the load.

Power System Protection Lecture-


Fault Analysis-1 Copyright@2015
• Most of the times, per unit values are close to each other for a
particular range of ratings for transformers and generators –
Use these if the data is not available.
• Calculations are easier as it is invariant through voltage levels.

17
Per Unit calculations
• Z(Per Unit) = Z(ohms)* base MVA/[baseKV2]
• Z% =Zpu *100
• Z(ohms) =ZPU * baseKV2/baseMVA
• ZPU on new MVA base:

Power System Protection Lecture-


Fault Analysis-1 Copyright@2015
=Old_Zpu *(new_MVA/Old_ MVA)
• ZPU on new voltage Base:
= ZPU_Old * /[Old_base_KV/New_base_KV]2

18
Three phase system currents and
voltages Single phase VA – voltage * current in
the winding =V *I PH-PH PH

IAL = IA-IB = √3*IA


IAL
C Three phase VA =3*VPH-PH *ILine /√3

IPH = √ 3*VPH-PH* ILine


A

Power System Protection Lecture-


Fault Analysis-1 Copyright@2015
Single phase VA – voltage * current in the
B winding =VPH-N * IPH
C
VPH-PH = VA – VB = √3 * VPH-N ; IAL = IA

Three phase VA =3*[VPH-PH /√3] *ILine


IAL
A = √ 3*VPH-PH* ILine
19

B
Network Reduction –Basic laws and
Theorems
• Ohms Law – V=IZ; Voltage rises in the direction of current –
source of power otherwise –it is absorbing power
• Kirchhoff's current law, ∑I =0 at any node (Junction)
• Mesh(Loop) Law ; ∑E = ∑IZ or the change in potential

Power System Protection Lecture-


Fault Analysis-1 Copyright@2015
around the loop is zero.
• Superposition Theorem – The resultant current is the sum of
individual currents due to each driving voltage acting alone
with all other sources shorted
• Thevenin’s (Norton’s) theorem – Any active network viewed
from a two terminal can be replaced with an open circuit
voltage source and a series impedance calculated by shorting
all the source. 20
Delta-Wye Transformation
a Delta to Y
Za = Zab* Zac/[Zab+Zbc+Zca]
Zab Zb = Zab* Zbc/[Zab+Zbc+Zca]
Za Zc = Zac* Zbc/[Zab+Zbc+Zca]
Zb
b Y to Delta

Power System Protection Lecture-


Fault Analysis-1 Copyright@2015
Zac
Zc
Zab = Za+Zb+ Za*Zb/Zc
Zbc Zab = [Za Zb+ZbZc+Za Zc ]/ Zc

c Zbc = Zb+Zc+ Zb*Zc/Za


• Equal impedance in three branches Zbc = [Za Zb+ZbZc+Za Zc ]/ Za
Zab =3Za; Za = Zab/3
• Note that if per unit values are used, Zac = Za+Zc+ Za*Zc/Zb
these will be same if they are on the same Zac = [Za Zb+ZbZc+Za Zc ]/ Zc
base voltage and MVA
21
Faults in three phase system
• Three phase fault – A-B-C to Ground
or A-B-C
• Line to line fault (Phase to Phase fault) AB,

Power System Protection Lecture-


Fault Analysis-1 Copyright@2015
BC,CA
• Double line to ground fault ABG, BCG,
CAG
• Single line to ground fault A-G, B-G, C-G 22
Fault Calculation
• Three Phase – Represented as single
phase
• It is difficult to solve for currents and

Power System Protection Lecture-


Fault Analysis-1 Copyright@2015
voltages in unbalanced faults – line to
line or double line to ground or single
line to ground fault.

23
Symmetrical Components
• Helps to resolve an unbalanced
system of currents and voltages
into set of balanced quantities.

Power System Protection Lecture-


Fault Analysis-1 Copyright@2015
• Allows representation of the
system with single phase
quantities.
24
Dr.fortescue's Paper
• In 1918, Dr. C.L. Fortescue presented a
paper “ Method of Symmetrical Co-
ordinates applied to the solution of
polyphase networks”

Power System Protection Lecture-


Fault Analysis-1 Copyright@2015
• “ A system of n vectors or quantities may
be resolved when n is a prime number
into n different symmetrical groups or
systems, one of which consists of n equal
vectors and the remaining (n-1) system 25
consists of ‘n’ equi-spaced vectors ….”
Three Phase Systems
• Three phase voltages and currents are represented
as vectors revolving at an angular frequency of
ω=2πf radians per second.
• The components that replace them must also be

Power System Protection Lecture-


Fault Analysis-1 Copyright@2015
sinusoidal quantities represented by vectors
rotating at the same angular velocity.
• Since the angle between the vectors revolving at
the same rate is fixed, phase vectors and
components can be represented on the same
Vector diagram. 26
3-phase system components
Vb2
Vc1

Va1

Power System Protection Lecture-


Fault Analysis-1 Copyright@2015
Va2 Va0,Vb0, Vc0
Vc2
Vb1

Va1 Va2 Va0, = Vb0, = Vc0


Vb1= a2Va1 Vb2 = aVa2
27
Vc1 = aVa1 Vc2 = a2 Va2
Positive, Negative and Zero Sequence
System
• Positive Sequence system of vectors are
vectors equal in magnitude and are spaced
1200 apart. The rotation (time of arrival at a

Power System Protection Lecture-


Fault Analysis-1 Copyright@2015
reference point) is the same as that of the
generated voltage. (a-b-c- rotation)
• Negative-sequence system – similar to Pos.
Seq. except for the rotation – (a-c-b).
• Zero Sequence system – Three vectors not
28
separated in time.
Phase Quantities
Phase voltage and current can be represented as
sum of sequence components - Phase a is
chosen as a reference vector (Selection is

Power System Protection Lecture-


Fault Analysis-1 Copyright@2015
arbitrary)
Va = Va1 + Va2 + Va0 -----(1)
Vb = Vb1 + Vb2 + Vb0 = a2Va1 + aVa2 + Va0 -----(2)
Vc = Vc1 + Vc2 + Vc0 = aVa1 + a2Va2 + Va0 -----(3)
29
Sequence quantities
Adding equations 1,2 and 3
(Va +Vb +Vc )
= (1+a2+a)Va1+(1+a+a2)Va2 + 3Va0=3Va0

Power System Protection Lecture-


Fault Analysis-1 Copyright@2015
Multiplying equation 1,2 and 3 with 1,a and a2
respectively, and adding
(Va +aVb +a2Vc )
=(1+a3+a3)Va1 +(1+a2+a4)Va2+ (1+a+a2)Va0=3Va1
Multiplying equation 1,2 and 3 with 1,a2 and a
respectively, and adding 30

(Va +a2Vb +aVc ) =3Va2


Sequence Quantities in terms of
phase quantities – Analytical method
1
V0 = (Va + Vb + Vc )
3

Power System Protection Lecture-


Fault Analysis-1 Copyright@2015
1
V1 = (Va + aVb + a 2Vc )
3

1
V2 = (Va + a 2Vb + aVc )
3
31
Resolution of unbalanced Vectors
into Symmetrical components
• Other methods – Graphical and use of
determinants

Phase Voltages are the sum of sequence voltages,

Power System Protection Lecture-


Fault Analysis-1 Copyright@2015
Va1, Vb1, Vc1
Va

Va1
Va2 Va0
32
Currents and voltages
Va 0  1 1 1  V a 
V  = 1 1 a 2  
 a1  3  a  Vb 
a  Vc 

Power System Protection Lecture-


Fault Analysis-1 Copyright@2015
Va 2  1 a 2

I a0  1 1 1 I a 
I  1  2 I 
  3 = 1 a a 
a 1
 b
 I a 2  1 a 2 a   I c  33
References
• Alstom –NPAG –Chapters 3 and 4

Power System Protection Lecture-


34

Fault Analysis-1 Copyright@2015