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Swan Song: 25 Years in Pakistan's Rural Wilderness

1 Swan Song
2 Structural Deep Democracy
3 Economic Gardening
4 Waste
5 Standing-On-The-Outside-Looking-In
6 EROSION CONTROL
7 Water
8 Energy
9 Agriculture
10 Nutritional Food Security
PARTICIPATORY SELF-RELIANCE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT:
MASHAL-e-RAH:

Whistling against the Wind! “Aab dar Koozay O Ma Tashna Labeen Me Gardum,
Yaar dar Khaney O Ma Gird-e-Jehan me Gardum! My jar contains
water and yet I roam athirst, My friend (Allah Pak)resides in my heart and yet I
seek Him in the entire Universe!” Hazrat Rumi (RA).“Maara zey Khak-e-Kooyat
Pairhanee az bar Tan, Aan Hum zey Aab Deedah – Sud Chaakast ba
Daman!” I have donnedapparel made from the dust of your lanes. That too has
been rent asunder a hundred times by the tears of mine eyes! Hazrat FazalAllah
Jamali Kamboh (RA) to Hazrat Abdur Rehman Jami (RA).
1. Sustainable Development:
2. Ethos:
a. Education:
b. Technical Education:
3. Structural Deep Democracy (SD2):
4. Agri-Ecological Zones Administration:
5. Sustainable Development Authorities:
6. Economic Gardening:
7. Rapid Micro Enterprise Establishment:
8. Solid/ Liquid Waste Treatment/ Processing:
9. Alternate Construction:
10. Environment Protection:
11. Biomelioration:
12. Soil Conservation:
13. Water Security:
14. Energy:
15. Rational Agriculture:
16. Health:
17. Nutritional Food Security:

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BRIEF:
Sustainable Development: For a starting point, I suggest that the very essence of the Muslim is
that he or she links their efforts to attaining certain specific goals in real terms. To secure the
rights of all downtrodden and deprived humans and set them firmly on the path of progress and
prosperity is, to my mind, the ideal framework that we need consider. The very concept of
Muslim society is undeniably egalitarian. Within our own societies we find huddled masses of
poor and exploited humanity, yet we loudly trumpet about Universal Ideals? The very fact is
incompatible with our pedestal and needs to be corrected. For this very purpose we need a
Sustainable Development Program that involves better employment through better means of
production that are environmentally safe and economically just. This is linked with Primary and
Vocational Education and Emergency Medical Care. This package is designed around existing
practices and past experiences. It is tailored to meet the demands of a new and hungry market,
with a new and hungry entrepreneur at its helm. It freely borrows from the Late Akhter Hameed
Khan’s “Thana Training and Development Centers (TTDCs); His Orangi Pilot Project; The
Faisalabad and Sialkot Cottage Production Models with improvements; The Chinese Economic
Miracle; Malaysia’s Approach to Development and countless Best Practice Examples of
Integrated Development from the everyday world. I strongly feel that this model is bound to
meet with success and form the foundation of a truly emancipating and progressive movement.
This could then be used as a springboard and sounding board to coordinate and fine-tune a real
Resurgence and Cultural Renewal. This would be ideally suited to the requirements of the time
and place and would be absolutely free of any dogmatic chains to hold back the march of
progress. The very fact that innumerable agencies of the West are purportedly engaged in similar
efforts is a strong point that needs to be used to the best. It is required that we participate in these
programs and tailor them to our goals and ambitions. Once we attain a certain standard, we
would find that we are well coordinated with Universal thinking and activity. This worldwide
movement will certainly bear the fruit of better understanding and closer ties. This will result in
humanizing society and would preclude most forms of ruthless competition; struggle and strife.
Is this not our own aim? Let us go in one leap over the years of degradation and stagnation and
take Humanity along with us to that peak of endeavor that we could have attained if we had
continued to progress as a Civilization. Internecine internal conflicts, our own personal failings
and short comings and a blind struggle for power have served to bring us to the brink of a
precipice. The extraneous influences that affected our course may have been necessary to
channelize our efforts to the right direction. Time and again we have strayed from the laid down
path and were severely checked as we rushed pell-mell towards self-destruction. We have yet to
learn the correct lessons from these debacles and take the correct path in deference with the laid
down laws of the Almighty Allah.
It is envisaged to build up Community Based activities as a Small-Scale Enterprise.
Master Trainers should be provided with Training Centers at their villages for further training of
the poor. It is intended to provide Micro Credit facilities for equipment and raw materials in
order to facilitate Sustainable Development as well as Poverty Alleviation and ensure
Participatory Self-Reliance.
The difference lies in the provision of Marketing Support. Many Welfare Organizations
run training facilities which churn out semi skilled individuals who promptly fail to market their
as yet sub standard production. The first faltering steps brook no failure and demand support in

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order to ensure sustainability. Just as the infant struggles to stand upon its own so too the nascent
entrepreneur is buffeted by inequitable “market” forces with no level playing field in sight.
This model is present in different forms in different spheres of life. The tobacco and
sugar cane industries have long supported growers in order to enable them to provide quality raw
materials. The informal and unorganized private, cottage level producers of Sialkot; Gujranwala
and Faisalabad Districts of Punjab Province of Pakistan have developed a system of piece
production by womenfolk in their own homes for central purchase and export. The workers are
highly exploited and work under the worst conditions to subsidize production and transfer huge
cost and sales differentials to unscrupulous middlemen. In this society even the ‘normal’ farmer
is deprived of his due share by middlemen without investment who make at least as much if not
more than the field worker who has invested financially as well as physically.
Thus this intervention is called for to provide relief to all including refugees, internally
displaced persons, the poverty stricken as well as the situationaly maladjusted agents for positive
change.
“Clustering is generally defined as a process of firms and other actors co-locating within
a concentrated geographical area, cooperating around a certain functional niche, and establishing
close linkages and working alliances to improve their collective competitiveness,”
“The importance of intensively interacting, geographically co-located activities, was
recognized by geographers already in the 18th century but has been highlighted in analytical and
normative economic literature since the last two decades. Policymakers have gradually tried to
put it to practical use, and many public measures are now adopted or refined with reference to
the cluster concept.”
Jens Sorvik, co-author of the Cluster Policies Whitebook, the International Organization
for Knowledge Economy and Enterprise Development (IKED), as quoted in
dgExpertPerspective.
“Clusters seem to be able to generate sets of benefits that help firms and regions to
innovate and enhance competitiveness. At least three categories of common, partly inter-related
benefits have been identified:
1. Enhanced Productivity.
 Sharpened competition.
 Enhanced specialization.
 More knowledgeable customers.
 Enhanced availability of specialized factor inputs.
 Easier attraction and recruitment of a skilled labor force.
2. Improved Business Formation.
 Deepening of seed and venture capital activities, resulting in greater competencies for
handling risk in the formation of new ventures and cultivation of high-growth firms.
 Personal knowledge replaces product references.
 Virtual circles of new firm creation / spin-off activities / joint ventures.
 Effectiveness in mobilizing venture capital and human resources.
3. Improved Possibilities for Innovation.
 Enhanced communication and display of opportunities for innovation.
 Shortened start-up times of networks around new products and processes.
 Early identification of technology trends.
 Novel combinations of competencies.
I call the overall, integrated process “Conglomoculture” (Conglomerates & Culture) and
suggest that it serves to provide the poor and disadvantaged many of the advantages of the large
Corporate and yet avoids the pitfalls of bureaucratic and ironbound chains upon productivity.

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Glocalization: The concept of “Globalization” and “The New World Order” is a hoax that is
being played upon the people of under developed and developing countries of the world. This is
merely being done in order to further exploit and subjugate the third world at the expense of the
US. The EU soon learnt to protect itself by banding together. The Far East is upholding a brave
front while Indonesia and Malaysia are struggling to hold their own. The Near and Middle East
and Central Asia are open hunting grounds whereas China has exhibited a phenomenal resilience
by using the Imperialists own weapons to defeat them economically and thus escape their
clutches. This augers ill for the near future as a fight to the finish is expected between the US and
China once the US has succeeded in digesting the mostly Muslim countries that are prey to its
predatory activities.
Western style Capitalism can be likened to a dog chasing and devouring its own tail. It
needs must maintain expansion in order to sustain itself. A Pyramid can rise only in relation to its
base, the larger the base the higher the pinnacle. Globalization is just another word for this
phenomenon. A just and equitable order calls for increasing independence regionally as well as
locally with integration on a global scale for free interchange of ideas and translocation of skills
as well as skilled labor. Local production with minimal long range transport of goods due to
division between producer and consumer societies is called for. We must seek out the cutting
edge of Nano Technology and ICTs; Food synthesis; Energy Cells and Intensive Horticulture
will serve to make this possible.
Wa Ma Alaina Illalbala(gh).

Naheed

Poverty anywhere is a threat everywhere!


BACKGROUND: The very real and persistent problem of Poverty has, yet, not been tackled in
an effective enough manner. Various theories and practical models for Sustainable Development
have been introduced, with varying degrees of short, medium and long-term benefits. Bold new
concepts based upon lessons learnt from past and contemporary efforts have to be
introduced. This fact is all the more pertinent due to rapid population growth and the resultant
increase in economic pressure. It would be wise indeed to introduce long-term evolutionary
measures to overcome the problem before we ourselves are overcome by the growing specter
of Abject Poverty.

JUSTIFICATION:
SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT: Any plan of action, aimed at achieving any end, has primarily to
take into account the people who will design; implement; participate and directly, or indirectly,
benefit from that plan. The local social framework has to be given Prime Importance! Successful
implementation will depend upon harmonious integration with existing social set-ups. In most

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cases, these are exploitive and hostile. Without creating a threat to the existing power structure,
efforts have to be made to undermine them where they are unjust. Therefore, it is obvious,
that a thorough understanding of the set-up is a priority. Generally speaking the lower most, or
subsistence class, is almost entirely dependent upon the landlord; moneylender/ trader ("Aarthi");
the bureaucracy; officialdom and the police. This degree of dependence has to be broken and a
level of self reliance achieved before financial independence can be sought. The very complete
degree of dependence excludes possibilities of unity. Being bereft of bargaining power, the
rural poor are at the mercy of who ever possesses wealth. According to an FAO Publication,
"Studies on Agrarian Reform & Rural Poverty.” in an article titled, "From the Village to the
Global Order", further reflections on, "Towards a theory of Rural Development" by P.
Wignaraja. The Grass Roots Initiatives and Strategies Program of the Society for International
Development and the Participatory Institute for Development Alternatives in Sri Lanka is,
"engaged in a continuous process of refining the thinking on participation and self reliant
Rural Development". The study calls for a process of inter-related and varied set of activities
that are undertaken in stages. The first stage should obviously be to identify the target group in
any area and build up a database. Secondly, steps are called to be taken to begin to unite the
target group, or part of it, in order to set a positive spiral of activities in motion. Together, the
stages should be aimed at developing a movement towards creating a self-reliant base for the
target group. The stages should allow, and nurture, a process that permits it to de-link from
economic and psychological dependence, thereby building on its own creativity and self reliance.
Projects must evolve in this carefully staged manner and subsequent stages must be built on the
collective experience of the previous stage. Thus a ready-made package, that anticipates all the
stages, and proceeds according to a preconceived Technical Plan, designed from the "Top,”
without involvement and understanding of the Target Group, is impossible! Once this
participatory, self-reliant base has been built, expert technical and financial assistance of one
kind or the other can be better absorbed. Most significantly, the study under consideration states
that typical Government Rural Development Officers; Extension Workers or even
conventional Rural Development Volunteers cannot implement this task. A committed
individual is required, who can identify with the rural poor; mobilize them; raise their
consciousness and help them to organize themselves for Participatory, Self-Reliant, Rural
Development. This individual would act as a catalyst or initiator, in order to break the viscous
cycle of rural poverty begetting further poverty. This method is described as a new style,
integrated rural development approach that makes use of the conventional, micro-level
methodology for Project development and is based upon cost-benefit analysis, or minor
variations of the same underlying principles. Thus, three factors are taken into account, i.e.:
The Exploitive Power Structure.
The Fragmented Target Group.
The Initiator/ Catalyst Individual.
THE EXPLOITIVE POWER STRUCTURE: Further elaborating this concept, the study states
that conflict of interest is the root cause of deprivation. It is against the economic and social
interests of the entrenched power elite to allow financial independence to the exploited. Whether
these are women folk of various classes of society or landless peasants/ wage laborers or
subsistence farmers. "There are dominance/ dependence relationships even at village level
which need to be understood. These relationships then give power to the dominant (the landlord;
trader; moneylender; bureaucrat, etc.) To bring about a crisis of immediate survival for the
poor." To graphically illustrate this, a Contradiction Tree is depicted as follows:
CONTRADICTION TREE
RICH LANDLORD MONEYLENDER TRADER BUREAUCRAT
POOR MEN WOMEN LANDLESS CASTE|YOUTH | RELIGION

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Step 1: understanding the contradictions in the social environment (Contradiction Tree)
separates out Target group. Obviously, such an entrenched exploiter class is well placed to
prevent, subvert or even plunder social plans and projects aimed at removing rural poverty.
THE FRAGMENTED TARGET GROUP: This consists of:
 Women of all Social Classes.
 Poor Youth.
 Landless Peasants/ Wage Laborers.
 Subsistence Farmers.
Step 2: Work needs to be done to actuate co-operative values in the minds of the target group.
Cadres need to be sensitized for initiating and multiplying activities. This activity should be
started in the target group (e.g. Women's Groups; Youth Group's or Farmer’s Groups, starting
with a non-confrontational activity).
THE INITIATOR/ CATALYST INDIVIDUAL: The study in question, while accurately gauging
the situation, calls for an initiator to act as a catalyst. This individual is supposed to carry out the
following:
 Training of committed Village Cadres for initiating and multiplication of activities.
 Building Organizations for the poor.
An Approach to Micro Level Development:
Self Reliant Base:
Staging:
Initial Activities Material Benefits Mind
Strengthening Critical Institutions.
 Village Forum Assembly:
 Village Organizations:
 Village Fund:
A critical review of the above three factors will find ready comprehension and agreement.
While avoiding unnecessary pessimism, it is difficult to conceive of such a knight exemplar as
the initiator is portrayed to be. If very rarely existent in nature then institutions should exist
that identify and train such individuals. Quite obviously, no such efforts are being made in
our Country. Secondly, the motivating factor is too idealistic and does not cater for the
livelihood of such an individual. Most importantly, it does not take into account the
requirement of material possessions, wealth, social influence or position that such an individual
would require. Our society will make way for the materially strong and resist all efforts made by
the weak. Thus, though the reasoning is sound and the methodology laudable, the very
application is a myth and defies reality. There is a very definite proposal to overcome this factor.
However, other perspectives need to be reviewed before the proposal is made.
AIMS & OBTECTIVES: The generally purported aims of International Models of Rural
Development are, according to "Training for Agriculture and Rural Development,” an FAO/
UNESCO/ ILO joint Publication, printed in 1984:
Prepare specific target groups for effective involvement in the economic life of the
community and, by extension, the Country, e.g. Farmer Training Programs, Youth
Training Programs.
Improve/ strengthen people’s daily life skills, e.g. nutrition programs, home
improvement etc.
Upgrade skills of existing producers so that an extended; diversified; improved range
of commodities; foodstuffs; goods and services are readily available.
These categories are all inter-related and inter-dependent, e.g.
Balanced Diet = Positive effect upon production levels.
= Demand for additional goods and services.
= More Training Programs.
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It is highlighted that there has to exist a better link between training and employment.
Training that does not take into account employment activities and the generation of
employment, not only fails to satisfy the needs of country dwellers but may actually increase
migration to the cities. Thus, the very purpose of training is defeated. Rural Vocational
Training should be an overall skill formation process, aimed at assisting rural workers to:
Increase effectiveness in earning a living.
Reducing the drudgery of work.
Managing Family life.
Participating in Community Development.
Trainees are required to actually perform those activities, which are relevant to them,
within specific rural life conditions and locally available resources. Training content,
methodology and instructional material must derive from the know-how requirements of rural
activities and from the learning characteristics of the target populations. Rural workers
should be provided the skills and knowledge that can be put to immediate use, rather than
providing them with skills that are required in an open employment market. Thus, Training
Programs are designed to produce graduates who can perform Agricultural based functions in a
better and more effective manner by employing improved farming techniques. These programs,
once again, require a facilitator to motivate support for the economic projects. Secondly, he
is required to bring together experts who can provide advice. Thirdly, he is required to
provide all other types of day to day assistance. If training is directly related to production,
the participants are actually allowed to produce goods. In this manner, the operating costs of
training can be greatly reduced, if not all together eliminated. Thus, self-reliance is extended
to even initial activities. This method more than ensures that the learners develop skills that
are appropriate to their needs at a particular time, thereby eliminating waste of time, money
and effort. Self-Reliance Programs have the following two interrelated and inter-acting
components:
Content = Skill; Knowledge and attitudes related directly to the learning needs of the
trainees within the specific rural life conditions.
Process geared to the efficient delivery of relevant and effective training programs.
MODULAR APPROACH: ILO/ SIDA Regional Project for Eastern and South Africa use the
Modular Approach consisting of four inter-related modules.
Identification of Training Activities:
The purpose of the identification module is to determine, precisely and exactly, what the
content of the training program should be and to identify the clientele for specific programs.
Foundation for the development of appropriate curricula for programs, designed after in-depth
study of the needs and problems of the people in an area as well as resource availability.
Preparation of the Delivery System:
Development of Curricula and preparation of training material and infrastructure
designed to clearly indicate the cognitive; psychomotor and effective skills to be gained. The
ILO has prepared Modules of Employable Skills (MES) ILO 1977, as well as Skills
Development for Self-Reliance (SDSR). A review is required for up-to date information on their
activities and experience. They planned to prepare learning elements in a standard format to be
inter-changeable between countries and thus reduce production costs.
Implementation:
Here the actual training centers are identified and skilled workers are earmarked to impart
the training. The skilled worker is preferred due to vast practical experience. More over, only
such teaching staff will be readily available in rural settings.
Evolution of Training:
This fourth, extremely valuable, module is employed during the various stages of
learning as well as its culmination. This ensures validity and dynamism of the programs.

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It is clear that there are two distinct Prime considerations:
Development of training contents of everyday life skills that will: Relate to the
environment of the learner: Relate to the natural resources available: Involve traditional
arts and crafts and have at all times the underlying aim of involving the learner's in all
phases of the programs.
The application of mastered skills to meaningful assignments or productive activities
relevant to the learner's home environment.

Another aspect worth consideration relies upon economic incentive for participation.
For example the UNDP & FAO's considerations to:
Establish a training program that would prepare youth for a farming career.
By termination of training to have developed, for each trainee, a viable farming enterprise
that would provide the basis for his or her future livelihood.
To develop short term training classes for farmers.

For instance programs have been designed wherein 1 acre of family land is earmarked for
the sole use of the participant, selected from the family. Usually this will be a semi-literate
youth. He is provided on-job training by supervising ongoing productive farm work on his land.
An example is the Chitambo Youth Project, carried out in the late 70's in Zambia. The CCZ
Twofwane Program involved work on a commune farm. Here a small plot was earmarked to
each participant. He was helped to produce and allowed to retain the profit. Gradually he was
helped to establish his own farm
Generally, participants are imparted agricultural training and other skills to find
talent. Once a particular talent is discovered, efforts are concentrated to develop that skill.
The institution, which disseminates knowledge and coordinates activities, concentrates upon:
Increasing Agricultural Production.
Increasing employment.
Developing institutional capabilities in rural areas.
Increasing participation of women in economic activities.
Raising the income of the rural poor.
Enhancing health and nutrition standards.
Ensuring Self-Sustained Rural Development.
All Organizations dealing in Rural Development and Extension work should cater for:
Understanding the general rural economy.
Expose specific agrarian problems.
Plan for the future.
Develop skills.
Provide market support.
They would thence provide:
Theoretical inputs.
Project placement.
Training in skills.
Institutional supervision.
Facilitate establishment of rural industry.
Examples for such projects are extension cum training centers for:
Garments & Dress Designing.
Bags & Luggage Accessories.
Food Processing.
Silkworm seed production, silk reeling/ weaving.
Mushroom spore production/ growing.

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Nursery Operations.
Plant Nutrition.
Innovative & Correct Cultural Practices.
Water Conservation; Harvesting; Aquifer Re-charging.
Conservation Irrigation.
Shoebox Tissue culture.
Apiculture.
Sericulture.
Horticulture.
Aquaculture.
Hydroponics.
Basic Electronics.
Machining.
Steel Fabrication.
Fiber Glass Production.
Woodworking.
CLOSER TO HOME:
With Partition, the challenging task of Nation Building was taken up afresh. The
necessity of devising less paternalistic and more participatory methods of training and
development was felt. The various International Agencies, with their different programs, were
adapted into the local system. Undoubtedly, these programs have achieved different degrees of
success. Unfortunately, the creative spark of self-reliance that differentiates a developing
and equitable society from a no-holds barred, free for all, failed to ignite. The brightest ray
of hope, in this regard, came in the shape of "The Comilla Approach" concept of the Thana
Training & Development Centers (TTDC's). This concept was extensively applied, in what was
East Pakistan, during the Decade of Progress of President Mohammad Ayub Khan. It would be
appropriate to paraphrase and directly quote from "Rural Development in Pakistan" by the Late,
lamented Akhter Hameed Khan, and the Doyen of this field in Pakistan. The concept of the
Thana Training & Development Centers (TTDC's) emphasized the need, for the sake of
development, of complete coordination between the Nation Building Departments and
between the Departments, Institutions and Leaders of Local Government. The Centers were
designed as a new symbol wherein progress was to depend upon real partnership. All
services supplies and experts were to be located in the same building, for the convenience of the
people. This was a significant departure from the Colonial past and a far-reaching step
towards a thriving future. This Approach consisted of the following elements:

Thana Training & Development Centers (TTDC's).


Rural Works Program (RWP).
Thana Irrigation Program (TIP).
Two tiered Cooperative System (TCCA).
Feudal Tyranny; Bureaucratic Corruption and the Exploitive Moneylenders/
Traders have contributed to convert the rural landscape into a viscous jungle. Villages are
populated by the following categories:
Big Landowner.
Middle Man.
Small Land Owner.
Tenant Farmer.
Wage Laborer.
Females.
Households of:

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Petty Officials.
Government Employees.
Military Personnel.
Migrant Workers.
Distribution of population is as follows:
Rich Farmers: 5 %.
Medium/ Small Farmers: 70 %.
Landless villagers: 25 %;
In Japan and Taiwan, supporting Institutions for small farmers were carefully and
persistently built up. Development of land, Institutions and skills were emphasized. In our
Country, of all the Crash Programs; Community Development Projects; Land Reforms;
Chemical Fertilizers; Pesticides and Miracle Seeds, it was only the inputs that proved to have
a lasting impact upon the rural poor. This too has been largely offset by hoarding; smuggling
and misappropriation in procurement and storing, on the part of Government Officials. The
TTDC was a different Approach and emphasized constructive participation by the villagers.
The Works Program was designed as an instrument for utilizing surplus labor to create
Capital Infrastructure. The fact that it concentrated upon the creation of employment
through capital works was not its weakness but rather its strength. It aimed at turning wasted
resources into productive assets and providing immediate relief to the most depressed rural
class, the wage laborer. The TTDC utilized the services of the following:
Agronomist.
Plant Pathologist,
Entomologist
Irrigation Engineer.
Livestock & Fishery Expert.
Horticulturist.
In order to understand the working of the afore mentioned Center, it is necessary to
consider what has been described as "Five Factors for Equitable Agrarian Growth.”
Systematic and cooperative agrarian development covers the following:
Institution building for:
Planning.
Mobilization of Work Force.
Cooperative Accumulation/ Control of Resources.
Reconstruction of Physical Infrastructure.
Irrigation Channels.
Roads.
Land Reclamation, Extension of Cultivable Areas; Gardens; Pastures and Forests.
Increased productivity in Grains; Fruits; Animals; Vegetables; Timber and
Supplementary Items.
Cooperative Credit & Banking.
Collection of Equity Capital/ Issue of Loans.
Cooperative Marketing. Including Cooperative Ownership of:
Transport.
Storage.
Processing.
Packaging Units.
The progressive introduction of the following steps were deemed necessary:
Prepare Topographical Map.
Prepare Development Layout.
Long Range Plan implemented incrementally.

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Capital Assistance - Grants and Loans.
Produce Surplus.
The concept was brought to West Pakistan in the shape of the Daudzai Organizational
Model. This consisted of a Training Center interacting with village groups. It concentrated upon
the following:
Cooperative Social & Economic Village Organizations (VOs).
Liaison between VOs and Government and other Agencies.
Training of VO's Managers and other cadres in coordination with other
Agencies.
Opening up of Services and other supply lines to VOs in coordination with other
Agencies. Selective research to discover more efficient methods, implements or
materials.
Thus, the philosophy behind this system is that the Administrative Structure of a Rural
Development Effort should be designed to perform the following major functions for Socio-
Economic Organizations:
Liaison & Coordination.
Training.
Improving Supplies.
Conducting Research.

2030 Development agenda: ILO Focus targets:


Decent work is not just a goal – it is a driver of sustainable development. Below are the main
goals and targets that the ILO will focus on. However, its work and mission will be crucial to
advancing the entire 2030 Agenda.

#1- End poverty in all its forms everywhere


By 2030, eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere, currently measured as
people living on less than $1.25 a day.
1. By 2030, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and
children living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national
definitions.
2. Implement nationally appropriate social protection systems.
3. Ensure that all men and women, have equal rights to economic
resources, including microfinance.
4. By 2030, build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable
situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related
extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks
and disasters.
5. Create sound policy frameworks at the national, regional and
international levels, based on pro-poor and gender-sensitive

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development strategies, to support accelerated investment in poverty
eradication actions.

#2- End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable
agriculture.
1. Double the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers.
2. Implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production.

#3- Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages.
1. By 2030, end the epidemic of AIDS.
2. Achieve universal health coverage.
3. By 2030, substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous
chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination.

#4- Ensure inclusive and quality education for all and promote lifelong learning.
1. By 2030, substantially increase the number of youth and adults who have relevant skills,
including technical and vocational skills, for employment, decent jobs and
entrepreneurship.

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2. Eliminate gender disparities in education and ensure equal access to all levels of
education.
3. By 2020, substantially expand globally the number of scholarships available to
developing countries for enrolment in higher education, including vocational training.
4. By 2030, substantially increase the supply of qualified teachers.

#5- Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.
1. End all forms of discrimination against all women and girls.
2. Eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in the public and private
spheres, including trafficking.
3. Recognize and value unpaid care and domestic work through the provision of public
services, infrastructure and social protection policies and the promotion of shared
responsibility within the household and the family as nationally appropriate.
4. Ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at
all levels of decision-making in political, economic and public life
5. Undertake reforms to give women equal rights to economic resources.
6. Adopt and strengthen sound policies and enforceable legislation for the promotion of
gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls at all levels.

#6- Ensure access to water and sanitation for all.


 
1. By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and
minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion
of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse
globally

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#7- Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all.
o By 2030, ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy
services.
o By 2030, increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy
mix.
o By 2030, expand infrastructure and upgrade technology for supplying modern and
sustainable energy services for all in developing countries, in particular least
developed countries, small island developing States and land-locked developing
countries, in accordance with their respective programs of support.

#8- Promote inclusive and sustainable economic growth, employment and decent work
for all.
1. Sustain per capita economic growth in accordance with national circumstances and, in
particular, at least 7 per cent gross domestic product growth per annum in the least
developed countries.
2. Achieve higher levels of economic productivity through diversification, technological
upgrading and innovation, including through a focus on high-value added and labour-
intensive sectors.
3. Promote development-oriented policies that support productive activities, decent job
creation, entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation, and encourage the formalization
and growth of micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises, including through access to
financial services
4. Improve progressively, through 2030, global resource efficiency in consumption and
production and endeavour to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation,
in accordance with the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption
and production, with developed countries taking the lead.

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5. By 2030, achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all women and
men, including for young people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work of
equal value.
6. By 2020, substantially reduce the proportion of youth not in employment, education or
training.
7. Take immediate and effective measures to eradicate forced labour, end modern slavery
and human trafficking and secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of
child labour, including recruitment and use of child soldiers, and by 2025 end child
labour in all its forms.
8. Protect labour rights and promote safe and secure working environments for all workers,
including migrant workers, in particular women migrants, and those in precarious
employment.
9. By 2030, devise and implement policies to promote sustainable tourism that creates jobs
and promotes local culture and products.
10. Strengthen the capacity of domestic financial institutions to encourage and expand access
to banking, insurance and financial services for all.
11. Increase Aid for Trade support for developing countries, in particular least developed
countries, including through the Enhanced Integrated Framework for Trade-Related
Technical Assistance to Least Developed Countries.
12. By 2020, develop and operationalize a global strategy for youth employment and
implement the Global Jobs Pact of the International Labour Organization.

#9- Build resilient infrastructure, promote sustainable industrialization and foster


innovation.
1. Develop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure to support economic
development and human well-being.
2. Promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and significantly raise industry's share
of employment.
3. Increase the access of small-scale industrial and other enterprises, to financial services,
value chains.

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#10- Reduce inequality within and among countries.
1. Progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 per cent of the
population.
2. Empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective of
age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status.
3. Ensure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome, including by eliminating
discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies
and action.
4. Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and social protection policies, and progressively
achieve gender equality.
5. Improve the regulation and monitoring of global financial markets and institutions and
strengthen the implementation of such regulations.
6. Ensure enhanced representation and voice for developing countries in decision-making in
global international economic and financial institutions in order to deliver more effective,
credible, accountable and legitimate institutions
7. Facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration
8. By 2030, reduce to less than 3 per cent the transaction costs of migrant remittances and
eliminate remittance corridors with costs higher than 5 per cent.

#11- Make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.


1. By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic
services.
2. Provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all.
3. Support least developed countries in building sustainable and resilient buildings utilizing
local materials.

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#12- Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns.
1. Implement the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and
production.
2. By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes
throughout their life cycle, in accordance with agreed international frameworks, and
significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil in order to minimize their adverse
impacts on human health and the environment.
3. Encourage companies to adopt sustainable practices and to integrate sustainability
information into their reporting cycle.
4. Support developing countries to strengthen their scientific and technological capacity to
move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption and production.
5. Develop and implement tools to monitor sustainable development impacts for sustainable
tourism that creates jobs.

#13- Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts.
1. Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural
disasters in all countries.

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#14- Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources.
1. Effectively regulate harvesting and end overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated
fishing.
2. By 2020, prohibit certain forms of fisheries subsidies which contribute to overcapacity
and overfishing, eliminate subsidies that contribute to illegal, unreported and unregulated
fishing.
3. By 2030, increase the economic benefits to Small Island developing States and least
developed countries from the sustainable use of marine resources, including
through sustainable management of fisheries, aquaculture and tourism.
 
#15- Sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, halt and reverse land
degradation, halt biodiversity loss.
1. Mobilize significant resources from all sources and at all levels to finance sustainable
forest management.

#16- Promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies.


1. End abuse, exploitation, trafficking and all forms of violence against and torture of
children.
2. Promote the rule of law at the national and international levels and ensure equal access to
justice for all.
3. Develop effective, accountable and transparent institutions at all levels
4. Ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory and representative decision-making at all
levels.
5. Broaden and strengthen the participation of developing countries in the institutions of
global governance.
6. Ensure public access to information and protect fundamental freedoms, in accordance
with international agreements.

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7. Strengthen relevant national institutions, including through international cooperation, for
building capacity at all levels, toprevent violence and combat terrorism and crime.
8. Promote and enforce non-discriminatory laws and policies for sustainable development.

#17- Revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development.


1. Enhance international support for implementing effective and targeted capacity-building
in developing countries.
2. Enhance global macroeconomic stability, including through policy coordination and
policy coherence.
3. Enhance policy coherence for sustainable development.
4. Encourage and promote effective public, public-private and civil society partnerships.
5. Enhance capacity-building support to developing countries, to increase high-quality,
timely and reliable data.

“Together, our role in the international effort to eradicate poverty is to promote public
policies, rights, social institutions and market solutions that permit people to earn a decent living,
balance family needs and work out of poverty. But to do so, women and men need an enabling
environment for empowerment.”
“Breaking the cycle of poverty is really about creating a new cycle of opportunity and local
wealth creation.
The Decent Work Agenda is an essential part of the solution. That Agenda may take different
shapes and be built around different priorities in order to tackle different aspects of poverty and
groups of poor people. But the promotion of rights, representation, employment and protection is
always going to be the heart of successful policies to reduce poverty. In all these areas, we have
knowledge and experience that are important for the global effort in which we are a full and willing
partner.”
Juan Somavia
Director-General, ILO
By 2007 the ILO was providing support to PRSs i n more than 35 countries in all regions.
The countries are in different stages in the PRS and debt relief process. The Table below gives a
snapshot of multiple entry points from a decent work perspective in Pakistan, constituent’s
participation in the process and the articulation with the DWCPs.

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Proposed Interventions in 10 Categories:
FOOD: Household Nutritional Food security.
Mushrooms: Specialized, Protected and Low-cost Structures for Year Round Production
(Landless).
High Nutrition Biscuits as Food Supplement and Health Food: Soya Bean flour and dried
mushrooms.
Honey bees. Establishment/Maintenance of Training Facilities and Queen Producing
Centers:
AGRI/ HORTICULTURE:
Low-Cost Green House: Geodesic Dome. Use of Alternate Energy for Photo-period
Control.
Profitable organic farming.
Nutrient Cycling and Plant Protection, Complete Plant Nutrition. Low-Cost Water
Harvesting Structures.
Soil management through Bioaugmented Rapid Composting of Bio-Degradable Solid
Waste.
Punjab Forestry Research Institute, Gatwala, Faisalabad. Trials of Polyacralamide for
erosion control and Seaweed extract (Natural Plant Hormones: Cytokinins; Gibberellins
and Indole-3 Butyric Acid) for Seed Germination, through the Chief Conservator of
Forests Punjab Central Zone. 100% erosion control in Pothwar and 25% increase of seed
germination in Thall Region.
Exploration of local vegetations for their medicinal value. Plant-made pharmaceutical
production. Molecular farming of edible vaccines. Delivery of vaccines via transgenic plants/
producing insulin in biotech safflower can reduce capital costs compared to existing insulin
manufacturing by 70 percent and products costs by 40 percent.
• Conservation Planning: Crop Rotation: Contour Farming: Strip-Cropping:
• Farm Conservation & Sustainable Development Program:
• Herbs (Medicinal & Culinary), Spices, Condiments & Aromatic/ Essential Oil Plants:
• Land Inventory:
• Plant Protection. Pest Control with Nutrients:
• The language of the Plants and Soil: Permaculture. Polyculture. Rational Farming.
• Upland Agriculture:
• Biosaline Agriculture Technology: Cultivation of Salt Tolerant Economic Crop Varieties
on Marginally Saline Areas
• Use of stabilized fertilizers/ safe pesticides/ polymer coated seed:
• Community based farmers and marketing associations:
• Vermiculture; Sheet & Spot Mulching; Organic Soil Management and No-Till
• Site specific plantations.
• Exploring native shrubs useful for Bio-fuel.
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• Identification of indigenous plant species capable of bioremediation.
• Tissue Culture Laboratory:
• Rhizobium & Allied Bacteria Culture Laboratory:
• Hydro Mulch Seeding:
ENERGY:
• 1 KW Wind Generator. Wind Pump.
• Hydraulic Ram
• Passive Solar Still.
• Salt-Gradient, Solar Ponds:
• Jack Pump: 5” Delivery; 72” Stroke; 160 ft; 4 HP.
• Energy Domes, Bio-Gas Plants, including small size for Poultry Droppings:
LIVESTOCK:
• Community Based Rangeland Improvement. Livestock Nutrition
• Sheep Breed improvement, Angora Rabbit and Pashmina Goat Breeding for Hosiery
Grade Wool Production.
• Correct & Innovative Cultural Practices and Management for Fodder Production (3-D
Herbs, Shrubs and Forbs and Fodder Trees).
• Improved Design Cattle/ Sheep Sheds/ Folds for Winter/ Summer Protection.
• Small, Alternate Energy Incubator and Improved Geodesic Domed Chicken Coops for
Backyard Poultry Production based on Rhode Island Red (RIR) Breed Introduction.
WATER:
• Conservation Irrigation in the light of Global Warming and Reduced Water Availability.
Sub-Soil (Reticulation & Shiftable Drip) Irrigation. Micro Irrigation:
• Surface and Roof-Top Water Harvesting.
• Wetlands Development:
• Water resource management: Trans Basin Water Management.
• Below Grade Water Storage. Aquifer Mapping and Improvement: Aquifer recharging:
• Resistivity Mono-pole Profiling and Sounding:
• Desalinization Plants: Ozone Generator:
• Scientific Soil and Water sampling and analysis.
FISH:
• Trout Hatchery/ Fisheries Development/ Artemia Raising. Pilot Recirculation
Aquaculture System (RAS).
• Development of Fish Ponds:
• Fish seed/egg procurement; Incubation and hatching of eggs.
• Rearing of brood fish. Procurement of ripe sexual products by stripping and artificial
fertilization.
• Rearing of larvae, fry and fingerling
• Fish Harvesting and Marketing:
• Saline Fisheries Development:
• Aquaponics/ Barrelponics:
• Inland Mariculture:
COMMERCE:
• Asset-Based In place of Needs-Based Community Development:
• Economic Gardening.
• Wool Processing.
• Hosiery Grade Wool Production/ Processing/ Spinning/ Shawl & Blanket Weaving and
Value Addition for Export.
• Collective Micro Enterprise.

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• Hand Line Canning uses small mechanical machines with no power input to manufacture
Cans from Food Grade tin Sheets.
• Business Development and Value Chain.
• Embroidered made-ups prepared in remote villages in Mansehra on collective basis.
Community Economics:
• Containerized Factory:
• Micro Investment Plans: Micro Credit:
• Local Industry:
• Maritime Industry: Ship Building:
• Establishment of EC Standards Fish Processing & Export Units:
• White Clay:
• Development of detailed baseline information for development of multi-pronged working
strategy.
• Hand line canning for low-cost canning to preserve food stuffs and export local produce.
• Development of a network of stakeholders for coordinated work with shared objectives.
ENVIRONMENT:
• Solid Waste Segregation; Composting & Value Addition.
• Vanilla Beans Intercropping in Humid Orchards (Litchis in Sharqpur Shareef, Punjab):
• Hyperaccumulater Plants for Phytoremediation seeds of Sesbania for growing in Waste
Water Gardens’ to be used in cardboard industry as livelihood source.
• Bioaugmentation
• Botanical/ Reed Beds: Artificial Wetlands; Constructed wetlands
• Need to reinforce Food Chains and Webs and replenishing in order to ensure health and
continued functioning.
• Polyacralamide (PAM), Water Gel Crystals & Hydro Seed Mulching
• Windbreaks, Dune Stabilization:
• Afforestation, Wildlife Conservation of endangered species., Ecotourism:
• Promotion of Indigenous vegetations.
INFRASTRUCTURE:
• Geodesic Dome Emergency Shelter.
• Geodesic Dome (Super Insulated, Earthquake; Fire; Heat Proof). Poultry/ Table Birds,
Livestock Shed Habitation, Cold Store, Grain Stores, Energy Dome.
MECHANISMS:
• Social Network Analysis, Page Rank Algorithm for Ranking and Social Network analysis
to pinpoint Centrality/ Nexus of Trust by uncovering Flow-Betweeness to select Village
Executive Committees:
• Management Audit, System Analysis Assessment and Planning:
• Participatory and Reflective Analytical mapping (PRAM):
• Assessing and Planning Rural Sustainability:
• Systematic Analysis of Experience (SANE):
• Development of Reflective Capacity:
• Institutional Implementation Capacity Assessment
• Geographical Information Systems (GIS)
• Barometer of Sustainability: For measuring and combining indicators of human and
ecosystem well-being and progress towards sustainability
• GIS for Project Management/ M&E.
• Sustainable Development Action Plan:

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Ethos.
I. Education.
II. Technical/ Vocational Training.
III. Sustainable Development.
A. Solid/ Liquid Waste Treatment.

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1. Community Led Total Sanitation.
2. MSW-MLW Co Treatment for Energy Generation.
B. Biomelioration.
1. Water Recycling.
2. Waste Water Gardens.
C. Soil Conservation.
1. Hydro Mulch Seeding.
2. Drainage.
3. Armoring.
D. Structural Deep Democracy.
E. Agri-Eco Zones Administration.
F. Nutritional Food Security.
1. Aquaponics/ Barrelponics.
2. Mushroom Kullas.
3. Kitchen Gardens.
G. Rational Agriculture.
1. Fertigation.
2. Salt Tolerant Economic Crop Varieties.
3. Compost.
H. Energy.
1. Solar.
2. Wind.
3. Saline Water.
4. Methane.
I. Water Security.
1. Underground Reservoirs.
2. Karez System.
3. Energy Efficient Pumping.
4. Aquifer Mapping.
5. Water Harvesting.
6. Desalinisation.
7. Ozone Generation.
8. Conservation Irrigation.
a. Drip Irrigation.
Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 24
b. Sub Soil Irrigation.
c. Sprinkle Irrigation.
J. Economic Gardening.
K. Construction.
1. Cold Stores.
2. Utilities.
3. Community Centers.
4. Training Centers.
5. Clinics.
6. Education.
7. Military Bunkers.
8. Underground Transport.
9. Homes.
10. Grain Stores.
L. Rapid Micro Enterprise Establishment.
1. Maritime Industry.
2. Containerized Factories.
3. Conglomoculture.
4. Cottage Industry.

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STRUCTURAL DEEP DEMOCRACY (SD2):
Imagine a voting system which:
1. One is a candidate from receiving only one vote from another.
2. All candidates are in a ranked hierarchy in real-time.
3. Popularity isn't the only measure; strength of vote is also a factor.
4. It is peer ranking instead of popular ranking.
5. Generalist selection is mandatory (two or more).
6. Specialist selection is an option.
7. Direct referendum votes are an option.
8. Can be used in conventional organizations to form executive committees.
Structural Deep Democracy (SD2): A transitive proxy voting approach to democratic-
republicanism. SD2 uses TMMP (Transitive Mandatory Multiple Proxy) modified PageRank as a
centrality algorithm to analyze votes to determine the center of TRUST and CONSENT in a
human trust network, then keeps those leaders accountable with frequent rank recalculations. The
top three or five lead such an organization with one of them as the executive. This creates a small
and efficient locus of trust and accountability to lead the organization.
PageRank, with the additional constraint of mandating that at least two proxy votes be
chosen, Transitive Mandatory Multiple Proxy (TMMP), allows the best leaders to determine who
the best leaders are, eliminating the popularity game of conventional populist-democracy. SD2
can be used by nonprofits, businesses, government entities, but it is intended to be best for grass-
roots activism for groups thirty or more, and is scalable to a global level. SD2 can also be used as
DIRECT DEMOCRACY, by allowing voters to vote directly on issues AND vote for
representatives, creating a DD/ RD hybrid that encourages PARTICIPATORY DEMOCRACY.
Those who claim that Islam has not enunciated a clear method of Governance are sadly
lacking in insight and knowledge. Vested interests soon usurped power and cast the true
methodology of Governance into obscurity. Islam promotes participatory and egalitarian systems
of Governance by consensus as opposed to exclusivist, highly competitive oligarchies (rule of
the rich) disguised as democracies or representative Governance. Those who uphold Western
Democracy as an ideal are perhaps not aware of the fact that they promote the rule of the largest
minority instead of the majority. For example in a population of one hundred (or any number) if
they are five candidates and forty % abstain from voting. If twenty five % vote for one, fifteen %
for another and the rest (twenty %) are divided between the remaining three candidates. The
person who garners twenty five percent of the votes is deemed to be successful. Is this not unfair

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 1


to the remaining seventy five %? This system soon degenerates into voter buying, conflicts and
rivalries and promotion of divide and rule policies on the part of external and internal vested
interests. Technocratic responsibilities are undertaken by those who are unqualified for these
positions and the question arises as to why they vie for election and the holding of power. Can
we divorce human psychology from practical matters? As referred to before those who are under
the sway of the lower or animal self commanding to evil, the Nafs-e-Ammara, are usually at the
forefront in seeking election and dominance in direct opposition to Islamic injunctions. For those
who object to this statement by citing the example of so called “Religious Parties” in the fracas
that is called Politics, are easily answered by the words “Beware Lest The Nafs assume the garb
of Piety”. This situation is the worst condition that a person can fall into, in other words that of
being wrong and yet convinced of being right and that too with Divine Sanction.
As an alternate, a system that uncovers the Centrality or Nexus of Trust within Society is
called for. This fairly or unfairly competitive atmosphere that prevails within society has to be
eradicated if we are to exist as a society. The questionable intents of those who pitch themselves
into the Political arena; the vast expenses incurred upon elections; voter buying; coercion;
subversion by local and foreign intelligence agencies; the ill will generated by competition and
the requirement to recoup expenses incurred by those who win, show ample need for reform.
Page Rank Algorithm is one such method for uncovering centrality. This algorithm is used to
rank web sites. As a graphic illustration in the society of one hundred voters cited above with the
same turn out, each voter is required to select a minimum of five individuals. At the end of the
exercise the results go through various software of statistical and social network analysis. A
graphic illustration of selection and grouping is made. The person who received the most votes
and also the trends of voting as well as interconnectedness of each voter is graphically displayed
as an interlocking grid or network. The center most five individuals in the network are selected
to form an executive committee to run the affairs of the community. They are free to form sub
committees of those qualified for various activities pertinent to that society (agriculture, trade
etc.). Accountability is inbuilt into the system as a repeat of the exercise immediately reveals
whether the committee members have lost the position of trust due to any reason or retained it by
excelling. This method relieves society from division and promotes cohesion. Here consensus
and taking society along is rewarded and the opposite is soon exposed and disposed.

"The results are amazingly accurate and display the inner dynamics of the group with astonishing
accuracy...Nawab is next in seniority and first as a Technician. He definitely deserves
centrality." 
- Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan, Leader in Sustainable Development and Chairman, Khidmat
Foundation, commenting about a pilot study with Contact Youth.

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Agri-Eco Zones Administration
I. Zone Sustainable Development Authority
A. District Sustainable Development Authority
1. Tehsil Sustainable Development Authority
a. UC/ Village Sustainable Development Authority
AGRI-ECO ZONES ADMINISTRATION
Presently Pakistan is administered through 5 Provinces and 1 Disputed territory. These
are: Sindh; Baluchistan; Punjab; Khyber Pukhtunkhawa and Gilgit-Baltistan. The disputed
territory is Azad Kashmir. It is submitted that The Almighty Created the World which ultimately
evolved into Agri-Ecological Zones. The Administration of any territory should be along the
lines of these zones to make for complete and sustainable administration on the lines of a single
zone for ease of governance. This should be irrespective of race as the world was not created for
occupation on racial lines. Administration along Agri-Ecological lines would serve to blur racial
divisions within National Boundaries. In Pakistan the majority of the area is occupied roughly
along these very lines and separate races can club different zones on Provincial basis to maintain
harmony and identity. There are 9 such zones divided Provincially into 2 Sandy Desert and 3
Irrigated Plains, making 12 areas in total.

I= Indus Delta. II = Southern Irrigated Plain. III = Sandy Desert (a & b). IV = Northern Irrigated
Plains (a & b). V = Barani Lands. VI = Wet Mountains. VII = Northern Dry Mountains. VIII =
Western Dry Mountains. IX = Dry Western Plateau. X = Sulaiman Piedmont.1
1
Map of Pakistan Agri-Ecological Zones. Regional Soil Survey Report, Rawalpindi Area, Soil Survey of Pakistan.

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Zone/ District/ Tehsil/ UC-Village Sustainable Development Authorities:

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There is a dire and pressing need to introduce Appropriate, Integrated and Sustainable
Approach to Sustainable Development, keeping in view latest trends that are producing
“Results”. This is due to the fact that present mechanisms and Approaches have failed to
‘Deliver’. A short analysis is given below:
Assets-based Community Development:
Needs-Based Community Development: Traditional Model:
• Based on Needs
• Goal Institutional Change
• Conversation Problems and Concerns
• Change Agent Power
• View of Individual Consumer/ Client
Needs are based on Community Problems
Assets-Based Community Development: Alternate Model:

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• Based on Assets
• Goal Building Communities
• Conversation Gifts & Dreams
• Change Agent Relationship
• View of Individual Producer / Owner
Assets are based on Community “Treasures”
“Asset-Based” Development:
 Reorients development from a “needs-based” approach. Needs-based models seek to
identify weaknesses in a local community and then implement strategies to overcome
those weaknesses.
 This method of mobilizing citizens focuses on negative characteristics of a community
and demoralizes local residents, thus limiting proactive action at the local level.
 Focusing on local assets, instead of needs and deficits, allows residents to identify
possibilities for change that they can control, and energizes residents to take action.
Asset-Based Community Development:
Individual self-interest Asset Mapping Catalyst
Relationships undeveloped which causes
Relationships to Develop

Relationships form One Outcome


based on is Community Action!
Networks, Trust and Norms

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While the needs-based approach focuses on garnering external resources to solve
problems, the alternative asset based approach looks for residents’ personal skills and dreams
and links them to action through a public articulation of these local assets.

ECONOMIC GARDENING:
Economic gardening is an economic development model that embraces the fundamental
idea that entrepreneurs drive economies. The model seeks to create jobs by supporting existing
companies in a community. The concept, pioneered in 1987 in Littleton, Colorado, when the
State was in a recession, is an alternative to traditional economic development practices. It
initially was based on research by MIT's David Birch, who suggested that most new jobs in any
local economy were produced by the community's small, local businesses. In Littleton, City
Leaders observed that only 3 to 5 percent of all Companies were "high growth" but determined
that those "gazelles" were creating the great majority of new jobs.
Economic gardening connects entrepreneurs to resources, encouraging the development
of essential infrastructure and providing entrepreneurs with needed information. The Economic
Gardening initiative provides local entrepreneurs with access to competitive intelligence on
markets, customers, and competitors that is comparable to the resources customarily only
available to large firms. Included in the market information category are database and data
mining resources, and geographic information systems.1
Economic Gardening is an effective way for States and Regions to “Grow their own”
Companies instead of economic hunting activities that have a questionable track record of
success.
Organizations often confuse Economic Gardening principles with traditional economic
development tactics. Gardening is not about connecting entrepreneurs with support institutions or
helping them with their operations, workforce development or tax credits. It is about leveraging
research using sophisticated business intelligence tools and databases that growth companies
either aren’t aware of or cannot afford. Research specialists typically assist in four key areas:
strategic market research, geographic information systems, search engine optimization and social
media marketing. Examples of how specialists help companies include:
 Identify market trends, potential competitors and unknown resources
 Map geographic areas for targeted marketing
 Raise visibility in search engine results and increased web traffic
 Track websites, blogs and online communities to better understand competitors and
current and potential customers
 Make informed decisions on core strategies and the business model
The virtual model, using trained specialists and team leaders, enables time-crunched CEOs to
participate in an Economic Gardening network without ever leaving their offices. The programs
are hosted by Entrepreneur Support Organizations on a local, regional or statewide level.2

1
http://www.kauffman.org/what-we-do/resources/policy/economic-gardening
2
https://nationalcentereg.org/

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RAPID MICRO ENTERPRISE ESTABLISHMENT:

Features: Each containerized system is engineered to your specifications with multiple options
available. These systems can include:
 Leg Supported Silo
 Bulk Bag Frame - designed for 2 ton super sacks.

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 Storage hopper
 Volumetric screw feeder
 Wetting cone or Slurry make down/storage tank with mixer, and level devices.
 Slurry feed pumps if required.
 All required piping and valves.
 Local control system with
 Programmable logic controller (PLC) including pre-programmed system logic.
All systems are completely tested with water for engineer or customer viewing before leaving
our facility. All IPM’s control panels are UL or CUL listed. Systems are provided with all
piping and conduit pre assembled to the fullest extent.

Containerized Incinerator. Desalination Plant.


Conglomoculture: Private Sector Development, Creating Markets, Transforming Lives:
It is quite obvious that there is many a gap in development, resulting in deprivation and
misery in large parts of the Globe. Lack of resources makes it quite often impossible for S and
MMEs to overcome market failure due to inability to provide specialization, access information
or establish bargaining power. Gender and environmental concerns are at the forefront for
fostering a development framework that provides a solution to poverty alleviation. The most
successful Development Schemes around the world have been and remain those of small holders/
manufacturers. These consist of banding together, provision of training, inputs and supervision,
manufacturing/ harvesting, storage, processing, packaging and eventual sale. The complete
support provided by a selfless and non-paternalistic Organization based upon technological
excellence has proved to be extremely effective in many Countries around the World.
Economic dynamism, growth and general all round prosperity is the goal and target of
most human endeavor. It is an established fact that the Private Sector is “the main driving force
of industrial development in virtually all countries and ---“. 3 The Private Sector is therefore the
target of study and analysis in order to ensure that this goal is achieved. Much has been and will
be written on this subject. However, a combination of close on ground scrutiny of existing
conditions; hands-on research at the grass roots level in many locations within an under
developed Country and a deep study of current research is called for. It is quite obvious that there
is many a gap in development, resulting in deprivation and misery in large parts of the Globe.
Many economic models have been tried out in various countries with the current ‘Free Market
Economy’ leading in achieving prosperity. Despite this, there is widespread disparity in attaining
success. “Ending poverty, the aspiration of the Millennium Development Goals, is the overriding
developmental objective of the 21st century. Despite great progress in the past 50 years, 1.2

3
UNIDO Service Module 4: Private Sector Development - Overview

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 5


billion people—one-fifth of the people on Earth—live on less than US $1 a day, without access
to many of the social services basic to a decent human life.”4
Lack of access to funding and long-term finance is agreed to be the major stumbling
block for the Small and Medium Enterprises to achieve the target of sustainability and thus
provide income and employment to the vast majority of the poor. This perceived lack of
resources makes it quite often impossible for S and MMEs to overcome market failure due to
inability to provide specialization, access information or establish bargaining power. Clustering
and Networking are tentative first steps towards overcoming these problems without reversion to
the communes or even cooperatives of the past. “Clustering is generally defined as a process of
firms and other actors co-locating within a concentrated geographical area, cooperating around a
certain functional niche, and establishing close linkages and working alliances to improve their
collective competitiveness.”5 As far as Networking is concerned it is recognized that: “One of the
most compelling ways to help firms succeed is by increasing the power of the linkages and
networks they are part of. Many business ecosystems bypass weak regulatory environments by
creating private capacity for regulation and enforcement within the network. This capacity can
reduce asymmetries within networks and enhance the ability to enforce contracts, thus building
trust in the system.”6
Human greed and competitiveness are at the same time seen as pitfalls and on the reverse
of the coin, driving factors for success. How to balance this driving force and regulate it in order
to attain fair development for all is perhaps the real problem that lies at the heart of the issue.
Gender and environmental concerns are at the forefront for fostering a development framework
that provides a solution to poverty alleviation. It is recognized that lack of education as well as
fractured communities that lack cohesiveness and carry cultural barriers and taboos are major
stumbling blocks for unleashing the potential of individuals to achieve economic well-being.
Prosperity cannot and should not be imposed from above or from the outside. It is an often
elusive chimera that has to be nurtured within the bosom of the community. The spark has to be
enkindled from within and then husbanded to ensure that it grows into a steady blaze that is
equitable; just; environmentally safe; socially acceptable and exists for all without exception.
It is estimated that there are 9 to 10 million people engaged in the informal sector of the
rural economy in Pakistan alone. How to include the strengths of Large Enterprises in the efforts
of micro, small and medium enterprise and yet retain innovative dynamism and avoid
bureaucracy and red tape can be best achieved through adoption of targeted production for, or
under, an umbrella organization. Hindustan Lever is an example of effective intervention that
caters for many of the concerns elucidated above. In Japan and Taiwan, supporting Institutions
for small farmers were carefully and persistently built up. Development of land, Institutions and
skills were emphasized. In Pakistan, of all the Crash Programs; Community Development
Projects; Land Reforms; Chemical Fertilizers; Pesticides and Miracle Seeds, it was only the
inputs that proved to have a lasting impact upon the rural poor.
A practical working model closer to home is a modified Sialkot Model; Sialkot is an
Industrial City in Pakistan that manufactures Surgical Instruments and Sports Goods for export.
4
Unleashing Entrepreneurship: Making Business Work for the Poor
Commission on the Private Sector& Development: Report to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
5
Jens Sorvik, co-author of the Cluster Policies Whitebook, the International Organization for Knowledge Economy
and Enterprise Development (IKED). Quoted from Development Gateway Expert Perspective.
6
Unleashing Entrepreneurship: Making Business Work for the Poor: Commission on PSD report to the Secretary
General UN.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 6


Piece work is sub let to small manufacturers who work out of their homes. Another example is
from Faisalabad, Pakistan where small looms are installed in many low income homes to
augment production for Cotton value added goods that this city specializes in. Yet another
example of success is from Malaysia in its quest for establishing Palm Oil plantations targeted
for export. The most successful Development Schemes around the world have been and remain
those of small holders/ manufacturers. These consist of banding together, provision of training,
inputs and supervision, manufacturing/ harvesting, storage, processing, packaging and eventual
sale. The complete support provided by a selfless and non-paternalistic Organization based upon
technological excellence has proved to be extremely effective in many Countries around the
World. The complete and integrated support provided to Malayan settlers in a fresh project, has
been criticized as being almost ‘paternalistic’ as well as extremely expensive. However, cost:
benefit analysis has shown the most remarkable results in poverty eradication and economy
generation at the grass roots level. The Organizations created for this development have emerged
as giants in the commodity market in Malaysia. Diversification as well as value addition has
served to keep up the tempo of expansion. There are many malpractices associated with some of
the above cited examples that need to be kept in mind in order to avoid their inadvertent
inclusion in any suggested framework for sustainable development.
The use of ICTs is an added advantage to make use of the Global Knowledge bank as
well as to keep current with market demand and supply. Electronic and Mobile Commerce are
the vehicles which can provide immediate response with flexibility and cut down lead times in
order to maximize profits. At the same time innovative and low cost inputs can be readily
accessed to overcome problems and fulfill requirements that would otherwise be subject to time
consuming and costly inputs and efforts. The questions remain firstly, ‘How to effectively
combine and deploy these best practices in order to ensure success?’ Secondly, ‘How to ensure
that gender concerns and environment imperatives are adequately catered for’ and thirdly, ‘How
to overcome lack of education?’
Training is a primary component however, it is highlighted that there has to exist a better
link between training and employment. Training that does not take into account employment
activities and the generation of employment, not only fails to satisfy the needs of the unemployed
but may actually increase migration to the cities. Thus, the very purpose of training is defeated.
Generally, participants are imparted agricultural training and other skills to find talent. Once a
particular talent is discovered, efforts are concentrated to develop that skill. Trainees are required
to actually perform those activities, which are relevant to them, within specific rural life
conditions and locally available resources. Training content, methodology and instructional
material must derive from the know-how requirements of rural activities and from the learning
characteristics of the target populations. Rural workers should be provided the skills and
knowledge that can be put to immediate use, rather than providing them with skills that are
required in an open employment market. Thus, Training Programs are designed to produce
graduates who can perform Manufacturing or Agricultural based functions in a better and more
effective manner by employing improved techniques. If training is directly related to production,
the participants are actually allowed to produce goods. In this manner, the operating costs of
training can be greatly reduced, if not all together eliminated. Thus, self-reliance is extended to
even initial activities. This method more than ensures that the learners develop skills that are
appropriate to their needs at a particular time, thereby eliminating waste of time, money and
effort. For instance programs have been designed wherein 1 acre of family land is earmarked for
the sole use of the participant, selected from the family. Usually this will be a semi-literate

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 7


youth. He is provided on-job training by supervising ongoing productive farm work on his land.
An example is the Chitambo Youth Project, carried out in the late 70's in Zambia. The CCZ
Twofwane Program involved work on a commune farm. Here a small plot was earmarked to
each participant. He was helped to produce and allowed to retain the profit. Gradually he was
helped to establish his own farm.
“The quality of goods that poor people purchase—whether food, water or financial
services—is almost always substandard.” Often, an informal private sector fills the gaps with
goods of higher prices and varying quality. It serves an important need, for informal economies
sustain the majority of poor families in many countries. Yet the advantages of economies of scale
and scope are missing from the lives of people at the bottom of the pyramid. Some of the barriers
are poor marketing and poor distribution.” 7This factor is the flip side of the coin wherein the
poor pay more for less quality; this factor exacerbates an already dismal situation. Immediate
reversal to a situation where quality is provided at competitive rates but also provides income to
the Executive Committee is an example of sustainability. Exclusion of the middleman is not
aimed at; rather the existing entrepreneur is co-opted into the network by providing credit and
eliminating undue duplication and competition. This is one area of intervention where unbridled
and cut throat competition by price manipulation and sub standard goods is uncalled for. An
example is of those shopkeepers who hold fresh vegetables on credit, sell at more than double
rates and pay the grower from revenue generated from his own produce. Current market rates
and profit margins can be regulated through Executive Committees of the sort that we are talking
about.
Informal community credit has long been a practice in Pakistan and is called “Komittee”.
Here a group of individuals agree to deposit a fixed sum at fixed periods. Individual members are
provided the combined deposited sum on revolving basis. The success of this informal system is
amazing and many short term requirements are financed through this system. Similarly
immediate credit for long term production can be provided to members of a structured and well
organized community. The poorest and most deserving are provided with credit from the entire
community on a priority basis and helped to achieve targets and attain sustainability. In this
system even private money or electronic credit as practiced by Multi National Banks can be
emulated at Micro Level. Federal and Provincial Governments can contribute to underwriting
these efforts as well as maintain monitoring. Where regulatory frameworks are weak or absent,
adaptive frameworks can be emplaced within these grassroots organizations. These organizations
can introduce their own currency such as LETS being practiced in some communities. Social and
peer pressure can be readily brought to bear with a human face that recognizes problems and
weaknesses at the individual level due to the fact that they are part of that society. The emphasis
is placed upon solving problems and issues rather than penalizing shortcomings.
Umbrella Organizations: With this framework emplaced for representation, large Umbrella
Organizations can be formed to implement Development Activities. This is necessary in order to
ensure that there is no undue duplication and development interventions are pertinent to
particular areas. This activity is called the Community or Collective Approach and has achieved
success in Countries as diverse as China (where it originated) and Malaysia. It is used to channel
Community based Growing/ Rearing or Production through provision of Training; Production
Orders; Raw Materials; Plant and Equipment; Quality Control and Marketing. The Approach is
not paternalistic but is completely participatory. The bargaining power thus attained as well as
large scale purchase of inputs at reduced rates will afford sustainability to the production and
7
Unleashing Entrepreneurship: Making Business Work for the Poor, Chapter 1, Section 8.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 8


basic economy generation efforts of the people involved. The Managing Committees of these
Umbrella Organizations should have Village Organization Executive Committee members on the
Boards as well as hire professionals to undertake specialized functions. Thus expertise can be
brought to bear for running the affairs of micro enterprises empowered to behave as
Conglomerates. Regulating activities on a large scale can easily be affected through these bodies.
Unfair Trade & Manufacturing Practices can be eradicated through careful supervision and
affiliation with International Agencies such as the ILO. Secondly, funds from Regulating Bodies
with specific agendas and incentives for meeting the targets of International Agreements such as
the Prototype Carbon Fund of the World Bank, amongst others, can be tapped. Environment
concerns can be inbuilt and ensured through legislation. Trans National Micro Finance
Institutions and Development Institutions can support these efforts with a systematic and
transparent accountability as well as Monitoring and Evaluation procedures. Productivity can be
linked to perceived Regional and National requirements such as the balancing of Trade with
other Regions/ Countries as well as Import substitution resulting in less haulage which in turn
reduces Carbon Emissions and improves local economies. Regions of endemic poverty can be
directly addressed along with mandatory prioritization of targeting poor and disadvantaged
groups within populations.
Marketing: While manufacturing; processing and packaging can be effectively emplaced, it is
marketing that is the weakest link in the chain. If Community Conglomerates are established to
meet specific targets, marketing is assured. A reverse process of marketing can be integrated into
the proposed mechanism.
Example: Pakistan first experimented with growing tea in the hilly north of the country as far
back as twenty years ago. The effort was successful yet received no impetus to thrust it to the
forefront and help reduce an enormous import bill. Along came UniLever Pakistan and
established a tea growing and processing enterprise with the help of funding from the Provincial
Bank where the effort was taking place. Results of second best in the world were loudly
trumpeted about and yet the pace of expansion was sluggish to say the least. Seven years down
the line UniLever is pulling out and fifteen hundred farmers are left in suspense. They waited
four long years to earn from their farms as intercropping was not allowed. This rather dismal
situation can be dynamically reversed through the intervention and mechanism outlined above.
At a very minimum ten districts can produce in place of a small part of one presently engaged in
the effort. Economics of scale will ensure cost effectiveness and establish a strong presence in
the International market. By using complete foliar nutrition, competition between plants for
nutrients ceases to be an issue and intercropping can provide returns until the tea crop is
established. This has been tried out on-ground with many plant species and has proved itself time
and again. Yields from wheat crops have been increased by 800 Kgs per acre while potato crops
have improved from thirty, 100 Kg bags to eighty bags. This is a much better business ecosystem
than the one that has currently failed despite being successful! The model, once established, can
be enhanced to include planting of Olives and other edible oil bearing plants as well as fruit,
herbs, spices, condiments and aromatic plants. All of these can thrive in the area and are lacking
merely due to absence of knowledge and quality inputs. The picking; sorting; cleaning;
processing and packaging of these products will directly benefit women and landless poor. Thus
all classes of society are integrated to support ongoing resource generating ventures.
The mechanism is established to enable the formation of a platform on which activities
are based. The interface required is knowledge and facts regarding that particular activity.
Training material in local languages, graphically illustrated and published on the web with

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 9


mobile and wireless pc connectivity will serve to fill this niche requirement. Authoring,
publishing, accounting and word processing as well as art and graphic capabilities in local
languages are all required to support the effort.
Conclusion: The reference to the Malaysian Oil Palm Plantation came with the quote “Do not
ask how much it cost? Ask how much it would cost not to do it.” Fanaticism is fuelled by
complete reliance upon fickle fortune, with assured prosperity or even hope for the future, the
gentler path of pragmatism is opted for. Without this vital support net and positive direction at
the grass roots level there exists a very real threat to immediate survival. This has got to be
recognized and solutions provided to escape a never ending spiral of crisis that further aggravates
rather than alleviating an already fractured existence!
The Development Dilemma:
The Technological tools and knowledge, that has become and is fast becoming, available
in the modern world, requires a great deal of expertise and experience to be used effectively. It is
quite obvious that this level of skill is lacking. However, Information Technology is able to
overcome this problem to some extent. A Sustainable Development Action Plan is a precise,
detailed, highly technical and elaborate document. The present methodology that is being
adopted for formulation of such a Plan, be it through the an International Organization or through
the PE&DD of the Provincial Government or even what is proposed at Village, Union/ Tehsil/
District Council levels, needs to be improved. The need is pressing and the intent quite correct,
however the methodology needs to be altered. Even the blanket implementation of the
Devolution Plan faced many problems; it should have been implemented from the Village or
Neighborhood level incrementally and supported with complementary activities. The efforts by
the District Conservation Strategy Support Units of the IUCN based upon a process of National
Conservation Strategy – Sarhad Provincial Conservation Strategy (Baluchistan Conservation
Strategy) and District Conservation Strategy had been designed in the pre-devolution phase of
Government. Decentralization being a key recommendation of all earlier Strategies there is all
the more reason for coming up with a complete and implementable strategy at District level. At
present some of the thinking is based upon earlier experiences in the Sarhad and Chitral District
Strategies. Some of their concepts are outlined below:
Challenges:
Operationalization of District funds to address local issues at the local level.
Bridging the gap between Civil Society and the Public Sector and improving access to
Social Sector facilities.
Integration of Conservation and Sustainability aspects of development in the current
process of Nation building.
Limited autonomy of Line Departments at District level – need for devolution.
Delegation of legal backing and power to local forums.
Equitable and participatory investment of Public funds on local needs.
Rationale:
Lack of participatory, assets based and integrated development at the District level.
Lack of interface between the Public and Private Sectors.
Lack of Village-Union-Tehsil-District input into Provincial development plans leading to
ad hoc and lower impact development interventions.
Lack of equitable development due to non-involvement of locals and centralized
development planning and execution.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 10


Lack of Institutionalization of effective mechanisms to foster decentralization of the
development process.
Local capacity building in environment and development.
Mechanisms of Strategy Formulation:
Formation of District Development Authority.
Collection & Collation of Primary Data.
Preparation of Introductory paper/ inception report and its distribution amongst
Stakeholders.
Formation of Round Table of District Stakeholders consisting of Government members
and Civil Society.
Formulation of Steering/ Executive Committee.
Public Consultation process, Union Council, Village level, Male and Female groups.
Identification of priority issues/ sectors.
Commissioning of Sector papers.
Preparation of Strategy Document.
Commissioning of Case Studies to elaborate on prioritized issues.
Continuous liaison and coordination with partners.
It is suggested that this process would benefit greatly from input of up to date primary data.
Some of the measures and framework that could accommodate them are outlined in this paper. If
“Strategies for sustainability are processes of planning and action to improve and maintain the
well being of people and ecosystems” then these measures would greatly aid the process and
bring some order in the picture. It is necessary to know the current state of the well being or
otherwise of the people and ecosystems before planning and action to improve and maintain
them can be possible. This presupposes the requisite knowledge of how and why ecosystems
function and the dynamics of socio-economic conditions within which they interact with people.
What is required is firstly to establish a Detailed Sustainable Development Action Plan. This can
be done by adopting a three pronged approach supplemented by a triple intervention effort.
THREE PRONGED, THREE DIMENSIONAL APPROACH, PTA:

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Indicative Impacts:
• Establishing 55,000 VCs and preparation of 55,000 VDPs in five years
• Significant increase in production of nutritional protein food, value added items,
consumable goods, woolen made-ups, silk yarn/ eggs and craft items.
• Enhancement in opportunities of employability to the extent of 10,000,000 HHs with
50% annual increase through home based handicraft production, rural poultry, Wood
Craft, Livelihood income generation activities, Tourism, Mineral Processing &
Development and Fisheries activities.
• Market facilitation, promotion and development of small/ cottage industrial units in the
private sector would increase employment opportunities for above 40 million males/
females directly & indirectly also these activities will attract local and foreign investors.
• HID centers will provide training to 10 million youths (male & female) annually in
technical education and vocational skills.
• Reverse trend for migration from rural to urban areas.
• Rise in social and economic standards of rural area.
• Leading towards prosperity and well-being of the communities at all levels.
Key Operational Approach:
• Promotion of Participatory Development.
• Institutionalization of Community Driven Initiatives.
• Collaboration with all Stakeholders.
• Building Synergies.
• Service Provider.
• Sustainable Development.
Strategy:
Sustainable Development Action Plans
Formulation of Sustainable Development Action Plans at State and District levels entailing
extensive consultations with local communities in target areas with suitable partners from the
private and public sector. By paying attention to the planning process, the organization will
ensure that its action plans address local needs and are realistic and practical. Secondly, Village
Development Plans will have a formal frame of reference for formulation.
Social Mobilization:
• Formation and registration of V/MDCs.
• Preparation of V/MDPs in light of State and District Sustainable Development Action
Plans.
• Capacity building of V/MDCs.
• Promote coordination and collaboration among stakeholders for implementation of
V/MDPs.
• Ensure sustainability of the development process.
11 steps strategy for Socio-economic up-lift:
1. Preparation of State & District Level Sustainable Development Action Plans.
2. Zoning for Sustainable Development.
3. Demarcation of sub villages.
4. Initial contact and basic Information.
5. Series of dialogue for V/MDC formation.
6. SD2 exercise with Page Ranking for Nexus of Trust.
7. V/MDC registration with Local Government.

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8. Socio-economic survey/ Asset Mapping & Assessment.
9. Village/ Mohallah Development Plan Preparation.
10. Resource Mobilization.
11. Implementation and Execution.
Community Development:
This has been defined as economic development, political empowerment, integrated service
provision, comprehensive planning, as well as job training and housing programs. These diverse
objectives and definitions have often left rural people questioning what is in their best interest
when it comes to local and regional development. Today, new models of rural economic
development are emerging to deal with the changing landscape of rural economies. These models
are linking past, current, and future strategies together as they attempt to provide rural
communities an opportunity to create a new and invigorating future.
Asset Based Vs Needs-Based Development Models:
The recent past has seen great emphasis based on Needs-based Development models which
seek to identify weaknesses in a local community and then implement strategies to overcome
those weaknesses. As a dynamic new concept Asset Based Assessment focusing on local assets,
instead of needs and deficits, allows residents to identify possibilities for change that they can
control, and energizes residents to take action. Financial resources are also viewed differently
within the assets-based model; grants and loans, for instance, are seen as gap-filling instruments,
rather than as guiding forces for the direction taken by the community. In this approach, a
community first organizes itself to identify local assets and, once these are identified, the
community residents become mobilized and reorganize their local assets to create a positive
future. Local assets may include individual, associational (voluntary organizations), institutional,
economic (including hidden economic assets such as the transfer of wealth upon death), cultural
and historic, and natural resource assets. Representatives of the community then map the assets
for visual presentation to the community. The important point in the asset-based model is that
mobilization of local citizens is a key component of local development efforts.
Economic Gardening:
Using local resources to grow their own jobs through entrepreneurial activity, or Economic
Gardening, instead of recruiting them from outside the community, or Economic Hunting. After
studying characteristics of high-growth companies experts found that it was not the size of a
company that predicted business success and growth, but the focus on innovation, new ideas and
processes, and unique products.
Enterprise Facilitation:
In the enterprise facilitation model, local community facilitators are identified and provide moral
and technical support for residents with dreams of becoming entrepreneurs. Where numerous
models of rural economic development are action-oriented, this particular model relies on word
of mouth to advertise the availability of an entrepreneurial facilitator. Enterprise facilitators are
“passive” in that they do not initiate any projects until a committed individual comes forward
with the enthusiasm to move the idea for a new or expanding business forward. After this
individual comes forward, the facilitator helps the individual find a “team” to help with all of the
functions that the individual may not have the skills or interest in completing for a business to be
a success. The facilitator helps build the team to support the potential entrepreneur. Then the
facilitator provides support to the potential entrepreneur by developing a formal business plan
and securing financing for the business. This model focuses on individual entrepreneurs who
have dreams (assets) of owning their own business in a rural community.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 13


Community-Based Entrepreneurial Training:
Another model of community and economic development is community-based entrepreneurial
training and support. This model, originally called EDGE (Enhancing Developing and Growing
Entrepreneurs), has now been adapted in the West. The EDGE program focuses on developing
local community capacity to identify emerging and existing entrepreneurs and provide technical
support to them. Research conducted on this model illustrates the importance of building
community capacity and culture to support entrepreneurial activity in rural communities and
regions. Statistical data has suggested that developing local coalitions focused on supporting
entrepreneurial activity locally increases the number of jobs created as well as the benefits paid
for the newly created jobs. Drawing upon an asset-based approach the Western EDGE model has
five primary objectives. They include:
1. Assisting entrepreneurs to create and evaluate their business plans.
2. Assisting new and current small business owners develop and implement their business
plans, and plan for business growth and expansion.
3. Providing program participants with follow-up support from their local communities.
4. Creating and retaining jobs through the start-up and expansion of small businesses.
5. Facilitating community capacity building by enhancing the structural field around
entrepreneurial endeavors.
Sustainable Development through Community Participation:
The most successful development interventions all over the world comprise Small
Manufacturers/ Growers Associations. Practical problems that are insurmountable on individual
basis are readily resolved through collective efforts. Careful guidance and support for quality
control assure marketing and provide financial security to disadvantaged groups from amongst
the populace. This is specifically true for Women’s Groups. The most successful Development
Schemes around the world have been and remain those of small producers. These consist of
banding together, provision of training, inputs and supervision, production, processing,
packaging and eventual sale. The complete support provided by a selfless and non-paternalistic
Organization based upon technological excellence has proved to be extremely effective in many
Countries around the World. These include the Developed as well as Developing Countries.
To achieve Poverty Eradication through self-reliant basic economy generation using the Comilla
Approach (Late Akhter Hameed Khan) for Rural (Service Centers) relying upon Social
Mobilization at Grass Roots level for Eco-Regional Development.
Tools:
o Survey and Data Collection.
o Impact Analysis (Social, Environmental, Economic - SEE).
o Bioenvironmental Management.
o Electronic/ Mobile-Commerce.
o Intensive Horticulture & Livestock Development.
o Micro Enterprise.
Operational Areas:
o Community Based Micro Enterprise/ Value Addition.
o Agriculture/ Horticulture/ Livestock.
o Minerals/ Chemicals.
o Services.
o Internal Tourism.

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Steps:
o Survey/ Collect Data.
o Build up Knowledge Banks (Cross Reference).
o Collate Data/ Prepare GIS.
o Establish HID Training/ Service Centers.
o Build up Organization for Area Development.
o Assess Assets/ Gather Resources.
o Prepare Short/ Medium and Long-Term Plans.
o Implement/ Evaluate/ Adjust.
o Monitor and carry out Impact Analysis.

Short Term Plan (1st Year):


 Processing Plants for food, beverage, livestock and dairy industry, Recycling, Wool
Spinning, Shawl/ Blanket Weaving, Silk Reeling, Textile Designing and Made-ups (Training and
Collective Production/ Marketing).
 Agriculture/ Horticulture/ Livestock: Small Growers/ Herders Associations for Organic
yields enhancement (Integrated Plant Nutrition/ Management Systems – IPN/MS)/ growing for
Export/ Import Replacement. Establishment of Resource Units – Nurseries/ Germplasm/
Embryos.
 Survey for Mineral Resources, Establishment of Small/ Medium/ Large-Scale Processing
Facilities.
 Training for Small/ Medium/ Large-Scale Chemicals Enterprises/ Marketing Support.
Target Groups:
Employment Generation for Disadvantaged Population Groups (Females, Landless, Wage
Workers), subject to availability of Funds, Service Center establishment for dissemination of
training/ demonstration of excellence for future expansion.
Food Systems Analyses:
Uncontrolled growth of urban communities adversely affects resources and facilities critical to
future food security. There is an urgent need to determine future demand, supply and distribution
of food to expanding urban communities; to design comprehensive systems in which rural crop
and livestock production are holistically integrated with reliable post-harvest preservation and
economic distribution from rural producers to urban processors and markets. There is need and
opportunities for mathematical simulation models to determine the most efficient channels and
times for rural to urban and intra-urban transportation of perishable foods. Opportunities are
apparent for employment in rural agribusiness, in primary processing of perishable food sources
to satisfy changing demands of urban consumers. Professionally competent systems analysts are
urgently needed to cooperate with scientists engaged in research and development for
agricultural and industrial biotechnologies. The author chairs an international working group that

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 15


studies and recommends on holistic integrated food systems. The group's aim is to help ensure
food security for nations and communities at various stages of development and need, nations
with access to a wide diversity of resources.
Past experience in farming and food systems analysis illustrates how development agencies and
governments must first analyze and understand what of relevance exists before prescribing
potential improvements. Food systems analysis first takes account of the opportunities and
resources needed for productive development, the constraints and risks contingent on adaptation
and adoption of unfamiliar innovations and novel technologies.
Industrial Biotechnologies:
Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Plants (PMPs):
Throughout the world the need and demand for improved health care are growing and
diversifying. In consequence, health care industries are changing in structure and activities. The
cost and time to discover and develop new drugs are becoming prohibitive for even the largest
corporations. The pharmaceutical industry is reforming into two complementary sectors: the
large drug companies supported by hundreds of 'specialist biotechnology' companies that provide
specific services under license or through other cooperative arrangements with larger
corporations or other health care providers. The demand for health care services may soon be
greater than can be sustained, particularly where governments seek to provide comprehensive
health care free of charge for all people. Secondly, plants have been genetically modifies to
produce valuable vaccines and medical inputs. Introduction of these plants will lead to local self-
reliance.
Food Security, Income and Poverty:
The ICSU-CASAFA report describes cultivable land as a fast-shrinking resource, and presses the
need to raise food crop yields and farm productivity throughout Asia, Africa and Latin America.
The report specifies the following urgencies:
a) To protect and enhance the natural resource base: farm land, surface and ground water,
genetic diversity;
b) To reclaim and restore fertility in land degraded through misuse;
c) To promote systematic integration of production with post-production activities and to
stimulate establishment and maintenance of rural agro-industries;
d) To devote more research to land capacity classification, soil and water management, to
ecologically conservative land use.

The report illustrates the diversity, lack of consistency and many contradictions among
definitions of, and prescriptions for, sustainable agriculture. It states: "It is unhelpful to propose
any particular production system as sustainable in all ecologies, locations and societies. No
specific system is suitable and sustainable for all circumstances ... Donor agencies should not
seek to impose on poor farmers in developing nations systems designed to remedy wasteful
practices in more affluent agricultural economies." The report contends that donors assign
greater emphasis to agricultural production technologies than to post-production systems; to
policy, social and economic considerations. The report urges far greater support for post-
production systems; for technologies, logistics and economics of preservation, processing,
transport, distribution and utilization.
In simplest terms, food security depends upon a dynamic balance among disposable income,
demand, supply and distribution. Production of food crops, livestock and fisheries must
progressively increase to satisfy expanding and diversifying needs and demands of growing

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 16


populations. Efficient post-production systems, to ensure safe and effective protection,
preservation, transformation and distribution must be economically integrated with production
systems.
Food insecurity, chronic hunger and under-nutrition are both dismal consequences and clear
indicators of extreme poverty. People with money, power and control over negotiable assets
rarely suffer from chronic hunger. Alleviation of food insecurity requires greater opportunities
for paid employment and more equitable access to critical resources and assets among and within
nations.
Due to climatic variability, years with too little or too much rain, damage and destruction by
pests, parasites and pathogens, crop and livestock production inevitably change from year to
year. To compensate for years of poor harvests governments and/or regional organizations
should maintain reserve stocks to carry over surpluses from regions and seasons of abundance to
those of scarcity. The cost of holding reserve stocks should be calculated as an insurance
investment not an unwarranted expense.
Food security need not be synonymous with food self-sufficiency, a nation's ability to produce
all food required by its population. For diverse reasons: climate, topography, soil and climatic
conditions, many nations cannot be self-sufficient and must depend on food aid or imports.
Substantial reductions in food spoilage after harvest could be realized by establishing primary
food preservation and protection facilities in rural areas where crops are cultivated and animals
husbanded. Food saved from spoilage increases total food available and enhances food
availability and security.
Framework:
Thus, three separate but coordinated bodies need to work harmoniously together, in order to
achieve a practical and implementable Sustainable Development Action Plan. This is only
possible if a single controlling authority is provided the mandate to carry out the task. The three
bodies are:
Conservation Strategy (Technically qualified and experienced).
District Development Authoritiy (Highly experienced and locally staffed). Specializing in
Social Mobilization (Community Based Organizations, male and female), networking (Cluster
Groups) and Micro Finance for Micro Enterprise.
Human Resource Development {highly skilled and well equipped specializing in Hands on
Training (HOT)}.
A form of District Development Authority structure, as suggested elsewhere in can provide
government and locally elected interface quite effectively. deploy Management Tools to achieve
the desired results. Some such tools for use by the District Strategy Team are:
Field Survey.
Aerial Photography.
Satellite Imagery.
Ground Survey.
Field Sketch/ Plan.
Management Survey.
Job Analysis.
Job Evaluation.
Management Audit.
Reorganization/ re-equipment.
Monitoring & Evaluation.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 17


Field Survey:
Use: The use to which it will be put is what determines the scope and extent of a Field Survey
and consequently fixes a limit to its extent. We have the territory of a District for which a
Sustainable Development Action Plan is required. It would serve our purpose admirably to
prepare a Surface Condition Land Plan of a scale of 1 cm: 20 m. Separate sheets capable of being
superimposed upon each other would carry details of different categories. These categories could
be:
Administrative and Financial:
Demographic.
Revenue Estates/ Land Tenure.
Villages and Mohallahs.
Land values.
Zoning.
Historical, Cultural and Scientific.
Public Services:
Water Supply.
Sewerage.
Drainage.
Electricity
Telephone.
Gas.
Roads/ tracks.
Physical:
Agriculture.
Vegetation.
Wildlife.
Built-up Areas.
Topographical.
Hydrological.
Soil Conservation.
Geological.
Seismic.
Land use.
Land Capabilities.
Planning/ projections.
ESP: The afore mentioned maps would necessitate the gathering of Bench Mark data of
technical nature. It would establish the present conditions in graphical details. From this basis
and foundation it is possible to make a Sustainable Development Action Plan. This plan would
be an effort to shape/ guide and channelize physical growth and usage in accordance with the
principles of ESP:
Economically Feasible (Economic).
Socially Just (Sociological).
Environmentally Sound (Physical).
This would include improvement or re-planning of existing usage as well as determine a
framework for future usage. Thus the plans should cover projections of as many years into the
future as deemed necessary (10 years, 50 years, etc.). Due to lack of planning and control we are

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 18


saddled with Ribbon Development that takes place along main roads and highways. Each
individual seeks to extract maximum benefit from road frontage and builds as suits them the
most without consideration to the requirements of others or overall community requirements.
Legislation to prevent such development must be made and implemented at all costs in order to
avoid chaos and related civic problems.
Zoning: This is termed as the method of regulating Land use in accordance to the best use that
suits the overall community and the area itself by restricting usage and arranging components of
the area in relation to a specified plan. The overall distinction is made between the following
categories:
Urban.
Civic.
Business.
Industrial.
Residential.
Recreational.
Institutional.
Cultural Heritage.
Rural.
Built-up area.
Residential.
Commercial.
Institutional.
Agricultural.
Rangeland
Wilderness.
Forest.
Recreational.
Pristine.
Reserves.
Parks.
Protected Areas.
Heritage.
Zoning is important for Sustainability as well as the equitable public regulation of private and
government property. A zoning exercise is rigid only in so far as topological details are
concerned. Principles should be adhered to without going into too many details. This leaves
room for rational adjustments in accordance to future requirements. Use density in any sense is
specified and sustainability or using without using up or causing irretrievable damage is ensured.
Procedure: The procedure and manner of carrying out the exercise can be as follows (with
necessary alterations depending upon specific sites).
Declaration of Intent.
Submission of Plan and Budgetary estimates (1 month).
Government Sanction.
Invitation of Public objections (1 month).
Government consideration of objections, holding of inquiries if required and subsequent
sanction for preparation (1-2 months).
Preparation and publication in consultation with stakeholders (12 – 18 months).

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 19


Invitation of Public objections to draft scheme (1 month).
Consideration of objections, modification of draft scheme if required and submission for
Government sanction (4 months).
Sanction of draft scheme and appointment of arbitrator.
Arbitrator proceedings for each area, publication of award and submission of detailed
proposal (6 - 12 months).
Scrutiny of proposals by Tribunal of Arbitration, public proceedings and decisions (4
months).
Final scheme forwarded to Government.
Final sanction after scrutiny and financial implications determination (5 months).
Enforcement (1 month after sanction). 36 to 48 months.
Objectives: The objectives of the exercise are:
Provides overall framework for Sustainable development.
Enables orderly expenditure of Public funds in prioritized manner on projects of
permanent, constructive and sustainable value.
Stimulates wider interest in and understanding of development and environmental issues.
Minimizes mutual conflict and brings about harmony and understanding between
different groups and members of society.
Ensures stimulation of and ensures basic economy generation.
Protection, preservation and enhancement of the economic, social, cultural,
environmental and aesthetic character of the District.
Bill:8 The urban sprawl and haphazard, unplanned construction in the District especially in the
thickly populated areas has created problems not only directly related to growth but has begun to
endanger the environment and our very way of life. It has therefore become necessary to
empower and give guidelines to the local bodies to immediately arrest such growth. Hence the
Bill to enable local councils in the Abbottabad District to specify areas for Land Use.
Whereas it is expedient to enable local councils in the Province to specify and designate areas in
their local limits for land use for the management of growth, encouraging comprehensive
planning, governing the development and use of land, regulating non-conforming use and to
preserve the environment and our way of life and matters ancillary thereto in a manner that is
economically feasible, socially just and environmentally sound in order to achieve Sustainable
Development.
It is hereby enacted as follows:
1. This act may be called the Abbottabad District Local Council Land Use & Sustainable
Development Enabling Act, 2001.
* A simple enabling provision could of course be inserted in an already existing Act;
however, this Act envisages the outline of the sort of zoning required by a Local Council.
1.1 It shall extend to the whole of the District.
1.2 It shall come into force at once.
* Although the Federal Government has declared certain Nature Reserves, there is no law
either Provincial or Federal that would enable any Department or Organization to do so.
2. In this Act unless the subject context otherwise requires:
“Construction” means any man made structure whether temporary or permanent, built upon the
land requiring displacement of earth or change in nature of the land.
“Designated” means designated by a Notification issued by the Local Council.
8
Anjum Saeed, Rotary Club Abbottabad.

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“Government” means Government of Abbottabad district.
“Local Areas” means an area under the jurisdiction of the Local Council.
“Local Council” means Local Council constituted under the N.W.F.P. Local Council Ordinance,
1979 but does not include the Union Council.
* Union Councils have been excluded from Local Councils, as it would create
insurmountable problems at that tier of Government.
“Record of Rights” means and includes the document detailed in section 39 of the N.W.F.P.
Land Revenue Act, 1967.
“Shamilat” means and includes any area so shown in record of rights.
“Zone” means an area specified or designated under this Act.
* The District should be enabled to plan and specify areas for particular use in order to
realize its own needs and secondly to involve the community itself in the exercise. The list of
zones has been shaped not to be overly specific but only to provide a framework towards
planning. It shall ensure that haphazard overlapping of each zone does not take place. At the
same time it would make it incumbent upon each Local Council to carry out zoning exercises as
the following section puts a moratorium upon all construction until this exercise is completed.
This list is not exhaustive and may need further vetting of town planning etc.
3. The Local Council shall designate the Local Areas within the Local Limits into one or
more of the following Zones:
Zone A.
Low density residential areas consisting of single or double story residential detached homes of
not less than 1 kanal plot size along with allied facilities and laid down setbacks.
Zone B.
Medium density residential areas consisting of double story houses of less than 1 Kanal plot size
with allied facilities and laid down setbacks.
Zone C.
High-density residential areas of no limit on plot sizes and erected structures and allied facilities
there upon.
Zone D.
Commercial area consisting of retail shops, bazaars and markets.
Zone E.
Commercial areas consisting of no limits, high rise shopping malls and other retail outlets and
commercial bazaars.
Zone F.
Commercial area consisting of service areas such as motor mechanics and other service
providers requiring large plot sizes.
Zone G.
Warehouses, godowns and mundies.
Zone H.
Industrial areas consisting of small and medium size industries and cottage industries.
Zone I.
Industrial areas of no limits large industries.
* The proviso will ensure that the courts could go into the question of malafide changes
thereby keeping a check upon such misuse.
Zone J.

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Agricultural area where no construction of more than 2000 sq. ft. is allowed for a minimum plot
of 3 acres or more.
* Urban area planning is already envisaged in the local body’s ordinance, however this
has not been implemented. This section will not only solve that problem but shall also include
the unplanned urbanization taking place in the rural areas.
Zone K.
Forest areas with regulated felling/ re-planting.
Zone L.
Rangelands for grazing/ pastures.
Zone M.
Natural reserves where no construction, agriculture, hunting or any human activity is allowed.
Zone N.
Shamilat land, community service areas such as parks, schools, mosques, grazing land,
graveyards, etc.
* The concept of Shamilat exists traditionally in our society. This concept is incorporated
in the record of rights; the absence of any law regulating the use of such land has defeated its
envisaged purpose of common village land to be used by its owners for collective benefit. This
section aims to remedy that problem and give to the local council large tracts of land which
could be used by them for community development and at the same time ensure and arrest
misappropriation by individual Deh owners and preserve village communities as we know them
today. It would also ensure resumption of all such land that has been encroached upon over the
years.
Zone O.
Any other zone with the prior permission of the Government.
* As the above section takes away the rights of the individual to make any construction
after the designation of the zones and it is envisaged that all areas of the District (except the
cantonments) shall be so zoned, it would be necessary to safeguard the existing construction.
However, it is also envisaged that at a point later in time these areas must also fall in line with
the designated zones as we have already allowed cancerous growth to overtake our cities and
villages.
4. The local council may redesignate any zone or change its boundaries with the prior
permission of the Government, provided that such a change or redesignation is not made
maliciously.
5. A complete moratorium is hereby placed upon all construction and land use in the
District until:
5.1 Master plan has been drawn under section 76 of the N.W.F.P. Local Government
Ordinance, 1979 and approved by the District Government.
5.2 The local council for the areas falling within their local limits specifies zones.
6. Ownership and possession of Shamilat lands shall be deemed to vest exclusively in the
local council within whose local area the Shamilat is situated.
7. The existing construction legally made before the commencement of this Act shall
remain outside the ambit of this law until a procedure is laid down by the local council in the
rules framed under this Act whereby a time frame shall be set out to put the existing construction
in conformity with the zones specified under this Act.
8. The local council may:
8.1 Make rules to carry out the purpose of this Act.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 22


8.2 Make byelaws to further manage, control and govern the zones designated by the local
council.
9. Legal implications:
9.1 Who ever contravenes the purpose of this Act or the rules or byelaws made under this Act
shall be punished with fines extending up to Rs. Five Hundred Thousand.
9.2 The Court trying an offense under this Act shall order the demolition of any construction
in contravention of the specified zone.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 23


WASTE NOT!
Introduction: Access to improved sanitation facilities refers to the percentage of the population
using improved sanitation facilities including Solid and Liquid Waste as well as smoke and
particulates. Improved sanitation facilities are likely to ensure hygienic separation of human
excreta from human contact. They include flush/pour flush (to piped sewer system, septic tank,
and pit latrine), ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrine, pit latrine with slab, and composting toilet.

Pakistan (%Coverage) 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015


57 58 60 62 64

WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Report 2012:

An improved drinking-water source is one that by the nature of its construction


adequately protects the source from outside contamination, in particular from fecal matter.
Countries that account for almost three-quarters of the people who practice open
defecation:
 India: 626 million.
 Indonesia: 63 million.
 Pakistan: 40 million.
Note: The above information is based on data available up to and including 2010.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 1


UNICEF Monitoring Report 2016:
Inadequate sanitation in Pakistan costs the country PKR 343.7 billion every year – equal to 3.94 percent
of GDP4.12

1
The Water and Sanitation Program 2012, “The Economic Impact of Inadequate Sanitation in Pakistan”, World
Bank, , accessed July 2015
2
PROGRESS REPORT 2013-2015 Results for children in Pakistan IMPROVE ACCESS TO SANITATION
UNICEF Pakistan

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 2


Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 3
Pakistan
Countries and areas
Year

2015
 
Basic

60
31
soap)Limited (without water or

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8
No facility

NATIONAL
 
Basic

46
Limited
(without water or soap)

43
RURAL
 

Page 4
No facility

11
 
Basic

83
Limited

12
(without water or soap)
URBAN
 

5
No facility
Use of sanitation facilities PSLM15 Pakistan
PSLM

Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement Survey 2015


Survey 2014-15
Definitions Facility type estimates Urban Rural National
Improved 78.1 55.0 63.7
Sewer 58.2 5.0 24.7
Septic 18.5 41.1 32.7
Other 1.4 8.9 6.3

Service level
estimates
Sewer 58.2 5.0 24.7
Default assumption: 100% Wastewater enters network
Default assumption: 100% Wastewater reaches treatment plant
Septic 18.5 41.1 32.7
Default assumption: 100% Contained
Default assumption: 50% Not emptied
Default assumption: 0% Emptied and buried on site
Default assumption: 0% Emptied and discharged locally
Default assumption: 50% Emptied and removed offsite
Default assumption: 100% Delivered to treatment plant
Latrines and other improved 1.4 8.9 6.3
Default assumption: 100% Contained
Default assumption: 50% Not emptied
Default assumption: 0% Emptied and buried on site
Default assumption: 0% Emptied and discharged locally
Default assumption: 50% Emptied and removed offsite
Default assumption: 100% Delivered to treatment plant
Treated
Default assumption: 50% At wastewater treatment plant
Default assumption: 0% At faecal sludge treatment plant
Shared
Safely managed
Data used for estimates
Sewer Yes Yes No
Wastewater enters network No No No
Wastewater reaches treatment plant No No No
Septic Yes Yes Yes
Contained No No No
Not emptied No No No
Emptied and buried on site No No No
Emptied and discharged locally No No No
Emptied and removed offsite No No No
Delivered to treatment plant No No No
Latrines and other improved Yes Yes Yes
Contained No No No
Not emptied No No No
Emptied and buried on site No No No
Emptied and discharged locally No No No
Emptied and removed offsite No No No
Delivered to treatment plant No No No

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 5


Treated - - -
At wastewater treatment plant No No No
At faecal sludge treatment plant No No No
Shared No No No
Original denomination Classification Urban Rural National
Flush and pour flush 96.9 59.7 73.4
flush to sewerage to piped sewer system 58.2 5.0 24.7
Flush to septic tank to septic tank 18.5 41.1 32.7
to pit
to unknown place/ not sure/DK
flush connected to open drains to elsewhere 20.2 13.6 16.0
Flush/toilets
to piped sewer system
to septic tank
to pit
to unknown place/ not sure/DK
to elsewhere
Private flush/toilet
to piped sewer system
to septic tank
to pit
to unknown place/ not sure/DK
to elsewhere
Public/shared flush/toilet
to piped sewer system
to septic tank
to pit
to unknown place/ not sure/DK
to elsewhere
Latrines 2.0 17.9 12.0
Pour flush latrines
to piped sewer system
to septic tank
to pit
to unknown place/ not sure/DK
to elsewhere
Private pour flush latrine
to piped sewer system
to septic tank
to pit
to unknown place/ not sure/DK
to elsewhere
Public/shared pour flush latrine
to piped sewer system
to septic tank
to pit
to unknown place/ not sure/DK
to elsewhere
Dry latrines 2.0 17.9 12.0
Improved latrines
Ventilated Improved Pit latrine
Pit latrine with slab/covered latrine
pit latrine Traditional latrine 1.2 10.6 7.1
Pit latrine without slab/open pit
Hanging toilet/hanging latrine

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 6


Bucket latrine
dry raised latrine Other 0.8 7.3 4.9
Private Latrines
Ventilated Improved Pit latrine
Pit latrine with slab/covered latrine
Traditional latrine
Pit latrine without slab/open pit
Hanging toilet/hanging latrine
Bucket latrine
Other
Public/shared Latrines
Ventilated Improved Pit latrine
Pit latrine with slab/covered latrine
Traditional latrine
Pit latrine without slab/open pit
Hanging toilet/hanging latrine
Bucket latrine
Other

Composting toilet (private)


Composting toilet (shared)
Other improved
Other
Other
No toilet No facility, bush, field 0.8 20.6 13.3
Other unimproved 0.3 1.8 1.2
others Other 0.3 1.8 1.2
Other
DK/missing information
Total 100.0 100.0 99.9
Estimations Non-flush considered improved based on DHS13 1.4 8.9 6.3
Improved sanitation: 78.1 55.0 63.7
Sewerage connections: 58.2 5.0 24.7
Used for the estimates: Yes Yes
Used for the estimates: Yes Yes
Open defecation: No No
Shared facilities: No No
Ratios Shared improved facilities/all improved facilities
Improved latrine / All latrines
Covered dry latrines / All dry latrines
VIP / All latrines
Traditional latrines / All latrines 60% 59% 59%
Improved + traditional latrines / All latrines
Sewerage connection among flush/pour flush 60.1 8.4
Sewerage connection among flush

Issue: Many potentially deadly diseases, such as diarrhea, pneumonia and infections, which
affect Pakistani children, are related to lack of sanitation, poor quality drinking water and
inadequate hygiene. Across Pakistan, diseases related to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH)
are estimated to take the lives of 110 children daily.4 Although Pakistan has made major gains in
eliminating open defecation, more than a third of Pakistanis still lack adequate sanitation
facilities. Most of these people live in rural areas. Whilst 91 per cent of the population uses
improved sources of drinking water, the majority of these are bacteriologically contaminated,
especially in densely populated unplanned urban areas. The water and sanitation infrastructure is

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 7


susceptible to damage by disasters, such as floods or earthquakes. Key issues Lack of adequate
sanitation facilities deters children from education; this is particularly acute for adolescent girls,
whose menstrual hygiene needs are rarely accommodated. Action The Pakistan Approach to
Total Sanitation (PATS) is a revolutionary approach to ensuring that every household in a village
or community has, and uses, sanitation facilities. This approach, pioneered by UNICEF, was
instrumental in achieving Pakistan’s Millennium Development Goal on sanitation. In 2016 alone,
2.3 million more people were living in sanitary environments through this approach. In 2016,
UNICEF began transitioning from implementing PATS itself to helping governments implement
it. UNICEF also developed a new, enhanced program called PATS-Plus which focuses on
ensuring that families do not lapse back into open defecation. Across Pakistan, government
leadership in water and sanitation was strengthened. The Ministry of Climate Change was
mandated the federal focal point for WASH and began to conduct sector-wide dialogue on SDG
6.1 and 6.2 related to water and sanitation. In December 2016, UNICEF joined Government and
other partners in launching a major five-year communication campaign to change social norms
around health and hygiene. This campaign features an unprecedented partnership with Pakistan’s
private sector and Chambers of Commerce. Unhygienic environments have serious implications
for all aspects of children’s wellbeing. For example, lack of WASH facilities in school has been
shown to deter children from education, especially girls as they reach puberty and begin to
menstruate. After completing a study of menstrual hygiene management needs in Balochistan
and Punjab, UNICEF piloted the provision of menstrual hygiene kits to 18,900 young women,
and convened a national forum with UN-HABITAT and other partners to advocate for including
these in education planning. UNICEF mobilized urban communities in Jacobabad, Sindh, to
demand better WASH services, creating social structures to amplify citizens’ voices and
increasing accountability. WASH facilities are particularly vulnerable to natural disaster and
diseases such as diarrhea or typhoid can spread rapidly in such situations. Through a multi-year
partnership with the International Organization for Migration and the FAO, UNICEF enhanced
preparedness and response, including for communities affected by flooding and earthquake in
northern Pakistan. In 2016, UNICEF also focused on helping communities in disaster-prone
districts to create local risk management plans. Risk mapping was conducted in all 35 targeted
disaster-prone districts with 216 community risk maps completed in Punjab.

Universal access to adequate sanitation is a fundamental need and human right. Securing
access for all would go a long way in reducing illness and death, especially among children.
Since 1990, 2.1 billion people have gained access to an ‘improved’ form of sanitation, such as
flush toilets or latrine with a slab. This means that, in 2015, 68 % of the global population was
using such facilities – an impressive accomplishment but still far from the 2015 Millennium
Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 8
Development Goal target, which has been missed by nearly 700 million people. In 2015, 2.4
billion people still lack an improved sanitation facility and among them almost 950 million
people still practiced open defecation. The data reveal pronounced disparities, with the poorest
and those living in rural areas least likely to use an improved sanitation facility. Questions also
remain about the full sanitation chain (containment, emptying, transport and treatment) and
whether excreta are safely reused or returned to the environment.3
Progress on sanitation and drinking-water – 2014 update.
1.Water supply – standards. 2.Sanitation – trends. 3.Drinking water – supply and distribution.
4.Program evaluation.
I.World Health Organization. II.UNICEF.
ISBN 978 92 4 150724 0 (NLM classification: WA 670)

Flowing Gutters from the Water Towers of Pakistan:


Open Air Dumping/ Burning/ Salvaging.
“Water and Sanitation for All”: CLAIM!
Provision of safe water supply and sanitation is necessary to ensure a healthy population.
By 2015, the water supply and sanitation will stand extended to the entire population.
The main elements of the strategy will include the following:
i. Adoption of an integrated approach, rational resource use, and the introduction of water
efficient techniques.
ii. Containment of environmental degradation.
iii. Institutional strengthening, capacity building & human resource development.
iv. Improving performance and utilization of local systems through better planning
management and community participation.
v. Improving quality of and easy access to water supply, especially for women.
vi. Improving sanitation through Sewage and drainage schemes.
 Promoting increased take up of household sanitation.
 Improving the understanding of linkages between hygiene and health through community
education campaigns, especially among the women and children.

3
http://data.unicef.org/water-sanitation/sanitation.html#sthash.oc4MYKsI.dpuf

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 9


Health & Sanitation:
Category High HDI Med. Pakistan
Pakistan HDI
Avg. Avg 2004 - MDG Target Vision 2030
(2004) (2004) 05* (2015)
Health
Population with 97 51 59 90 100
sustainable access to
improved sanitation ( %)
Water Use, Share of Total: Population access to:
Agriculture 95% Safe water Sanitation
Industrial 1% Rural 53% 27%
Domestic/municipal 4% Urban 83% 59%
HDI: Human Development Index; Sources: Human Development Report (2006); Pakistan.
Millennium Development Goals Report 2005; PSLM Survey (2004-05); MTDF, 2005-10; World
Fact Book 2006; Annual Report, Pakistan Telecomm. Authority, 2006; Pakistan Economic
Survey, 2005-06.
Aquifer, Surface and Air pollution is a main concern in Pakistan. The sources are from
both municipal and industrial uses, with only about 1% of wastewater treated before disposal this
has become one of the largest environmental problems in Pakistan.
Every year, millions of people, most of them children, die from diseases associated with
inadequate water supply, sanitation and hygiene. Each and every day, some 6,000 children in
developing and emerging countries die for want of clean water and sanitation. Water scarcity,
poor water quality, and inadequate sanitation negatively impact food security, livelihood choices,
and educational opportunities for poor families across the developing world. Yet, although far
more people suffer the ill effects of poor water and sanitation services than are affected by
headline-grabbing topics like war, terrorism, and weapons of mass destruction, those issues
capture the public imagination – as well as public resources – in a way that water and sanitation
issues do not. While agriculture is the key source of water pollutants in the developed world,
human waste takes center stage in many developing countries, where 90 percent of sewage is
dumped, untreated, into water systems. The net result is a serious reduction in both freshwater
quantity and quality.
Even sewerage systems that “solve” environmental problems and avert health crises in
one area often create environmental problems elsewhere by dumping the untreated sewage into
another community’s water source or common property resource (such as lakes, rivers, coastal
zone or the sea). The immediate trade-offs between improvements in human health and the
quality of life in an urban area and serious negative environmental impacts on the surrounding
area require careful consideration.
The quality of surface water has also been identified as the major issue of water
resources. Untreated waste discharged from factories, industrial units, residential areas and
municipal waste are the prime culprits which are polluting sources of surface water. Industrial
estates revealed some frightening figures that indicated serious threats to the aquatic, terrestrial,
atmospheric ecosystems and to the well-being of human, plant and animal life. Sewage is
allowed to mix with storm water as there is no separate sewage disposal.
We must “Remember the drain is just for rain”.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 10


Additionally the discharge of leachates from Open Air Dumping sites into nearby water
bodies has caused water pollution concentrations exceeding standard values, for items such as
NH3, Mn, and H2S. Analysis of well water found values above the standards for Fecal Coliforms
and Nitrates. With the exception of a few big cities, sewerage service is almost non-existent;
where present it is used for peri-urban horticulture or merely dumped into nearby water bodies,
causing serious public health problems. Of particular reference to Pakistan are the two indicators
related to provision of safe drinking water and sanitation coverage. They have direct linkages
with health and therefore the productivity of the society and its future generations.

District Population 1998 (Census):

# City Population tons/ tons/ per month tons/ per annum


(millions) day
1 Abbottabad 0.11 52.8 1,584 19,272
Quantification of Solid Waste by Category (Tons/ Month):m
ITEM % Abbottabad
Rubber & Leather 3.00 47.52
Textiles 3.80 60.19
Wood 5.30 83.95
Food Waste 10.10 159.98
Yard Waste 12.80 202.75
Paper & Paperboard 38.60 611.42
Others 3.30 52.27
Glass 5.50 87.12
Metals 7.70 121.97
Plastics 9.90 156.82
TOTAL 100.00 1584.00
Biodegradable 35.00 554.40
Recyclable 38.60 611.42
Total Degradable 73.6 1165.82
Non-degradable 26.40 418.18
TOTAL 100.00 1584.00

Solution: Financial SITE (Social: Incentive; Technical; Educational :).


Social: Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) Mobilization.
CLTS represents a radical alternative to conventional top-down approaches to sanitation
and offers hope of achieving the Millennium Development Goals. 4 CLTS emphasizes
community action and behavior change as the most important elements to achieving better
sanitation – without resorting to subsidies. CLTS highlights how communities themselves are
capable of analyzing the problems of fecal-oral routes of disease spread, and of conceiving of
ways to deal with these themselves, rather than outsiders offering prescribed solutions. What
4
Kar and Chambers 2008

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 11


distinguishes Community-Led Total Sanitation from earlier community-based approaches,
therefore, is the way that it emphasizes facilitation rather than education or training. For
example, a report on CLTS from Sierra Leone states that; ‘In three weeks, CLTS has managed to
do what millions of dollars, hundreds of construction projects, and dozens of NGOs failed to do
over decades.
GOAL: People consciously change their because of collective pressure.

Incentive. The best motivation is incentive for performance and fine for non performance. The
practice of Rag Picking by refugee children and other poverty stricken segments of society have
to be stopped. In its place these children/ poor people should be employed in hygienic
surroundings with vocational or formal education ensured. This can be readily done at Waste
Treatment Plants where segregation is a must before biological or physical treatment can be
effected. Secondly, the valuable recyclable items will be preserved for economic benefit to all
employees of the Treatment Plants. Thirdly, the end products of Waste treatment such as energy;
compost and heat should be monetized for economic benefit as mentioned.
The imposition of fines for violation of Municipal/ Environmental Laws should be
gradually imposed as systems are perfected. This can be done through local communities and/ or
Environment Magistrates as already envisaged in Laws of the Land. This last component of
Waste Treatment will ensure 100 % compliance.
Abbottabad is a Mountainous District in the North East of Pakistan. The District consists
of a Broad Valley with two medium sized Plains in the Center and is bounded by large
Mountains to the East and hilly area to the West. The Central Plain (Rash) is quite well
developed, whereas the hilly and mountainous areas are lacking in Civic Facilities. The Western
part is quite backward with poor communications network and is inhabited by mostly poor
people. We are in a strong position to execute Area Development and Civic Amenities Projects
throughout the District on Community Based Participatory terms. Most of the groundwater is
found in the Plains area (though highly polluted) whereas the hilly area is deficient in water
supply. The higher mountain area has good drainage and plentiful rainfall but even this area
needs water supply improvement. Defecation in the open is mostly practiced and this is quite a
problem for women folk and the elderly especially during rains and cold weather.
Access to clean water is a fundamental right and women of the area face difficulty in
traveling great distances to obtain water from springs. Secondly, open air defecation, as
mentioned above, is both unhygienic and problematic. Provision of Water Source improvement
to prevent pollution; storage against drought and emplacement of communal latrines for women
will go a long way in easing the daily struggle for existence. The amount of drudgery involved in
simple daily tasks of necessity will be curtailed and an opportunity will be provided to
concentrate upon livelihoods and education. Fragmented society needs integration to struggle for
their rights in a peaceful and democratic manner. The process of implementing; supervising and
administration of badly required Public Amenities will act as a catalyst to organize poor women
of the area.
In so far as statistical data is concerned, the following précis is submitted:

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 12


The district is divided into two Tehsils Abbottabad and Havelian and fifty-one Union
Councils. Area-wise, District Abbottabad is 1967 sq. km, with a population of 881,000 and an
average annual growth rate of 1.82%. The average household size is calculated as 6.4 persons.
Some 83.12% of the population live in rural areas. Sex ratio in rural and urban areas of the
District is 94.96 and 128.08 respectively, indicating that male proportion is much higher in urban
areas compared to the rural areas. The total literacy rate is 37.26% in which 58.66 is recorded in
urban and 32.51% in the rural area. The literacy rate among male and female was 52.82% and
21.14% respectively. Total labor force participation rate is 27.92 which is higher in urban areas
i.e. 33.38 % as compared to 26.63% in rural areas. There is a major difference in the
participation rates between male and female labor at 55.21% for males as compared to 1.25% for
females.
Unemployment rate is recorded as 31.14%. Regarding access to safe drinking water, 79%
of the urban population avails the facility of piped water whereas the respective figure for rural
population is 23.83%. Some 34.31% households have separate latrines.
Predominantly mountainous and rugged, the district’s mean maximum and minimum
temperatures are 23°C and 11°C respectively, its climate varies with altitude, which ranges from
600 meters to 2,800 meters. During the winter season, snowfall takes place above 900 meters i.e.
Abbottabad city, surrounding mountains and area above Changlagali and Barian in the Galliat.
Monsoon rains usually start in the month of July and last till September. This is followed by a
dry spell lasting for about two months.
Roads: District Abbottabad, because of its hilly and mountainous terrain, lacks a first-rate road
network. However, the main city and towns are linked with metalled and rail communication that
exists only up to Havelian, and is connected with Rawalpindi, (through Taxila). As per statistical
report by the Bureau of Statistics Peshawar, total road network as on 2003-04 was 1443.44 km.
According to 1998 Census report; there are 136,000 housing units in Abbottabad district;
114,000 (83.82%) in rural areas and 22,000 (16.18%) in urban areas. As far the type of
construction is concerned, 63.19% rural and 87.24% urban housing units are build with baked
bricks, blocks or stones whereas 34.80% rural and 11.75% urban housing units are build with un-
backed bricks. For District Abbottabad, the employment patterns by occupational categories are
broadly consistent with the sectoral compositions. Paid employment in private and public sector
is the largest occupation followed by self employed individuals; largely comprising owner
cultivators and shop owners/ small traders and employment in construction, agriculture and
forestry sectors. Paid employment in private and public sector dominates employment in urban
area whereas agriculture and livestock rearing is the main occupation in the rural area, which is
on the decrease on account of division of agricultural land, low productivity and lack of
marketing opportunities, resulting in migration of manpower to urban areas. In the study area,
the mean total off-farm income of the households was 36,544 rupees. The standard deviation for
the total off-farm income was 91,630 rupees while the range was 1,200,000. Out of the total 500 5
households surveyed, 123 (24.6%) of the households were in the poorest of the poor category.
239 (47.8%) were in the poor, 92 (18.4%) were in the better-off and only 46 (9.2%) were in the
well-off category. These figures reflect the economic condition of the whole study area. Though
there were few households in the poorest of the poor category, if the poorest of the poor and the
poor categories are combined then the combined households were 72.4 % of the total population.

5
Mujib ur Rehman et al. Livelihood Strategies of Households in Rural Areas of Abbottabad

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 13


Category Valid Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Percent
Poorest of the Poor 123 24.6 24.6 24.6
Poor 239 47.8 47.8 72.4

In the study area, amongst the total 123 poorest of the poor households, 28 (22.8%)
households were in farming as a part of their primary source of income, 68 (55.3%) households
among the poorest were wage earners and another 21 (17.1%) households were involved in
casual labor as a primary economic activity. Another 6 (4.9%) households were self-employed.
Amongst the poor households, 70 (29.3%) were farmers, 64 (26.8%) were in the Government
and Private Services; 37 (15.5%) of households had primary source of income as remittances; 34
(14.2%) were depending on daily wages, 26(10.9%) households’ primary source of income was
self-employment while 8(3.3%) households were involved in petty businesses. In the better-off
category, in the study area 43(46.7%) households were depending on Government and Private
Services income; 21 (22.8%) were receiving remittances from their relatives as their primary
source of livelihood; 17 (18.5 %) households were depending on self-employment while 11
(12%) were farming households. In the well-off category, 15 (32.6%) households depend on
business income as their primary source; 14 (30.4%) depend on salaries from Government and
Private Services as their primary source of income; 8 (17.4%) households depend on remittances
sent by family members from abroad, while 7(15.2%) households are self-employed.
As a part of their livelihood strategies, the households were involved in secondary
sources as well as to increase their incomes. The poorest households were the least involved in
any secondary livelihood activity or source of income. In the poorest households, 9 (7.3%)
households depend on remittances from family members as their secondary source of income,
while another 8 (6.5%) were having farming as their secondary source of income. The rest of the
poorest households 106 (86.2%) have no secondary source of income. In the poor category, 65.3
% households have secondary source of income as against 13.8% in the poorest households.
Most of the poor households (129) or 54%, have farming as their secondary source of income,
there are other sources of income as well, but are non significant. In the study area, the total
households’ incomes were different according to the income sources. In the farming households,
24 (22%) had income in the range of 0-12,000 Rupees per year; 26 (23.9%) were having income
in the range of 12,000-25,000 per year; 42 (38.5%) of the farmers have annual incomes in the
range of 25,000-50,000; 11 (10.1%) households were earning in the range of 50,000-100,000,
while another 6 (5.5%) were earning above 100,000 rupees annually through farming and other
economic activities. This study was carried out to examine different livelihoods strategies
adopted by households from different socio-economic backgrounds. 500 households were
selected for the study from 20 villages that included households from different groups on the
basis of their economic status i.e. Poorest of the poor, poor, better-off and well-off. The main
findings of the study reveal that the poorest households were daily wagers, casual laborers,
landless tenants and small landholding farmers. The poorest households were the ones with the
least secondary sources of economic activities and incomes including remittances. Only 15.8%
of the poorest households have secondary income sources. The poor households represent almost
all the economic activities; mostly being medium landholding farmers, farming on rain-fed
farms, low-grade jobs in Government and Private Agencies, remittances and petty businesses.
Poor households (65.3%) mostly have agricultural and livestock activities as their secondary
sources of income. The study reveals that farming is no longer a major livelihood strategy as

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 14


more and more households are switching towards nonagricultural employment. The share of
exclusively farming households as a primary economic activity has reduced in the study area,
however, majority of these non-farm activities are survival oriented and have little to do with
wealth accumulation. This development is caused by the large increase in the population as well
as the decline in absolute number of agriculture farms in the study area.
The role of infrastructure in labor decision is eminent as residents of a relatively better-
off village reduces the probability of engaging in mixed income earning or work as tenants by 63
per cent and 47 per cent respectively versus the non-farm sector.
The implication of the study is that rural non-farm sector needs it due share in development
policies as it has the potential to uplift the rural areas. More precisely, the informal sector, which
is the main source of survival for rural poor, is in urgent need of Governmental support. This
support can be given in allocating more credit for rural areas to initiate productive economic
activities in these areas. Similarly, hard and soft infrastructure development in rural areas can
also stimulate more dynamic non-farm activities.
The drudgery and trouble that poor women folk have to bear in simple routine and inescapable
daily life is of great concern. Defecation and acquisition of water for drinking; bathing and
washing are facts of life that simply cannot be avoided. It is a crying shame that there exist many
areas in our Country where even these simple tasks are unbearable, at times. During rain; snow
and extremely cold weather the problem is multiplied. As most homes are devoid of water supply
and toilets, women folk have to travel great distances for defecation and have to carry water for
every day use.
The challenge facing the community is to ease this arduous task and free some time so that
women can either attend their domestic tasks easily or take up skills enhancing training to
supplement their incomes while working out of their homes. Nearly 45 % of all Pakistani
households do not have access to a latrine. Furthermore, only 51 % of all households are
connected to any form of drainage (35 % to open drains and 16 % to underground sewers or
covered drains). Of particular reference to Pakistan are the two indicators related to provision of
safe drinking water and sanitation coverage. They have direct linkages with health and therefore
the productivity of the society and its future generations.
Pakistan is a conservative society where women are relegated to perform domestic labor and are
semi secluded in this particular area (Abbottabad). Some areas of Pakistan are relatively more
relaxed in this context whereas other areas are quite extreme. Despite this fact, women have to
travel great distances merely to obtain water for daily use. As the terrain is hilly and
mountainous, this task is compounded. Further severe winters do not at all facilitate this difficult
task. Absence of latrines at homes force people to resort to the open air for this task of daily
necessity. For women especially this means getting up extremely early in the morning, while it is
still dark, in order to relieve themselves. With human and especially female rights getting
increased attention in the Global Context, there is a dire necessity to address these issues and
provide relief to the women of Abbottabad, especially in the more remote and backward parts of
the District.
Thus provision of clean water and installation of communal latrines is a simple and low-cost
solution to a grave social problem. Open air defecation is also unhygienic and a source for the
spread of diseases.
As far as the District is concerned, the following baseline data is provided:
Large proportions of the population in Abbottabad do not have access to safe drinking water and
proper sanitation. For water sources 68% of the rural population depends upon bore wells, while

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 15


22 % depend upon hand pumps and 10% have no access to water at home. In the rural areas
diarrhea, hepatitis and typhoid ratio is very high as compared to the urban areas. Drinking water
is contaminated with E. coli; Enterobacter; Salmonella and Clostridium. Poor sanitation is due to
the fact that 70% grey water is released into streets in villages; 22% to the surrounding fields and
8% in nearby dead streams. About 26% of the population has drains and street pavement facility.
The most important risk factor for poor health is lack of clean water and poor sanitation. 6 The
WHO has strongly recommended education for girls and women as a cost effective way to
improve health and attain a better life.7
Water and sanitation conditions in rural communities are very poor and facilities for drinking
water are scarce.8
The broader aspect of this Project is the emancipation of and support to women folk. The female
gender is the source of nurture and fosters the children of the race. If they are not accorded due
importance and facilitated in their daily life it renders them ineffective in the provision of care
and deprives them of their human rights. It is of prime concern that the social ill of gender
discrimination be addressed on a war footing and their plight be ameliorated.
The importance of the Project is self evident. How is it possible to introduce livelihoods
and education projects in an area where even the most basic of civic amenities are lacking? Thus
the project is entirely justified and in fact is of prime importance. It is a crying shame that these
issues have not been tackled adequately.
Responding to this very basic need is in itself a very important confidence building
measure. The severe winters faced in Abbottabad and indeed inclement weather at any time of
the year increases the strain upon women merely to get access to water and relieve themselves.
There are parts of the District that have been ignored in the development efforts of Government
and NGOs/ INGOs. The Western half and South Eastern parts of the District in particular. Even
in the Eastern part there are many inaccessible locations that are poorly connected by roads to the
rest of the District. These parts that have escaped notice are populated by the most vulnerable of
the local citizens. Without access to development, the men folk are forced to seek their daily
bread in other parts of the Country. Those who find employment abroad ensure their dependents
well being. However, their less fortunate counterparts find it well nigh impossible to make both
ends meet, what to talk about investing is home improvement.
Females are left behind to care for the children and fend for themselves. Provision of
support to them will be the greatest possible service that we can render.
As we have been, and are, engaged in Livelihoods and Skills Imparting Projects for these
sections of the population, it is our first hand experience that provision of amenities will be the
most prized intervention. Those who are unable to provide for themselves are left to the tender
mercies of nature to cater to their needs. As there is very little in the way of community support
for such activities, provision on communal basis will also help to foster a Caring and Sharing
Society that will learn to look after the weaker sections of society.

6
Murray C, Lopez A. Global mortality, disability, and the Contribution of risk factors: Global burden of disease
study. Lancet 1997;349:1436–42.
7
World Bank. Water Resources Management. A World Bank Policy Paper. Washington, DC: The World Bank;
1993
8
Health Impact Caused by Poor Water and Sanitation in District Abbottabad
Sadia Jabeen, Qaisar Mahmood, Sumbal Tariq*, Bahadar Nawab, Noor Elahi
Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad, *Department
of Pharmacology, Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad.

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Community Participation: While the major focus is upon amenities, it is the underlying
fostering of a sense of community and belonging that is the prime objective of this intervention.
The process of networking to provide basic facilities to the most needy of society on a
participatory basis will act as a catalyst to build society on positive lines. Awareness of
communal participation and positive action for change is a powerful driving force to motivate
people to work towards their own uplift.
Female Emancipation: Secondly, but of equal importance is the subliminal message of
provision of succor for females. This intervention carries the underlying message that the rights
of women folk have to be respected and vigorous efforts need to be taken to raise their standard
of living.
Specific Objectives: The specific objectives should indicate the specific types of outputs to be
produced, the impact on target audience to be reached and the capacity to be reinforced. These
objectives should be concrete, measurable and achievable. The specific objectives of the Project
are to provide Communal Water Points and Communal Latrines. These interventions will have to
be managed on a participatory basis by the end users. Regular maintenance and repairs, as and
when required, will be the responsibility of the Community. This will ensure ownership and a
sense of responsibility. Females are the prime beneficiaries of the interventions and female sub
organizations will have to be organized to look after the facilities. Thus another specific
objective is the establishment of Female Organizations to manage the Public Amenities. These
Organizations will be properly organized and registered making them eligible to receive direct
aid and support from other NGOs/ INGOs as well as the Government.
Awareness raising, regarding the general and specific objectives of the Project will be provided
maximum coverage in Local; Regional and National Media. This will serve to promote their
intent.
Activities:
 Initial Community Consultation and Finalization of specific locations for Interventions
 Survey and Organization of Female Management Organizations as CBOs
 Registration of CBOs and awareness raising.
 Work Plan Finalization in Consultation with CBOs.
 Project Implementation.
Outcomes:
Intermediate:
 Construction of Water Points.
Construction of Communal Latrines. The local communities will have Women’s CBOs and they
will be the Project partners. They will be responsible for Supervision and administration of the
facilities once they are installed. As such they will not directly partake in the financial aspect of
Project implementation. The target population is the poorest of the poor and the poor. Therefore
it is not considered to put any financial burden upon them. Secondly, as the target group consists
of females, they will not be expected to provide physical labor.
Sr. Key Output Milestone
Meetings arranged
1 CBOs Organized 10% pm
2 Water Points Constructed 10% pm
3 Communal latrines Constructed 10 % pm
4 Left-over Last two months

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There will be three prongs for M&E. The first will consist of the end-users in the shape of
Women’s CBOs, the second will be selected from amongst the male population of the respective
intervention locations. Media will also be involved and requested to provide feed-back. The
Project will be sustained by the end-users through the organized CBOs. There will be no
significant challenges during the process of implementation as it is well within the capacity of
the members. Natural calamities and Civil unrest will obviously have impact.
Technical.

Best Available Control Technology (BACT).


Based on optimum capacity to promote pollution prevention using the 3Rs and Resource,
Recovery and Residuals Management e.g. for sewage discharges and pollution prevention.
Integrated Resource Recovery:
A concept and approach that integrates the management of water, wastewater, energy and
solid waste services to recover resources and value and to help increase resiliency. IRR planning
and resource recovery actions in this plan support the Climate Action Plan, the Energy Plan, and
Living Water Smart.
The Sustainable Region Initiative (SRI):
This idea is derived from Canadian Good Governance in Metro Vancouver and has its
framework for decision making as well as the mechanism by which sustainability imperatives are
moved from ideas into action. The SRI has been driven by three overarching principles which
state that decision making must cater for:
# Principles
1 Have regard for both local and global consequences, and long term impacts;
2 Recognize and reflect the interconnectedness and interdependence of systems;
3 Be collaborative.
These provide the foundation for the three sets of sustainability principles.
# Sustainability Principles
1 Protect and enhance the natural environment (conserve and develop natural capital);
2 Provide for ongoing prosperity (conserve and develop economic capital);
3 Build community capacity and social cohesion (conserve and develop social capital).
The long-term vision for liquid waste management is that all elements of liquid waste
will be efficiently recovered as energy, nutrients, water or other usable material or else returned
to the environment as part of the hydrological cycle in a way that protects public health and the
environment.
This vision and the Sustainable Region Initiative are supported by three goals:
Goal 1: Protect Public Health and the Environment:
Public health and the environment are protected by managing sanitary sewage and
stormwater at their sources, and providing wastewater collection and treatment services
protective of the environment.
Goal 2: Use Liquid Waste as a Resource:
Energy will be recovered from the heat in the sewage and from biogas generated in the
treatment process. Materials which have nutrient value will be recovered from wastewater
treatment plants. Water will be recovered from the wastewater treatment process and storm water
will be kept separate from effluent.

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Goal 3: Effective, Affordable and Collaborative Management:
Monitoring, maintaining and investing in liquid waste infrastructure are essential to
ensuring effective system performance and preventing costlier repairs. Innovative alternative
approaches to traditional treatment systems will be explored. Opportunities for positive synergies
with other utilities and regional management systems will be pursued—such as integrated
stormwater management plans. Sources of risk will be identified and mitigated.

Design Philosophy Indicators:


# Indicators
1 Acceptable?
2 Sustainable?
3 Easily operable?
4 Replicable?
5 Replaceable or maintainable?
6 Beneficial / not a liability?
The long-term vision for waste management is that all elements of waste will be
efficiently recovered as energy; nutrients; water; compost; heat or other usable material or else
returned to the environment as part of the hydrological cycle in a way that protects public health
and the environment.
# Conditions for High Quality Water Production
1 Staff must understand the process and equipment.
2 Mechanical and electrical equipment must be durable.
3 Spare parts and the availability of local repair and maintenance must exist.
4 Process units that will perform under varying water qualities and forgive occasional oversight
of operations personnel must be purchased.
5 Reliable suppliers of equipment with dependable local agents must be available.

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# Technology Imperatives
1 Produce reliable Treatment.
2 Ensure easy Plant Operation and maintenance.
3 Minimize Imported items.
4 Reduce Mechanization and Instrumentation.
5 Maximize local labor during construction and operation.
6 Limit Energy demands.
7 Use local materials whenever possible.
8 Provide adequate flexibility.

Biomelioration: Harnessing Biomethanation for Energy Generation & Environment Protection:


Biochemical Process:
Biological Treatment: Biological treatment is the most economical of waste treatments
available today. In biological systems, the dynamics are biochemical as opposed to chemical,
and the active agents are living entities. In chemical treatment we have to increase the quantity
of chemical proportionally to deal with a higher load of reactant, in a biological system the
biological additive can grow to help compensate for increased loadings. The septic system is a
biological process. Like any living thing, it has certain nutritional requirements to function
properly and functions best in a suitable environment. However, the best first step in optimizing
the performance of a septic system is to have a complete ecosystem of the organisms required for
the most complete breakdown of the waste.

Geodesic Digesters:
Anaerobic Digester: Aerobic Digester:

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Most of the machinery and equipment used in Solid Waste Management is similar to that
being used and manufactured locally in the Stone Crushing Industry. This can be adapted to
manufacture locally made and self-reliant equipment as well as support local manufacture.
Fork Lift Tractors: Tractors with this attachment are essential for bulk movement of MSW.

Conveyor Belts: The MSW will be passed along a conveyor belt for sorting in order to produce
a mix that is compostable.

Hydro Pulpers: The removal of excess moisture is important, both for sorting as well as
composting. Leachate from excessively wet MSW will be captured and sent to the Bio Gas plant
for anaerobic digestion and Methane generation. Run off from Composting shed and washing of
equipment will also be directed towards this facility.

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Eco-Tower Sorter: Consists of a Rare Earth Drum Magnet, Eddy Current Separator, Pro-Sort
Metal Sorter and Inductive Sensor Air Sorter. It can be customized to fit requirements and
preferences. At the metal sensor stage, material can be ejected either by using air or an airless
mechanical paddle system. The overall cost of the system is lower. There will be a return on
investment through recovered materials in a very short time.

Magnetic Separators: Ferric material will disturb the Composting process and needs to be
completely removed before the actual composting takes place. Any material missed during pre-
segregation or scavenger activity will be recovered by using this equipment.

Trommels: Specialized trommels will be used for sorting MSW through sizing; A wind sifter is
incorporated in the trommel in order to facilitate removal of Plastic and small size non-organic
material.

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Gravity Separator: Material is fed onto a flat porous deck that is sloped in two directions. Low-
pressure air is forced through the deck to fluidize and stratify the material bed. A vibrating action
is applied to the deck to convey the heavier particles, which have sunk to the bottom of the
material bed, up the inclination of the deck. Lighter particles are suspended in the rising airflow
and slide down the slope of the deck. The final result, presented at the discharge face of the deck,
is a continuous gradation of material from the densest, largest particles to the lightest, smallest
particles.

Shredders/ Chippers: Large and bulky material will take a longer time to decompose.
Shredding/ Chipping breaks down the material to increase area for microbial interaction.

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Grinders: Special grinders are used to reduce the size of the MSW.

Feeding Hopper: The MSW is loaded into feeder hopper for onwards transmission:

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Recyclables Storage and Baling: The amount of recyclables that results from sorting will be
temporarily stored in Bins and eventually compacted and baled for disposal.

Aerated (Turned) Windrow Composting:

Huge Compost Pile – Photo Courtesy of Campaign Recycle Maui Inc. / Compost Maui

Mixers and Manure Spreaders: These can be used to mix materials and form windrows. With a
flail spreader, it is necessary to move very slowly, allowing the material to pile into a rough

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windrow. The auger type unloads out of the back or a side-shoot. By moving the spreader slower
than normal, it will form a windrow but will generally not make very tall piles. It is essential to
maintain correct Carbon: Nitrogen ratio at 30:1 in order to ensure efficient composting.

Bagging Facility: Finished Compost will be bagged for Commercial Sale.

Bagging Machine:

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Windrow Turners: Windrow turners are dedicated pieces of equipment that just turn compost
windrows. The right turner will mix, reduce particle size, homogenize the organic material and
may save time and space. Turners come in many sizes and the choice depends on the amount of
use, climatic fluctuations (in cold climates a bigger turner may be needed to achieve adequate
pile size). Most turner manufacturers have different accessories, like water or inoculant tanks,
rock guards, or attachments that manage compost covers.
Windrow spacing needs to account for the size and type of the turner.
Elevating Face Conveyors: These can vary in type from PTO driven to self-propelled. They lift
the organics up the face and drop them off the back into the windrow.
Each time the whole windrow is actually picked up and moved a few feet, which allows for good
size reduction, aeration, and mixing.

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Hand-held Relative Humidity and Temperature Transmitters:
Oxygen Meters: Microbes require oxygen in the active stage of composting. An oxygen meter
can detect oxygen levels and indicate if there is a need to incorporate more air through turning,
forced aeration or changing the mix to include more coarse bulking material. Oxygen levels
should range from 5% to 16%. Oxygen sensors are used extensively with in-vessel units and can
be used in other applications.

Oxygen Meters: Especially useful to regulate forced aeration systems, and when developing the
mixture for static pile composting.

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Caution: Probes on monitoring equipment can easily be bent or broken, store in a safe place.
Remove from the pile before turning and insert and remove carefully.
Many thermometers come with threaded PVC tubes.
Data loggers may also need to be protected from heat and moisture.
Advantages of Composting:
 Reducing the weight and the size of the solid waste dumped in landfills, and thus
increasing the design life of landfills.
 Return of organic matter and nutrients to the natural cycle through the application of
compost to the soil.
 Stabilization of organic matter in the waste to become a non-degradable material when
land-filled. This makes landfills more stable and reduces biogas production to a great
extent.
 Material gain from selling the compost and reduce unemployment.

Biological Properties of Compost:


For acceptable compost quality, non-epidemic, hygienic conditions are necessary.
Sanitation depends on rise of temperature during different phases of composting (55o C for two
weeks or 65o C for one week)
Physical Properties of Compost:
High quality compost should have the following properties:
 Density (500-800 g/L).
 Water content (30-45%).
 Granulation size (fine grained 4-12m ,coarse grained 12-40 mm)
 Low content of foreign substances (< 0.5%) and stones (< 5%).
Chemical Properties of Compost:
Nutrient content should be within the values shows in Table below:
# Nutrient Unit Value
1 N % TS/% dry matter 0.5-1.8
2 P2O5 % TS/% dry matter 0.4-1.0
3 K2O % TS/% dry matter 0.6-1.8
4 Mg O % TS/% dry matter 0.7-3.0
5 Ca O % TS/% dry matter 3.0-12.0
6 Salinity 1.0-8.0 g kC1/L
7 Ph 7-8
8 Content of organic matter (measured as ignition loss) 20-50%
9 Matured Compost 20%
10 Organic Matter Raw Compost >40% organic matter
11 Low Content of Heavy Metals.
The table below shows the values in good quality compost:
# Heavy Metal Values
1 Lead 50-100
2 Cadmium 0.1-1.0
3 Chrome 26-60
4 Copper 30-50
5 Nickel 10-30
6 Mercury 0.1-0.5
7 Zinc 150.350
Effects of Compost Application:
Positive Affects:
1. Soil conditioning effect (ventilation and structure).
2. Humus effect (slow release of nutrients).
3. Buffering action (compost is slightly alkaline).

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4. Phytosanitary affect (prevent undesired grass growth and suppress harmful pathogens.
Negative Affects: When bad quality compost with the following materials is applied:
1. Salts.
2. Heavy metals.
3. Organic contaminants.
4. Nutrients (too much may cause ground water pollution).
Compost Application Possibilities:
1. Soil conditioning and fertilization.
2. For domestic plants and gardens.
3. Erosion protection.
4. Mulched material.
5. Use in biofilters (prevent air pollution).
6. Use in noise protecting walls.
Problems Regarding Composting:
1. Lack of on-site separation of solid waste which reduces the quality of compost or requires
greater efforts in separation of organic waste.
2. High temperatures during the summer season which causes the waste to dry quickly and
requires frequent addition of water to the waste.
3. No previous experience in marketing of compost which might influence the feasibility of
compost producing projects.
4. The degree of acceptance by the public to the idea of adding compost produced from
solid waste to their farms and gardens.
5. Composting on a large scale decreases organic material land-filled which in turn reduces
biogas generation in landfills to a great extent. This means that producing electricity from
landfill gas will not be possible.
Bioaugmentation Treatment Results: Bioaugmentation has been very successful in treating the
following industries and wastes:
Septic Tanks
Grease Traps – Hotels & Restaurants
Pharmaceuticals Spent fermentation media, tabletzing binders and solvents
Refinery Wastes Phenols, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, oils and greases
Steel Manufacturing Phenols, cyanide, thiocyanate, ammonia and rolling oils
Tanneries Vegetable tanning waste
Textiles Sufactants, starches and organic dyes used in textile mills
Wine/Alcohols Sugars, tannins and alchols
Beverages Liquid sugars, high fructose corn syrup and flavorings
Dairy Fats and whey
Confectionery Sugar waste and chemicals
Halogenated Aromatics Chloro and di-chloro phenol
Detergent Surfactants and other components of detergents
Fish Farms Organic components of fish wastes and fish food
Food Processing Reduction of BOD and odours
Petrochemicals Petroleum hydrocarbons, straight and branched alkanes, BTX
Paper/Cellulose BOD reduction and odour control
Three steps of Decomposition:
 Hydrolysis: Bacterial enzymes break down proteins, fats and sugars in the waste to
simple sugars.
 Acid Formation: Bacteria convert the sugars to acetic acid, carbon dioxide and
hydrogen.
 Methane Generation: Convert the acetic acid to methane and carbon dioxide, and
combine carbon dioxide and hydrogen to form methane and water.

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PROJECT: Remediation of Liquid Waste as well as Bio-Degradable Solid Waste.
OBJECT:
 To remove harmful disease carriers and pollution from liquid waste presently flowing in
streams and rivers as well as infiltrating into groundwater.
 Degradation of Bio-Degradable Solid Waste to value added compost.
MODE OF EXECUTION:
 Space survey and Finalization.
 Application to Federal Ministry of Environment for CDM (Clean Development
Mechanism) Project for eventual refund of investment.
 Provision of piped sewage to site (Separate from present Project estimates).
 Construction of Mesophillic (Low Temperature) and Thermophillic (High Temperature);
Anaerobic (In absence of Oxygen); Disaster-Proof; Super-Insulated Geodesic Domes
with Sump.
 Construction of Control Room Disaster-Proof; Super-Insulated Geodesic Dome with
Verandah.
 Alternate Energy (Passive Solar) Pre-Heating of Liquid Waste.
 Generation of Methane Gas and High Temperature to kill viruses; bacteria and
pathogens.
 Harness Energy (Bio-Gas/ Methane) to generate electricity through Control Room
equipped with monitoring sensors.
MERITS OF THE PROJECT:
 Remediation of Liquid Waste to non-polluting level.
 Conversion of Bio-Degradable Solid Waste to value added compost.
 Removal of Foul Odors.
 Generation of Alternate Energy.
 Avoidance of breeding of Disease Vectors.
 Prevention of pollution of the Aquifer.
 Study opportunity/ raised awareness of Environment Protection.
 Prestigious Pioneering of revival of Technology (British Era in POFs Wah Cantt.) and
reintroduction of Internationally accepted technology as well as Disaster-Proof; Super-
Insulated Construction Technology.

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Sewage Treatment Plant.
Schematic of Proposed Facility.

Energy Dome.Control Room: Grit Chamber:

Sustainable Development Objectives likely to be achieved by the Project:


The main objective of the project is to develop a technically, financially and
environmentally feasible ML&SW Treatment Facility to produce Energy; Compost and
Recycled Water. The project is based on alternative technology. The project is expected to have
various affects that are in line with Government Policy Measures. These include reduction of
GHG emission of Methane Gas from the final disposal site.
Contribution to Sustainable Development Long-term GHG & Local Pollutants Reduction:
GHG emissions especially CO2 and emissions of other air pollutants, i.e. NOx, CO, SOx
and also particulates will also be reduced. MSW landfills produce leachates that contaminate
water body/soil, creating water/soil pollution. Treating leachates can produce useful products
such as fertilizer and contained biogas (in the form of CH4) thus reducing air, water and soil
pollution.

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Health Issues:
Major Excreta Related Diseases:
Category Disease Transmission Mechanism
Fecal Oral  Hepatitis A  Person to Person Contact
(Non Bacterial)  Amoebic Dysentery  Domestic Contamination
 Rotavirus
 Giardiasis
Fecal Oral  Cholera  Person to Person Contact
(Bacterial)  Salmonellosis  Domestic Contamination
 Shigellosis  Water Contamination
 Many forms of Diarrhea  Crop Contamination
Soil Transmitted Helminths  Hookworm  Compound Contamination
 Roundworm  Communal Defecation Areas
 Whipworm  Crop Contamination
Tapeworms  Beef Tapeworm  Compound Contamination
 Port Tapeworm  Field Contamination
 Fodder Contamination
Water-Based Helminths  Schistosomisis  Water Contamination
Excreta Related Insect Vectors  Filariasis  Insects Breeding/ Feeding in Poor Sanitation Sites
 Some Fecal Oral Diseases
Excreta Related Diseases and their Characteristics:
Disease Specific Agent Reservoir Transmission Incubation Period
Hookworm Necator Man Fecal contamination of the soil; eggs hatch, Few weeks to several
(Anctlostomiasis) americanus infective larvae penetrates the bare skin, usually of months
Ancylostoma the foot.
duodonale
Ancylostoma
ceylanicum
Ascariasis Ascarsis Man Ingestion of infective eggs from contaminated soils, Two months
(Roundworm) Lumbricoids salads and other foods eaten raw, eating with
contaminated hand.
Tapeworm Taenia saginata Man Ingestion of raw or partially cooked meat containing 8 to 14 weeks
infected larvae passed through feces.
Entrobiasis Entrobius Man Direct transfer of infected eggs by hand from anus 3 to 6 weeks
(Pinworm, Thread vermicularies to the mouth; indirect through contaminated
worm) fomites.
Poliomyelitis Poliovirus type Man Direct contact with pharyngeal secretion or feces of Commonly 7 to 12 days
1,2,3 infected person. range from 3 to 21 days
Bilharziasis Schistosoma Man Exposure to infected water during bathing or Months
haematobium wading.
Schistosoma
mansoni
Strongyloidiasis Strongyloids Man, possibly Infected soils in moist soil contaminated with feces 17 days
stericolaris dogs penetrates the skin usually of the foot
Viral Diarrhea Ratavirus Probably Man Probably fecal-Oral and possibly Fecal-Respiratory Approximately 48
hours
Infectious Hepatitis A Man Person to Person by the Fecal-Oral route From 15 – 50 days
Hepatitis A virus depending on dose
Cholera Vibrio Cholerae Man Ingestion of water contaminated with feces or From a few hours to
vomitus of patients, ingestion of food contaminated five days
with dirty hand, fomites etc.
Shigellosis Shigella Man Direct or indirect Fecal-Oral transmission from One to seven days,
(Bacillary bacteria species patient or carrier usually one to three
Dysentery) days
Typhoid and Salmonella Man both patients By food or water contaminated by feces or urine of Usually ranges from 1-
Paratyphoid typhi and especially a patient or carrier; fruits; vegetables harvested from 3 weeks depending on
carriers sewage contaminated area. dose
Giardiaa Giardia laambia Man, possibly Ingestion of cysts in feacally contaminated water or 5-25 days or longer,
lambliasis other wild or less often faecally contaminated food median is 7-10 days
domestic animals
Amoebiasis Entmobeba Man Epidemic outbreaks result mainly from ingestion of From a few days to
Histolitica faecally contaminated water containing amoebic several months or years.
cysts. Endemic spread involves hand to mouth Commonly 2-4 weeks
transfer of feces from contaminated raw vegetables,
by flies or soiled hands of food vendors
Tricuriasis Tricuruis Man Ingestion of developed eggs, which have been Indefinite
Tricuria deposited with feces on to the ground

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How Is Polio Spread? -- Fecal-Oral Polio Transmission:
Polio transmission most often occurs through contact with stool from an infected person. This
spread of poliovirus can happen in one of several ways, which include: Eating food or drinking
liquids that are contaminated with poliovirus. Poliovirus is commonly found in sewage water.
http://polio.emedtv.com/polio/how-is-polio-spread.html

Survival Time of pathogens in days by different Disposal or Treatment Conditions.


Conditions Bacteria Viruses Protozoa Helminthes
(Ascaris)
Soil 400 175 10 Many months
Crops 50 60 Not known Not known
Night Soil, feces, sludge 20-30° C 90 100 0 Many months
Composting (anaerobic at ambient temperature) 60 60 30 Many months
Thermophillic Composting (50-60° C maintained for 7 7 7 7 7
days)
Waste Stabilization Ponds (Retention Time greater 20 20 20 20
than 20 days)
From the above it is obvious that Bacteria; Viruses; Protozoa and Helminthes (Ascaris)
are all controlled within 7 days of Thermophillic composting at 50 to 60 C. This is the period
required for Treatment in Energy Domes.
Other Benefits:
Most MSW is disposed of in landfills, burnt, or illegally dumped; secondly, most MLW
is openly released into water channels as there is no special Government Regulation on ML&SW
treatment. The technology adopted for this project will have excellent prospects for diffusion in
all cities and areas). The non-biodegradable materials recovered by scavengers are in many cases
unsuitable for anaerobic digestion and gasification processes. Removal of such materials by
scavengers prior to treatment would also help to increase the dependability of operation as well
as the operating rate. However, scavengers should be given work in hygienic surroundings and
allowing them to hand-sort the waste.
GHG Emission from Refuse Burial:
GHG emissions consist of the so-called “landfill gas” emissions of methane gas from
MSW buried at dumping sites. At present, these emissions are not monitored, thus data is not
available. To obtain reliable data, it would require monitoring for many years at dozens of points
in the vast and dispersed disposal sites in order to derive average values. Thus it was
consequently decided that actual measurements could not be taken for this study. For this reason,
the 1996 revised guidelines of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has been
adopted to calculate methane gas emitted from buried MSW.
Economic Analyses: Statement of poverty reduction impact.
The project will be using skilled and unskilled labor. Majority of the unskilled labor
comes from poor villages and communities. Realization of this project will promote the
development of alternative soil amendments and fertilizers in Pakistan that is highly beneficial
for improving productivity, enhancing yields from farms and generating economy. It is expected
that National Standards will be improved due to the creation of social capital, assurance of wage
income and improvement in living conditions.
Environment Impacts:
The implementation of the project could possibly exert an impact to the vicinity in terms
of reducing items such as air, soil and water pollution. The study of this area concluded that the

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project would not exert an adverse environmental impact to the vicinity. The process facilities in
question would be designed and constructed in accordance with the International Environmental
Standards. On the contrary, the project would act to improve the environment in the vicinity of
the disposal sites.

Cost Comparison by Population of Biomelioration through Energy Domes:


Sr Population Served Estimate Cost per Head
1. 1,000 Rs. 2.5 m Rs. 2,500.00
2. 50,000 Rs. 50.0 m Rs. 1,000.00
3. 1,00,000 Rs. 100.0 m Rs. 1,000.00

In implementing the project, the following environmental impact issues are to be considered.

Air pollution:
The air concentration is to meet the country’s air pollution standards. The MSW
processing facilities to be installed for this project are designed and built to meet these standards,
and it is inconceivable that their operation would exert adverse impacts to the surrounding
environment. The prospective sites for the project facilities are Municipal Dumping lots where
refuse is dumped in the open and burned (the latter being a source of dioxin emissions). The
construction of a refuse processing facilities will eliminate this burning of refuse in the open, and
the facilities will be in conformance with International standards for dioxin countermeasures.
The atmospheric environment in the vicinity should improve as a result.

Water pollution:
Pakistan has enacted regulatory standards for water quality, but its water environment is
in worse shape than the atmospheric environment. It is clearly seen in the The refuse processing
facilities would apply Pakistani wastewater discharge standards. This indicates that the facilities
would not pollute the water in the vicinity. In contrast to this project, the discharge of leachates
from the Open Air Dumping sites into nearby water bodies has caused water pollution
concentrations exceeding standard values, for items such as NH3, Mn, and H2S. Similarly, the
study of well water found values above the standards for Fecal Coliforms and Nitrates.
Therefore, operation of the MSW processing facilities would mitigate water pollution.
The project will also generate fertilizer from the aerobic and anaerobic processes.

Educational:
Over 50% of the problem related to Solid Waste Management can be overcome by simple
Primary Segregation on the part of the Waste Generating Society. Division into Biodegradable
and non-degradable waste streams in the home or business simplifies the problem of sustainable
waste disposal. Sanitation staff and scavengers are also not subject to contamination by disease
vectors. Biodegradable waste is kept in covered containers and sent straight to the composting
facility. Where neighborhoods and people are interested in home composting and have the
necessary space, local composting can help to reduce waste bulk. Secondly, disease vectors are
denied space to multiply within residential and commercial areas. The local communities need to
be motivated and mobilized to undertake this primary responsibility.
The Media, especially electronic is a major source for education and the entire local,
National and International media needs to be taken on board and effectively managed in order to

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 35


maximize the impact of educational campaigns. Secondly, Abbottabad, being an Educational
City is uniquely placed to lead the Country in children and youth education as well as Health
education for ensuring an aware younger generation which can bring pressure to bear upon their
elders to make sure that they have a clean and sustainable future.
Clean Skies and Water; Pure Food, Surroundings in Harmony with Nature and other
similar programs can be introduced to ensure all inclusive sanitized and water assured
communities.
Financial:
A system of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)/ Carbon Credits has been created.
CDM is the only instrument that is available for developing countries to assist them in achieving
sustainable development and contributing to the ultimate objective of the Convention.
Pakistan deposited its Instrument of Accession to the Kyoto Protocol (Annex-A) in the
UN Secretariat on 11 January 2005 and an important condition for becoming eligible for Clean
Development Mechanism (CDM) projects were fulfilled. This Operational Strategy has been
developed to fulfill the requirements of establishing a Designated National Authority (DNA) and
ensuring transparent, participatory and effective management of CDM process in the country.
The strategy describes the functions and powers of the DNA and the national approval process. It
builds on preliminary studies for initial projects including Asia Least Cost Greenhouse Gases
Abatement Strategy (ALGAS) and Pakistan’s Initial Communication on Climate Change2 which
provides a general framework for operating CDM in Pakistan.
Criteria for CDM Projects:
Pakistan shall allow unilateral, bilateral and multilateral CDM projects preferably in the
following areas:
(i) Energy including renewable energy, energy efficiency, energy conservation and fossil-
fueled cogeneration;
(ii) Land use, Land use Change and Forestry (e.g. biodiversity protection, soil conservation,
watershed maintenance and sustainable forest/rangeland management);
(iii) Agricultural and livestock practices;
(iv) Waste Management (e.g. landfills, solid waste management, recycling, animal/livestock
wastes);
It aims to assist Annex-I Parties to implement project activities that reduce (or subject to
constraints removes) GHG emissions in non-Annex-I Parties (i.e. most of the developing
countries), in return for certified emission reductions (CERs). The CERs generated by such
project activities can be used by Annex-I Parties to meet their emissions targets under the Kyoto
Protocol
Technical Committees:
Three technical committees including “Technical Committee on Energy
Efficiency/Renewable Energy”, “Technical Committee on Waste Management” and “Technical
Committee on Agriculture, Forestry and Livestock” will be constituted. Additional Technical
Committees may be constituted, if required. These committees shall promote and advise on
CDM projects and assist project sponsors in developing CDM projects.
General Criteria:
The project should:
(i) Be consistent with the national laws and sustainable development policies, strategies and
plans including Pakistan Environmental Protection Act-1997, National Conservation
Strategy, National Environment Policy, National Forestry Policy, National Renewable

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Energy Policy, Medium-term Development Framework and other relevant policies and
plans of the Government; and
(ii) Not result in any obligation towards the investor country other than Certified Emission
Reduction (CER) authorization.
Economic Criteria:
The project should:
(i) Result in positive impact on balance of payment;
(ii) Not result in net increase in external debt burden; and
(iii) Be cost effective.
Technological Criteria:
The project should:
(i) Result in technology and know-how transfer; and
(ii) Not result in import of obsolete technology. Social Criteria

The project should:


(i) Result in poverty alleviation;
(ii) Result in creation of new jobs;
(iii) Result in creation of new economic activities;
(iv) Have positive impacts on local communities;
(v) Improve equity; and
(vi) Take gender concerns into consideration. Environmental Criteria

The project should:


(i) Result in significant reduction in the emissions of Greenhouse Gases;
(ii) Result in conservation of local resources and improvement of the local environment.
Strategy:
3-Tier Approach.
a) Preliminary Process Selection, Bio–Treatability Testing and Price Estimation.
a. Review all prior written studies, analysis and site work.
b)Brief Review and Professional Appraisal.
a. Implement Bio-feasibility screening and Data Interpretation.
c) Bio-treatability Studies and Process Confirmation.
a. Laboratory Studies.
b. In Situ, Ex Situ (water, slurry). Remedial Design/ Remedial Action (RD/RA) for:

In-Situ Pilot Scale Treatability Test Of Municipal Liquid/ Solid Waste.


Phase 1: Biodegradation of the Municipal Liquid Treatment Effluents (Aerobic, Anaerobic
and Facultative).
Phase 2: Biodegradation of Municipal Solid Waste through Anaerobic Composting with
Bioaugmentation.
a. In Situ, Ex Situ (water, slurry). Remedial Design/ Remedial Action (RD/RA) for: In-Situ
Pilot Scale Treatability Test of Hazardous Liquid/ Solid Waste.
Phase 3: Biodegradation of Hazardous Liquid Waste through Bio-oxidation and
Phytoremediation.
Phase 4: Biodegradation of Hazardous Liquid Waste through Anaerobic Slurry Decomposition
with Bioaugmentation.

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Bioenvironmental Action Plan: Remedial Design/ Remedial Action (RD/RA).
Solid Waste Handling:
Sorting and Shredding: The decomposable materials in refuse are isolated from glass, metal,
and other inorganic items through sorting and separating operations. These are carried out
mechanically, using differences in such physical characteristics of the refuse as size, density, and
magnetic properties. Shredding or pulverizing reduces the size of the waste articles, resulting in a
uniform mass of material. It is accomplished with hammer mills and rotary shredders. Digesting
and processing Pulverized waste is ready for composting either by the open windrow method or
in an enclosed mechanical facility. Windrows are long, low mounds of refuse. They are turned or
mixed every few days to provide air for the microbes digesting the organics. Depending on
moisture conditions, it may take five to eight weeks for complete digestion of the waste. Because
of the metabolic action of aerobic bacteria, temperatures in an active compost pile reach about
150 F (65 C), killing pathogenic organisms that may be in the waste material. Open windrow
composting requires relatively large land areas. Enclosed mechanical composting facilities can
reduce land requirements by about 85 percent. Mechanical composting systems employ one or
more closed tanks or digesters equipped with rotating vanes that mix and aerate the shredded
waste. Complete digestion of the waste takes about one week. Digested compost must be
processed before it can be used as a mulch or soil conditioner. Processing includes drying,
screening, and granulating or pelletizing. These steps improve the market value of the compost,
which is the most serious constraint to the success of composting as a waste management option.
Agricultural demand for digested compost is usually low because of the high cost of transporting
it and because of competition with inorganic chemical fertilizers.
Municipal Waste: Fruit & Vegetable Market waste; Animal manure; Ashes and raw sewage not
mixed with detergents and Household/ Commercial chemicals are generated in large quantities.
It is estimated that a community of 10,000 people can generate 40-acre inches of sewage effluent
per day or an equivalent of 1 million gallons of wastewater. This waste is extremely rich in
nutrients especially Nitrogen. Large quantities of carbonaceous materials are present in Fruit and
Vegetable Market waste. Fish Mundies and Slaughterhouse wastes are also valuable nutrient
sources. The exchange of nutrients between living and non-living parts of the Eco-system is
called Nutrient Cycling. When based upon human; animal and vegetable waste it is Nutrient re-
cycling at peak efficiency rather than merely creating a nuisance; pollution and source of disease.
The act of composting consists of two processes; Mineralization and Immobilization.
Mineralization occurs when microbial decomposers convert the nutrients in Organic matter into
inorganic ions. Immobilization is the uptake of inorganic nutrient ions by organisms. Thus
nutrient cycling conserves the nutrient supply and results in repeated use of these nutrients.
Organic matter added to the soil consists of many compounds. These are fats; carbohydrates;
proteins and lignins. The process of Mineralization and immobilization eventually breaks down
the most resistant elements for use of food. The net effect is the release of energy as heat;
formation of carbon dioxide and water; and the appearance of Nitrogen as Ammonium (NH4+);
Sulfur as Sulfate (So=4); Phosphorus as Phosphate (PO4-3) and other Nutrients as simple metal
ions (Ca+; Mg++; K=). As the elements or ions are released in Organic Matter Decomposition;
other specialized organisms oxidize some of them. The oxidized forms are more readily available
for use by higher plants.
Sanitary landfill and disposal is the most common management strategy for municipal
solid waste. Refuse can be safely deposited in a sanitary landfill, a disposal site that is carefully
selected, designed, constructed, and operated to protect the environment and public health. One

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 38


of the most important factors relating to land filling is that the buried waste never comes in
contact with surface water or groundwater. Engineering design requirements include a minimum
distance between the bottom of the landfill and the seasonally high groundwater table. Most new
landfills are required to have an impermeable liner or barrier at the bottom, as well as a system of
groundwater monitoring wells. Completed landfill sections also must be capped with an
impermeable cover to keep precipitation or surface runoff away from the buried waste. Bottom
and cap liners may be made of flexible plastic membranes, layers of clay soil, or a combination
of both.
Constructing the Sanitary Landfill: Two methods of constructing a sanitary landfill. (The top
and bottom liners and the leachate. The basic element of a sanitary landfill is the refuse cell. This
is a confined portion of the site in which refuse is spread and compacted in thin layers; several
layers may be compacted on top of one another to a maximum depth of about 10 feet (3 meters).
The compacted refuse occupies about one-quarter of its original loose volume. At the end of each
day's operation, the refuse is covered with a layer of soil to eliminate windblown litter, odors,
and insect or rodent problems. One refuse cell thus contains the daily volume of compacted
refuse and soil cover. Several adjacent refuse cells make up a lift, and eventually a landfill may
comprise two or more lifts stacked one on top of the other. The final cap for a completed landfill
may also be covered with a layer of topsoil that can support vegetative growth. Daily cover soil
may be available on-site, or it may be hauled in and stockpiled from off-site sources. Various
types of heavy machinery, such as crawler tractors or rubber-tired dozers, are used to spread and
compact the refuse and soil. Heavy steel-wheeled compactors may also be employed to achieve
high-density compaction of the refuse. The area and depth of a new landfill is carefully staked
out, and the base is prepared for construction of any required liner and leachate collection
system. Where a plastic liner is used, at least 12 inches (30 cm) of sand is carefully spread over it
to provide protection from landfill vehicles. At sites where excavations can be made below
grade, the trench method of construction may be followed. Where this is not feasible because of
topography or groundwater conditions, the area method may be practiced, resulting in a mound
or hill rising above the original ground. Since no ground is excavated in the area method, soil
usually must be hauled to the site from some other location. Variations of the area method may
be employed where a landfill site is located on sloping ground, in a valley, or in a ravine; the
completed landfill eventually blends in with the landscape.
Controlling by-products: Organic material buried in a landfill decomposes by anaerobic
microbial action. Complete decomposition usually takes more than 20 years. One of the by-
products of this decomposition is methane gas. Methane is poisonous and explosive when diluted
in the air, and it can flow long distances through porous layers of soil. If it is allowed to collect in
basements or other confined areas, dangerous conditions may arise. In modern landfills methane
movement is controlled by impermeable barriers and by gas venting systems. In some landfills
the methane gas is collected and recovered for use as a fuel. A highly contaminated liquid called
leachate is another by-product of decomposition in sanitary landfills. Most leachate is the result
of runoff that infiltrates the refuse cells and comes in contact with decomposing garbage. If
leachate reaches the groundwater or seeps out onto the ground surface, serious environmental
pollution problems can occur, including the possible contamination of drinking-water supplies.
Methods of controlling leachate include the interception of surface water in order to prevent it
from entering the landfill and the use of impermeable liners or barriers between the waste and the
groundwater. New landfill sites should also be provided with groundwater monitoring wells and
leachate collection and treatment systems.

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Importance in waste management In communities where appropriate sites are available,
sanitary landfills usually provide the most economical option for disposal of non-recyclable
refuse. However, it is becoming increasingly difficult to find sites that offer adequate capacity,
accessibility, and environmental conditions. Nevertheless, landfills will always play a key role in
solid-waste management. It is not possible to recycle all components of solid waste, and there
will always be residues from incineration and other treatment processes that will eventually
require disposal underground. In addition, landfills can actually improve poor-quality land. In
some communities properly completed landfills are converted into recreational parks,
playgrounds, or golf courses.
Recycling Separating, recovering, and reusing components of solid waste that may still
have economic value is called recycling. One type of recycling is the recovery and reuse of heat
energy. Composting can also be considered a recycling process, since it reclaims the organic
parts of solid waste for reuse as mulch or soil conditioner. Still other waste materials have
potential for reuse. These include paper, metal, glass, plastic, and rubber.
Separation: Before any material can be recycled, it must be separated from the raw waste and
sorted. Separation can be accomplished at the source of the waste or at a central processing
facility. Source separation, also called curbside separation, is done by individual citizens who
collect newspapers, bottles, cans, and garbage separately and place them at the curb for
collection. Many communities allow "commingling" of non-paper recyclables (glass, metal, and
plastic). In either case, municipal collection of source-separated refuse is more expensive than
ordinary refuse collection. In lieu of source separation, recyclable materials can be separated
from garbage at centralized mechanical processing plants. Experience has shown that the quality
of recyclables recovered from such facilities is lowered by contamination with moist garbage and
broken glass. The best practice, as now recognized, is to have citizens separate refuse into a
limited number of categories, including newspaper; magazines and other wastepaper;
commingled metals, glass, and plastics; and garbage and other non-recyclables. The newspaper,
other paper wastes, and commingled recyclables are collected separately from the other refuse
and are processed at a centralized material recycling facility, or MRF (pronounced "murf" in
waste-management jargon). A modern MRF can process about 300 tons of recyclable wastes per
day. At a typical MRF commingled recyclables are loaded onto a conveyor. Steel cans ("tin"
cans are actually steel with only a thin coating of tin) are removed by an electromagnetic
separator, and the remaining material passes over a vibrating screen in order to remove broken
glass. Next, the conveyor passes through an air classifier, which separates aluminum and plastic
containers from heavier glass containers. Glass is manually sorted by color, and aluminum cans
are separated from plastics by an eddy-current separator, which repels the aluminum from the
conveyor belt.
Reuse: Recovered broken glass can be crushed and used in asphalt pavement. Color-sorted glass
is crushed and sold to glass manufacturers as cullet, an essential ingredient in glassmaking. Steel
cans are baled and shipped to steel mills as scrap, and aluminum is baled or compacted for reuse
by smelters. Aluminum is one of the smallest components of municipal solid waste, but it has the
highest value as a recyclable material. Recycling of plastic is a challenge, mostly because of the
many different polymeric materials used in its production. Mixed thermoplastics can be used
only to make lower-quality products, such as "plastic lumber. "In the paper stream, old
newspapers are sorted by hand on a conveyor belt in order to remove corrugated materials and
mixed papers. They are then baled or loose-loaded into trailers for shipment to paper mills,
where they are reused in the making of more newspaper. Mixed paper is separated from

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 40


corrugated paper for sale to tissue mills. Although the processes of pulping, de-inking, and
screening wastepaper are generally more expensive than making paper from virgin wood fibers,
the market for recycled paper should improve as more processing plants are established. Rubber
is sometimes reclaimed from solid waste and shredded, reformed, and remolded in a process
called re-vulcanization, but it is usually not as strong as the original material. Shredded rubber
can be used as an additive in asphalt pavements, and discarded tires may be employed in "tire
playgrounds." In general, the most difficult problem associated with the recycling of any solid-
waste material is finding applications and suitable markets. Recycling by itself will not solve the
growing problem of solid-waste management and disposal. There will always be some unusable
and completely valueless solid residue requiring final disposal.
A. Objectives of the Project:
 To establish Citizens Community Organizations for Solid & Liquid Waste Management.
 To disseminate Environmental Health Education.
 Institute Primary Segregation on the part of the Community.
 Streamline Solid Waste Collection.
 Demonstrate and Transfer Rapid Composting Technology.
B. Justification of the Project:
The proposed target areas are heavily populated Urban Spreads. There is a complete
absence of proper Solid or Liquid Waste Management creating serious Health Hazards. As
Waste Producers the residents of the area should be willing to take on the responsibility of
managing their own Solid Waste. The Project has been designed with simplicity and ease of
implementation as a Prime Objective. The emphasis is upon Practical Management as well as
Awareness Raising and not only upon Awareness raising alone. As such the Proposed Project
will go a long way in providing a viable demonstration of Low-Cost, Self-Help Solid Waste
Management that will be Replicable. As there is a critical need for Solid Waste Management all
over the Country, the Project will serve a very Noble Cause that is integral to our Religion and
Beliefs.
Project Implementation:
A. Project Duration: One Year (12 months).
Work Plan (Quarterly Activities).
Start/ End dates of 3-monthly Periods Activities
01-01-2005 to 31-03-2005 Door to Door Campaign for Awareness Raising /
Motivation.
Seminars/ Posters/ Community Meetings.
Formation of Neighborhood Committees.
Identification of Agents for Positive Change.
Training/ Demonstration by Khidmat Foundation.
Quarterly Monitoring
01-04-2005 to 31-06-2005 Primary Segregation into 2 streams: Green = Bio-degradable
Brown = Non-degradable.
Determination of Collection Points (CPs)
Arrangements for Recyclable Waste Sorting
On-Going Composting
Schools Cleanliness Awareness Campaign
On-Going Review by Community
Quarterly Monitoring
Report of 1st & 2nd quarters to Concerned Authorities
01-07-2004 to 31-09-2005 On-Going Schools program
Poster Competition
Progress Report & Distribution
Self-Reliant base for Continuity through sale of Compost and
Recyclables
Technical Appraisal by Khidmat Foundation
Project Review Adjustment

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 41


Quarterly Monitoring
01-10-2005 to 31-12-2005 On-Going School education program
On-Going motivation program
Visits by neighboring Communities
Visits by Officials
Project Evaluation by Beneficiaries
2nd & 3rd Quarter Reports
End of project Review Report
If yes, explain how:
The Project will be implemented by Neighborhood Committees constituted for this very
purpose. The entire Community will be involved in all aspects of implementation and monitoring
of the Project. Overseeing and Monitoring Committees of the local community will be
constituted and regular meetings and on-going review will be held. School children will be fully
involved in all aspects and will be motivated to ensure success of the Project. Agents for positive
Change from amongst the community will be identified and will assume responsibility of various
aspects of the Project.
Most attention has been paid to Long-term continuity and sustainability of the Project.
This has been ensured by the following.
Recyclables: A shed will be erected upon Communal Property that will serve as repository for
Non-degradable Solid Waste. Scavengers and Rag-Pickers urchins will not be allowed to roam
unsupervised in the Mohallahs. Rather they will be allowed to sort and can be hired for this
purpose. Sale of valuable recyclable material that is free of bio-degradable waste will prove to be
lucrative enough to sustain the project even by itself. At present this is a business that is carried
out in most unhygienic conditions and yet fetches handsome returns.
Compost: Given the heightened awareness regarding Organic fertilizers and the fact that the
proposed Project is in close proximity to Islamabad, the presence of Nurseries and Domestic
demand will ensure a valuable business to the residents through sale of Compost.
What Technical capacity does the NGO have to undertake the Project? Give examples of
previous work, technically qualified people, equipment etc.
The Proposer runs a Triple ‘A’ (Appropriate, Adaptive & Applied) R&D operation and
can be appointed for Technical Collaboration and demonstration of Field tested and tried Rapid
Composting techniques as well as Energy Dome for complete waste treatment. He has plenty of
experience in Social Mobilization, Community Awareness and development as well as field
experience in Environment related activities (Srs. 8 & 9).

SECTION III: PROJECT COST, REPORTING & MONITORING:


1. Project Costs (Item wise).
a. Total Capital Cost.
(e.g. Equipment & Machinery) Rs.
b. Total Recurring/ Operating Cost. Rs.
(e.g. Salaries, Rent, Mail, Phone etc.)
2. Financing of the Project.
a. Total Amount of Grant Requested: Rs.
b. Contribution by the NGO itself (if any). Rs.
Kind: (e.g. equipment) Rs.
Human Resources (e.g. volunteer time). Rs.
Solid Waste Treatment:
 Beds:200x8x4x15=48,000cu ft Rs.
 Black Plastic (Winter Cover): Rs.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 42


 Bacteria. Rs.
 Transport Rs.
 Shredder: Rs.
 Labor/ Machinery: Rs.
 Tractor/ Chisel Plow/ Rotavator Rs.
TOTAL: Rs.
75 % Advance: Rs.
25% on completion: Rs.
Details of Project Components and their itemized cost of material, labor, machinery etc.
How will you monitor & evaluate the implementation of the Project?
The proposer has plenty of experience in monitoring field projects. A questionnaire will
be developed for monitoring and evaluation. Regular meetings of the Community will be held
for this purpose as well. Quarterly Review Reports and well as Technical Appraisal of progress
by the proposer will provide external Audit of Activities. A Participatory Evaluation Process will
be initiated and indicators will be developed to mark the progress of the project. Local and area
influential’s and Govt. Officials as well as Staff of the Provincial/ Federal Ministry of
Environment will be invited to review the project from time to time.

PROJECT BUDGET DETAILS:


# ITEMS
1. Awareness Raising/ Meetings etc.
2. Social Mobilization
3. Rapid Composting Demonstration
4. Composting Pits & Covers x 25
5. Central Recyclables Sorting Facility
6. Hand Trolleys x 15
7. Pay of Sanitary Workers x 4 x 2,000.00 pm
8. Rent for Tractor Trolley twice pm x 500.00
9. Stationery & Misc.
10. Printed Material
Booklets 2000
Posters 1000
Stickers 2000
Banners 50
11. Schools Awareness Campaign
12. Repair & Maintenance
13. Bio-Aab (EM Technology) Inputs 100 L pm
14. Pay & Allowances Supervisory Staff x 2
15. Resource Persons x 2
16. Supervision
17. Beds:200x8x4x15=48,000cu ft
18. Black Plastic (Winter Cover):
19. Bacteria.
20. Transport
21. Shredder:
22. Labor/ Machinery:
23. Tractor/ Chisel Plow/ Rotavator
TOTAL
TOTAL PROJECT COST
TERMS OF FINANCE.
The terms of Finance suggested are as follows:
 Mobilization Advance for detailed Survey and Design.
 Payment for Detailed Project Plan including finances required and working drawings on
submission.
 Works Execution. 25%= Advance + On 50% Completion=25% + On Completion= 50%

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 43


CONTRIBUTION.
The Proposer is in a position to accurately carry out detailed Site Survey and prepare
Site-specific Work Plans along with financial requirements and requisite Working drawings.
Skilled and experienced labor for all aspects of Project design and implementation are available.
CONDUCT.
 Site Survey and Project Design.
 Submission of Work Plans with financial details and working drawings for the Project.
 Physical erection of requisite infrastructure.
 Monitoring & Evaluation.
CONCLUSION:
The Project is urgently required and. deserves prompt perusal and sanction. The positive
effects on humanity and the environment are highly visible and desperately needed! Finally, the
project is environment friendly and low-cost in nature. Thus, it is urged that the process be taken
forward at the earliest.
Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) Mobilization & Awareness Raising.
CLTS represents a radical alternative to conventional top-down approaches to sanitation
and offers hope of achieving the Millennium Development Goals (Kar and Chambers 2008).
CLTS emphasizes community action and behavior change as the most important elements to
achieving better sanitation – without resorting to subsidies. CLTS highlights how communities
themselves are capable of analyzing the problems of fecal-oral routes of disease spread, and of
conceiving of ways to deal with these themselves, rather than outsiders offering prescribed
solutions. What distinguishes Community-Led Total Sanitation from earlier community-based
approaches, therefore, is the way that it emphasizes facilitation rather than education or training.
For example, a report on CLTS from Sierra Leone states that; ‘In three weeks, CLTS has
managed to do what millions of dollars, hundreds of construction projects, and dozens of NGOs
failed to do over decades.
Project Abstract/Summary:
Being sensitive to cultural and religious norms and practices is essential in terms of
adopting a Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach. Because the approach relies so
heavily on triggering spontaneous behavior change, there is a need to be aware of how current
behavior and norms are couched in particular cultural and religious concepts and practices.
Technological Issues:
In contrast to supply-oriented approaches, the CLTS framework does not offer pre-
designed sanitary solutions; facilitators do not foist particular technological options on dwellers
but aim towards generating a drive to build their own facilities, using local technologies and
drawing upon local knowledge. Thus, the particular technological options that do emerge will
depend on the availability and nature of building materials in the immediate vicinity, their cost,
the knowledge and skills of the community, the existence of masonry traditions, and the division
of labor within that particular community (see e.g. Kar and Bongartz 2006).
What is CLTS?
CLTS is assisting the community in identifying its sanitation problems and optimizing its
potential to improve (Lokakarya 2008). An approach that focuses on igniting a change in
sanitation behavior through community participation rather than constructing toilets (Plan UK
2008)
GOAL: People consciously change their because of collective pressure.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 44


Over 50% of the problem related to Solid Waste Management can be overcome by simple
Primary Segregation on the part of the Waste Generating Society. Division into Biodegradable
and non-degradable waste streams in the home or business simplifies the problem of sustainable
waste disposal. Sanitation staff and scavengers are also not subject to contamination by disease
vectors. Biodegradable waste is kept in covered containers and sent straight to the composting
facility. Where neighborhoods and people are interested in home composting and have the
necessary space, local composting can help to reduce waste bulk. Secondly, disease vectors are
denied space to multiply within residential and commercial areas. The local communities need to
be motivated and mobilized to undertake this primary responsibility.
Objectives of the Project:
 To establish Citizens Community Organizations for Solid Waste Management.
 To disseminate Environmental Health Education.
 Institute Primary Segregation on the part of the Community.
 Streamline Solid Waste Collection.
 Demonstrate and Transfer Rapid Composting Technology.
Justification of the Project:
The proposed target areas are heavily populated Urban Spreads. There is a complete
absence of proper Solid or Liquid Waste Management creating a serious Health Hazards. As
Waste Producers the residents of the area should be willing to take on the responsibility of
managing their own Solid Waste. The Project has been designed with simplicity and ease of
implementation as a Prime Objective. The emphasis is upon Practical Management as well as
Awareness Raising and not only upon Awareness raising alone. As such the Proposed Project
will go a long way in providing a viable demonstration of Low-Cost, Self-Help Solid Waste
Management that will be Replicable. As there is a critical need for Solid Waste Management all
over the Country, the Project will serve a very Noble Cause that is integral to our Religion and
Beliefs.
Specific Objectives:
1. Arrange Mohallah/ Ward delimitation into populations not exceeding 500 households.
2. Motivate and Mobilize populace to segregate biodegradable and non-degradable waste at
site.
3. Ensure segregated waste is transported to Municipal Composting Facility.
4. Educate the society regarding composting and safe disposal of solid waste.
5. Campaign for Total Sanitation.
Methodology:
Local NGOs/ CBOs will be identified to undertake campaigns under the CLTS approach.
Educational and poster campaigns will be launched through these organizations while education
institutions and media will be fully involved in the process.
Expected Outputs and Outcome/Impact:
With targets for primary segregation achieved the task of rapid, bioaugmented
composting will be facilitated and success of the efforts will be guaranteed. Involvement of the
sovereign masses in tackling their own problems will lead to a sense of ownership and lent
sustainability to the project. Healthy and sanitary habitations will evolve from the exercise and
Public Health will be positively impacted especially amongst children. The prevalence of clean
environment will have the subliminal affect of inculcating cleanliness and a sense of pride/
belonging in society and go a long way in promoting harmony. The impact is likely to be even
more than expected as aware and highly motivated communities are looking for ways and means

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 45


to better their living conditions. The use of compost will also be increased as the people will
themselves be involved and will be aware of the positive benefits that accrue from this eco-
friendly activity.
Team of Experts for Project Component – I
Project Director: The overall Project Director will be responsible for this aspect of the Project.
Other Team Members: Members of Civil Society and KPK Government will comprise the
team divided between the proposed composting sites.
Project Duration: Duration will be of
Project Cost: Total Project Cost (Rs. in million):
Locations of the Project: The Proposed Project Sites are:
Project Implementation:
a. Project Duration:
Component I: Work Plan (Quarterly Activities).
Start/ End dates of 6-monthly Activities
Periods
01-03-210 to 01-09-2010 Preparation of Educational/ Promotional material (Videos/ Manuals/ Brochures/
Banners).
Formal Opening
Primary Segregation and Sanitation Awareness Campaigns (Seminars/ Meetings/
Walks/ Media Campaigns).
University of Peshawar/ Hazara: Review
Door to Door Campaign for Awareness Raising / Motivation.
Seminars/ Posters/ Community Meetings.
Formation of Neighborhood Committees.
Identification of Agents for Positive Change.
Election of Executive Committee Members (5 each in 6 locations) through Page Rank
Algorithm based ranking.
Training/ Demonstration
Quarterly Monitoring
01-09-20010 to 01-03-2011 Primary Segregation into 2 streams: Green = Bio-degradable
Brown = Non-degradable.
Determination of Collection Points (CPs)
Arrangements for Recyclable Waste Sorting
Practical composting at Micro Level
Schools Cleanliness Awareness Campaign
On-Going Review by Community
Quarterly Monitoring
Report of 1st & 2nd quarters to Concerned Authorities
01-03-2011 to 01-09-2011 On-Going Schools program
Poster Competition
On-going Composting
Progress Report & Distribution
Self-Reliant base for Continuity through sale of Compost and Recyclables
Technical Appraisal by PARC.
Project Review Adjustment
Quarterly Monitoring
01-09-2011 to 01-03-2012 On-Going School education program
On-Going motivation program
Visits by neighboring Communities
On-going Composting
Visits by Officials
Project Evaluation by Beneficiaries
2nd & 3rd Quarter Reports
End of project Review Report
The Project will be implemented by Neighborhood Committees constituted for this very
purpose on the lines of Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS). The entire Community will be
involved in all aspects of implementation and monitoring of the Project. Overseeing and
Monitoring Committees of the local community will be constituted and regular meetings and on-
going review will be held. College students and School children will be fully involved in all
aspects and will be motivated to ensure success of the Project. Agents for positive Change from

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 46


amongst the community will be identified and will assume responsibility of various aspects of
the Project.
Most attention has been paid to Long-term continuity and sustainability of the Project.
This has been ensured by the following.
Compost: Given the heightened awareness regarding Organic fertilizers and Global Warming,
the residents will be encouraged to go in for small scale composting where ever possible. Small
scale demonstrations will be held and literature will be distributed.
Details of Components Activities and their itemized cost of material, labor, machinery etc.
A questionnaire will be developed for monitoring and evaluation. Regular meetings of
the Community will be held for this purpose as well. Quarterly Review Reports and well as
Technical Appraisal of progress by PMU will provide external Audit of Activities. A
Participatory Evaluation Process will be initiated and indicators will be developed to mark the
progress of the project. Local and area influentials and Govt. Officials will be invited to review
the project from time to time.
Component I: PROJECT BUDGET DETAILS (Rs. in millions):
Code Narration Y-1 Y-2 Total
62-13 Running cost of vehicles
62-14 Transport of goods
62-2 Transportation
62-20 Postage & Telegraph
62-21 Telephone & trunk calls
62-23 Courier service
62-24 E-mail & internet
62-3 Communication
62-30 Utilities/office support
62-31 Stationery
Printed Material
Booklets
Posters
Stickers
Banners
Schools Awareness Campaign
62-36 Consumable stores
62-37 Other Misc. Expenses
Software Development
62-4 Utilities
62-43 Computer & Office equipment
62-44 Furniture & Fixture
62-5 Repair & Maintenance
62-52 Public Meetings
Social Mobilization
62-53 Essay/article writing
62-55 Other services
62-56 Official Visits
62-6 Other Services
62-60 Publicity and advertisement
62-62 Project Review expense
62-63 Seminars/workshops/meetings
62-7 Other Charges
63-1 OPERATIONAL EXPENSES
63-12 Survey & Organization
10% Operational Expense to Implementing NGO
Pre-Fabricated Insulated Fiber Glass Office Building 40ft dia Geodesic Dome
Rapid Composting Demonstration
Composting Pits & Cover Frames x 25 x 6
Black & Green Plastic (Winter/ Summer Cover):
Resource Persons x 2
Bio-Aab (EM Technology) Inputs
Vehicle
64 CAPITAL EXPENSES
Grand Total

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 47


CONDUCT:
 Site Survey and Project Design.
 Submission of Work Plans with financial details and working drawings for the Project.
 Physical erection of requisite infrastructure.
 Monitoring & Evaluation.
The Project is urgently required and. deserves prompt perusal and sanction. The positive
effects on humanity and the environment are highly visible and desperately needed! Finally, the
project is environment friendly and low-cost in nature. Thus, it is urged that the process be taken
forward at the earliest.
The Bioenvironmental aspect of our habitations is under threat of ecological collapse.
The Natural Cycles have been interfered with and have broken down in many places. Due to this
the vital regenerative aspect of Nature and constant supply of fresh air and water along with
replenished soil fertility is being curtailed. Emission of noxious and hazardous gasses, leachates
and breeding grounds for disease vectors are some of the problems associated with our manner
of living. The discovery that every aspect of Nature works in harmony with each other to
produce and maintain the eco-system in habitable condition should make us realize that we have
to conform to the Laws of Nature in order to ensure that we can continue to inhabit that
particular eco-system.
When we learn that the products required for regeneration of soil fertility and the
generation of vitally needed energy as well as water is available to us with a little effort then
there is no justification of allowing these potential inputs to create a nuisance rather than be
beneficial. Solid and Liquid Municipal Waste affords us the opportunity to produce compost and
digestate liquor which can be used as a fertilizer supplying vital nutrients to soils. The solid,
fibrous component of compost and digestate can be used as a soil conditioner. The liquor and
nutrient fortified compost can be used as a substitute for chemical fertilizers which require large
amounts of energy to produce and transport. The use of manufactured fertilizers is more carbon
intensive than the use of anaerobic digestate fertilizer thus savings can be affected by reduction
in their use. At present Solid & Liquid Waste is grossly polluting the environment. This is
causing increasing incidence of diseases and indirectly contributing to decreased economic
activity due to degradation of the environment. Invisible costs in terms of loss of man-hours and
increased pressure upon medical facilities are of great concern.
Most MSW is disposed of in landfills, burnt, or illegally dumped, as there is no special
government regulation on MSW treatment. GHG emissions especially CO2 and other air
pollutants, i.e. NOx, CO, SOx and also particulates are polluting the environment. MSW landfills
produce leachates that contaminate water body/soil creating water/soil pollution. The unsorted
municipal solid waste in the six nominated cities amounts to an average of just under 384 tons
per day. There is no proper waste collection system.
 Waste is dumped in the open.
 Different types of waste are not segregated.
 There are no controlled sanitary landfill sites.
“It has been estimated that around 4,000 million gallons of sewage is being discharged to
surface water bodies every day in Pakistan, with very little consideration of used-water
management for fresh water conservation and human well being. Serious health concerns arise in
the absence of a regular monitoring of the water quality of the surface and groundwater bodies.
Contaminated and poor quality water loads estimated health costs of Rs. 114 billion, or

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 48


approximately 1.81 percent of GDP per annum.” The high proportions of costs due to premature
child deaths, followed by the mortality impacts of typhoid in the older population are striking
(Pak- SCEA2006). A study conducted by UNICEF found that 20-40% of the hospital beds in
Pakistan are occupied by patients suffering from water-related diseases, such as typhoid, cholera,
dysentery and hepatitis, which are responsible for one third of all deaths (Pak SCEA2006).9
The Rivers Swat and Panjkora (in Malakand Division) are at threat from the ever
increasing disposal of domestic; agricultural, municipal waste water; industrial effluents; solid
wastes; deforestation; unplanned construction and encroachments as well as the high level of
environmental unawareness of the residents and the visiting tourists to the region.”10
“The links between water quality and health risks are well established. Inadequate quantity and
quality of potable water and poor sanitation facilities and practices are associated with a host of
illnesses such as diarrhea, typhoid, intestinal worms and hepatitis. It is estimated that more than
1.6 million DALYs (Disability Adjusted Life Years) are lost annually as a result of death and
disease due to diarrhea, and almost 0.90 million as a result of typhoid. Diarrheal and typhoid
mortality in children accounts for the bulk of the losses, reflecting the vulnerability of children to
these diseases.
The negative impact of the above mentioned contamination can be reversed by using bio-
remediation techniques, and local communities will actually benefit from enhanced soil fertility
and better overall health. National Agricultural Research Center (NARC) has high potential and
state of the art capabilities to deal with the used water through environment friendly biological
means. Benefits of used-water management can be seen in terms of improvement in the quality
of life, health standards of communities combined with used-water reclamation and soil safety
from toxicity within three years. The contamination of water is just one example of the harm
being done to natural resources. Bio-remediation technologies, which utilize natural processes of
decontamination by facilitating the remedial activity of various organisms, can be applied to
many aspects including decontamination of water, decomposition of biodegradable solid waste
and detoxification of soil. These methods, when combined with Integrated Farming promote a
broad-based and holistic approach.”11
Latest techniques of Biotechnology have led to the development of low-cost solutions to
what was earlier a high cost exercise. Rapid decomposition by bacteria through Bioaugmentation
is the application of selected microorganisms to enhance the microbial populations of an
operating waste treatment facility to improve water quality or lower operating costs.
Bioaugmentation involves working to improve a continuous process and can readily convert
Biodegradable and noxious solid and liquid waste into valuable by-products.
Environment Control Infrastructure for Solid & Liquid Waste Treatment has also been
revolutionized by the NARC by developing low-cost and rapidly constructed structures for both
Solid & Liquid Waste Management. Thus operating period of beds and ponds is extended well
into winter. Resultant cost effectiveness of by-products and short turnover periods make the
Project extremely beneficial and desirable. Thus the Overall Project is extremely effective;
immediately implemented and bears low-cost. It is a Project of High Profile as it caters to one of
the most critical problems being faced by our Society. The beneficial results for protecting the
environment from further degradation are incalculable. The Eco System that we inhabit might be
9
Pak- Strategic Country Environment Assessment 2006
10
Feasibility Study to divert domestic and municipal sewage entering into the River System Swat & Panjkora in
Districts Swat & Dir Lower (ADP No. 483): Swat Irrigation Division Saidu Sharif.
11
Bio-remediation of used water. A publication of NARC Institute of Eco-toxicology, Bio-remediation and
Integrated Farming.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 49


reaching critical stage in destabilization. Once this thresh hold is passed we will face an
extremely expensive and uphill rehabilitation task.
A NEW MORN!
Project Objectives:
The prime objective of the project is to create sustainable Metropolitan Municipal Liquid
& Solid Waste Management systems that support GHG emission reduction through Clean
Development Mechanism (CDM). For trading purposes, one carbon credit is considered
equivalent to one ton of CO2 emission and this carbon credit can be sold in the international
market like other commodities at the prevailing price. So far, five exchanges are dealing in
carbon credits: The EcoSecurities, Chicago Climate Exchange, European Climate Exchange,
Nordpool and Powernext.
Domestic and Industrial Water Use and Waste Water Disposal:
Access to water for domestic purposes in the urban areas is limited to about 83% of the
population, with 57% having piped supply to their homes. Present water use in the urban sector
is of the order of 4.3 MAF. The demand is expected to increase to about 12.1 MAF by the year
2025. Rural domestic water use is currently 0.8 MAF, with only about 53% of the rural
population having access to drinking water from public water supply sources. Water consumed
by major industries is about 1.2 MAF per year, mostly from ground water.
To address the fact that water pollution is a main concern in Pakistan. The source is from
both municipal and industrial uses, with only about 1% of wastewater treated before disposal.
This has become one of the largest environmental problems in Pakistan. General objectives of
the proposed project are in line with the sectoral objectives of the sewage and sanitation sector
besides supporting the green environment in MTDF (2005-10). Accordingly, the Government of
Pakistan is committed to combat environmental pollution in various sectors and at various levels.
Specific Objectives:
The proposed Project will establish Community Led Total Sanitation CLTS) Programs as
Bioenvironmental Services Teams (BEST) in:
 Abbottabad
 Mingora
 Mardan
 Kohat
 Bannu
 D. I. Khan
of KP including the following components:
Component I: Social Mobilization for CLTS and overall Project Management; Monitoring and
Evaluation in Six (06) Cities/ Towns of N.W.F.P.
Component II: Segregation of MSW for Composting and Recyclables.
Component III: MSW Bioremediation through Bioaugmented Windrow Composting Facilities
for Biodegradable Solid Waste in order to remove foul odors; exclude breeding areas for disease
vectors; provide aesthetically pleasing environment; curtail environmental pollution and produce
Organic Fertilizer
Component IV: Bioremediation of Liquid Waste Facilities through Waste Water Gardens to
recycle water for agriculture; horticulture and aquaculture and prevent contamination of the
aquifers.
Component III, (MSW Bioremediation through Bioaugmented Windrow Composting
Facilities) can be established on priority basis as a stand-alone Project. However, inclusion of

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 50


Components I (Social Mobilization for CLTS) and II (Segregation of MSW) are essential for
efficient implementation and sustainability of Component III.
Component IV (Bioremediation of Liquid Waste Facilities through Waste Water
Gardens) is a pressing and emergency requirement. Integrated or phase wise implementation will
provide cost effectiveness and high impact to the project as well as earn income to cover
expenses incurred. This will ensure sustainability of the project as well as complete
bioenvironmental cover to the localities in a replicable manner.
Relationship with Sector Objectives:
Description, Justification, Technical Parameter and Technology Transfer Aspects:
Background:
KP covers 39,267 sq miles (101,700 km2), which is 12.8% of the total area of Pakistan
and has a population of 22.4 million (15.9 % of total population).
Solid Waste: In the KP generation of municipal solid waste is estimated to be between 0.4 and
0.6 kilograms per day per capita and virtually, no proper waste management system exists.
Approximately 40 per cent of the generated wastes remain at collection points, or in streets,
where they emit a host of pollutants into the air, making it unacceptable for breathing. Also on
roadside, the dump burning of the municipal solid wastes generates air pollution problem. Many
Cities do not have regular Dumping Grounds and the Solid Waste generated in the Cities is being
sold directly to farmers for inculcation into their lands without any form of pre-treatment what so
ever. Pollution of surface and sub-surface water by leachates from MSW is also a matter of grave
importance. The EPA has found that quality of drinking water is often low and seldom met the
WHO guidelines. Water in many parts of the province was unsafe for human consumption due to
both bacterial and chemical contamination. It says that water samples of Bannu and Kohat
Districts were 30 to 20 % affected by bacteriological contamination. Almost 50 % in Mardan and
Swat, while more than 60 % contaminated samples belonged to D.I. Khan and Mansehra.
Surface Water: The quality of surface water has also been identified as the major issue of water
resources. Untreated waste discharged from factories, industrial units, residential areas and
municipal waste are the prime culprits which are polluting sources of surface water.
One of the sources of pollution in Swat River is the water coming from one of its main
tributaries, the Mingora Khawar. The Murghuzar Khawar flows past the famous village of
Islampur. Here 4-5,000 handlooms are engaged in the weaving of shawls and blankets for export
and sale in local markets. The products are washed with chemicals and soap before sale and the
entire effluent goes into the Murghuzar Khawar which joins the Mingora Khawar before it enters
into the city. All the waste and effluent in Mingora city are added to Mingora Khawar and these
pollutants are further injected into River Swat contributing to its ecological degradation as well.
Analysis has revealed some frightening figures that indicated serious threats to the aquatic,
terrestrial, atmospheric eco-systems and to the well-being of human, plant and animal life. There
are many studies and also a PC-1 for undertaking the survey of Liquid Waste effluent dumping
in all streams/ rivers of Swat. A Study Group exists within Peshawar University, Area Study
Center, Swat Study Group run by a Core Working Group which covers Liquid & Solid Waste in
Swat District. An M-Phil Thesis on Solid Waste in Mingora also exists. This Study Group may
be taken on board. Geneva University has also carried out research in this matter. Civil Society
estimates that a minimum period of 18 months for complete Social Mobilization on CLTS
concept for dealing with the hazardous problem of waste entering the food chain as well as the
hazard of Hospital waste through formation of Community Groups of 500 Households for

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 51


primary segregation of Solid Waste in the home. A Round Table for Pollution Prevention was
constituted in 1998 by the Environment Protection Society (EPS), a Civil Sector Organization.
Soils: The soils of all the areas are depleted in Nutrients and Organic Material. As such water
retention capacity and soil fertility is being eroded. No soil conservation efforts are being made
non-sustainable road construction as well as deforestation are badly affecting the stability of
slopes and carrying capacity of the land. Subsistence farming is replacing the bountiful yields of
nature. Soil borne diseases and viruses are plentiful whereas overuse of chemical fertilizers and
plant ‘protection’ chemicals has served to eradicate friendly microbes and insects. Over
cultivation has led to compaction and destruction of Macro pores in the soil leading to increased
run-off and erosion. Soil amendments in the shape of organic content can be served if
composting is adopted to provide:
 Increased water retention capacity.
 Decreased Soil erosion.
 Increased Soil fertility and carrying capacity.
 More quality & Quantity yields.
 Increased revenues from sale of Organic Produce.
 Curtailment in incidence of diseases.
Justification: The project consists of aerobic and anaerobic MSW and leachate treatment for
producing Compost and Waste Water Gardens for treating Liquid Waste, complete with
Bioreactors to generate Methane Gas for energy production in six cities: Abbottabad, Mingora,
Mardan, Kohat Bannu and D I Khan, complete with Sorting; Shredding; Composting; Nutrient
Enhancement with pure mono and divalent metals chelated with inert organic matter as opposed
to ETDA chelation. Leachates and run-off from MSW will be added to the Bioreactors.
Benefits: The benefits of the proposed project are:
a. Reduction of environment pollution (in rivers and ground caused by liquid and solid
waste disposal and air pollution from open burning of waste);
b. Overcome social issues occurring from illegal waste disposal (open dumping);
c. Harvest Methane Gas for energy production;
d. Conversion of non reusable solid waste for better economic benefits;
e. Reduction of GHG emissions;
f. Cleaner environment for better public health (odor, seeping of contaminated or polluted
water, potential spreading of disease);
g. Creation of job opportunities;
h. Dissemination of a good municipal waste treatment technology to other locations.
Besides improving the environment, the project is financially and economically feasible.
The project has a potential to reduce GHG emission as much as 37.5 M tons of CO2 equivalent
per year from Solid Waste alone. Additionally, the project will produce organic fertilizer
(compost) that is also environmentally friendly. The expected operational lifetime of the project
activity is 20 years. The project is to be executed by the PARC, Islamabad.
Description: Historical Background:
# Era Item
1. 2500BC Mohenjo Daro & Harappa Covered Drains.
2. 500BC Aryan Tribal Taboos against polluting flowing water.
3. 320BC Greek Laws against Refuse Dumping.
4. 31BC Rome property owners responsible for area cleanliness.
5. 1400AD England Scavengers.

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6. 1800AD US Municipal Waste Collection.
7. 1870AD Technological Approach.
8. 21st Century Biotech Revolution.
In order to maintain a sustained yield from Natural Resources we must introduce rational
management of the environment and consequently the ecosystem. Nature, when left on its own,
is finely balanced. When man tinkers with Nature this balance is destroyed. For example when
man ignorantly upsets the balance by contaminating aquifers, attracting disease vectors to open
air dumping and burning of Biodegradable Waste Solid Waste, great perils arise. These activities
cause contaminated aquifers; spread of water and air borne diseases; release of deadly dioxins
(carcinogenic) and polluted rivers.
These in turn yield many other disastrous results such as diminished vitality; expensive
medical cures and so on. This results in malnutrition; lowered living standards; depleted
resources etc. At the same time pressure keeps on increasing due to rapid population growth. As
a result we have Eco-catastrophe on our hands and finally extinction.
Technical Aspects: District Population 1998 (Census):
# City MSW MSW MSW MLW MLW MLW Acre- Acre- Acre
Population tons/ million million million million million Inches/ Inches/ -
(millions) day tons/ tons/ gallons gallons/ gallons/ day month Inch
per per / day month year es/
month annum Year

1 Abbottabad 52.80 0.0016 0.019 11.00 330.00 3,960.00 0.00044 0.013 0.16
0.11
2 Bannu 0.05 24.00 0.0007 0.0088 5.00 150.00 1,800.00 0.0002 0.006 0.07
3 D.I.Khan 43.20 0.0013 0.016 9.00 270.00 3,240.00 0.00036 0.011 0.13
0.09
4 Kohat 0.13 62.40 0.0019 0.023 13.00 390.00 4,680.00 0.00052 0.016 0.19
5 Mingora 81.60 0.0024 0.029 17.00 510.00 6,120.00 0.00068 0.02 0.24
0.17
6 Mardan 120.00 0.0036 0.044 25.00 750.00 9,000.00 0.001 0.03 0.36
0.25
Total 0.80 384.00 0.0115 0.1398 80.00 2,400.00 28,800.00 0.0032 0.096 1.15
It is estimated that a community of 10,000 people can generate 40-acre inches of sewage
effluent per day or an equivalent of 1 million gallons of wastewater.
Quantification of Solid Waste by Category (tons/ month):
ITEM % Abbottabad Bannu DI Khan Kohat Mingora Mardan Totals
Rubber & Leather 3.00 47.52 21.60 38.88 56.16 73.44 108.00 345.60
Textiles 3.80 60.19 27.36 49.25 71.14 93.02 136.80 437.76
Wood 5.30 83.95 38.16 68.69 99.22 129.74 190.80 610.56
Food Waste 10.10 159.98 72.72 130.90 189.07 247.25 363.60 1163.52
Yard Waste 12.80 202.75 92.16 165.89 239.62 313.34 460.80 1474.56
Paper & Paperboard 38.60 611.42 277.92 500.26 722.59 944.93 1389.60 4446.72
Others 3.30 52.27 23.76 42.77 61.78 80.78 118.80 380.16
Glass 5.50 87.12 39.60 71.28 102.96 134.64 198.00 633.60
Metals 7.70 121.97 55.44 99.79 144.14 188.50 277.20 887.04
Plastics 9.90 156.82 71.28 128.30 185.33 242.35 356.40 1140.48
TOTAL 100.00 1584.00 720.00 1296.00 1872.00 2448.00 3600.00 11520.00
Biodegradable 35.00 554.40 252.00 453.60 655.20 856.80 1260.00 4032.00
Recyclable 38.60 611.42 277.92 500.26 722.59 944.93 1389.60 4446.72
Total Degradable 73.6 1165.82 529.92 953.86 1377.79 1801.73 2649.6 8478.72
Non-degradable 26.40 418.18 190.08 342.14 494.21 646.27 950.40 3041.28
TOTAL 100.00 1584.00 720.00 1296.00 1872.00 2448.00 3600.00 11520.00

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 53


Being an apex research organization, responsible for coordination and promotion of
research, the mission “Poverty reduction through science-based improvements in
productivity, profitability, and competitiveness to ensure “food and livelihood security for
all in an environmentally sustainable manner”.
Project Components:
Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) Mobilization & Awareness Raising.
CLTS represents a radical alternative to conventional top-down approaches to sanitation
and offers hope of achieving the Millennium Development Goals (Kar and Chambers 2008).
CLTS emphasizes community action and behavior change as the most important elements to
achieving better sanitation – without resorting to subsidies. CLTS highlights how communities
themselves are capable of analyzing the problems of fecaloral routes of disease spread, and of
conceiving of ways to deal with these themselves, rather than outsiders offering prescribed
solutions. What distinguishes Community-Led Total Sanitation from earlier community-based
approaches, therefore, is the way that it emphasizes facilitation rather than education or training.
For example, a report on CLTS from Sierra Leone states that; ‘In three weeks, CLTS has
managed to do what millions of dollars, hundreds of construction projects, and dozens of NGOs
failed to do over decades.’
Project Abstract/Summary:
Being sensitive to cultural and religious norms and practices is essential in terms of
adopting a Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach. Because the approach relies so
heavily on triggering spontaneous behavior change, there is a need to be aware of how current
behavior and norms are couched in particular cultural and religious concepts and practices.
Technological issues:
In contrast to supply-oriented approaches, the CLTS framework does not offer
predesigned sanitary solutions; facilitators do not foist particular technological options on
dwellers but aim towards generating a drive to build their own facilities, using local technologies
and drawing upon local knowledge. Thus, the particular technological options that do emerge
will depend on the availability and nature of building materials in the immediate vicinity, their
cost, the knowledge and skills of the community, the existence of masonry traditions, and the
division of labor within that particular community (Kar and Bongartz 2006).
What is CLTS?
CLTS is assisting the community in identifying its sanitation problems and optimizing its
potential to improve (Lokakarya 2008). An approach that focuses on igniting a change in
sanitation behavior through community participation rather than constructing toilets (Plan UK
2008)
GOAL: People consciously change their behavior because of collective pressure. Over 50% of
the problem related to Solid Waste Management can be overcome by simple Primary
Segregation on the part of the Waste Generating Society. Division into Biodegradable and non-
degradable waste streams in the home or business simplifies the problem of sustainable waste
disposal. Sanitation staff and scavengers are also not subject to contamination by disease vectors.
Biodegradable waste is kept in covered containers and sent straight to the composting facility.
Where neighborhoods and people are interested in home composting and have the necessary
space, local composting can help to reduce waste bulk. Secondly, disease vectors are denied
space to multiply within residential and commercial areas. The local communities need to be
motivated and mobilized to undertake this primary responsibility.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 54


Objectives of the Project:
 To establish Citizens Community Organizations for Solid Waste Management.
 To disseminate Environmental Health Education.
 Institute Primary Segregation on the part of the Community.
 Streamline Solid Waste Collection.
 Demonstrate and Transfer Rapid Composting Technology.
Justification of the Project:
The proposed target areas are heavily populated Urban Spreads. There is a complete
absence of proper Solid or Liquid Waste Management creating a serious Health Hazards. As
Waste Producers the residents of the area should be willing to take on the responsibility of
managing their own Solid Waste. The Project has been designed with simplicity and ease of
implementation as a Prime Objective. The emphasis is upon Practical Management as well as
Awareness Raising and not only upon Awareness raising alone. As such the Proposed Project
will go a long way in providing a viable demonstration of Low-Cost, Self-Help Solid Waste
Management that will be Replicable. As there is a critical need for Solid Waste Management all
over the Country, the Project will serve a very Noble Cause that is integral to our Religion and
Beliefs.
Specific Objectives:
1. Arrange Mohallah/ Ward delimitation into populations not exceeding 500 households.
2. Motivate and Mobilize populace to segregate biodegradable and nondegradablewaste at
site.
3. Ensure segregated waste is transported to Municipal Composting Facility.
4. Educate the society regarding composting and safe disposal of solid waste.
5. Campaign for Total Sanitation.
Methodology:
Local NGOs/ CBOs will be identified to undertake campaigns under the CLTS approach.
Educational and poster campaigns will be launched through these organizations while education
institutions and media will be fully involved in the process.
Expected Outputs and Outcome/Impact:
With targets for primary segregation achieved the task of rapid, bioaugmented
composting will be facilitated and success of the efforts will be guaranteed. Involvement of the
sovereign masses in tackling their own problems will lead to a sense of ownership and lent
sustainability to the project. Healthy and sanitary habitations will evolve from the exercise and
Public Health will be positively impacted especially amongst children. The revalence of clean
environment will have the subliminal affect of inculcating cleanliness and a sense of pride/
belonging in society and go a long way in promoting harmony. The impact is likely to be even
more than expected as aware and highly motivated communities are looking for ways and means
to better their living conditions. The use of compost will also be increased as the people will
themselves be involved and will be aware of the positive benefits that accrue from this eco-
friendly activity.
Team of Experts for Project Component – I
Project Director: The overall Project Director will be responsible for this aspect of the Project.
Other Team Members: Members of Civil Society and KP Government will comprise the team
divided between the six proposed composting sites.
Project Duration: Duration will be of two years (24 months).
Project Cost: Total Project Cost (Rs. in million):

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 55


Locations of the Project: The Proposed Project Sites are: Abbottabad; Mingora; Mardan;
Kohat; Bannu; D. I. Khan.
Project Implementation:
a. Project Duration: Two Years (24 months).
b. Component I: Work Plan (Quarterly Activities).
Start/ End dates of 6-monthly Periods Activities
01-03-210 to 01-09-2010
 Preparation of Educational/ Promotional material (Videos/ Manuals/ Brochures/
Banners).
 Formal Opening
 Primary Segregation and Sanitation Awareness
 Campaigns (Seminars/ Meetings/ Walks/ Media Campaigns).
 University of Peshawar/ Hazara: Review
 Door to Door Campaign for Awareness Raising/ Motivation.
 Seminars/ Posters/ Community Meetings.
 Formation of Neighborhood Committees.
 Identification of Agents for Positive Change.
 Election of Executive Committee Members (5 each in 6 locations) through Page Rank
Algorithm based ranking.
 Training/ Demonstration.
 Quarterly Monitoring
01-09-20010 to 01-03-2011
 Primary Segregation into 2 streams:
 Green = Bio-degradable
 Brown = Non-degradable.
 Determination of Collection Points (CPs)
 Arrangements for Recyclable Waste Sorting
 Practical composting at Micro Level
 Schools Cleanliness Awareness Campaign
 On-Going Review by Community
 Quarterly Monitoring
 Report of 1st & 2nd quarters to Concerned Authorities
01-03-2011 to 01-09-2011
 On-Going Schools program
 Poster Competition
 On-going Composting
 Progress Report & Distribution
 Self-Reliant base for Continuity through sale of Compost and Recyclables
 Technical Appraisal by PARC.
 Project Review Adjustment
 Quarterly Monitoring
01-09-2011 to 01-03-2012
 On-Going School education program
 On-Going motivation program

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 56


 Visits by neighboring Communities
 On-going Composting
 Visits by Officials
 Project Evaluation by Beneficiaries
 2nd & 3rd Quarter Reports
 End of project Review Report
The Project will be implemented by Neighborhood Committees constituted for this very
purpose on the lines of Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS). The entire Community will be
involved in all aspects of implementation and monitoring of the Project. Overseeing and
Monitoring Committees of the local community will be constituted and regular meetings and on-
going review will be held. College students and School children will be fully involved in all
aspects and will be motivated to ensure success of the Project. Agents for positive Change from
amongst the community will be identified and will assume responsibility of various aspects of
the Project.
Most attention has been paid to Long-term continuity and sustainability of the Project.
This has been ensured by the following.
Compost: Given the heightened awareness regarding Organic fertilizers and Global Warming,
the residents will be encouraged to go in for small scale composting where ever possible. Small
scale demonstrations will be held and literature will be distributed.
A questionnaire will be developed for monitoring and evaluation. Regular meetings of the
Community will be held for this purpose as well. Quarterly Review Reports and well as
Technical Appraisal of progress by PMU will provide external Audit of Activities. A
Participatory Evaluation Process will be initiated and indicators will be developed to mark the
progress of the project. Local and area influentials and Govt. Officials will be invited to review
the project from time to time.
I Details of Components Activities and their itemized cost of material, labor, machinery etc.
Component I: PROJECT BUDGET DETAILS (Rs. in millions): CONDUCT:
Code Narration Y-1 Y-2 Tota
l
62-13 Running cost of vehicles
62-14 Transport of goods
62-2 Transportation
62-20 Postage & Telegraph
62-21 Telephone & trunk calls
62-23 Courier service
62-24 E-mail & internet
62-3 Communication
62-30 Utilities/office support
62-31 Stationery
Printed Material
Booklets
Posters
Stickers
Banners
Schools Awareness Campaign
62-36 Consumable stores
62-37 Other Misc. Expenses
Software Development
62-4 Utilities

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 57


62-43 Computer & Office equipment
62-44 Furniture & Fixture
62-5 Repair & Maintenance
62-52 Public Meetings
Social Mobilization
62-53 Essay/article writing
62-55 Other services
62-56 Official Visits
62-6 Other Services
62-60 Publicity and advertisement
62-62 Project Review expense
62-63 Seminars/workshops/meetings
62-7 Other Charges
63-1 OPERATIONAL EXPENSES
63-12 Survey & Organization
10% Operational Expense to Implementing NGO
Pre-Fabricated Insulated Fiber Glass Office Building 40ft
dia Geodesic Dome @Rs.2,500.00 sq ft
Rapid Composting Demonstration
Composting Pits & Cover Frames x 25 x 6
Black & Green Plastic (Winter/ Summer Cover):
Resource Persons x 2 x 4,000.00 x 30
Bio-Aab (EM Technology) Inputs @ Rs. 80.00
64 CAPITAL EXPENSES
Grand Total

 Site Survey and Project Design.


 Submission of Work Plans with financial details and working drawings for the Project.
 Physical erection of requisite infrastructure.
 Monitoring & Evaluation.
The Project is urgently required and. deserves prompt perusal and sanction. The positive
effects on humanity and the environment are highly visible and desperately needed! Finally, the
project is environment friendly and low-cost in nature. Thus, it is urged that the process be taken
forward at the earliest.
II. Municipal Solid Waste Segregation/ Processing:
 Secondary Segregation: On-Site.
 Mixing/ Grinding. “
 Recyclables Baling “
Solid Waste Handling
Sorting and Shredding: The decomposable materials in refuse are isolated from glass, metal,
and other inorganic items through sorting and separating operations. These are carried out
mechanically, using differences in such physical characteristics of the refuse as size, density, and
magnetic properties. Shredding or pulverizing reduces the size of the waste articles, resulting in a
uniform mass of material. It is accomplished with hammer mills and rotary shredders
Separation Before any material can be recycled; it must be separated from the raw waste and
sorted. Separation can be accomplished at the source of the waste or at a central processing
facility. Source separation, also called curbside separation, is done by individual citizens who
collect newspapers, bottles, cans, and garbage separately and place them at the curb for
collection. Many communities allow "commingling" of non-paper recyclables (glass, metal, and
plastic). In either case, municipal collection of source separated refuse is more expensive than
ordinary refuse collection. In lieu of source separation, recyclable materials can be separated

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 58


from garbage at centralized mechanical processing plants. Experience has shown that the quality
of recyclables recovered from such facilities is lowered by contamination with moist garbage and
broken glass. The best practice, as now recognized, is to have citizens separate refuse into a
limited number of categories, including newspaper; magazines and other wastepaper;
commingled metals, glass, and plastics; and garbage and other non-recyclables. The newspaper,
other paper wastes, and commingled recyclables are collected separately from the other refuse
and are processed at a centralized material recycling facility, or MRF (pronounced "murf" in
waste-management jargon). A modern MRF can process about 300 tons of recyclable wastes per
day. At a typical MRF commingled recyclables are loaded onto a conveyor. Steel cans ("tin"
cans are actually steel with only a thin coating of tin) are removed by an electromagnetic
separator, and the remaining material passes over a vibrating screen in order to remove broken
glass. Next, the conveyor passes through an air classifier, which separates aluminum and plastic
containers from heavier glass containers. Glass is manually sorted by color, and aluminum cans
are separated from plastics by an eddycurrent separator, which repels the aluminum from the
conveyor belt.
Reuse: Recovered broken glass can be crushed and used in asphalt pavement. Color-sorted glass
is crushed and sold to glass manufacturers as cullet, an essential ingredient in glassmaking. Steel
cans are baled and shipped to steel mills as scrap, and aluminum is baled or compacted for reuse
by smelters. Aluminum is one of the smallest components of municipal solid waste, but it has the
highest value as a recyclable material. Recycling of plastic is a challenge, mostly because of the
many different polymeric materials used in its production. Mixed thermoplastics can be used
only to make lower quality products, such as "plastic lumber.” In the paper stream, old
newspapers are sorted by hand on a conveyor belt in order to remove corrugated materials and
mixed papers. They are then baled or loose-loaded into trailers for shipment to paper mills,
where they are reused in the making of more newspaper. Mixed paper is separated from
corrugated paper for sale to tissue mills. Although the processes of pulping, de-inking, and
screening wastepaper are generally more expensive than making paper from virgin wood fibers,
the market for recycled paper should improve as more processing plants are established. Rubber
is sometimes reclaimed from solid waste and shredded, reformed, and remolded in a process
called re-vulcanization, but it is usually not as strong as the original material. Shredded rubber
can be used as an additive in asphalt pavements, and discarded tires may be employed in "tire
playgrounds." In general, the most difficult problem associated with the recycling of any solid-
waste material is finding applications and suitable markets. Recycling by itself will not solve the
growing problem of solid-waste management and disposal. There will always be some unusable
and completely valueless solid residue requiring final disposal.

CONDUCT:
1. Construction/ Machinery & Equipment Installation: On-Site.
2. Secondary Segregation: “
3. Mixing/ Grinding. “
4. Recyclables Baling/ Sale “
Plan of Work: The project will carry out the following activities:
1. Conduct planning meetings
2. Construction.
3. Import Plant, Machinery and Equipment.
4. Install Plant, Machinery and Equipment.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 59


5. Trial Runs.
6. On-going refinement.
7. Test & Adjust.
8. Analysis.
9. Periodic and annual report writing.
Flow Chart of the plant:
Objectives:
The objectives of the project component include:
a. Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.
b. Reduction of Air Pollution.
c. Reduction of impact on water (leaching).
d. Reduction of land contamination.
e. Reduction of Disease Breeding/ Feeding Grounds.
Methodology: Many new technologies have been developed to solve MSW problems, but
unfortunately, these technologies are either too sophisticated or expensive for use in developing
countries like Pakistan.
MSW from the trucks are dumped on to the receiving floor, in which they are temporarily
stored for further treatment.
Screening is used to separate mixtures of materials of different sizes into two or more sizes by
using screening surfaces.
Size Reduction Equipment Forks – A forklift attachment for a loader helps to break
material apart and make it more uniform MSW will then be picked up mechanically by overhang
arms to conveyor’s hoppers.
Leachate that may be excreted during the storage will be collected into a collection tank
prior to further treatment.
MSW will then be transported to grinders by a long conveyor. The operator will be
placed along the conveyors that will sort valuables, recyclables and large articles that may harm
process equipment. The process will be undertaken manually by a large number of operators that
will have the beneficial effect of providing work for the unemployed.
MSW will then be processed in size reduction equipment (grinder) so that universal size
of around 5 to 10 cm is obtained. Size reduction is a process in which collected waste materials
are mechanically reduced in size. In practice, the terms shredding, grinding, and milling are used
interchangeably to describe mechanical size reduction. The objective of size reduction is to
obtain a final product that is reasonably uniform and considerably reduced in size in comparison
with its original form.
During the process, most readily degradable material will be squeezed out and form
organic-rich leachate.
Ground MSW will then be fed into a hydro-pulper in which organic material will undergo
further size reduction and further excretion of suspended organic material so that pulp-like
materials is obtained. Materials that cannot be pulped and have high density like glass, battery
and stones will sink in the operation.
The partly pulped MSW is then fed into a rotating trommel in which fine MSW and
slurry leach out onto the open tray underneath.
The retained coarse MSW will be retained and are taken out at another end of the trommel.
The slurry and fine organics will be pumped out into the Biogas Plant where the organic
materials will undergo a series of biochemical reactions leading to acid formation. During the

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formation of acid, gases such as hydrogen, methane and carbon dioxide will also be produced.
Process operation will be maintained at optimum condition that most of the hydrogen produced
will bio-chemically be converted into methane to avoid serious toxicity. The acidified solution
will be pumped into the second stage reactors in which acids and non-degraded organics are
further mineralized into methane, the final product. The whole process will only partly utilize the
organic, while the non-easily degradable will form sludge that needs further treatment.
The coarse organic and slurry from the second stage reactors will be dried in the gravi-
separator. In the gravi-separator, most of water will have been squeezed out so that the organic
material is relatively dry prior to feeding to windrows.
The end products are relatively dry organic matter (sludge and coarse organics) and
water. Dry organic matter is passed into drying tank while water will be pumped into the biogas
plant.
 Fork Lift Tractors: Tractors with this attachment are essential for bulk movement of
MSW.
 Conveyor Belts: The MSW will be passed along a conveyor belt for sorting in order to
produce a mix that is compostable.
 Hydro Pulpers: The removal of excess moisture is important, both for sorting as well as
composting. Leachate from excessively wet MSW will be captured and sent to the Bio
Gas plant for anaerobic digestion and Methane generation. Run off from Composting
shed and washing of equipment will also be directed towards this facility.
 Eco-Tower Sort consists of a Rare Earth Drum Magnet, Eddy Current Separator, Pro-
Sort Metal Sorter and Inductive Sensor Air Sorter. It can be customized to fit
requirements and preferences. At the metal sensor stage, material can be ejected either by
using air or an airless mechanical paddle system. The overall cost of the system is lower.
There will be a return on investment through recovered materials in a very short time.
 Magnetic Separators: Ferric material will disturb the Composting process and needs to
be completely removed before the actual composting takes place. Any material missed
during pre-segregation or scavenger activity will be recovered by using this equipment.
 Trommels: Specialized trommels will be used for sorting MSW through sizing, A wind
sifter is incorporated in the trommel in order to facilitate removal of Plastic and small
size non-organic material.
 Gravity Separator: Material is fed onto a flat porous deck that is sloped in two
directions. Low-pressure air is forced through the deck to fluidize and stratify the
material bed. A vibrating action is applied to the deck to convey the heavier particles,
which have sunk to the bottom of the material bed, up the inclination of the deck. Lighter
particles are suspended in the rising airflow and slide down the slope of the deck. The
final result, presented at the discharge face of the deck, is a continuous gradation of
material from the densest, largest particles to the lightest, smallest particles.
 Shredders/ Chippers: Large and bulky material will take a longer time to decompose.
Shredding/ Chipping breaks down the material to increase area for microbial interaction.
 Grinders: Special grinders are used to reduce the size of the MSW.
 Feeding Hopper: The MSW is loaded into feeder hopper for onwards transmission:
 Recyclables Storage and Baling: The amount of recyclables that results from sorting
will be temporarily stored in Bins and eventually compacted and baled for disposal.
Existing Facilities: At present Open Air Dumping Sites are being used to dump and burn Solid
Waste, causing Air, ground and water pollution.

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Expected Outputs/ Outcomes:
There will be some biogas generation from leachate and this will be used in the
Composting Site. As such the first Outcome will be sequestration of leachate and conversion into
Alternate Energy.
Large quantities of Compost will be generated which will be re-enforced with High Grade,
Organic Plant Nutrients and bagged for Commercial sale. Air and ground pollution will be
eliminated resulting is no dioxins; bad odors or smoke.
III. Composting of Municipal Solid Waste; Nutrient Enhancement & Commercial Sales.
 Windrow Formation.
 Turning.
 Analysis.
 Additives & Mixing.
 Bagging.
 Sale.
TYPES OF HUMUS:
Mild humus is dark in color, well saturated with bases, especially calcium, rich in humic
acids (of high molecular weight), and serves to stabilize clay. Raw humus is more red in color,
less basic, rich in fulvic acids (of low molecular weight), and favors dispersion of clay. Soil also
contains organic matter that has not yet been humified. Digesting and processing Pulverized
waste is ready for composting either by the open windrow method or in an enclosed mechanical
facility. Windrows are long, low mounds of refuse. They are turned or mixed every few days to
provide air for the microbes digesting the organics. Depending on moisture conditions, it may
take five to eight weeks for complete digestion of the waste unless Bioaugmentation is used.
With the addition of microbes lead times are reduced to 3 weeks in summers and 4-5 weeks in
winters. With proper insulation, lead times for winters can be decreased by keeping Bacteria
active. Extreme heat also needs to be avoided through use of shade or Shading Material/ Open
Air circulation.. Because of the metabolic action of aerobic bacteria, temperatures in an active
compost pile reach about 1500 F (650 C), killing pathogenic organisms that may be in the waste
material. Open windrow composting requires relatively large land areas. Enclosed mechanical
composting facilities can reduce land requirements by about 85 %. Mechanical composting
systems employ one or more closed tanks or digesters equipped with rotating vanes that mix and
aerate the shredded waste. Complete digestion of the waste takes about one week. Digested
compost must be processed before it can be used as a mulch or soil conditioner. Processing
includes drying, screening, and granulating or pelletizing. These steps improve the market value
of the compost, which is the most serious constraint to the success of composting as a waste
management option.
Agricultural demand for digested compost is usually low because of the high cost of
transporting it and because of competition with inorganic chemical fertilizers. Municipal Solid
Waste: Fruit & Vegetable Market waste; Animal manure and Ashes Large quantities of
carbonaceous materials are present in Fruit and Vegetable Market waste. Fish Mundies and
Slaughterhouse wastes are also valuable nutrient sources. The exchange of nutrients between
living and non-living parts of the Eco-system is called Nutrient Cycling. When based upon
human; animal and vegetable waste it is Nutrient recycling at peak efficiency rather than merely
creating a nuisance; pollution and source of disease. The act of composting consists of two
processes; Mineralization and Immobilization. Mineralization occurs when microbial
decomposers convert the nutrients in Organic matter into inorganic ions. Immobilization is the

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uptake of inorganic nutrient ions by organisms. Thus nutrient cycling conserves the nutrient
supply and results in repeated use of these nutrients. Organic matter added to the soil consists of
many compounds. These are fats; carbohydrates; proteins and lignins. The process of
Mineralization and immobilization eventually breaks down the most resistant elements for use of
food. The net effect is the release of energy as heat; formation of carbon dioxide and water; and
the appearance of Nitrogen as Ammonium (NH4+); Sulfur as Sulfate (So+4); Phosphorus as
Phosphate (PO4-3) and other Nutrients as simple metal ions (Ca+ +; Mg++; K+). As the
elements or ions are released in Organic Matter Decomposition; other specialized organisms
oxidize some of them. The oxidized forms are more readily available for use by higher plants.

Biodegradable Waste Quantities by City (Tons):


Abbottabad Bannu DI Khan Kohat Mingora Mardan
19,272 8,760 15,768 22,776 29,784 43,800

Introduction: The project consists of aerobic MSW treatment for producing Compost. The
expected operational lifetime of the project activity is 20 years. Environment and predator
protection will have to be catered to in order to ensure smooth functioning of the Project.
Covered sheds with concrete floors and effluent disposal to Biogas Plants will be provided to
ensure that leachate does not drain away or infiltrates the aquifer. Hygienic conditions will be
maintained at all costs in order to prevent breakout/ spreading of disease.
The project is to be executed by PCU, PARC in conjunction with respective Tehsil Municipal
Authorities (TMAs).
Basic Principles of Aerobic Composting:
Composting is the decay of biologically decomposable organic the process can occur
either aerobically (with O2) or anaerobically (without O2) producing a product called humus or
compost useful as soil amendment. The basic process is as follows.
 Collection Segregation
 Visual / Parameters Monitoring
 Aeration and Temperature Control
 C/N Moisture Adjustment
 Composite Sampling/ Characterization
 Shredding/Chopping
 Stacking
 Sun drying/
 Packing
Actual experimental studies on aerobic composting of agricultural and municipal solid
wastes in place of open air dumping and burning show that carbon dioxide emission can be
reduced by 13%, methane emission by 11% and nitrous oxide emission by 14%.
Aerobic Biological Treatment of Waste:
Aerobic Decomposition: is the process where organic matter is digested by
microorganisms under aerobic conditions resulting in a rise in temperature and the formation of
carbon dioxide and water in addition to humus-rich compost.
Decomposition Phases of Composting:
The composting process consists of four phases when a suitable environment is provided:
1. Mesophilic phase (I)

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In this phase slightly rotted material exists, in which mainly bacterial degradation of
easily degradable substances takes place. The temperature rises up to 420 C.
2. Thermophilic phase (II)
In this phase fresh compost is produced where further degradation of easily degradable
materials as well as degradation of cellulose, caused by thermophilic fungi and becteria. The
temperature in this phase rises up to 650 C which causes selflimitation or decrease in
reproduction of microorganisms.
3. Cooling phase (III)
Finished compost is produced in this phase, where degradation of cellulose by fungi and
bacteria, and formation of humus substances takes place. A decrease in microbial activity and
temperature occur in this phase.
4. Maturing phase (IV)
Matured compost is produced in this phase, with further decrease of temperature to the
surrounding temperature. Very low microbial activity with further formation of humic substances
and stabilization take place.
Important Parameters of Biological Waste Treatment:
1. Water content: Water film on the substrate surface is the most important region for
microbial activity. Water is also important for dissolving and transporting nutrients.
2. Aerobic organisms need molecular oxygen dissolved in water for respiration and
oxidation of organic matter.
3. Presence of nutrients is important in composting and almost all nutrients are present in
organic waste. Optimum carbon to nitrogen ratio C/N for composting is between 25-35.
4. Temperature of waste during composting is increased due to the release of energy in
degradation reactions of the organic materials. The amount of increase depends on the amount of
substrate, insulation of waste and aeration.
5. The pH value of organic waste may change several times starting from collection of
waste until the compost is produced:
1- Acidic (reduction) during collection in containers due to anaerobic decomposition (up to 5).
2- Basic: pH increase during composting (e.g. due to volatilization of organic acids and
formation of bases) - pH: 7-9.
3- Acidic: possible reduction in a later composting stage (e.g. due to degradation or release of
bases).
4- Neutral: In matured compost.
Aims of Biological Treatment (composting):
1 Volume and mass reduction of solid waste.
2 Return of organic substances to the natural cycle.
Stages of Biological Pre-treatment:

1. Delivery of waste:
Registration and weighing of vehicles loaded with waste.

2. Storage:
a) Intake of waste.
b) In the case discontinuous delivery and continuous production.
c) Buffer for uniform waste.

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3. Shredding:
a) To increase the surface area of waste for better degradation.
b) To create a well aerateble and homogeneous structure.

4. Screening:
a) Pre-screening for fresh waste.
b) Post-screening of shredded material.
c) Post-screening of the pre-rotten compost for separation of non-degradable materials.
d) Screening of matured compost.

5. Sifting:
a) Separation of light and heavy fractions.
b) Magnetic Separation: to remove ferrous materials from waste.

Processing Techniques of Composting


Windrow Composting
Stages of Windrow Composting:
Windrow composting is a two-phase process. And is one of several techniques of composting.
Phase I: Rotting
1. This phase starts with transferring the mechanically treated waste to a specific area
designed especially for windrows. A coarse material such as wood chips is spread over
that area to enhance ventilation and drainage at the bottom of the windrow, and to prevent
saturation that might cause anaerobic conditions.
2. Triangular or trapezoidal windrows are made parallel to each other with enough distance
in between.
a) Length of windrow = 100-130m
b) Width of windrow = 3m (base)
c) Height of windrow = 1.5m
3. Turning of waste and addition of water by special machine to provide the oxygen and
water necessary for aerobic decomposition.
Air can be pumped into the waste for good ventilation (forced aeration). The waste
remains in windrows for 12 weeks to decompose with turning and addition of water twice a week
during the first three weeks and once a week for the remaining period. Windrows should be
covered with special cover to prevent evaporation but without preventing air intrusion.
Phase II: Post – Rotting
1. In this phase, the fresh compost produced in the first phase is transferred to another area
and piled up and kept to mature for a period of four weeks, without turning and water
addition. Matured and dry compost (water content = 25-30%) is produced.
2. The matured compost is separated into two fractions, fine and coarse by sieving. The fine
fraction is packed in suitable quantities according to it purpose of used. The coarse
fraction is sold without packaging. This can be effective if material is matted, such as wet
leaves or manure/straw mixtures, and allows for increased airflow. A loader lifts the
organic material and drops it back in place, or stacks it to form a new windrow. Some
composters have attached forks to buckets so they can incorporate more air and fluff the
material. Loaders are a good, all purpose piece of equipment. They can move, mix, and
load compost into trucks. Dedicated equipment designed specifically for turning is not as

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versatile. Loaders can turn material efficiently if the bucket is sized for the operation. The
first stages of composting, proper windrow construction is the key to getting to a good
start. Organic waste is formed into rows of long piles called "windrows" and aerated by
turning the pile periodically by mechanical means. The pile height allows for a pile large
enough to generate sufficient heat and maintain temperatures, yet small enough to allow
oxygen to flow to the windrow's core.

The two aspects of windrow building are:


1. Mixing materials
2. Forming and shaping the windrow.
If several different types of waste are going to be composted together they must first be
thoroughly blended. Mixing is required to balance the carbon and nitrogen ratio and distribute
moisture throughout the pile, and also to insure an even distribution of large pores so that oxygen
can move freely. Mixing can be accomplished with a front-end loader and specialized windrow
turning machines.
The size and shape of the windrow are designed to allow oxygen to flow throughout the pile
while maintaining temperatures in the proper range. The optimum size varies both with the type
of material and with the time of year. Windrows are usually about 5 feet high and 10 feet wide.
These sizes are approximate, and may need to be adjusted somewhat. Windrows can be as long
as is convenient for the site, up to several hundred feet in length.
There are two goals to keep in mind when turning a compost windrow. The first is to move
material from the outside of the pile to the middle, where it can decompose more quickly. The
second goal is to loosen and fluff the material, so it will be more porous and air can move freely.
Specialized windrow turners are designed to accomplish both of these goals. Turning frequency
should normally be based on temperature, and should occur whenever temperatures exceed to
140° F, or drop below 90° F. Regular turning accelerates decomposition by mixing the material
and exposing new surface.
Catalysts and Innocula:
Odors can also be biologically oxidized after they have formed, and this is important for
composting systems. Catalysts degrade odorous compounds via Microorganisms. A catalyst
facilitates a reaction without itself being permanently changed by the reaction, and thus each
Microorganism can act on many molecules of an odorous compound before it is eventually
degraded. Microorganisms are applied on the surface of a compost pile. Odorous anaerobic
products produced in the low oxygen center of a pile usually pass through an aerobic zone on the
way out. Bioaugmented Microorganisms will then degrade the odors aerobically. This process
probably occurs on both a macro scale (the pile as a whole) and a micro scale (within individual
particles or clumps), essentially providing in situ biofiltration. In a windrow system, it is far
better to address the fundamentals of porosity and pile size to insure adequate passive aeration
(diffusion and convection) throughout the compost pile.
 Aerated (Turned) Windrow Composting
 Mixers and Manure Spreaders – These can be used to mix materials and form
windrows. With a flail spreader, it is necessary to move very slowly, allowing the
material to pile into a rough windrow. The auger type unloads out of the back or a side-
shoot. By moving the spreader slower than normal, it will form a windrow but will
generally not make very tall piles. It is essential to maintain correct Carbon: Nitrogen
ratio at 30:1 in order to ensure efficient composting.

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 Bagging Facility: Finished Compost will be bagged for Commercial Sale.
 Windrow Turners – Windrow turners are dedicated pieces of equipment that just turn
compost windrows. The right turner will mix, reduce particle size, homogenize the
organic material and may save time and space. Turners come in many sizes and the
choice depends on the amount of use, climatic fluctuations (in cold climates a bigger
turner may be needed to achieve adequate pile size). Most turner manufacturers have
different accessories, like water or inoculant tanks, rock guards, or attachments that
manage compost covers.
Windrow spacing needs to account for the size and type of the turner. Elevating Face
Conveyors. These can vary in type from PTO driven to self-propelled. They lift the organics up
the face and drop them off the back into the windrow.
Each time the whole windrow is actually picked up and moved a few feet, which allows
for good size reduction, aeration, and mixing.
 Moisture Detection Equipment – Moisture detection equipment can be useful,
especially with high moisture feedstock or in very dry climates. The simplest instrument
is a gloved hand. The “squeeze test” will indicate relative moisture content. With a
gloved hand, take a handful of the mixture and squeeze. If more than a few drops of
water come out it is too wet. If it appears to be very dry, moisture will need to be
incorporated. Moisture meters are also available from equipment dealers and laboratories
can test for it. A moisture content of 50- 60% is ideal.
 Monitoring Equipment:
 Thermometers – Equipment for monitoring temperature is most useful when learning to
produce compost or keeping a temperature log to meet regulations. Temperature probes
come in different forms including 18 inches to 5 feet probes, thermocouples placed in
piles and continuous read sensors, or data loggers that download to a computer and
produce graphs. The temperature of a pile will give a good indication of how well the
microbes are working. Heat produced through the composting process is an indicator of
microbial activity. If the pile gets too hot, it can kill the microbes or spontaneously
combust. Turning and/or watering can bring the temperature down. If too cool, it is an
indication that the pile needs aeration or moisture. If the pile never heats, it may indicate
that the mix of materials is not suitable for active composting. During the active stage,
the temperature should range from 120- 1600 F. Once the active stage is completed, the
pile will cool and can be left to cure. Sensors need to be able to reach the center of the
pile and should have a range of 0-2000F.

Hand-held Relative Humidity and Temperature Transmitters


 Oxygen Meters – Microbes require oxygen in the active stage of composting. An oxygen
meter can detect oxygen levels and indicate if there is a need to incorporate more air
through turning, forced aeration or changing the mix to include more coarse bulking
material. Oxygen levels should range from 5% to 16%. Oxygen sensors are used
extensively with in-vessel units and can be used in other applications. Oxygen meters are
especially useful to regulate forced aeration systems, and when developing the mixture
for static pile composting.
Caution: Probes on monitoring equipment can easily be bent or broken, store in a safe place.
Remove from the pile before turning and insert and remove carefully. Many thermometers come
with threaded PVC tubes. Data loggers may also need to be protected from heat and moisture.

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Advantages of Composting.
 Reducing the weight and the size of the solid waste dumped in landfills, and thus
increasing the design life of landfills.
 Return of organic matter and nutrients to the natural cycle through the application of
compost to the soil.
 Stabilization of organic matter in the waste to become a non-degradable material when
land-filled. This makes landfills more stable and reduces biogas production to a great
extent.
 Material gain from selling the compost and reduce unemployment.
Biological Properties of Compost:
For acceptable compost quality, non-epidemic, hygienic conditions are necessary.
Sanitation depends on rise of temperature during different phases of composting (55o C for two
weeks or 65o C for one week)
Physical Properties of Compost:
High quality compost should have the following properties:
1. Density (500-800 g/L).
2. Water content (30-45%).
3. Granulation size (fine grained 4-12m ,coarse grained 12-40 mm)
4. Low content of foreign substances (< 0.5%) and stones (< 5%).
Chemical Properties of Compost:
Nutrient content should be within the values shown below:
Nutrient Unit Value:
N % TS/% dry matter 0.5-1.8
P2O5 % TS/% dry matter 0.4-1.0
K2O % TS/% dry matter 0.6-1.8
Mg O % TS/% dry matter 0.7-3.0
Ca O % TS/% dry matter 3.0-12.0
 Salinity (1.0-8.0 g kC1/L)
 PH (7-8)
 Content of organic matter (measured as ignition loss)-(20-50%), matured compost (20%)
organic matter, raw compost (>40% organic matter)
Low content of heavy metals. The table below shows the values in good quality compost:
Heavy Metal Values:
Lead 50-100
Cadmium 0.1-1.0
Chrome 26-60
Copper 30-50
Nickel 10-30
Mercury 0.1-0.5
Zinc 150.350
Effects of Compost Application:
Positive Affects:
1. Soil conditioning effect (ventilation and structure).
2. Humus effect (slow release of nutrients).
3. Buffering action (compost is slightly alkaline).
4. Phytosanitary affect (prevent undesired grass growth and suppress harmful pathogens.

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Negative Affects when bad quality compost with the following materials is applied:
1. 1 Salts.
2. 2 Heavy metals.
3. 3 Organic contaminants.
4. 4 Nutrients (too much may cause ground water pollution).
Compost Application Possibilities:
1. Soil conditioning and fertilization.
2. For domestic plants and gardens.
3. Erosion protection.
4. Mulched material.
5. Use in biofilters (prevent air pollution).
6. Use in noise protecting walls.
Problems Regarding Composting:
1. Lack of on-site separation of solid waste which reduces the quality of compost or requires
greater efforts in separation of organic waste.
2. High temperatures during the summer season which causes the waste to dry quickly and
requires frequent addition of water to the waste.
3. No previous experience in marketing of compost which might influence the feasibility of
compost producing projects.
4. The degree of acceptance by the public to the idea of adding compost produced from
solid waste to their farms and gardens.
5. Composting on a large scale decreases organic material land-filled which in turn reduces
biogas generation in landfills to a great extent. This means that producing electricity from
landfill gas will not be possible.
Sustainable development objectives likely to be achieved by the Project:
The main objective of the project is to develop a technically, financially and
environmentally feasible MSW treatment facility to produce Compost. The project is an
alternative technology. The project is expected to have various affects that are in line with policy
measures. These include reduction of GHG emission of methane gas from the final disposal site.
Contribution to Sustainable Development: Long-term GHG and local pollutants reduction:
GHG emissions especially CO2 and emissions of other air pollutants, i.e. NOx, CO, SOx
and also particulates can also be reduced. MSW landfills produce leachetes that contaminate
water body/soil creating water/soil pollution. Treating leachates can produce useful products
such as fertilizer and biogas (in the form of CH4) thus reducing water and soil pollution.
Other benefits:
Most MSW is disposed of in landfills, burnt, or illegally dumped, as there is no special
government regulation on MSW treatment. Therefore, the technology adopted for this project
could have good prospects for diffusion in all cities and areas). The nonbiodegradable materials
recovered by scavengers are in many cases unsuitable for anaerobic digestion and gasification
processes. Removal of such materials by scavengers prior to treatment would also help to
increase the dependability of operation as well as the operating rate. Scavengers should be given
work by allowing them to hand-sort the waste.
GHG emission from refuse burial:
GHG emissions consist of the so-called “landfill gas” emissions of methane gas from
MSW buried at the site At present, these emissions are not monitored, thus data is not available.
To obtain reliable data, it would require monitoring for many years at dozens of points in the vast

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disposal site in order to derive average values. Thus it was consequently decided that actual
measurements could not be taken for this study. For this reason, the 1996 revised guidelines of
the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has been adopted to calculate methane
gas emitted from buried MSW.
Economic Analyses: Statement of Poverty Reduction Impact:
The project will be using skilled and unskilled labor. Majority of the unskilled labor
comes from poor villages and communities. Realization of this project will promote the
development of alternative fertilizers in Pakistan that is highly beneficial for improving
productivity, enhancing yields from farms and generating economy. It is expected that national
standards will be improved due to the creation of social capital, assurance of wage income and
improvement in living conditions.
Environment Impacts:
The implementation of the project could possibly exert an impact to the vicinity in terms
of reducing items such as air and water pollution. The study of this area concluded that the
project would not exert an adverse environmental impact to the vicinity. The process facilities in
question would be designed and constructed in accordance with the International environmental
standards. On the contrary, the project would act to improve the environment in the vicinity of
the disposal sites. In implementing the project, the following environmental impact issues are to
be considered.
Air Pollution:
The air concentration is to meet the country’s air pollution standards. The MSW
processing facilities to be installed for this project are designed and built to meet these standards,
and it is inconceivable that their operation would exert adverse impacts to the surrounding
environment. The prospective sites for the project facilities are Municipal Dumping lots where
refuse is dumped in the open and burned (the latter being a source of dioxin emissions). The
construction of a refuse processing facilities will eliminate this burning of refuse in the open, and
the facilities will be in conformance with International standards for dioxin countermeasures.
The atmospheric environment in the vicinity should improve as a result.
Water Pollution:
Pakistan has enacted regulatory standards for water quality, but its water environment is
in worse shape than the atmospheric environment. It is clearly seen in the rivers flowing through
the Provinces that the water pollution standards are largely ignored. The refuse processing
facilities would apply Pakistani wastewater discharge standards. This indicates that the facilities
would not pollute the water in the vicinity. In contrast to this project, the discharge of leachates
from the Open Air Dumping sites into nearby water bodies has caused water pollution
concentrations exceeding standard values, for items such as NH3, Mn, and H2S. Similarly, the
study of well water found values above the standards for Fecal Coliforms and Nitrates.
Therefore, operation of the MSW processing facilities would mitigate water pollution. The
project will also generate fertilizer from the aerobic and anaerobic processes.
Coverage in Sanitation Services:
The sanitation services coverage is low in the country, however it is steadily improving.
The percentage of population with access to flush toilets increased from 30 % in 1990 to 45 % in
2001. In the last 5 years the situation has further improved and the coverage increased to 54 % in
2004-05. The indicators are better in the urban as compared to the rural areas. Only 5 % of
households have municipal garbage collection arrangement. Targets of 70 and 90 % are fixed for
the years 2010 and 2015 respectively.

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Sanitation facilities (including sewerage in urban areas and drainage in rural areas) are
available to only about 42 % of the total population, including 65 % in urban areas and 30 % in
rural settlements. With the exception of a few big cities, the sewerage service is almost non-
existent, causing serious public health problems. Nearly 45 % of all households do not have
access to a latrine. Furthermore, only 51 % of all households are connected to any form of
drainage (35 % to open drain and 16 % to underground sewers or covered drains). Only 5 %
households have access to a municipal garbage collection system. Limited availability of
drinking water, its non-judicious distribution and system losses have reached alarming
proportions. Under the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), it is envisaged to halve by 2015,
the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and to achieve a
significant improvement in access to sanitation. This translates to increasing water supply and
sanitation coverage to 93 % and 90 % respectively by 2015. While the water supply and
sanitation programs are being accelerated, there would be some shortfalls in the achievement of
envisaged MDG targets of water supply and sanitation coverage. However, the target of
regularization of 75 % of Katchi Abadis with adequate access to water supply and sanitation will
be fully met, by 2010. The current sanitation and sewerage facilities at around 42 % population
(urban 65 %, rural 30 %), will be extended to serve additional 3 million households, thus
covering 50 % of total population (urban 75 % and rural 35 %) by 2010, along with the
development of wastewater treatment units, recycling provisions and conservation measures in
urban centers up to district level. The MDG on Environmental sustainability is designed to
ensure that pursuit of rapid economic growth does not jeopardize the environmental quality and
reduce the benefits of growth via increased pollution, inefficient use of energy, low coverage of
sanitation and access to safe drinking water.
Of particular reference to Pakistan are the two indicators related to provision of safe
drinking water and sanitation coverage. They have direct linkages with health and therefore the
productivity of the society and its future generations.

MDGs
Target 10: halve by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking
water and basic sanitation:
Indicators Definitions 1990-91 2001-02 2004-05
PRSP Target 2005-06
MTDF Target 2009-10
MDG Target 2015
Proportion of population (urban and rural) with sustainable access to safe (Improved)
water source
Percentage of population with access to Improved water source
53 69 66 70 760 93
Proportion of population (urban and rural) with access to sanitation
Percentage of population with access to sanitation
30 45 54 55 70 90
Notes and Sources:
A. Planning Commission
B. Medium Term Development Framework, 2005-10
C. Pakistan Economic Survey 2004-05
D. PIHS 2000-01, (Coverage of Tap, Hand-pump water and Flush Toilets use)

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E. PSLM (CWIQ) 04-05 (Coverage of Tap, Hand-pump water and Flush Toilets use).
F. Target of MTDF changed from 50 to 70 percent in view of higher coverage in the
previous years
G. All PRSP targets are taken from Accelerating Economic Growth and Reducing Poverty:
The Road Ahead. Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper, Government of Pakistan, December
2003. H. Ministry of Environment, 2003
Achieving MDG target of 90 percent of sanitation coverage is important in meeting the
desired quality of life and health. The population coverage increased by only 24 percent in the
last 15 years; an additional 36 percent population has to be covered to achieve the target by 2015.
Vision 2030 envisages, “developed industrialized, just and prosperous Pakistan through rapid
and sustainable development in a resource constrained economy by deploying knowledge
inputs”. This vision is being operationalized through series of MTDF. National Economic
Council (NEC) approved on 27th May 2005 the MTDF 2005- 2010, which is first of the series.
“Water and Sanitation for All”:
Provision of safe water supply and sanitation is necessary to ensure a healthy population.
By 2015, the water supply and sanitation will stand extended to the entire population. The main
elements of the strategy will include the following:
 Adoption of an integrated approach, rational resource use, and the introduction of water
efficient techniques.
 Containment of environmental degradation.
 Institutional strengthening, capacity building & human resource development.
 Improving performance and utilization of local systems through better planning
management and community participation.
 Improving quality of and easy access to water supply, especially for women.
 Improving sanitation through sewerage and drainage schemes.
 Promoting increased take up of household sanitation.
 Improving the understanding of linkages between hygiene and health through community
education campaigns, especially among the women and children.
Targets7
Category High HDI Pakistan
Avg. (2004)
Med. HDI
Avg (2004)
Pakistan 2004-05*
MDG Target (2015)
Vision 2030
2 Health
6 Pakistan Millennium Development Goals Report 2005
7 HDI: Human Development Index; Sources: Human Development Report (2006); Pakistan.
Millennium Development Goals Report
2005; PSLM Survey (2004-05); MTDF, 2005-10; World Fact Book 2006; Annual Report,
Pakistan Telecomm. Authority, 2006;
Pakistan Economic Survey, 2005-06.
8 Population with sustainable access to improved sanitation (percent)
97 51 59 90 100

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Water use, share of total Population access to:
Agriculture 95% Safe water Sanitation
Industrial 1% Rural 53% 27%
Domestic/municipal 4% Urban 83% 59%
Six Cities of KP have been earmarked for Compost Production from Solid Waste. For
Commercial Composting to be successful there has to be segregation of Biodegradable and Non-
Degradable Solid Waste. Secondly hazardous waste has to be separated from other
biodegradables.

Line Depiction Compost Windrow:


6 Ft.
45
100(50) Ft.
5 Ft.
10 Ft.
Black Plastic Winter Cover
Mound
Geo-Membrane
IV. Bioremediation of Municipal Liquid Waste through Waste Water Gardens.
Population increase brings with it the problem of vast amounts of Liquid and Solid waste.
Where adequate disposal/ treatment is not carried out, Nature is unable to absorb and filter toxic
materials which eventually find their way into underground reservoirs of water and also into the
food chain. A point is reached where there is a complete breakdown and environmental and
health problems increase to such an extent that they cannot be treated. Nature uses microbes to
breakdown; plants to uptake toxic minerals as well as the earth’s surface to filter the waste.
However, nature is only capable of handling a limited amount of waste. In case of increased
amounts artificial enhancements and interventions have to be resorted to. A very simple, close to
nature, environment friendly solution is available that converts eyesores, displeasing smells and
source of poison into a Garden that hosts Biodiversity and can be used for recreation as well as
study of plants, birds and insects. Advanced Countries of the World are switching to the use of
Bioaugmentation (Addition of Live Bacteria to the target Waste for treatment/ biodegradation)
and Phytoremediation (Use of Plants to treat Waste) and planting Reed-Beds and other Plants to
treat their Waste. This concept has been used effectively in advanced economies despite the fact
that most of their sites are located in cold regions. In hot, temperate climates the process is
greatly enhanced. However, extreme temperatures have to be controlled.
Phytoremediation12 uses various plants to degrade, extract, contain, or immobilize contaminants
from soil and water. This technology is an innovative, cost-effective alternative to previous
treatment methods. A mechanism for contaminant degradation is metabolism within the plant.
Some plants are able to uptake toxic compounds and in the process of metabolizing the available
nutrients, detoxify them. Containment using plants either binds the contaminants to the soil,
renders them non-bioavailable, or immobilizes them by removing the means of transport.
Physical containment of contaminants by plants can take the form of binding the contaminants
within a humus molecule (humification), physical sequestration of metals as occurs in some
wetlands, or by root accumulation in non-harvestable plants. Certain trees sequester large

12
The contents of this portion are taken from the various publications of the National Science Foundation of the
U.S.A.

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concentrations of metals in their roots, and although harvesting and removal is difficult or
impractical, the contaminants present a reduced human or environmental risk while they are
bound in the roots. Risk reduction may also be achieved by transforming the contaminant into a
form that is not hazardous, or by rendering the contaminant non-bioavailable. EPA and the U.S.
Department of Agriculture (USDA) have ongoing research in this area.
a. Root System
Remediation with plants requires that the contaminants be in contact with the root zone of
the plants. Either the plants must be able to extend roots to the contaminants, or the contaminated
media must be moved to within range of the plants. This movement can be accomplished with
standard agricultural equipment and practices, such as deep plowing to bring soil from 2 or 3 feet
deep to within 8 to 10 inches of the surface for shallow rooted crops and grasses, or by irrigating
trees and grasses with contaminated groundwater or wastewater. Because these activities can
generate fugitive dust and volatile organic compound emissions, potential risks may need to be
evaluated. As shown in Table 5, the effective root depth of plants varies by species and depends
on soil and climate condition.
b. Growth Rate
Phytoremediation is also limited by the growth rate of the plants. More time may be
required to phytoremediate a site as compared with other more traditional cleanup technologies.
Excavation and disposal or incineration takes weeks to months to accomplish, while
phytoextraction or degradation may need several years. Therefore, for sites that pose acute risks
for human and other ecological receptors, phytoremediation may not be the remediation
technique of choice but is much better than no treatment at all.
c. Contaminant Concentration
Sites with widespread, low to medium level contamination within the root zone are the
best candidates for phytoremediative processes.
d. Impacts of Contaminated Vegetation
Some ecological exposure may occur whenever plants are used to interact with
contaminants from the soil. The fate of the metals in the biomass is a concern. At one site,
sunflower plants that extracted cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from surface water were disposed
of as radioactive waste (Adler 1996). Although some forms of phytoremediation involve
accumulation of metals and require handling of plant material embedded with metals, most
plants do not accumulate significant levels of organic contaminants. While metal accumulating
plants will need to be harvested and either recycled or disposed of in compliance with applicable
regulations, most phytoremediative plants do not require further treatment or disposal. Often
overlooked, however, is the possibility that natural vegetation on the site is already creating very
similar (but often unrecognized) food chain exposures. In addition, even on currently un-
vegetated sites, contaminants will be entering the food chain through soil organisms. The
remediation plan should identify and, if possible, quantify potential avenues of ecological
exposure, and determine if and where any accumulation of toxics in the selected plants will
occur.
Root Depth for Selected Phytoremediation Plants:
# Plant Maximum Root Depth Target Contaminants
1 Indian mustard To 12 inches Metals
2 Grasses To 48 inches Organics
3 Poplar trees To 15 feet Metals, organics, chlorinated solvents
4 Alfalfa 4-6 ft. Metals, organics, chlorinated solvents
5 Grasses 2 ft Metals, organics, chlorinated solvents
6 Indian Mustard 1 ft Metals, organics, chlorinated solvents

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Most organic contaminants do not accumulate in significant amounts in plant tissue.
Some plant-eating animals have been shown to avoid eating plants with elevated metal levels
(Pollard 1996). In addition, the increased habitat provided by the plants may in some cases offset
any potential localized impacts. If some organisms (e.g., caterpillars, rodents, deer, etc.) seem
likely to ingest significant amounts of the vegetation, and if harmful bio-concentration up the
food chain is a concern during the life of the remediation effort, appropriate exposure control
measures should be implemented including perimeter fencing, overhead netting, and pre-
flowering harvesting. Phytoextraction techniques aim to harvest metal-laden crops just as the
plants translocate metals into shoots, thereby limiting availability of contaminants for
consumption. Transfer of the contaminants or metabolites to the atmosphere might be the
greatest regulatory concern. Transpiration of TCE into the atmosphere has been measured
(Newman et al. 1997a), but little information is available that would indicate any release of vinyl
chloride. Research being done on the bioavailability of contaminants and on human health and
environmental risk assessment is directly related to phytoremediation. Studies are underway to
determine if contaminants that are not available to plants for uptake or that are not vulnerable to
plant remediation are less of a risk to human health and the environment.
Phytoremediation Overview:
Mechanism Process Goal Media Contaminants Plants Status
Phytoextraction Contaminant extraction and capture sludges
Soil, Sediment Metals: Ag, Cd, Co,
Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo,
Ni, Pb, Zn;
Radionuclides, 90Sr,
137Cs, 239Pu,
238,234U
Indian mustard,
Pennycress,
Alyssum,
Sunflowers, hybrid
Poplars
Laboratory,
Pilot and Field applications
Rhizofiltration Contaminant extraction and capture Groundwater, Surface water, Metals,
radionuclides.
Sunflowers, Indian
Mustard,
Water Hyacinth
Laboratory and pilot
Phytostabilization Contaminant Soil containment
Sludges
Sediment As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hs,
Pb, Zn
Indian mustard
Hybrid Poplars,
Grasses
Field application

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Rhizodegradation Contaminant Soil destruction
Sediment
Sludges
Groundwater
Organic Compounds(TPH, PAHs, Pesticides Chlorinated solvents, PCBs)
Red mulberry
Grasses,
Hybrid, poplar, cattail, rice
Field application
Phytodegradation Contaminant destruction Soil,
Sediment
Sludges
Groundwater
Surface water
Organic compounds
Chlorinated solvents,
Phenols, herbicides
Munitions
Algae, stonewort
Hybrid poplar
Black willow, bald
Cypress
Field Demonstration
Phytovolatilization Contaminant extraction from media and release to air
Groundwater
Soil sediment
Sludges
Chlorinated solvents
Some inorganics (Se, Hg, and As)
Poplars, alfalfa
Black locust,
Indian mustard
Laboratory and field application
Hydraulic control Contaminant degradation(plume control) or containment
Groundwater
Surface water,
Water-soluble Organics and inorganics
Hybrid poplar,
Cottonwood,
Willow
Field demonstration
Vegetative cover (evapotranspiration erosion control cover) Contaminant containment,
Soil, sludge,
Sediments
Organic and Inorganic compounds
Poplars,

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Grasses
Field application
Riparian corridors (non-point source groundwater and inorganics control)
Contaminant
Destruction
Surface water, Water-soluble organics
Poplars
Field application
Phytodegradation
a. Definition/Mechanism
Phytodegradation (also known as phytotransformation) is the breakdown of contaminants taken
up by plants through metabolic processes within the plant, or the breakdown of contaminants
external to the plant through the effect of compounds (such as enzymes) produced by the plants.
The main mechanism is plant uptake and metabolism.
Additionally, degradation may occur outside the plant, due to the release of compounds that
cause transformation. Any degradation caused by microorganisms associated with or affected by
the plant root is considered rhizodegradation.
b. Uptake
For phytodegradation to occur within the plant, the compounds must be taken up by the plant.
One study identified more than 70 organic chemicals representing many classes of compounds
that were taken up and accumulated by 88 species of plants and trees (Paterson et al. 1990). A
database has been established to review the classes of chemicals and types of plants that have
been investigated in regard to their uptake of organic compounds (Nellessen and Fletcher
1993b). Uptake is dependent on hydrophobicity, solubility, and polarity. Moderately
hydrophobic organic compounds (with log kow between 0.5 and 3.0) are most readily taken up
by and translocated within plants. Very soluble compounds (with low sorption) will not be
sorbed onto roots or translocated within the plant (Schnoor et al. 1995a). Hydrophobic
(lipophilic) compounds can be bound to root surfaces or partitioned into roots, but cannot be
further translocated within the plant (Schnoor et al. 1995a; Cunningham et al. 1997). Nonpolar
molecules with molecular weights <500 will sorb to the root surfaces, whereas polar molecules
will enter the root and be translocated (Bell 1992). Plant uptake of organic compounds can also
depend on type of plant, age of contaminant, and many other physical and chemical
characteristics of the soil. Definitive conclusions cannot always be made about a particular
chemical. For example, when PCP was spiked into soil, 21% was found in roots and 15% in
shoots after 155 days in the presence of grass (Qiu et al. 1994); in another study, several plants
showed minimal uptake of PCP (Bellin and O’Connor 1990).
c. Metabolism
Metabolism within plants has been identified for a diverse group of organic compounds,
including the herbicide atrazine (Burken and Schnoor 1997), the chlorinated solvent TCE
(Newman et al. 1997a), and the munition TNT (Thompson et al. 1998). Other metabolized
compounds include the insecticide DDT, the fungicide hexachlorobenzene (HCB), PCP, the
plasticizer diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP), and PCBs in plant cell cultures (Komossa et al. 1995).
d. Plant-Formed Enzymes
Plant-formed enzymes have been identified for their potential use in degrading contaminants
such as munitions, herbicides, and chlorinated solvents. Immunoassay tests have been used to
identify plants that produce these enzymes (McCutcheon 1996).

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e. Media
Phytodegradation is used in the treatment of soil, sediments, sludges, and groundwater. Surface
water can also be remediated using phytodegradation.
f. Advantages
Contaminant degradation due to enzymes produced by a plant can occur in an environment free
of microorganisms (for example, an environment in which the microorganisms have been killed
by high contaminant levels). Plants are able to grow in sterile soil and also in soil that has
concentration levels that are toxic to microorganisms. Thus, phytodegradation potentially could
occur in soils where biodegradation cannot.
g. Disadvantages
Phytodegradation has the following disadvantages:
• Toxic intermediates or degradation products may form. In a study unrelated to
phytoremediation research, PCP was metabolized to the potential mutagen tetrachlorocatechol in
wheat plants and cell cultures (Komossa et al. 1995).
• The presence or identity of metabolites within a plant might be difficult to determine; thus
contaminant destruction could be difficult to confirm.
h. Applicable Contaminants/ Concentrations
Organic compounds are the main category of contaminants subject to phytodegradation. In
general, organic compounds with a log kow between 0.5 and 3.0 can be subject to
phytodegradation within the plant. Inorganic nutrients are also remediated through plant uptake
and metabolism. Phytodegradation outside the plant does not depend on log kow and plant
uptake.
i. Organics
Chlorinated solvents
The plant-formed enzyme dehalogenase, which can dechlorinate chlorinated compounds
has been discovered in sediments (McCutcheon 1996).
TCE was metabolized to trichloroethanol, trichloroacetic acid, and dichloroacetic acid within
hybrid poplar trees (Newman et al. 1997a). In a similar study, hybrid poplar trees were exposed
to water containing about 50 ppm TCE and metabolized the TCE within the tree (Newman et al.
1997a).
Minced horseradish roots successfully treated wastewater containing up to 850 ppm of 2,4-
dichlorophenol (Dec and Bollag 1994).
Herbicides
Atrazine in soil was taken up by trees and then hydrolyzed and dealkylated within the
roots, stems, and leaves. Metabolites were identified within the plant tissue, and a review of
atrazine metabolite toxicity studies indicated that the metabolites were less toxic than atrazine
(Burken and Schnoor 1997).
The plant-formed enzyme nitrilase, which can degrade herbicides, has been discovered in
sediments (Carreira 1996).
A qualitative study indicated that the herbicide bentazon was degraded within black
willow trees, as indicated by bentazon loss during a nursery study and by identification of
metabolites within the tree. Bentazon was phytotoxic to six tree species at concentrations of 1000
and 2000 mg/L. At 150 mg/kg, bentazon metabolites were detected within tree trunk and canopy
tissue samples (Conger and Portier 1997). Atrazine at 60.4 g/kg (equivalent to about 3 times field
application rates) was used to study phytodegradation in hybrid poplars (Burken and Schnoor
1997).

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The herbicide bentazon was phytotoxic at concentrations of 1,000 to 2,000 mg/L, but
allowed growth at 150 mg/L (Conger and Portier 1997).
Insecticides
The isolation from plants of the enzyme phosphatase, which can degrade
organophosphate insecticides, may have phytodegradation applications (McCutcheon 1996).
Munitions
The plant-formed enzyme nitroreductase, which can degrade munitions, has been
discovered in sediments; this enzyme, from parrot feather, degraded TNT (McCutcheon 1996).
Hybrid poplar trees metabolized TNT to 4-amino- 2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT), 2-amino- 4,6-
dinitrotoluene (2-ADNT), and other unidentified compounds (Thompson et al. 1998). TNT
concentrations in flooded soil decreased from 128 to 10 ppm with parrot feather (Schnoor et al.
1995b).
Phenols
Chlorinated phenolic concentrations in wastewater decreased in the presence of oxidoreductase
enzymes in minced horseradish roots (Dec and Bollag 1994).
j. Inorganics
Nutrients
Nitrate will be taken up by plants and transformed to proteins and nitrogen gas (Licht and
Schnoor 1993).
k. Root Depth
Phytodegradation is generally limited to the root zone, and possibly below the root zone
if root exudates are soluble, nonsorbed, and transported below the root zone. The degree to
which this occurs is uncertain.
l. Plants
The aquatic plant parrot feather (Myriophyllum aquaticum) and the algae stonewort
(Nitella) have been used for the degradation of TNT. The nitroreductase enzyme has also been
identified in other algae, ferns, monocots, dicots, and trees (McCutcheon 1996).
Degradation of TCE has been detected in hybrid poplars and in poplar cell cultures, resulting in
production of metabolites and in complete mineralization of a small portion of the applied TCE
(Gordon et al. 1997; Newman et al. 1997a). Atrazine degradation has also been confirmed in
hybrid poplars (Populus oliform x nigra DN34, Imperial Carolina) (Burken and Schnoor 1997).
Poplars have also been used to remove nutrients from groundwater (Licht and Schnoor 1993).
Black willow (Salix nigra), yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), bald cypress (Taxodium
distichum), river birch (Betula nigra), cherry bark oak ( Quercus Colifor), and live oak ( Quercus
viginiana) were able to support some degradation of the herbicide bentazon (Conger and Portier
1997).
m. Site Considerations
i. Soil Conditions
Phytodegradation is most appropriate for large areas of soil having shallow contamination.
ii. Ground and Surface Water
Groundwater that can be extracted by tree roots or that is pumped to the surface may be
treated by this system. Phytodegradation can also occur in surface water, if the water is able to
support the growth of appropriate plants.
iii. Climatic Conditions
Phytoremediation studies involving phytodegradation have been conducted under a wide
variety of climatic conditions.

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n. Current Status
Research and pilot-scale studies have been conducted primarily at Army Ammunition
Plants (AAPs). These demonstrations include field studies at the Iowa AAP, Volunteer AAP, and
Milan AAP (McCutcheon 1996). The following plants are used in hydraulic control:
Cottonwood and hybrid poplar trees were used at seven sites in the East and Midwest to contain
and treat shallow groundwater contaminated with heavy metals, nutrients, or pesticides (Gatliff
1994). Poplars were used at a site in Utah to contain groundwater contaminated with gasoline
and diesel (Nelson 1996). Passive gradient control was studied at the French Limited Superfund
site using a variety of phreatophyte trees; native non-deciduous trees were found to perform the
best (Sloan and Woodward 1996).
o. Site Considerations: Riparian Corridors/Buffer Strips
i. Definition/Mechanism
Riparian corridors/buffer strips are generally applied along streams and riverbanks to control and
remediate surface runoff and groundwater contamination moving into the river. These systems
can also be installed to prevent down gradient migration of a contaminated groundwater plume
and to degrade contaminants in the plume. Mechanisms for remediation include water uptake,
contaminant uptake, and plant metabolism. Riparian corridors are similar in conception to
physical and chemical permeable barriers such as trenches filled with iron filings, in that they
treat groundwater without extraction containment. Riparian corridors and buffer strips may
incorporate certain aspects of hydraulic control, phytodegradation, rhizodegradation,
phytovolatilization, and perhaps phytoextraction.
ii. Media
Riparian corridors/buffer strips are used in the treatment of surface water and
groundwater.
iii. Advantages
Secondary advantages include the stabilization of stream banks and prevention of soil erosion.
Aquatic and terrestrial habitats are greatly improved by riparian forest corridors.
iii. Disadvantages
The use of buffer strips might be limited to easily assimilated and metabolized
compounds. Land use constraints may restrict application.
iv. Applicable Contaminants/ Concentrations
Nutrient and pesticide contaminants are among the water- soluble organics and
inorganics studied the most often using this technology. The nitrate concentration in groundwater
was 150 mg/L at the edge of a field, 8 mg/L below a poplar buffer strip, and 3 mg/L
downgradient at the edge of a stream (Licht and Schnoor 1993).
v. Root Depth
Uptake occurs within the root zone or the depth of influence of the roots.
vi. Plants
Poplars have been used in riparian corridors and buffer strips.
vii. Site Considerations
Sufficient land must be available for the establishment of vegetation. Typically a triple
row of trees is installed, using 10 meters at minimum. Larger corridors increase capacity, and
wider areas allow for more diverse ecosystem and habitat creation. Native Midwestern
songbirds, for example, prefer corridors 70 meters and more.
viii. Soil Conditions

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The primary considerations for this technology are the depth and concentration of
contaminants that affect plant growth. Soil texture and degree of saturation are factors to be
considered for use of this system. Planting technique can mitigate unfavorable soil conditions.
ix. Ground and Surface Water
Groundwater must be within the depth of influence of the roots.
x. Climatic Conditions
The amount of precipitation, temperature, and wind may affect the transpiration rate of
the plants.
xi. Current Status
Buffer strips have been researched and installed commercially with success.
p. Plants Used in Phytoremediation
A compilation of plants used in phytoremediation research or application is given in Appendix
D. This Appendix includes a table giving the common name followed by the scientific name, and
a table with the scientific name followed by the common name. The following are examples of
commonly-investigated or used plants:
Plants Used in Phytoremediation:
Trees: Grasses: Legumes: Metal-accumulators: Accumulators: Aquatic plants:
Poplars (hybrids)/ cottonwoods
Prairie grasses
Alfalfa
Hyperaccumulators
Sunflower
Parrot feather
Willows Fescue Thlaspi caerulescens Phragmites reeds
Brassica juncea Cattails
Hyacinths
Summary of Bioremediation Technologies:
Technology Applicable Media Target Contaminants
Phytoremediation
Phytoextraction brownfields; sediments; soil; groundwater metals – Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn
Phytostabilization sediments; soil metals – As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Se, Zn
hydrophobic organics – DDT, dieldrin,
dioxins, furans, PAH, PCB, PCP
Phytostimulation sediments; soil; waste water (land
application)
organics – aromatics, PAH, pesticides
Phyto-transformation groundwater; landfill leachate; soil;
wastewater (land application)
ammunition wastes – RDX, TNT, aromatics
– BTEX, chlorinated aliphatics – TCE,
herbicides – atrazine,alachlor, hydrocarbons
– TPHnutrients – NO3 (-),, NH4 (+), PO4 (3-)
Rhizofiltration groundwater; water and wastewater in
lagoons or constructed wetlands
hydrophobic organics, metals – Cd, Cu, Ni,
Pb, Zn, radionuclides – 137Cs, 90Sr, U

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Constructed Wetlands domestic wastewater; landfill leachate;
livestock wastewater; pulp mill effluent;
septage
BOD, TDS, TSS, NO2, NO3, NH3, NH4
Coliforms – fecal, total, metals – Cu, Ni, Pb,
Zn, nutrients – Al, Fe, K, Mn, P
Bioaugmentation
Biodegradation groundwater; sludge; soil COD organics – BTEX, NAPL, pesticides,
solvents
Biostimulation
Bioventing soil non-chlorinatedhydrocarbons, pesticides,
petroleum hydrocarbons, wood, preservatives
Chemical Oxidation of Soils soil; wastewater inorganic contaminants
In situ Lagoon sludge; soil hydrocarbons – BTEX, PAH, other phenols
Bioreactors
Compost-based reactor lagoon sediments; municipal and refinery
sludge; soil
ethylene glycol, explosives, hydrocarbons –
PAH, PCP, pesticides
Slurry-based reactor groundwater; sludge; soil acetic acid, explosives – TNT, hydrocarbons
– BTEX, PAH, pesticides, petrochemicals,
wood preservatives
Land-based Treatments
Composting lagoon sediments; municipal sludge; soil ethylene glycol, explosives,
hydrocarbons.
PAH, PCP, pesticides
Land Farming sediment; sludge; soil hydrocarbons – TPH, PCP, pesticides
Fungal Remediation
White-rot Fungus soil CAH, PCB, polychlorinated
dibenzo(p)dioxins, explosives – TNT,
hydrocarbons – PAH, pesticides – DDT,
Abbreviations:
Abbreviation Name Abbreviation Name
BOD: biochemical oxygen demand PCP: pentachlorophenol
BTEX: benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene,
xylene
RDX: hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-
triazine
CAH: chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons TCE: trichloroethylene
COD: chemical oxygen demand TDS: total dissolved solids
DDT: 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(pchlorophenyl)
ethylene
TNT: 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene
NAPL: non-aqueous phase liquid TPH: total petroleum hydrocarbons
PAH: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon TSS: total suspended solids
PCB: polychlorinated biphenyl

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Raw sewage not mixed with detergents and Household/ Commercial chemicals are
generated in large quantities. It is estimated that a community of 10,000 people can generate 40-
acre inches of sewage effluent per day or an equivalent of 1 million gallons of wastewater. This
waste is extremely rich in nutrients especially Nitrogen. Integrated Biosystem Highlights
Most conventional wastewater treatment tries to clean water mechanically and chemically
then releases it into waterways. Such systems are expensive, produce limited economic benefits,
and can themselves pollute. By contrast, integrated biosystems treat water by recycling it for
agricultural use, producing numerous economic, health and environmental benefits. Nutrients in
wastewater are recycled by algae, crops and livestock via processes such as photosynthesis,
mineralization, and uptake. Water is treated by combined natural processes such as soil and root
filtration, sedimentation and biochemical reactions including photosynthesis, anaerobic and
aerobic digestion. In this system, clean water is a by-product along with organic crops, fertilized
soil, and reclaimed wildlife habitat. Economic benefits come from soil restoration, fertilizer
recovery, crops and livestock. Products can be produced safely and profitably with low input
costs. Costs are minimized by using wastewater for fertilizer, integrating crops for pest
protection, maintaining biodiversity, treating water via natural processes, and reducing
environmental liability. The technology is especially suitable for poor soil and regions where
flood control or water conservation are required. Locally available resources are used so costs for
imported fertilizer and equipment are minimized. Components are scalable, ranging from single
households to large farms and communities. Due to high levels of year-round ambient sunlight,
more productive applications occur in a belt defined by 30 degrees latitude north and south of the
equator.
3. Reed Beds:
Two different basic types of reed-beds have been developed and used for the treatment of
polluting waste water effluents over the last 20 years or so:
 Horizontal flow reed-beds
 Vertical flow reed-beds
From these in more recent years a third type of reed bed system, that is highly efficient, has
evolved:
 Combination vertical and horizontal flow reed beds
i. Horizontal Flow Reed-Bed Systems:
Horizontal flow reed beds work particularly well for low strength effluents, or effluents
that have undergone some form of pre-treatment. Whilst not effective in reducing ammonia they
will almost always reduce BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) and SS (Suspended Solids)
levels.
These systems play an invaluable role in tertiary treatment and for the polishing of
effluents. A typical application would be to treat the discharge from a package sewage treatment
plant which is unable to meet the discharge consent standard required.
ii. Vertical Flow Reed-Bed Systems:
Vertical flow reed-bed systems are much more effective than horizontal flow reed-beds
not only in reducing BOD and SS levels but also in reducing ammonia levels and eliminating
smells. They can be considerably smaller and will also cope with much stronger effluents.
iii. Combination Systems:
Multi-stage reed-bed systems, incorporating one or two stages of vertical flow followed
by one or more stages of horizontal flow, and large single stage vertical flow reed-beds, when
properly designed, are used for example, for the full treatment of domestic sewage - black and

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 83


grey water - and, sludge, if required. Systems can be designed to accommodate virtually any
situation - from flat sites to steep rocky slopes. On sloping sites gravity can be used, whereas one
or two pumping stages may be required on flat sites, to move the effluent through the reed-beds.
Reed-bed systems do not require a lot of space. The most effective "combination reed-bed
systems", usually sized at about 2 sq. m. per person equivalent for sewage treatment, have a
remarkably small footprint. Constructed Wetlands for wastewater treatment
The use of wetlands to treat effluent is not a new idea. Thousands of years ago, natural
wetlands were used by the Chinese and by the Egyptians to clarify liquid effluent. However, the
first “constructed” wetland was not used until 1904 (in Australia). Even after that the use of such
wetlands was slow to catch on. The first botanical treatment of waste was not reported in Europe
until the 1950s; America’s research into the field did not begin until the 1970s. Nevertheless, it is
now recognized that constructed wetlands are an economic way of treating liquid effluent and
even raw.
Constructed Wetlands reduce concentrations of suspended solids, biochemical oxygen
demand (BOD5), nitrogen, phosphorus, and coliform bacteria (often by up to 98%). Their
simplicity and scalability make them effective for treatment of waste from small communities. If
constructed on suitable topography, they require little energy input, which makes them suitable
for both under-developed and rural sites. However despite the suitability of climate in developing
countries, the spread of wetlands in such areas has been described as "depressingly slow".9
(a) Number of Wetland Systems Currently in Use:
It has been claimed that there are "thousands of wetland-based wastewater treatment
systems around the world".10 However, although it is clear use of constructed wetlands is
increasing, the precise number of such systems in operation is relatively difficult to obtain. Those
figures which are available are summarized below:
USA and Canada
Constructed wetlands are still not in widespread use as treatment systems for wastewater.
A 1996 survey of the USA and Canada showed 176 wetland treatment sites in use. A majority
(116) of these were in sub-tropical or warm-temperate zones. However, the state with the
greatest number of installations was the cold-temperate South Dakota (40 sites). The majority of
wetlands in cold-temperate zones were of the FWF type 9 P.Denny et al., 'Constructed wetlands
in developing countries', Water Sci and Tech. 35 (5) pp167-174 1997
10 K.R.Eddy and E.M.Angelo 'Biogeochemical indicators to evaluate pollutant removal
efficiency in constructed wetland'’ Water Sci and Tech. 35(5) pp 1-10, 1997
Northern Europe
In Northern Europe, Denmark is the leader in implementing constructed wetlands. A
pioneer of SSF-type (Subsurface Flow) installations, the country has at least 130 wetlands, most
of which treat municipal wastewater. By comparison, Sweden and Norway have shown much
less interest in such systems and neither government has given final approval use of constructed
wetlands for statutory water treatment. In 1996 Sweden had 6 FWF and 8 SSF wetlands for
treatment of municipal or domestic wastewater. However, in most cases they were installed only
to aid in removal of nitrogen, or to 'polish' water which had been treated by other means. Norway
had almost twenty wetlands, the majority of them SSF-type installations
Eastern Europe
The spread of constructed wetlands is greatest in the Czech Republic. Between 1989 and
1996, 26 systems were built. As a result of their success, 54 more such systems are currently
being constructed. All systems are of the horizontal SSF-type and treat municipal waste (after

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 84


initial mechanical pre-treatment). Hungary and Estonia are also known to be introducing
constructed wetlands, but no numbers are currently available.
(b) How Constructed Wetlands treat Waste:
The treatment of waste by constructed wetlands is achieved by a large number of
chemical and biological processes, many of the latter microbially-mediated. Table 1 (below)
shows the main processes (and the sites at which they occur) affecting Carbon (usually measured
as BOD5), Nitrogen (as NH4+ or NO3-), and Phosphorus.
Processes occurring in Treatment of Waste:
Contaminant Site Process
BOD5 Stems and Leaves
Roots
Bed media
(gravel/sand)
Bed media
(gravel/sand)
Microbial respiration
Microbial respiration
Microbial respiration
Settling
Nitrogen Leaves
Algae in water
column
Roots
Soil
Bed
media(gravel/sand)
Volatilization (as N2 and N2O)
NO3 and NH4+ -> Soluble Organic Nitrogen
Ammonium -> Nitrate
Nitrate -> N2, N20, or NH4+
Settling
Phosphorus Stems and Leaves
Roots
Microbial Repiration
Microbial Repiration
Roots
Bed media
(gravel/sand)
Bed media
(gravel/sand)
Uptake
Sedimentation/Burial
Adsorption
(i) Biogeochemical Reactions and Nutrient Uptake
As mentioned at the start of this section, temperature affects the rate at which
biogeochemical processes occur. In cold climates the rate at which biomass takes up nutrients

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 85


will be significantly lower than in warm, subtropical or tropical climates. Indeed, the treatment
area required to transfer 90% of nutrients to biomass increases from around 7 ha at 20°C to 35 ha
at 0°C. However, this is not particularly important if nutrient recycling is not required. Figure 2
shows uptake of nitrogen and phosphorus for wetlands in Florida (sub-tropical), New Zealand
(warm temperate), Sweden (cold-temperate) and Canada (cold-temperate).
Conclusions
 Constructed wetlands are an effective, environmentally friendly means of treating waste
(liquid and solid).
 Wetlands are effective at reducing loads of BOD/COD, nitrogen, phosphorus, and
suspended solids. Reduction can be up by 98%.
 In the last few years, there has been a tendency to construct SSF-type wetlands rather
than FWF-type. Such systems are believed to be more effective at treating waste.
 Despite current usage patterns, it is tropical and subtropical climates, which hold the
greatest potential for the use of wetlands; cold climates do bring problems with both icing
and thaw.
 Constructed wetlands require little maintenance, and remain effective after more than 10
years of use.
 Use of constructed wetlands in developing countries can provide real economic benefits
by providing biomass and supporting aquaculture.
 Wetlands can provide a habitat for wildlife and act as a tourist attraction for the
community.
Performance Characteristics
The means for Total Nitrogen (TN), Total Phosphorus (TP), copper and zinc are:
 Inflow TP: 1.018mg/L and TN: 1.92 mg/L.
 Outflow TP: 1.013 mg/L and TN: 1.50mg/L.
 Inflow for Cu:9.1788 μg/L and Outflow for Cu: 2.4081μg/L
 Inflow for Zn: 9.02 μg/L and Outflow: for Zn: 3.7603 μg/L.
 Improved species diversity and abundance
Water Quality Improvement
Surface water is monitored for copper, cadmium, zinc, conductivity, pH, turbidity, total
phosphorus, total nitrogen and temperature. The results for total phosphorus, total nitrogen and
heavy metals are presented in tables 11, 12 and 13
As shown in Table 11 the concentrations of total phosphorus entering the wetland are higher than
the concentrations leaving the wetland. This indicates a reduction of total phosphorus due to
uptake by flora and sediments within the wetland.
Because of heterogeneity of the data, it had to be transformed to undertake the statistical
analysis.
Wildlife Pond at end of Reed-Bed System:
Botanical/ Reed Beds: Artificial Wetlands; Constructed wetlands or Botanical/ Reed Beds are
designed to mimic the sediment and nutrient removal processes occurring in natural wetlands.
General design principles are based on holding or slowing the passage of water through the
wetland where a range of physical, chemical and biological processes can operate to store,
transform or remove various pollutants. These processes can be optimized through the control
and manipulation of the hydraulic regime, including retention time. Constructed wetlands are
configured into different zones, with each zone performing different functions.
Technical Details

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The wetland is divided into three zones: sedimentation, wetlands (botanical bed) and open water
zone.
 The Sedimentation Zone improves water quality by trapping sediments, litter and
contaminants. As flow enters this zone it slows down resulting in sediment deposition.
The sediments act as a sink for phosphorus and other pollutants like heavy metals and
pesticides. Litter becomes tapped by vegetation located on the edges of this zone.
 The Wetland (Botanical Bed) Zone improves water quality by removing nutrients and
other pollutants. This zone effectively:
 Slows the flow of water, thereby increasing sedimentation and contact time with
the water (effluent);
 Filters pollutants and precipitates them from the water;
 Transfers oxygen to the root zones thereby preventing a build up of toxins under
saturated conditions;
 Assimilates, processes and stores nutrients;
 Supports microbial growth to enhance nutrient transformations.
 The Deep Open Water Zone polishes water, allowing time for finer particles to settle
and for sunlight to kill pathogens. The littoral vegetation surrounding the open water zone
contributes to pollutant removal through the processes described above. Over the last
hundreds of years there has been a general decline in the water quality of rivers and
streams. Land clearance for agriculture, urban development and manufacturing have led
to increasing levels of phosphorus, turbidity, heavy metals and pathogenic bacterial
contamination of major water systems.
Streams and rivers have been adversely affected by industrial and urban development.
The water quality is poor, with high nutrient levels and heavy metal contamination problems.
Performance Criteria
The performance characteristics by which Wetlands are assessed include:
 The improvement of surface water quality entering water systems from the
 Wetland (in particular the reduction of nutrients and heavy metals)
 The improvement of the site as habitat for native fauna; and
 Creation of a focal point for environmental education and passive recreation within the
Islamabad area.
Water Quality Improvement
Surface water is monitored for copper, cadmium, zinc, conductivity, pH, turbidity, total
phosphorus, total nitrogen and temperature. In simple terms, a botanical bed can be seen as a low
loaded fixed film filter with in-built sedimentation, a primary tank is required to retain the
organic material, the effluent then gravitates or is pumped to the botanical bed, membrane lined
and filled with appropriate gravel and stone and planted with appropriate plants. Dimensions,
shape and number of beds vary with type of application, flow rate and organic loading, and
quality of treated effluent required.
Botanical bed schemes have proven themselves to be an effective, sustainable, reliable
and economical method of treatment. Cost effective and aesthetically pleasing are two good
reasons for choosing botanical beds, a third and more important reason is that they are the most
environmental friendly form of sewage treatment available at this time. The use of botanical beds
in environmentally sensitive areas is now widespread in the United Kingdom, over the last
decade reed beds have been monitored by the Environment Agency and are now an established
form of treatment. Agri/ Horticulture "Water in the environment is like blood in the body: and

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 87


ours is sick. The arteries and veins of our countryside, its rivers and wetlands, are suffering from
the equivalent of low blood pressure and blood poisoning. The condition has developed over
many years and treatment is now urgent." Sir David Attenborough
The use of wetlands to treat effluent is not a new idea. Thousands of years ago, natural
wetlands were used by the Chinese and by the Egyptians to clarify liquid effluent. However, the
first “constructed” wetland was not used until 1904 (in Australia). Even after that the use of such
wetlands was slow to catch on. The first botanical treatment of waste was not reported in Europe
until the 1950s; America’s research into the field did not begin until the 1970s. Nevertheless, it is
now recognized that constructed wetlands are an economic way of treating liquid effluent (and
even raw sewage Horizontal-flow wetlands may be of two types: free-water surface-flow (FWF)
or sub-surface water-flow (SSF). In the former the effluent flows freely above the sand/gravel
bed in which the reeds etc. are planted, and there may be patches of open water; in the latter
effluent passes through the sand/gravel bed. In FWF-type wetlands plant stems, leaves and
rhizomes treat effluent. Such FWF wetlands are densely planted and typically have water-depths
of less than 0.4m. However, dense planting can limit oxygen diffusion into the water, and FWF
wetlands are typically less effective at reducing BOD5 and phosphorus than SSF wetlands (in
which effluent is treated by the roots).
Biogeochemical Reactions and Nutrient Uptake:
As mentioned earlier, temperature affects the rate at which biogeochemical processes
occur. In cold climates the rate at which biomass takes up nutrients will be significantly lower
than in warm, subtropical or tropical climates. Indeed, the treatment area required to transfer
90% of nutrients to biomass increases from around 7 ha at 20°C to 35 ha at 0°C. Constructed
wetlands are not yet widely used in developing, tropical countries. However, this is the very
environment in which such wetlands perform best.
Indeed, constructed wetlands can form an integrated part of the food production system in such
climates.
The advantage of a hot climate is a continuous growing season, which means that the
wetland biomass can also be harvested. For example, the annual production of papyrus in
tropical conditions can be in excess of 100 tons/ ha/ year. The foliage can be sustainably
cropped, while the papyrus stems can be used for matting and thatching roofs. Water that has
passed through the wetland can be used to irrigate crops and/or introduced to a fishpond. In this
final stage, remaining nitrates and phosphates stimulate the growth of phytoplankton - the
favorite food of fish.
Such systems may actually yield a profit for local communities, and would be a powerful
tool in breaking the poverty cycle.
All chemical reactions slow as temperature drops and this is true for the processes occurring in
constructed wetlands3 Biogeochemical Reactions and Nutrient Uptake
As mentioned at the start, temperature affects the rate at which biogeochemical processes occur.
In cold climates the rate at which biomass takes up nutrients will be significantly lower than in
warm, subtropical or tropical climates. Indeed, the treatment area required to transfer 90% of
nutrients to biomass increases from around 7 ha at 20°C to 35 ha at 0°C. However, this is not
particularly important if nutrient recycling is not required. Figure 2 shows uptake of nitrogen and
phosphorus for wetlands in Florida (subtropical), New Zealand (warm temperate), Sweden (cold
temperate) and Canada (coldtemperate).

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 88


Two innovative, low-cost and highly effective structures are being introduced.
These are an Environment Protected Green/ Shade House Structure built as a Geodesic Dome
and rectangular Green/ Shade covers for Botanical Beds.
Starting Medium Tunnel for Iris/ Papyrus Reeds/ African Lettuce/ Bulrushes
Botanical Bed Medium Tunnels
Bioaugmentation Pond Geodesic Dome
Line Depiction: Liquid Waste Remediation:
SEDIMENTATION POOL
GEODESIC DOMES (Bioaugmentation). Water
Hyacinth
Botanical Beds Type “B” Filters
Pebbles/ Gravel/ Sand
Medium Tunnels
GEODESIC DOMES
(Bioaugmentation).
Medium Tunnels
Botanical Beds Type “B” Filters
Pebbles/ Gravel/ Sand
POLISHING POOL
Lake/ Pond Treatment Systems:
GENERAL DESCRIPTION:
A combination of various species of live Bacteria is used for the treatment of Industrial,
Agricultural and Residential organically contaminated wastewater. The microorganisms are non-
toxic and non-pathogenic live bacteria suspended in a liquid medium that is non-offensive to
humans, animals, plants and all types of aqua-culture.
The bacterium remains in an adult state after manufacture which gives it ability to quickly adapt
to different environments. The combination of these diverse components provides the flexibility
to treat highly complex organic components in different systems utilizing aerobic and anaerobic
applications.
The bacteria have been very successful in the treatment of phenolic waste with large
concentrations of oils and fats and extremely offensive odors.
MODE OF ACTION:
When Bacteria is added to a contaminated area, they immediately revive themselves and
begin to feed, reproduce and attack the organic waste in the water. The Bacteria were specifically
developed to reduce Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)
which causes the odors that emanate from water treatment systems, septic tanks, lagoons and
pits. The Bacteria breaks down solids including fecal material, fats and proteins and treats
phenolic waters, sewage, biodegradable Hydrogen sulfide and other contaminants. The operation
efficiency of lagoons and other treatment facilities is greatly improved when the Bacteria is
applied. Contamination is drastically reduced as is the need for expensive cleaning and pumping
procedures. The Bacteria can help a treatment facility achieve total compliance with Government
Pollution Regulations.
LAGOON SYSTEMS:
The Bacteria’s unique ecosystem naturally breaks down the odor causing compounds that
contaminate surrounding communities and ground water supply. On the farm the Bacteria can

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 89


keep manure in a uniform pumpable slurry form and enhances it fertilizer value making it more
readily absorbable by plants while providing the following benefits.
 Reduction of Hydrogen Sulfide odors:
 Reduction of accumulated Gasses.
 Destruction of Fly and mosquito larvae.
 Reduction of BOD and COD.
 Breakdown of waste solids.
 Creation of healthier environment.
 Reduction in Livestock mortality.
 Increase in fertilizer value of recycled water.
MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS:
One of the most significant tasks faced by City officials is to provide safe, potable water
to members of the community and subsequently to transport the used water or sewage away to be
disposed off in an environmentally compatible manner.
Some of the key areas where Bioaugmentation can be beneficial in Municipal Plants.
 Start-up and recovery of Biological Wastewater treatment systems.
 Improving organic removal efficiency.
 Improving performance of systems with inadequate aeration capacity.
 Improving Plant Stability.
 Establishing or increasing Nitrification.
 Expanding Plant capacity without Capital Expenditure.
 Improving oils and grease digestion.
 Reducing sludge generation per Kg of BOD removed.
 Improving cold weather operation.
 Improving solids settling.
 Improve breakdown of refractory organics.
INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER PLANTS:
Effluents Treated from Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plants:
# ITEMS
1 Chemicals Iron & Steel
2 Petrochemicals Food Processing
3 Refining Leather Tanning
4 Pulp & Paper Mining

Typically these Plants represent the highest organic concentrations for which biological
treatment is used. Aqua-Clean significantly reduces BOD levels and improves overall operating
efficiency.
COCA-COLA TRIALS:
“We improved the efficiency of our activated sludge facility to over 90% with the use of
Bioaugmentation,” says Mr. Juarez, Head of Maintenance, Coca-Cola Factory, Nixapa, El
Salvador, Central America.
SEPTIC TANKS & GREASE TRAPS:
Bioaugmentation degrades soluble organics in solution by a combination of aerobic
microaerophilic, facultative, aerobic and anaerobic micro-organisms and primarily bacteria.B

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 90


ioaugmentation provides a higher bacterial population and augments the natural degradation
process of organic waste to assure efficient septic tank and grease trap operation.
 Bioaugmentation digests the waste:
 Prevents Overflow.
 Eliminates Organic accumulation.
 Reduces frequency of regular maintenance procedures.
 Eliminates noxious odors and reduces insect larvae.
GOLF COURSES - Ponds & Lakes:
Bioaugmentation eliminates offensive odors and keeps ponds clear and algae free by two
mechanisms: exclusion and the production of a natural inhibitor which is not harmful to other
aquatic plants or animals. The photosynthetic bacteria, which are metabolically similar to algae,
compete with algae for essential macro nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus.
 Keeps Ponds clean and clear.
 Reduces Filamentous and Planktonic Algae.
 Eliminates noxious odors caused by Algae.
 Reduces eggs and larvae of water-breeding insects.
 Safe for all Wildlife.
MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT: La Costa, Uruguay
This Municipal Lagoon receives 2,40,000 liters of domestic sewage per day. A total of
322 Liters of Bacteria was applied over a period of six weeks. The water was purified by 95%
and was certified for use in Agriculture, pH was improved to 7.2 and Biological Oxygen
Demand was reduced from 40 initially to 13 after treatment. All noxious odors were eliminated
as was the presence of insects including flies and mosquitoes.
SUCCESSFUL APPLICATIONS:
Origin WASTE
Chemical Phenols, alcohols, straight chain alkanes and aromatic compounds
Dairy Fats and whey
Confectionary Sugar wastes and chemicals
Halogenated
Aromatics
Chloro and di-chloro phenols
Detergents Surfactants and other components of detergents
Fish Farms Organic components of fish waste and unused fish food
Food Processing Reduction of BOD and odors
Petrochemicals Petroleum Hydrocarbons
Paper & Cellulose Reduction of BOD and odors
Pharmaceuticals Spent fermentation media, tabletising binders and
extraction solvents
Refinery Wastes Phenols, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, petroleum oils and
greases
Steel
Manufacturing
Phenols, cyanide, thiocyanate, ammonia and rolling oils
Tanneries Vegetable tanning wastes
Textiles Surfactants, starches and organic dyes
Beverages Liquid sugars, high fructose corn syrups and flavorings

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 91


Project Implementation:
a. Project Duration & Cost: Two Year (24 months). Total Project Cost Rs.113.59
million:
b. Component IV: Work Plan (Quarterly Activities).
Start/ End dates of 6-monthly Periods Activities
01-03-210 to 01-09-2010 Conduct planning meetings
Construction
Purchase of Plant, Machinery & Equipment
Installation
Trials & Adjustments
Training
Operation
Analysis
Reports & Returns
01-09-20010 to 01-03-2011 Over run period
Material/Item Size/Amount Study* LB
Yard trimmings, mixed 1 cubic yard USEPA 108
Yard trimmings, mixed 40 cubic yards U.S. EPA 4,320
Grass 33 gallons U.S. EPA 25
Grass 3 cubic yards U.S. EPA 840
Grass & leaves 3 cubic yards U.S. EPA 325
Large limbs & stumps 1 cubic yard Tellus 1,080
Leaves, dry 1 cubic yard Tellus 343.7
Leaves 33 gallons U.S. EPA 12
Leaves 3 cubic yards U.S. EPA 200–250
Pine needles, loose 1 cubic yard Tellus 74.42
Prunings, dry 1 cubic yard Tellus 36.9
Prunings, green 1 cubic yard Tellus 46.69
Prunings, shredded 1 cubic yard Tellus 527
Other Organics
Hay, baled 1 cubic foot FEECO 24
Hay, loose 1 cubic foot FEECO 5
Straw, baled 1 cubic foot FEECO 24
Straw, loose 1 cubic foot FEECO 3
Compost 1 cubic foot FEECO 30–50
Compost, loose 1 cubic yard Tellus 463.39
Food
Bread, bulk 1 cubic foot FEECO 18
Fat 1 cubic foot FEECO 57
Fats, solid/liquid (cooking oil) 1 gallon U.S. EPA 7.45
Fats, solid/liquid (cooking oil) 55 gallon drum U.S. EPA 410
Fish, scrap 1 cubic foot FEECO 40–50
Meat, ground 1 cubic foot FEECO 50–55
Oil, olive 1 cubic foot FEECO 57.1
Oyster shells, whole 1 cubic foot FEECO 75–80
Produce waste, mixed, loose 1 cubic yard Tellus 1,443

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 92


Manure
Manure 1 cubic foot FEECO 25
Manure, cattle 1 cubic yard Tellus 1,628
Manure, dried poultry 1 cubic foot FEECO 41.2
Manure, dried sheep & cattle 1 cubic foot FEECO 24.3
Manure, horse 1 cubic yard Tellus 1,252
Wood
Cork, dry 1 cubic foot FEECO 15
Pallet, wood or plastic average 48" x 48" U.S. EPA 40
Particle board, loose 1 cubic yard Tellus 425.14
Plywood, sheet 2' x 4' 1 cubic yard Tellus 776.3
Roofing/shake shingle, bundle 1 cubic yard Tellus 435.3
Sawdust, loose 1 cubic yard Tellus 375
87
Shavings, loose 1 cubic yard Tellus 440
Wood chips, shredded 1 cubic yard U.S. EPA 500
Wood scrap, loose 1 cubic yard Tellus 329.5
Wood, bark, refuse 1 cubic foot FEECO 30
Wood, pulp, moist 1 cubic foot FEECO 45–65
Wood, shavings 1 cubic foot FEECO 15
Miscellaneous
Toner cartridge U.S. EPA 2.5
Rubber
Tire, bus U.S. EPA 75
Tire, car U.S. EPA 20
Tire, truck U.S. EPA 60–100
Rubber, car bumper U.S. EPA 15
Rubber, manufactured 1 cubic foot FEECO 95
Rubber, pelletized 1 cubic foot FEECO 50–55
Textiles
Clothing, used, mixed cubic yard Tellus 225
Fabric, canvas square yard U.S. EPA 1
Leather, dry 1 cubic foot FEECO 54
Leather, scrap, semi-compacted 1 cubic yard Tellus 303
Rope 1 cubic foot FEECO 42
String yard U.S. EPA 1 gram
Used clothing, mixed, loose 1 cubic yard Tellus 225
Used clothing, compacted 1 cubic yard Tellus 540
Wool 1 cubic foot FEECO 15–30
Carpet & padding, loose 1 cubic yard Tellus 84.4
*Source acronyms used
CIWMB: California Integrated Waste Management Board
FEECO: FEECO Incorporated
Tellus: Tellus Institute, Boston Massachusetts
U.S. EPA: United States Environmental Protection Agency (Business Users Guide)
Category Material

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 93


u/c = uncompacted/
compacted & baled
Volume Estimated
Weight
(in pounds)
High-Grade
Paper
Computer Paper:
Uncompacted, stacked 1 cu. yd. 655
Compacted / baled 1 cu. yd. 1,310
1 case 2800 sheets 42
White Ledger:
(u)stacked / (c)stacked 1 cu. yd. 375-465 / 755-925
(u)crumpled / (c)crumpled 1 cu. yd. 110-205 / 325
Ream of 20# bond; 8-1/2 x 11 1 ream = 500
sheets
5
88
Ream of 20# bond; 8-1/2 x 11 1 ream = 500
sheets
6.4
White ledger pads 1 case = 72
pads
38
Tab Cards:
Uncompacted 1 cu. yd. 605
Compacted / baled 1 cu. yd. 1,215-1,350
Category Material
u/c = uncompacted/
compacted & baled
Volume Estimated
Weight
(in pounds)
Other Paper Cardboard (Corrugated):
Uncompacted 1 cu. yd. 50-150
Compacted 1 cu. yd. 300-500
Baled 1 cu. yd. 700-1,100
Newspaper:
Uncompacted 1 cu. yd. 360-505
Compacted 1 cu. yd. 720-1,000
12" stack -- 35
Miscellaneous Paper:
Yellow legal pads 1 case = 72
pads
38
Colored message pads 1 carton = 144

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 94


pads
22
Self-carbon forms; 8-1/2 x 11 1 ream = 500
sheets
50
Mixed Ledger/Office Paper:
Flat (u/c) 1 cu. yd. 380 / 755
Crumpled (u/c) 1 cu. yd. 110-205 / 610
Glass Refillable Whole Bottles:
Refillable beer bottles 1 case = 24
bottles
14
Refillable soft drink bottles 1 case = 24
bottles
22
8 oz. glass container 1 case = 24
bottles
12
Bottles:
Whole 1 cu. yd. 500-700
Semi-crushed 1 cu. yd. 1,000-1,800
Crushed (mechanically) 1 cu. yd. 1,800-2,700
Uncrushed to manually broken 55-gallon
drum
300
Category Material
u/c = uncompacted/
compacted & baled
Volume Estimated
Weight
(in pounds)
Plastic PET (Soda Bottles):
89
Whole bottles, uncompacted 1 cu. yd. 30-40
Whole bottles, compacted 1 cu. yd. 515
Whole bottles, uncompacted gaylord 40-53
Baled 30" x 62 500-550
Granulated gaylord 700-750
8 bottles (2-liter size) -- 1
HDPE (Dairy):
Whole, uncompacted 1 cu. yd. 24
Whole, compacted 1 cu. yd. 270
Baled 32" x 60" 400-500
HDPE (Mixed):
Baled 32" x 60" 900
Granulated semi-load 42,000

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 95


Odd Plastic:
Uncompacted 1 cu. yd. 50
Compacted / baled 1 cu. yd. 400-700
Mixed PET & HDPE (Dairy):
Whole, uncompacted 1 cu. yd. 32
Metals Aluminum (Cans):
Whole 1 cu. yd. 50-75
Compacted (manually) 1 cu. yd. 250-430
Uncompacted 1 full grocery
bag
1 case = 24
cans
1.5
0.9
Ferrous (tin-coated steel cans):
Whole 1 cu. yd. 150
Flattened 1 cu. yd. 850
Whole 1 case = 6 cans 22
Category Material
u/c = uncompacted/
compacted & baled
Volume Estimated
Weight
(in pounds)
Organics Yard trimmings*:
Leaves (uncompacted) 1 cu. yd. 200-250
Leaves (compacted) 1 cu. yd. 300-450
Leaves, vacuumed 1 cu. yd. 350
Grass clippings (uncompacted) 1 cu. yd. 350-450
Grass clippings (compacted) 1 cu. yd. 550-1,500
Finished compost 1 cu. yd. 600
Scrap Wood:
Pallets -- 30-100 (40 avg.)
Wood chips 1 cu. yd. 500
Food Waste:
Solid / liquid fats 55-gallon
drum
400-410
90
Other
Materials
Tires:
Car 1 tire 12-20
Truck 1 tire 60-100
Oil (Used Motor Oil) 1 gallon 7
*Density of yard trimmings is highly variable depending on moisture content.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 96


Conversion Table Sources
Brown University Summer Internship Program, Guide for Preparing Commercial Solid Waste
Reduction
and Recycling Plans, prepared for Ocean State Cleanup and Recycling (OSCAR), Providence,
Rhode
Island, 1988.
Draft National Recycling Coalition Measurement Standards and Reporting Guidelines presented
to NRC
membership, October 31, 1989.
Fenedick, Al Jr., Kimberly Henderson, and Jay Birgamini, Office Recycling Handbook, Region
5, USEPA
and General Services Administration, 1990.
Hunt, Robert, Franklin Associates, personal communication, April 18, 1991.
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Office of Recycling. Steps in Organizing a
Municipal Recycling Program, 1988.
New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Recycling: A Planning Guide for
Communities, Division of Solid Waste, January 1990.
Reynolds, John, Business Waste Reduction Audit Handbook, Spokane Regional Council,
Spokane,
Washington, February 1989.
R.W. Beck and Associates, Commercial Waste Reduction Audit Manual, prepared for the City of
Seattle
Solid Waste Utility Under the Environmental Allowance Program, January 1989.
Scheinberg, Anne and Dee Cotherman, Business Recycling Manual, prepared for Westchester
County
Association, Inc., White Plains, New York, November 1989.
Conversion factors are adapted from Information In: “Recycling Is Everybody's Business”,
Morris County
Municipal Utilities Authority, April 1989 and “Recycling Manual: Oneida and Herkimer
Counties Solid
Waste Management Project”, William F. Cosulich Associates, 1988.

http://www.turnandscreen.com/content/mighty-mike
 Windrow width: 6'8", 7'4"
 Windrow height: 50"
 Drive: tow-behind standard
 Max forward speed: 10-15 ft/min
Options: self-propelled, 4 x 4, watering systems
The price ex works, Donald, Oregon, for a Mighty Mike is USD 15,750

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 97


STANDING ON THE OUTSIDE LOOKING IN:

Moving Towards The Future!


Nurture Nature Because Nature Nurture You!

Introduction:
The very word homeless evokes a feeling of pity and insecurity. The social animal that
man is requires the safety and security of a shelter that belongs to him. A shelter wherein he can
find peace and an opportunity to bring up his children. The self-respect and esteem that goes
along with ownership of one’s own home, fosters a sense of well being and belonging. With this
inborn craving once satisfied the individual can be expected to put in his best for the society that

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 1


he belongs to. In no case should an individual or family group be made to feel as outcasts. To be
exposed to the vagaries of nature or the arbitrariness of landlords leaves a sense of despondency
or else a growing frustration and inner rage against society. This must be addressed and removed
in a satisfactory manner. By this I mean to say that providing a. cheap and dingy hovel in sordid
surroundings would aggravate rather than alleviate the problem. A way to provide inexpensive
yet well suited; modern and indeed futuristic housing needs to be adopted.
Adequate Shelter: Over 1 Billion people in the 3rd World are without Adequate Shelter:
1. Protection from the Elements.
2. Hygienic disposal of household and human waste.
3. Sufficient space for health and privacy.
4. Security of tenure and occupancy.
5. Access to sufficient safe water.
6. Affordability.
7. Access to employment and to health and educational services.
Present Trends:
The present trends in building houses suffer from the following serious defects:
"Israaf": An Islamic term denoting ostentation. The vast amounts of money wasted on pomp and
show is a sin and is strictly forbidden. This leads to fostering a sense of deprivation in the less
fortunate sections of society as well as clearly depicts the owners of such ostentation as
insensitive at the very least.
Eco-Disaster: The very method of producing/ manufacturing building material is contributing
towards an ecological disaster in the making. Bricks; Cement; Girders and other steel products;
Crush; Sand and transportation are all based upon burning of fossil fuels on vast scales. This
results in the emission of noxious gasses that greatly damage the fragile ecological system.
Un-Aesthetic: The very attempt to produce fine homes proves to be a sore on the landscape and
is totally out of place. This is all the more true due to mindless aping of the West and location of
homes in a completely different environment from the original.
Un-Scientific: The design and construction of these so called modern houses fail to take into
consideration Solar Insolation; Prevailing Winds; Rainfall; Humidity etc. This results in
enormous costs of heating and cooling. A waste that can be easily avoided or drastically
curtailed.
Expensive: Apart from ostentation the expenses involved in construction of relatively modest
homes is enormous. This is very much beyond the reach of even the middle class.
Non-Traditional: The adoption of non-progressive and indeed seriously flawed standards leaves
us exposed to the charge of superficially following unsound practices. If the adopted course
were one wherein advance is made and benefits accrued there would be no harm. However
adoption of a course that leads to the afore mentioned deficiencies is ridiculous to say the least.
Secondly a growing alienation and divergence from one’s own culture and traditions is promoted
for no possible gain.
Positive Steps:
To take positive steps in the right direction and overcome most if not all of the above
mentioned deficiencies is the crying need of the time all the more so when solutions are available
and can be readily adopted. These solutions are in no way exotic or impracticable. Indeed they
are based upon time tested and proven methods. Thus the factor of resistance to change is
negligible; in fact the remedies are close to our traditions and culture as well as inexpensive. The
main thrust of this paper is firstly to address the problem of constructing homes in the rural areas.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 2


First it is necessary to examine the existing trends.
Traditional: These buildings consist of thick mud walls with thatched roofing. The obvious
deficiencies consist of requirements of constant maintenance; insect infestation; leaking roofs
and poor insulation.
Non Traditional: These buildings consist of brick walls and tile roofs. Whereas the problems of
maintenance; insects and leaks are readily removed the problem of poor insulation is in fact
increased. In the extremes of climate that we are faced with this is a major drawback. To
compound matters the less affluent members of society have taken to the use of unburned mud
bricks and tile roofs in imitation of the brick house. This alternate provided only freedom from
leaking roofs and little else.
Progressive Alternate;
Before going into the details of constructing a progressive alternate it is essential to take
into consideration those factors that are non material. These factors can also be used to great
effect in the prevailing trends. The main factor is site orientation.
Site Orientation:
The first factor for planning a house is the location and orientation. Whereas location is
often predetermined due to availability; inherent location defects can be overcome by means of
correct orientation. The direction of window and door openings and their grouping is termed as
the structures orientation. This is affected by the following major factors.
Sun: This is the most important determining factor to make structure energy efficient. A
factor of increasing importance due to rising energy costs and global warming. Solar
angles vary from summer to winter and have to be taken into consideration depending
upon site location where heat gain in summer and heat loss in winter is to be avoided
Wind: Prevailing winds of an area when catered for will provide ventilation in summer
and prevent heat loss in winter.
Vegetation: Vegetation provides a host of uses from aesthetic to erosion/ dust noise
control and insulation. This factor can also be actively used for income supplementation
and/ or nutrition enhancement.
Energy Conservation: As mentioned previously this factor is of increasing importance
and has become almost crucial. This aspect is addressed by the following;
Surface Area: Buildings with large surface areas will experience greater heat gain/ loss
when least required. A circular configuration encloses the most space with the least wall
area. This results in compact structures without compromising space availability.
Roof Loads: Heavy roof loads for insulation require unconventional structural systems.
The best of such systems is the Geodesic Dome. This design distributes the load evenly to
all walls.
Shuttering: This is an aspect that has fallen into disuse for no apparent reason. The use of
slatted wooden shutters is of enormous benefit. The incorporation of directional skylights
or windows facing south reflects sunlight into the house in winters but is screened out in
summer with the change in the suns angle. The energy loss at nighttime is greatly reduced
by using the insulated shutter in winters.
Thermal Characteristics: The inherent heat loss/ gain features of a structure are termed as
its thermal characteristics.
Thermal Mass: This affects the heat capacity, which is the amount of energy required to
change the temperature by 1 degree. A building, with a large thermal mass within the
insulation, heats and cools at a low and slow rate whereas the opposite takes place at

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 3


small thermal mass. Where temperature inside the building is more of question of
survival rather than comfort this factor takes on increased importance. Passive solar use
greatly diminishes requirements of external energy sources in winters.
Earth Shelter: The interaction between roof; walls and floor is to a greater degree when
earth shelter is used.
Roof: The geodesic dome provides the least roof surface area of any structure. This
combined with a thick earth berm around the walls leads to a high thermal mass. This
results in moderate and stable heat gain/ loss. Shading by trees is much easier. If new
planting is required the growing period can be covered by using green netting on bamboo
poles which is easier and uses less material then required for square or rectangular roofs,
secondly use of fruit or vegetable vines is also easier.
Walls: The door and window openings not only affect the strength of the building but
also the net heat gain/ loss. Properly designed south facing openings, directly exposed to
the sun in winters and shaded in summers should be used. These will provide a positive
heating affect in winter and minimize gain in summer. Surrounding vegetation will
decrease heat gain and consequent reflection/ conduction from the immediate vicinity.
Floors: The interior temperature begins to rise due to warm/ hot incoming air or
conduction in summer. An un-insulated floor responds by drawing heat out of the
building at a greater rate in an attempt to maintain a steady temperature. Studies show
that a three-fold increase in heat loss occurs in summer to aid in stabilizing the interior
temperature to comfortable levels. A vapor barrier of existing roofing material under a
relatively thin compacted floor will not act as a major impediment to this process.
Basements: With additional increase in expense a sizable below grade, well type room
can be added to the structure at any time without affecting the existing building. This
room will have even more desirable thermal characteristics in extremely severe climates.
In this case precast concrete planks are used as roofing material/ floor of the above grade
room. Since these possess poor insulation especially where waterproofing is not
required, the heat loss characteristics are not affected. Indeed these can be positively
aided by provision of exhaust/ covering with rugs.
Berming: Provision of a sloping earth berm around the structure will provide even greater
insulation and lead to greater thermal mass. Secondly improved drainage characteristics
can be readily incorporated. Thirdly utility rooms such as kitchen and bath/ washrooms
can be conveniently built into these berms. Fourthly a greater degree of stability is
ensured.
Internal Heat Gain: Depending upon the size and life style of the occupants there is a net
heat gain inside the structure. This is estimated at 12 to 15 KwHrs per day in winter and 7
to 9 KwHrs in summers for a small household (5 to 7 individuals). A good cross
ventilation plan and exhaust of kitchen heat to the outside will curtail this heat in
summer. Retention of kitchen heat in winter and use of shuttering will add to comfort in
winter.
Well Designed Openings: Recessed and shaded openings will greatly add to prevention
of heat gain/ loss when required. These will automatically aid in preventing entry of
insects as well as dust into the interior of the house. Properly fabricated windows can
provide net heat gain in winters.

Adobe Housing: The concept of adobe housing is ancient and is still being used in many under-

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 4


developed/ developing Countries. Inexpensive material and quick building have always been the
hallmarks of such types of building. Insecurity of tenancy adds to the requirement of building an
inexpensive and semi-permanent home. Crude and primitive, they nonetheless provide some
features of climatic adaptation that are worth considering.
Advantages:
 Earthen walls gain and lose heat slowly.
 Material readily available, usually free of cost.
 Quick drying/ fast building.
Disadvantages:
 Roofing gains and losses heat rapidly.
 Needs constant maintenance.
 Leaking roofs.
Concrete/ Adobe: As opposed to simple adobe construction, the concept of Concrete/ Adobe
Housing is relatively new. By using the "Gelcrete" technique, a mix of a Persian word signifying
Clay (Gel = Clay) and Crete = Rebar/ Concrete. Combining the above while using the concepts
of the dome, arch and vault, I developed a low-cost; highly insulated, virtually non-destructible;
highly hygienic; earthquake/ water/ insect proof house. To put the concept in simple terms a
geodesic domed structure of concrete (RCC) is constructed. Openings for doors and windows
are made and then temporarily sealed. This structure ideally uses Basalt Rock Rebar in place of
GI Rebar.
The new methodology involved is capable of rapid construction for homes (“Gharonda”);
insulated cattle sheds (“Bandi”); poultry sheds; low-cost green houses or kitchen gardens for
nutritional food security (“Wah Gardens”); cottage industry workplaces; mosques; grain silos;
godowns; cold stores; Bio Reactors (for generating Methane for Direct combustion or Electricity
generation utilizing sewage with no external energy input); shops offices and other structures.

Frame: Shade House:

Energy Dome: Green House:

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 5


Geodesic Dome: Green House: Mushroom “Kulla”:
The building is ideally placed with a South facing exposure to take maximum advantage
of the lower declination of the sun in winters for passive solar heat gain and is well lighted
through windows and sky lights. Air circulation is catered for through wind catchers and cross
ventilation. It consists of an aero dynamic, geodesic dome that covers the most floor space with
the least walls or roof and rests, but is not grouted to, a floor of 2 tons per square foot bearing
capacity. This results in freedom for the structure to move with, rather than resist earthquakes up
to 9 on the Richter scale. Secondly, the aero dynamic design does not oppose high velocity wind
and allows it to flow over the structure thus providing capability to resist up to 200 mph winds.
Rising temperatures in summer and increased cold in winters is also greatly contributing to the
miseries of the common people. Increased need of energy for heating and cooling at a time when
energy is scarce and prohibitively costly is yet another factor which is adequately catered for by
emplacing the lowest possible cost and abundantly available insulation adobe material. Arising
from the technology of our own cultural streams rather than the inappropriate western
technologies, the concept is ready for ownership by our people.

The concept has grown from the Mongol “Ger”, which is the origin of the Urdu word
“Ghar”. The Ger was the knock down felt tent that was easily transported on horse back and
included the concept of the tension band that was in use for thousands of years before
engineering and architectural science uncovered the principle. This design was incorporated by
the Turks and named as “Yurt” the plural of which “Yurtu”, or Camp, is the origin of “Urdu” or
language of the camp. The dome of Muslim architecture is the prototype of the Geodesic dome
which is the strongest structure in an engineering sense and consists of 40 triangular facets. The
compressional forces of traditional architecture are replaced by pre-stressed “tensional members”
which is best described as “Tensigrity” or Tensional Integrity of the structure. Each member is
linked to the other and passes on applied force to the others to provide equal strength of all
members. Similarly, gravitational force from below or impactional force from above is not
resisted but is allowed to flow through the structure.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 6


Emergency shelters of 20 foot diameter and 12 feet apex height (380 sq. ft. floor space)
erected on these principles can cost as little as Rs.10,000.00 (Rs. 2.63/ sq. ft. floor space) and can
be erected in a few hours including time to cut and size the tensional members from readily
available tree pruning or bamboo. This exercise can be carried out in the absence of electricity in
the case of disasters.

Emergency Shelter/ Workshop.


(Parachute Cover provided by Pak Army).
The semi-permanent version of the construction of the same dimensions consists of adobe
on wooden or bamboo frame sufficiently strong to carry the weight. A 1-Foot thick adobe shell
can be easily carried on normal size members of 2 and 3 inch thickness. This version can be
constructed for under Rs. 40,000.00 (Rs. 105.2/ sq. ft.). The permanent structures, with 100 year
guarantee and called “Gharonda” by the adapter/ developer consists of an RCC shell of 3 inch
thickness that is covered with 1 foot adobe or soil-cement layer, upon curing. It is estimated that
this configuration can be built at a cost of Rs. 80,000.00 (Rs. 210.5/ sq. ft.) with an attempt to
curtail it at Rs. 60,000.00 (Rs. 158.0/ sq. ft.).

Low-Cost, Semi-Permanent, Inner Shuttering Frame!


The real beauty of the system is that it envisages transfer of soft technology to all and
sundry without exception, in order to meet the target of over 200,000 housing requirement of the
bewildered and disaster struck poor masses. The design can be readily incorporated in Eco-

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 7


Friendly settlements or Hyat-Kots (Fortress of Life) complete with waste water gardens for
recycling water; energy recovery from liquid and slurry of bio degradable solid waste. The walls
do not prevent “breathing” of the structure which avoids positive or negative ionization resulting
is a stress free inner environment. Inbuilt roof-top water harvesting; sewerage treatment and fly/
mosquito proofing round off the environment friendly and friendly environment for sustainable
living.
This system is capable of rapid erection by using permanent inner and outer shuttering
utilizing pressure filling of concrete over Steel Bar Re-enforcement. Steps involved are firstly
construction of floor pad with inbuilt sewerage and water supply lines; Secondly; erection of
inner shuttering; Thirdly, erection of outer shuttering and pressure filling; Fourthly, curing and
removal of outer shuttering and finally emplacement of adobe cover through self-help basis and
removal of inner shuttering. Small groups of youth can be empowered and equipped with
requisite shuttering and tools as a direct means of Livelihood which meets a vital requirement of
the people.

Designing and trials of different versions for disaster proofing began after the 2005 EQ
and built upon efforts at low-cost Ceramic Adobe Construction being studied and tried by the
developer since 1990. At an R&D expense of Rs. 3 million the final version is ready for mass
dissemination. The existence of EQ Fault lines, storms and finally Global Warming accompanied
with the equal and opposite reaction of increased cold in winters demands that such methods of
construction be immediately undertaken. Resistances to change and ingrained habits have to be
abandoned in order to adequately respond to 21st Century challenges. We have to live in harmony
with nature in order to continue living at all! It is a pity that adequate attention is not being paid
to the development despite or because of it being a win-win empowerment situation for all! To
struggle against all opposition, meager pay and constantly face undue criticism has helped the
vision to by enforced but ultimately welcome decrease in costs.
Rebar: Or Reinforcing Bars are traditionally made of Galvanized Iron which is liable to rusting
and has a guaranteed life of about 30 years. Today the Technological Revolution has brought
other and vastly improved materials into play.
Rebar, is electrically non-conductive, and non-magnetic, insulates against thermal
transfer, and is transparent to (RF) radio frequency.
Basalt is igneous rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very
near the surface of the earth’s crust. Basalt fiber is produced in a single process needing no
alterations or elemental additives. The process consists only of melting ingenious rock
containing a specific mineral content found in a few specific areas. Basalt Fiber, unlike glass is a
one component fiber that does not need any other materials added for production. The Basalt

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 8


rock is melted in a furnace at 1700 degrees Celsius for approximately 7-8 hours & formed by
blowing fiber filament from it in the same way that glass fiber is made from silicate rock.
The most critical Basalt rebar cost consideration is its weight per lineal foot. BFRP rebar
has more than 300% greater linear footage per ton when compared to steel. BFRP rebar cost
comparison should also acknowledge that the tensile strength is more than 200% its steel
counterpart.
Basalt has a thermal range of -260 C to +980 C (1800 F) and melt point of 1450 C.
Fibers are ideal for fire protection and insulative applications.
Basalt Rebar is pultruded using basalt roving in a vinyl-ester resin matrix and finished
with an integral sand coating that allows a bond in concrete that develops the full capacity of the
bar

Basalt and fiberglass are used as a corrosion-free alternative to steel and steel with
various coatings. Basalt and fiberglass bars are stronger in tension, about 2½ times, but have a
lower modulus, introducing flexibility into concrete structures that may allow greater width
crack propagation. Basalt and fiberglass reinforcement solutions that limit crack width are
possible. Note the Prince Eng8ineering chart below that graphs the potential of the various
composite materials that may be employed in making rebar.1

Basalt and fiberglass rebar are used on bridges and other structures particularly in marine
environments subject to chlorides and de-icing chemicals. Other uses would be in sewage and
water treatment plants, and in RF free buildings such as MRI scanning suites and electronic toll-
collection on toll roads.

1
http:// build-on-prince.com

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 9


Basalt and fiberglass rebar is sourced internationally and may mean converting
millimeters to inches and then making allowances for poor matches. A “soft-Size” equivalency
chart has been developed to ease this roadblock, shown below.

Basalt and fiberglass rebar are also about 25% of the weight of steel, dramatically
reducing the freight impact and potentially making it easier to handle on a job site.

The physical properties of basalt are driving its recent popularity just as the physical
properties of fiberglass drove preference for it in the past, in response to the harsh environments
of chlorides and de-icing chemicals on bridges and barrier. Basalt has somewhat better
performance characteristics in chloride and alkali resistance and temperature stability.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 10


Basalt and fiberglass rebar is handled at the jobsite with more care in avoiding dirt that
might cling to the sand surface. But otherwise there are no other concerns, with some care in
avoiding prolonged UV exposure on fiberglass rebar. Splicing and tying are identical to steel
rebar using wire or plastic wraps.

Bends are a problem in that the bar cannot be bent in the field. But with advance planning
all required bent shapes may be delivered with the straight sections. In an emergency, stainless
steel has been substituted. Smaller rebar sizes may be wound into spirals and used for columns
and other shapes.
There are also many uses for corrosion-free basalt rebar in sections not subject to traffic
loading like seawalls, retaining walls, structures at water and waste-water treatment plants,
precast concrete pipe, manholes and precast steps.
In addition to avoiding any concern for corrosion, basalt rebar is gaining popularity and
as adoption picks up, price will decline. Spun from molten rock, these fibers are stronger than
steel and 89% lighter.
Basalt rebar provides many benefits and applications for the precast concrete professional:
 A 3mm basalt rod is equivalent to #3 or 3/8" steel rebar
 Cuts with standard cutting tools
 Increased flexural strength
 Basalt rebar is completely resistant to alkali in concrete and requires no special coatings
 Does NOT conduct electricity or induce electrical fields
 Does NOT absorb or wick water
 Perfect for marine environments and any place corrosion is a continuous concern
 Has the same thermal coefficient expansion as concrete!
 Available in 50 foot bundles of 3mm, 4mm, 6mm, and 8mm thickness

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 11


Basalt rebar has the same thermal coefficient expansion as concrete!
Much lighter than steel, 89% percent in fact! One man can easily lift a 100 meter / 328
foot coil of 10 mm basalt rebar.
Basalt rebar is easily cut to length with regular tools.
Pakistan has Basalt Quarries in Balochistan
Basalt fibers: are 100% natural and inert. They have been tested and proven to be non-
carcinogenic and non-toxic. They are immune to nuclear radiation, UV light, biologic and
fungal contamination. Basalt Geo-Mesh is also ideal for soil and embankment stabilization and
land-fill coverings due to its high strength and environmental and ecological safety.
Q. WHAT IS BASALT CHOPPED FIBER USED FOR?
A. Used to strengthen concrete pour and castings Basalt fibers do not chip off and are stronger
than fiberglass. Basalt ‘chopped’ fiber is continuous filament cut to predetermined lengths to suit
a particular application.
• They are usually coated with a sizing/binder to make them compatible with other
materials and elements with which it has to coexist the primary end product (concrete
mix, for instance).
• The ability of the basalt fiber to accept sizing is good. This is known as ‘wetout’.
• High tensile strength-Alkali resistant-High thermal resistance
• No carcinogenic risk or other health hazards
• Completely inert with no environmental risks
• Resistant to acids and aggressive chemicals
• High E modulus resulting in excellent specific tenacity, three times that of steel fiber
Good fatigue resistance-Electro-magnetic resistant
Typical uses for chopped fiber strands:
• Basalt is the best reinforcement for concrete due to its tensile strength and natural
resistance to deterioration from alkali.
• Reinforcement for composites, polyester/epoxy resins and plastics as used_in automotive
body panels, boat hulls and pultruded products, etc.
• Friction materials such as brake pads and linings

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 12


• Manufacture of basalt mat/felt
• High-temperature insulation applications
• Passive fire protection materials
• Filler for gypsum and sheetrock board requiring increased ‘burn-thru’ capability, to meet
building regulations
• High-performance automotive muffler filler
High-performance applications from construction to clothing:
• Fire curtains for fire protection and containment (Tested and certified to BS 476)
• Wall laminate to enhance burn-through times to meet building codes and regulations
• Filtration material for industrial emission stacks and bag-houses
• Roof protection from fire devastation
• Fireproof clothing
• Reinforcement in composites
• Electromagnetic shields
Earth Sheltered; RCC/ Adobe; Passive Solar Housing;
Move into the 21st Century by using a combination of three techniques. This
combination is virtually unbeatable especially in the extreme climatic conditions that prevail in
Pakistan. The extremely low as compared conventional buildings as well long lasting qualities
of construction are truly amazing. Usual concepts of low cost houses are inefficient and
depressing. This concept utilizes the extremely pleasing design of a Geodesic Dome and
incorporates the advantages of Earth Sheltered and Passive Solar Techniques.

Advantages:
 Inexpensive and readily available materials (Clay and brushwood).
 Quick to build.
 Virtually indestructible.
 Fire proof.
 Insect proof.
 Earthquake proof.
 Waterproof.
 Highly hygienic.
 Low cost.
 Super Insulation.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 13


Weather/ Climate Orientation: In cold climates or hot areas the house is built facing the South
for maximum solar gain in winters and minimum in summers. Prevailing cold and hot winds are
also taken into account.
Location: This type of housing is highly adaptable in land use. However some disadvantages do
crop up.
Disadvantages:
 Elongated geometry.
 Larger areas required for berms and drainage.
Summary: Detached Units require from a minimum of 0.01 acres to 0.16 acres lot sizes. Four
Unit Clusters require 0.25 acres while double Row Attached Units require as little as 0.018 acre
lot sizes. This is by far the lowest of any type of construction while yet leaving a range from as
low as 50 square feet per individual for an 8-member family. At present our less fortunate
brethren are huddled together at intensities of 15 to 25 square feet per individual and are cramped
together in single rooms where cooking also takes place in rainy weather. The concept of
attached bathrooms/ toilets is all together missing. Privacy is non-existent and this and the other
factors have significant adverse impacts upon the psyches of the coming generations. The Escape
House thus provides the following additional advantages:
Advantages:
 More Space at low cost.
 More aesthetic surroundings for children.
 More Privacy.
 Space Age design acts as stimulus to imagination.
 Indoor Toilets provide hygienic surroundings
 Stimulates Pride of possession.
 Raises self-esteem.
 Encourages Nation Building.
 Fosters Cohesiveness in Society.
 Removes Apathy.
Conclusion: I have experimented with tabletop models and partially built a 22 ft. diameter
Geodesic Dome (Work stopped by Authorities of NARC Islamabad) as well as a 5’x5’x7’ arch
roof structure to be used as a dedicated Mushroom Growing Structure. The experiments are
eminently successful and have encouraged me to go for full scale final R&D.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 14


Ecosystem Recovery:
“A system maintains a certain fluid stability that can be destroyed by a misstep in just one
niche. A system has order, a flowing from point to point. If something dams that flow, order
collapses. The untrained might miss that collapse, until it was too late. That’s why the highest
function of ecology is the understanding of consequences.”
“There’s an internally recognized beauty of motion and balance on any man-healthy
planet. You see in this beauty a dynamic stabilizing effect essential to all life. Its aim is simple:
to maintain and produce coordinated patterns of greater and greater diversity. Life improves the
closed system’s capacity to sustain life. Life – all life – is in the service of life. Necessary
nutrients are made available to life by life in greater and greater richness as the diversity of life
increases. The entire landscape comes alive, filled with relationships and relationships within
relationships.”1
Living as we do in arid, semi arid, sub tropical dry and Himalayan sub tropical moist
zones, we inhabit fragile ecosystems that have had their internal cycles shattered by the
exploitive activities of man. We have paid no attention to the Life Support Systems that nature
has emplaced. As a result we have dammed the flow and destabilized the system to the point of
collapse. Critical microorganisms that make up a large part of the underground portion of the
ecosystem have been wiped out. While we bemoan the fate of species nearing extinction, we
have failed to take note of the fate of the driving force of nutrient cycling.
By now science has realized that the consequences of the manner in which we conduct
agriculture and livestock grazing is extremely destabilizing to the ecosystem wherein they are
practiced. The constant tilling of land results in compaction with concomitant destruction of
macro pores in the soil profile. This leads to reduced infiltration with attendant surface runoff
that causes erosion and prevents recharge of aquifers. When the soil surface is left bare and
organic contents are depleted, microorganisms are deprived of their habitat and food source. As a
result they are exterminated and a vital link in the ecological chain is destroyed. Similarly, in
1
Frank Herbert: Dune 1965
[Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan] Page 1
upland pastures or land cleared of forest cover to make way for humans and animals where
burning of land cover is practiced for mineralization in order to re-grow grass for grazing, there
is the affiliated killing of soil microorganisms due to the great heat that results.
As such it has been realized that it is essential to maintain ground cover; reduce soil
compaction and avoid fire. It is the forest biome’s system that is best adapted to the concept of
“life serving life.” Constant ground cover reduces the impact of falling rain drops and preserves
the soil from erosion. Deep rooting bonds the soil and a thick layer of detritus provides habitat
for numerous microorganisms to take part in the ballet of life. Direct Seed, Mulch Based
Cropping Systems (DMCS) is a close approximation of the Forest Ecosystem. This is also called
No Till Farming wherein seed of the next crop is directly sown into the detritus of the previous
crop. Crop rotation is practiced in order to break the life cycle of weeds and enrich the soil for
example by including a Nitrogen Fixing legume into the crop cycle. The increased economic
returns which are driven by reduced costs and higher yields make the system attractive to
farmers, while the eco friendly practices ensure sustainability. Carbon sequestration is also
catered to as the release of carbon from tilled fields is enormous. An extremely damaging
Greenhouse gas is thus prevented from escape into the atmosphere. Thus there is really no choice
as the alternate of increased costs and dwindling returns with eventual death of the life support
system is hardly an alternative.
We as a civilization are at present indulging in so many destabilizing practices that it is a
wonder that the Eco Systems that support us have not already failed. In any case they may be at a
point close to collapse in an Eco Catastrophe with all its attendant horrific affects.
To enumerate some of these practices:
Factor Affects
Deep Tilling of soil Release of carbon
Compaction of Micro pores
Added expense and use of fossil fuels
Killing of soil biota
Increased erosion
Depletion of Soil Fertility
Mining of stream beds for Lowering of stream beds to bed rock cutting off
gravel lateral and horizontal recharge of aquifers
Release of raw sewage Befouling Groundwater
Multiplication of harmful disease vectors
Clear cutting of forests Increased erosion
Restricted recharge of aquifers
Increased CO2 levels
Increased soil surface heat levels
Destruction of soil biota
Burning of grass for increase Destruction of soil biota
Release of CO2
Killing of saplings
Thus it is clear that we are determined to ruin the very habitat that supports us. In order to
address this and many other problems that we face it is imperative that we face them on War
Footing. We are trying to address these problems on a Macro level while failing to realize that it
is the Micro level that makes up the Macro in the first place. If we address these problems at the
Micro or Community level and treat them at Agri Ecological Regional basis, we can make rapid
headway to find solutions.

[Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan] Page 2


Bioenvironmental Approach to Sustainable Development:
The hallmark of management is to perceive threats and take timely measures to avert them.
Degradation in the environment is causing about Rs1 billion in losses to the national economy
annually.
Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)
Goal-7; (Ensure Environmental Sustainability).
“One of the key finding in this report is that failing to deal with cause perpetuates the cycle of
consequence. Until the fundamentals change, repeating the same process can only produce the
same outcomes.”
Sindh Coastal and Inland Community Development Project, Pakistan (ADB TA 4525-
PAK) Final Report Volume 1 – Main Report.
“It is not difficult to find glaring examples of serious environmental damage and extreme
poverty in the Project area. Nor is it difficult to conclude that the situation is getting worse rather
than better. What is more difficult to understand, given the obvious awareness that most people
have of the situation, is why should the situation be so difficult to deal with?
The point that emerges is that technical solutions cannot, on their own, solve what are essentially
failures in policy.”
Environmental degradation and extreme poverty:
The affects of Salinity; water shortages; poor water management practices and saltwater
intrusion, greatly hamper efforts to attain sustainable development. By taking the position of
converting adversity to opportunity, an all out effort will be made to live in harmony with Nature
by creating vibrant, dynamic and locally self-sufficient communities. The objectives of the
Program will be achieved when the community’s skills and talents are tapped in such a manner
that they declare “We Did It.”
The world’s land-surface has 8% absolute desert and about 40% is covered or threatened
by semi-deserts. The instance of increasing desertification is a future threat that has to be dealt
with, especially in the light of Global Warming and increased aridity. Every year 5 to 7 million
hectares succumb to desertification.
Aridization and more advanced desertification of land result from the combined action of
natural tendencies and ecological mistakes made by Man in the course of his manifold activities.
Most alarmingly, the velocity of what is mainly anthropogenic aridization is commonly
measured in terms of a few years or at most a single human generation. But help should come
from the maintenance of rain-fed farming in less arid areas, and especially from the widespread
establishment of irrigation systems. There are, however, very serious problems engendered by
continuing irrigation, which is apt to be wasteful of fresh water. To begin with, river-water
resources are becoming increasingly limited and artesian waters are too-easily depleted or
become brackish. Worse still, with the high rate of evaporation in arid regions, salinization of the
surface and the uppermost soil horizon commonly ensues, and gradually penetrates to lower
strata in which plants mainly root. Most existing irrigation systems lack the piping or consistent
lining of water-bringing canals and the deep (2.5–3 m) horizontal drainage-ducts that are needed
to evacuate excessive soluble salts. The ultimate disposal of the salt, moreover, still causes
problems when the sea cannot be used or salt-lakes be created for fish and waterfowl.
Meanwhile, revegetation is becoming more and more widely practised and some success is

[Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan] Page 3


attending efforts to develop salt-resistant crops in USA, India, and USSR.2 China has made
considerable progress in this regard.
Victor A. Kovda, Professor, Subfaculty of Pedology, Moscow State University, Moscow
177234, USSR; formerly Director, Institute of Agrochemistry and Soil Science of the
Academy of Sciences of the USSR; sometime President of the International Society of
Soil Science and President of SCOPE.
The inhabitants of non-agricultural areas are nomadic and pastoral with herds of camels, sheep
and goats. Due to this most of the low scrub vegetation has been completely destroyed.

Threats: Arabian Sea:


The Arabian Sea is a center for oil shipping. As a result oil spills, anchor damage,
sedimentation, and other pollution effects are a real threat. Mining operations, fishing pressures,
destructive fish collecting practices (e.g., dynamiting), residential and commercial development,
and effluent discharge have resulted in altered species composition in many areas. Irresponsible
recreation and tourism also contribute to eutrophication and reef degradation. War-related
activities provide another source of environmental damage.

Dams on the river reduce flows in lower portions of the system and limit the transport of
fertile sediments downstream into the delta. They also pose a serious threat to the survival of the
Indus River dolphin as the remaining dolphins become isolated into smaller groups. Water
extraction for irrigation, runoff of chemicals into the rivers, and introduced species also threaten
the freshwater species of the delta.

2
Victor A. Kovda, Professor, Sub faculty of Pedology, Moscow State University, Moscow 177234,
USSR;formerly Director, Institute of Agrochemistry and Soil Science of the Academy of Sciences of
the USSR;sometme President of the International Society of Soil Science and President of SCOPE.

[Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan] Page 4


Aridity: Detailed analysis of climate charts (outdated) show that the precipitation curve
underlies the temperature curve throughout the year except for winters in Ormara, Pasni and
Jivni. This results in a short humid period which is compounded by high velocity winds and high
temperatures in summers, resulting in increased evaporation. Less and irregular rainfall, intense
insolation and heat and Global warming which leads to high evaporation, all yield high aridity.
The upper layer of soil remains dry except for a few days after rainfall. Winter rains were
observed to form ponds in declivities and depressions and are reported to stand for over one
month. High evaporation leads to drying out.
Tidal currents are a highly dynamic phenomenon that vary not only with the seasons of
the year but also change throughout the years resulting in an ever changing geography of the
beaches. This beach transformation is known as beach erosion or beach evolution.

Furthermore, as the global warming problem starts to show its effects it is now known
that within the next thirty years many near-to-shore populations will have severe problems due to
the rise of the sea level, and there is a need for the development of land reclamation and beach
erosion control methods in addition to the existing ones.

Among the most common methods to control beach erosion are:

 Vertical walls (rigid, non energy absorbing).


 Rubble mounds and sloping walls (rigid, energy absorbing).

[Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan] Page 5


 Grass rows (flexible, energy absorbing).
 Fences for sand trapping (flexible, energy absorbing).
 The conditions for food security are not sustainable. Environment and Predator Protection
for self-reliant local food security is very much needed as nutrient mining/ leaching and
absence of organic material/ biota as well as soil erosion are severely restricting yields
and aggravating pest and disease susceptibility. Climate change is bringing greater stress
upon production due to increased heat in summers and increased cold in winters.
Domestic animals/ poultry and rodents are also detrimental to food production without
physical protection. In order to ensure Kitchen Garden Food Self-Sufficiency at the very
minimum and provide a basis for safe, more quantity and quality produce the problem
needs to be addressed immediately. Plant protection through complete plant nutrition is
very much achievable and desirable as introduction of toxic materials in the name of
plant protection is extremely detrimental to the food chain.
 Sustainable development is not possible without sustainable agriculture/ food production.
Environmental pollution of soil, water and air; resource depletion and nature degradation
as well as socio-economic problems, are seriously impacting the carrying capacity of the
land. As such there is an urgent requirement for farming systems to be redesigned and
transformed into more sustainable ones. Agriculture is a multifunctional and multiple
objective activity which has to supply food in sufficient quantity and quality and the
supply itself must be stable, sustainable and accessible. Agriculture must provide
employment and generate basic income and profit at farm, regional and national levels;
strictly avoid and minimize land degradation and destabilization; eschew pollution of
natural resources, protect the great cycles of nature; as well as ensure the overall health
and well-being of humans, animals, birds, insects and microbes.
 Rural Women do not have enough opportunities for services and other income generating
activities. Public sector services like teaching, health etc. are not available. A vast
majority of women are in need of income generating activities. The scope and potential
for such activities lies in food security enhancing measures. Women participation in the
villages, is the need of the hour, and would greatly help in supporting and be highly
beneficial for the uplift of rural economy in the future.
 Living in the extremely hostile weather conditions especially in summer coupled with
highly barren terrain, income generation sources of communities living in remote parts of
the Coastal areas are very limited. Consequently, the local communities mostly exploit
the trees and shrubs and rangeland resources of the arid semi-desert to earn their
livelihoods. Thus the fragile ecosystem is exposed to erosion and the landscape is being
degraded at a very fast rate.
 Dire and pressing need to emplace a Support Web for a disillusioned and bewildered
populace. Social harmony and positive growth can only be ensured with sustainability if
the parameters of a just and egalitarian society ensure that the minimum in requirements
of every citizen are ensured in a participatory manner. This will discourage extremism
and foster stability. The principles of Bioenvironmental Management and transparent
records that are easily accessible and verifiable
 GIS will provide a powerful tool for management and ensure effective monitoring and
evaluation. Sustainable Development Action Plans will ensure harmony, while Social
Mobilization and development of Village Councils along with Village Development
Plans will ensure participation and ownership. All activities will be carried out, after
capacity building of the beneficiaries through local communities who will themselves be
encouraged to become service providers.
[Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan] Page 6
The Natural World is subject to certain Laws and patterns that serve to maintain a balance. This
balance has led to evolutionary adaptation and development of life forms that are at the same
time dependent upon Nature or the Eco System that they inhabit in the overall Environment as
well as interdependent upon each other for survival. However, there exist numerous and often
deleterious affect causing human and pest interventions that must be rationally and sustainably
managed on a sustained or self sustaining basis in order to perpetuate the Bioenvironment and
avoid breakdown. Homo Technicalis has the ability to either nurture or destroy this delicate
balance. Only complete understanding and careful monitoring can ensure correct and proper
Bioenvironmental Management.

Conservation Planning:
The basic wealth of any Country is its Natural Resources. These are divided into renewable and
non-renewable. A just and equitable use of these resources is a rational use that provides benefits
to all and ensures that this use is sustainable. This means using without using up. Ensuring that
Natures abundance is not abused and only used in such a manner that it continues to provide its
living abundance to all coming generations. We are presently concerned with two of the three
major renewable resources. These are the soil and water. Our present and past usage of these
resources leaves much to be desired. The Ecological Systems that sustain us are inter-linked and
fragile. Thoughtless over exploitation renders them subject to degradation and eventual failure.
Some of the immediate threats we are facing, in Abbottabad District, due to our negligence are:
Soil erosion.
Decline in soil fertility.
Increased soil borne pests.
Denuded Watersheds.
Ravaging flash floods.
Increasing aridity.
Receding Water Tables.
Climate change.
This results in reduced agricultural capacity, while population pressures continue to mount. To
overcome these grave problems it is all the more necessary to make detailed and realistic plans for
proper soil and water use and their consequent rejuvenation. Subsequently it is imperative that these
plans be carried out in letter and spirit. The first conclusion that is drawn from any preliminary survey
of the Districts Land and Water usage is that it is inappropriate to say the least. Primary data, that has
been collected, supports this statement. In order to come up with a realistic Conservation or Sustainable
Development Action Plan the first step is to make a Land and Water Resources Inventory. This is
subdivided into Land and Water.

[Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan] Page 7


Erosion Control:

Hydromulch seeding systems are used for erosion control jobs, road side work, retention
ponds, land fills, golf course construction, airport construction and other large jobs.
How they Work:
Hydromulch Seeding Systems are simple, powerful, lightweight and easy to use. They
are the best of a great technology that has changed hydro seeding and the way slopes are seeded.
Jet System:
Jet agitated hydro seeding systems began to appear about a dozen years ago. Hydro
Seeding Systems offer fast even mixing with no moving parts inside the tank. The agitation
system has two large jets on the lower left side of the tank. Inside the tank these jets are pointed
up, and parallel to the outside surface of the tank. A very high volume of water and materials (up
to 740 g.p.m.) shoot out of these jets creating an intense rolling action inside the tank. The jet
systems have a plastic tank that can never rust. A fast mixing action that will mix a full load of
materials in minutes. A light transport weight that allows the use of a lighter towing vehicle.
They offer wide open passages that virtually never plug. These systems have low maintenance
cost and only 4 moving parts excluding the engine (an impeller that screws right on to the engine
shaft and 3 ball valves).
Some mechanical systems use what is called a positive displacement gear pump. This
type of pump has great power and is a high quality pump. As long as this type of pump is
turning, material must come out the discharge. In the event the nozzle at the end of the hose
plugs, one of the following must happen, the pump must blow, the hose must blow, the engine
must stall, or the plug in the nozzle must blow out. Turbo Turf uses a centrifugal pump and
bypasses into the tank. With this system you have full control at the gun. You can reduce the
flow to trim, or totally shut off the gun valve without making adjustments at the unit.
The Finest Jet System Made:
 These systems have bigger pumps with great pressure. They have 4" x 4" pumps with a
maximum flow of 740 G.P.M. and maximum pressure of 78 P.S.I More pressure means
more spray distance and the ability to use longer hoses.
 More horsepower. Compare these units to other jet systems. The standard engine is 27
H.P.
 Bigger hoses to flow more material and get the job done faster. The hoses are 1 1/4"
inside diameter on all models
 Oversize suction hoses with big 4" x 4" pumps using 4" suction lines. First this allows
you to drain more material on uneven ground, second should you accidentally drop
[Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan] Page 8
something into the tank, such as a mulch bag, you will plug a suction line. With two
suction lines, you may loose some power, but you can keep spraying. It will be a lot
easier to find that empty bag in an empty machine rather than trying to find it through 4
foot of green soup.
 Jet bale buster. An exclusive is the jet bale buster that eliminates breaking up the mulch.
The bale buster is standard on the 750 gallon and larger units and optional on the 300 and
500 gallon units. It allows you to add mulch in any size clump that you can fit through
the opening. Speed loading 75%.
 Continuous Agitation. In normal operation you are always bypassing material into the
tank, and always mixing. Unlike some other units on the market, you can shut this down
temporarily if you need that little bit extra to reach maximum distance.
 Bottom suction. All units drain materials from fittings and sumps directly at the bottom
of the tanks. Typically when you are done with a load you will see about a cup of
material left in the tank. With competitive units that drain material from a fitting at the
end of the tank you will often see 25 gallons or more of material remaining at the bottom
of the tank when you are done.
 Big Jets. Many of the jet systems on the market use a sparger tube for agitation. That is
one or more tubes that run through the tank from front to back that have a series of little
holes in them for jets. The size of the jets in the direct jet system is up to 2" which is
about the size of your wrist to ensure that owners virtually never have to deal with
clogging problems.
The Fastest, Easiest and Lowest Cost Way to Seed:
The popularity of hydro seeding is skyrocketing. There are reasons hydro seeding works
so well. The seed is suspended in nutrient rich slurry. The contact of the seed with the water in
machine triggers the germination cycle. The mulch layer seals in the moisture, and holds the soil
in place. The seed is at an ideal depth for good results. The conditions are right to produce a lush
green cover in very short time.
Hydro Seeding systems can greatly lower labor costs. One person can operate a Hydro
Seeding System simultaneously applying hydromulch, seed, fertilizer, tackifier and water. The
use of straw is eliminated. Hydro mulch is easier to store and transport than straw. It does not
 
produce dust during application. It will not blow off, and does not need to be removed. Hydro
seeding mulch does not contain weed seed as straw does. It won’t cause a loss of nitrogen as it
decomposes as straw does. Hydro seeding has a neat green appearance that is far more attractive
than straw. It is easy to understand why hydro seeding is becoming the method of choice of
consumers and professionals alike.
Hydro seeding is a one step application. One person can easily hydro seed. Mulch, seed
and fertilizer are evenly distributed in the sprayed material. It is fast and easy to do. Irregular
areas are a breeze. Hillsides, banks and other areas that can be a problem with other seeding
methods are easy to do with a Hydro Seeding system. It is an ideal system for anyone with
seeding to do.
SEED:
Any seed used in lawn or roadside applications can be used in a Hydro Seeding System.
Any grass that can be grown from seed can be planted as well as wildflowers and crown vetch.
Seeds used for hydro seeding do not need to be anything special. Many people experience an
increase in germination rates with hydro seeding, however, this increase is not enough to suggest
using less seed. Seed can be pre-germinated for even faster growth. One easy system is to soak
the seed overnight in clear water in a container such as a garbage can.

[Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan] Page 9


FERTILIZER:
Any type of fertilizer can be used. Liquid, water soluble or granular fertilizers may all be
used with these systems. Granular fertilizer is the most commonly used. The unit does not
dissolve the granules. It will suspend them and blend the granules evenly in the mix. The use of
lime is not recommended. If the soil ph needs to be changed a liquid lime product is the best
choice. Granular or pelletized lime can be used if necessary.
TACKIFIER:
Tackifiers are used to help hold the material in place on hillsides especially during rainy
weather. Any tackifier may be used in a Hydromulch system. The system can also be used to
apply tackifer or a tackifier mulch mix over straw to hold it in place.
MULCH:
There are two basic types of mulch. Wood fibre mulch is made from wood by-products.
Cellulose fibre mulch is made from recycled news print. We recommend the cellulose mulch. It
is less expensive, easier to use and has the same result. Average bale coverage is approximately
2000 square feet per bale. Recently pelletized mulches have been introduced. They are a
combination of paper and wood fibre and may be simply poured into the machines greatly
reducing loading time.
OTHER PRODUCTS:
Many other products can be used in the mix. Some of the more common additives are
Co-Polymers that are used when water may be a problem. Co-polymers hold 400 times their
weight in water and slowly release it to the new seedlings. Locking Fibres may also be used.
Locking fibres are made from crimped polyester. They will disperse through the load, and when
sprayed on interlock to form a type of spray-on erosion control blanket. Other products to
stimulate growth or to enhance the colour may also be used.
SPRAYING:
Hydro Seeding Systems can be easily made into a multipurpose system. Adding a seed
and spray option to the units makes it into a turf sprayer that will do a great job of applying
chemicals in lawn applications. Addition of the boom to the pull type units allow them to be used
as both a hydro seeding system and a lawn sprayer.
The equipment used is light and easy to transport, have few moving parts and offer a
great reliability. A combination of light weight and power have made it the choice in some
unique applications, such as when units need to be transported by helicopter, or operated from a
boat.
For roadside work and other erosion control jobs Units are often equipped with an
operator platform and tower gun as the unit pictured above. Other options are the stand gun and
 
the area volume kit. One way or the other, these units deliver high performance with a wide
 
range of materials.
FINDING SEEDING SOLUTIONS AROUND THE WORLD
Hydro Seeding Systems are manufactured in a range of sizes from 50 gallons to 2000
gallons. There is a unit that is ideal for most any job. Some are able to seed at a rate of about 20
acres a day.

[Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan] Page 10


Here are a series of photo's showing some of the great results that can

be accomplished with hydro seeding. These photos are taken in Japan. The
first job that we are showing is wildflowers along a street. This job was done with a very heavy

application of Jet Spray Mulch. The material was applied at 3000 pounds to
the acre. Jet Spray has become very popular because of the ease of loading. Jet Spray is
pelletized and can simply be poured right into the machine. Loading time is measured in

seconds. One big advantage of jet spray that we don't talk about as often as
we should is that Jet Spray resists crusting. If paper mulch is put on too heavily it can form a
paper mache crust that the seed has difficulty penetrating. With Jet Spray that is much less likely
to happen. The jobs in the photo also had a heavy application of Tacking Agent 3 and included
locking fibres in the mix for maximum holding power. The mix as it was used here offers really
outstanding holding power and moisture retention.
Erosion Control
Soft Armoring
Soft Armouring is the process by which soft, pliable open-weave matting (i.e. jute, coir,
coconut, hemp, burlap, etc.) is placed onto the soil surface. The soil-specific polymer is then
applied, and reacts with the metals and clays within the soil to bind it together. This complex
attaches to the matting, creating a highly erosive resistant surface that will support vegetation
along with aiding in attachment of fine particulate to the matting surface.
Polymer-enhanced soft armour applications are cost effective and easy to install. Place an
open-weave geotextile fabric flush to the soil surface (do not allow tenting). Apply the correct
powder polymer for the specific soil and clay type to the surface of the matting. Much of the
polymer will fall through the matting and contact the soil, the rest will attach directly to the
matting. This system produces a matrix that is highly resistant to erosion. Seed, fertilizer, lime (if
needed) and polymer may be added together for ease of application.

[Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan] Page 11


Heavier, closer-weave matting may be used where highly erosive forces are anticipated
(such as river banks where wave action will occur). The polymer, seed, fertilizer, and lime (if
needed) should be placed on the soil surface first before placement of this type of matting. All
current matting installation techniques should be followed to prevent matting failure.

Further erosion to this slope (as shown in the photo on the left) is prevented by using the
soft armouring technique around the headwall.

Slope Stabilization
To stabilize the soil on any slope conditions to reduce or prevent erosion. Soil specific
polymer additions (in granular or liquid form) can assist temporary or permanent grassing by
binding the seed, fertilizer, mulch, and soil together until the grass germinates.
These photos show the application of the site-specific polymer using hydroseeding
equipment. The polyacrylamide was used on these sites to control sediment runoff and prevent
erosion on the slopes:

[Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan] Page 12


Application of polyacrylamide to a slope covered with organic matting. The PAM is the
final additive in the hydroseed/mulch mixture that is sprayed onto the slope. The second photo
shows the vegetation establishment 4 weeks later:

These photos are from a site where there was poor vegetation establishment with the normal
hydroseeding application. It was decided to re-hydroseed the slopes using the soil-specific
polymer to aid the establishment of the vegetation.

[Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan] Page 13


Polyacrylamide (PAM) is a long-chain molecule. PAM seeks out and binds to the broken
edges of clay particles, which carry a negative charge. By increasing the cohesiveness of soil
particles on the soil surface of a field, PAM makes soil more resistant to the highly erosive shear
forces exerted by water flowing over it. When used according to the NRCS standard,
polyacrylamide (PAM) increases infiltration in addition to nearly eliminating furrow erosion.
Increase in infiltration varies with several soil attributes, especially texture. Silt loam soils have
shown about a 15% increase in net infiltration and a 25% increase in lateral wetting from shallow
furrows between low, flat beds. PAM preserves a more pervious pore structure during the
formation of surface seals during irrigation, thus allowing increased infiltration. The greater
infiltration associated with PAM-treated furrows can boost crop yields in sloping areas such that
it's almost like giving the farmer the added yield equivalent of another irrigation during the
growing season. Studies have shown that because PAM holds the top soil in place, it also keeps
phosphorus, nitrogen, pesticides, weed seeds, and micro organism out of waste water. ? It takes
very little PAM to dramatically cut erosion and increase infiltration. Just 10 parts per million
(ppm) added to the advancing stream can reduce erosion by 70-99%.

SLOPE DESTABALIZATION! During discussions with relevant Forest and Military


Authorities it was discovered that a step called GREEN STABALIZATION has been taken to
overcome expected further land slides that would have harmful affects upon the strategic road

Green Stabilization, while a fine concept has to take into consideration the long lead time
required for Trees to establish themselves before they can successfully exercise their inbuilt
ability to hold the soil in place. Secondly, trees are planted under wet conditions, either during or
after rains. Due to this factor the trees roots spread in a more lateral than horizontal manner. It is
only at the advent of dry conditions that rooting hormones are produced within the system to
signal the requirement of deep penetration requirement of the roots in order to tap additional
sources of moisture.

There are three recommendations for maximization of impact and ensuring a complete solution
to a perceived threat.

Polyacrylamide (PAM):
Rooting & Fruiting Hormones (Natural Extract from Seaweed).
Hydroseeding.

[Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan] Page 14


4.1 Polyacrylamide (PAM): Polyacrylamide is a new generation of chemicals introduced
commercially in the United States only in the last eleven years. The organic components of
polyacrylamide were developed to chemically control erosive forces at the molecular level by
holding soils in place and ionically bonding them together to increase the particle size. This
results is increased water infiltration through the particle spaces and decreased erodibility of the
soil particles.

PAM seeks out and binds to the broken edges of soil particles, which carry a negative
charge. By increasing the cohesiveness of soil particles on the soil surface of a field, PAM makes
soil more resistant to the highly erosive shear forces exerted by water flowing over it. It takes
very little PAM to dramatically cut erosion and increase infiltration. Just 10 parts per million
(ppm) added to the advancing stream can reduce erosion by 70-99%. If there is a significant
amount of sediment suspended in the water supply, PAM will cause it to flocculate and settle out
almost immediately.
Extract from:
POLYACRYLAMIDE AS A SOIL STABILIZER FOR EROSION CONTROL FINAL
REPORT # WI-06-98 New Product Evaluation # PE-97-06 Prepared By: Kenneth N. Nwankwo,
P.E. Technology Advancement Engineer
Wisconsin Department of Transportation,
Division of Transportation Infrastructure Development
Bureau of Highway Construction
January 2001
The Technology Advancement Unit of the Division of Transportation Infrastructure
Development, Bureau of Highway Construction, conducts and manages the highway technology
advancement program of the Wisconsin Department of Transportation. The Federal Highway
Administration provides financial and technical assistance for these activities, including review
and approval of publications.
“The performance of polyacrylamide in controlling erosion is based on the fact that it is a
flocculant. It forms ionic bonds of smaller soil particles together to make larger particles. This
makes the soil more resistant to the erosive forces of dispersion and shear. Further, the
polyacrylamide enhances the intrusion of water into the soil, resulting in increased soil moisture
to promote seed germination, lower runoff, and less soil detachment from erosion. Comparison
of the polyacrylamide (PAM) with other erosion control products that are currently used by
Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WisDOT) shows that this product is effective in
controlling erosion. In addition, it is relatively inexpensive when compared to erosion mat, very
easily applied, is not affected by weather conditions, and when applied following the
manufacture’s recommendations is environmentally safe.”
The above extract warrants immediate trials of the product in order to ensure that further
damage is not done to an already fractured landscape.

4.2 Rooting & Fruiting Hormones Seed Pre-Treatment:


GIBBERELLINS: Gibberellins cause enlargement of cell walls, particularly
internode cells and some fruit cells. They cause breaking of dormancy, move freely in
the plant and are produced in the roots and new leaves.
[Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan] Page 15
CYTOKININS: Cytokinins are produced in the root tips and are carried upwards in
the xylem tissue. They loose concentration as they move towards the leaves.
Cytokinins affect cell division.
Hormones are produced in some organs and move to other organs to change their
characteristics. For instance, in wheat early growth is dominated by Gibberellins, the middle
stage by Cytokinins and the later stages by Auxins.

HORMONE INTERACTION:
Root Initiation: High Cytokinin/ Auxin rates develop shoot growth. It reduces the
Auxin+ IAA effect. The above ratios inhibit shoot growth of roots towards the tip. When
Cytokinins are lower back from the root tip, branch roots will grow. When Auxin rates get really
high, adventitious roots will appear from the stem.
The hormone balance of the plant is responsible for dictating its response to environment
factors. This is of prime importance and the major factor for maximum economic yield if
response is adequate. Good nutrition is essential for the health of the plant but will fail to provide
the desired results in case a plant is unable to use this nutrition. The size, shape and yield of a
plant depend upon hormone balance. Fertilizer nutrients do affect this balance but the major
factor is the climate. With changes in climate the hormone balance of the plant is altered. This is
more in some varieties of plants and less in others. This is dictated by the genetics of that
particular plant. It is possible to change the Genetic Expression of a plant so that it can quickly
adjust to climate change. Thus it is not essential to change the basic Genetics of a plant, which is
quite an expensive proposition. By modifying the genetic expression of a plant we can weather
proof it and ensure that climate change has less impact. Since the last many years, we in Pakistan
are facing the problem of vagaries in weather that is causing a serious drop in yields. Thus, it is
important to introduce this alteration of genetic expression.
If the soil remains dry after planting, the root will grow downwards; if the soil remains
wet it will cause the roots to grow sideways. The genetic expression of root growth is
determined within the first 15 days after germination. Its genetic expression does not
change thereafter. Since we plant in wet conditions, we ensure sideways development of the
root system. In case of root development in the upper area of the soil, the plant will be less
drought resistant and easily uprooted. Deep penetration will make the plant drought resistant and
well anchored. It is possible to treat seed with hormones and make it “think” that it is growing in
dry soil, no matter if the soil is actually wet.
Hormones are naturally occurring elements and compounds. Thus, the use of these
elements and compounds are environmentally safe and highly desirable. It is important to note
that hormone use in plants is nowise similar to indiscriminate hormones use in Poultry
Production. The hormones suggested for use with plants are only those that would be normally
produced by the plant itself if it were healthy or were to receive a balanced “Diet”. These
hormone Products are registered with the EPA of the USA and natural extracts from Seaweed.
Method employed is to soak seed for a few minutes in the Product (Dosing rate is merely
2 mL per Kg seed. Seed is then allowed to dry and used for planting.

4.3 Hydroseeding: (or hydro-mulching, hydraulic mulch seeding, hydraseeding) is a


planting process which utilizes a slurry of seed and mulch. The slurry is transported in a tank,
either truck or trailer mounted and sprayed over prepared ground in a uniform layer; helicopters
may be used in cases where larger areas must be covered. Hydroseeding is an alternative to the

[Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan] Page 16


traditional process of broadcasting or sowing dry seed. It promotes quick germination and
inhibits soil erosion.
The mulch in the hydroseed mixture helps maintain the moisture level of the seed and seedlings.
The slurry often has other ingredients including fertilizer, tackifying agents, green dye, and other
additives.
Hydro-Seed Mulching:

Since our soils are deforested; marginal and sorely depleted, they are subject to water
and wind erosion. This is a serious problem for Forestry; Agriculture; Horticulture; Water Sheds;
The Environment; Tourism and Communications. Much can be done to stabilize the slopes and
ensure erosion control. This is especially needed where roads have been constructed without taking
this vital factor into account. The recommended steps will improve the soil moisture retention
capacity and greatly aid water-shed management. The main items are proper terracing, re-plantation
with ground cover and trees, proper nutrition for plantation in order to ensure survival/ rapid growth
and Hi-Tech Anionic, High Molecular Weight, Polymers. These are made from urea. In case our
present urea supplies are stabilized with liquid sulfur, there will be a greatly reduced requirement. The
resultant surplus can be exported or used for the manufacture of advanced polymers for use as Seed
Coating and Erosion Control. This would bring multi beneficial results for the environment as
well as for productivity. No displacement of investment or labor will result. The Erosion Control
Polymer is made in both liquid and powder form. It is used for erosion control in fields as well as in
slopes (different concentrations). The polymer is designed to reduce soil and silt loss. It increases
water infiltration and reduces run-off. Up to 97 % soil loss reduction has been observed on slopes up
to 30 %. The anionic polymer bonds the suspended particles in the water and causes them to
precipitate. Secondly, significant increase in bonding amongst soil particles in the treated area is
observed. Application rate is Half a Kilogram per acre is extremely cost effective. Slopes are sprayed
with the polymer prior to the rainy season. Degree of slope, condition of soil and plantation will
determine the number of applications.

[Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan] Page 17


Dry Silt Stop Form Soft Armoring Technique for Matting

Aerial seeding including Natural Hormone (Rooting & Fruiting) Seed Treatment.
Mini Dams/ Erosion Control

Mini Dam Earthen


Stone Masonry Mini Dam

Check Dams/Protection Walls

Diversion Dams / Dykes

Stone-Wire Spurs (GI Wire, No.0.8 6x6 mesh)

Gabion Retaining Walls

Live Burshwood Retaining Walls (4' high)

Pallisade / Burshwood Check Dams (4' high)

[Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan] Page 18


Afforestation, Range & Watershed Management through protected nurseries.

Windbreaks: Suited trees and bushes will be identified to create windbreaks Dune
Stabilization: There is a pressing need to undertake this exercise as dunes are spreading and
have done so for many years.
SEABUCKTHORN:
"Seabuckthorn is a deciduous shrub and is widely distributed throughout the temperate zones of
Asia and Europe and throughout the subtropical zones of Asia at high altitudes." 1 The Latin
name Hippohae spp. Is used for this shrub that consists of six species and ten subspecies. It
thrives from sea level to 5200 m. The annual coverage temperature is 0° C to 12° C, though it
can survive temperatures as high as 40° C. Minimum temperature tolerance is as low as - 40° C.
Annual precipitation range requirement is 600 to 700 mm as most suitable. Precipitation of 300
to 1000 mm range is acceptable. Soil requirements are well drained, sandy or stony soils with
soil pH range of 5.5 to 8.3. Salinity of 1.1 % can be tolerated by the plant. The plant has a very
strong root system with a tap root of 3 m and horizontal roots of 6 to 10 m. Self propagation
through root turions enable the plant to produce 10 to 20 generations. The fruit of this plant
contains 60 to 80 % juice. This juice has 200 to 1500 mg per 100 g and is rich in vitamins, sugar
organic acids and amino acids. The fruit contains 3 to 5 % pulp oil and 8 to 18 % seed oil rich in
unsaturated acids, B- carotene and vitamin E. The leaves contain 11 to 22 % crude protein, 3 to 6
% crude fat and some flavonoids. The fruit can be used to make soft drinks, health food,
medicines and cosmetics. China has a Seabuckthorn Industry with over 100 factories producing
over 200 products with a gross value of about US$ 40 million annually. The leaves and tender
branches are excellent fodder for sheep, goats and cattle. In China 51 species of birds and 29
species of animals are dependent upon this plant as a part of their food chain. Some major
benefits of this plant additionally exist. These are:2
• Nitrogen Fixing Capacity: An 8 to 10 year old Seabuckthorn Forest can fix 180 Kg of
nitrogen/ha/year (72 Kg/acre/year or 9Kg/kanal/year).
• Biomass Production: A 6 year old Seabuckthorn plantation can produce 18 tons of fuel-
wood per hectare. Heat value is 4785.5 calories/ Kg. One ton of wood is equal to 0.68
tons of standard coal.
• Erosion Control: In comparison to waste land a 7 year old plantation can reduce 99 %
runoff and 96 % soil loss.
• Soil Fertility: Nitrogen, phosphorus and organic contents of soil are greatly increased.

[Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan] Page 19


• Companion Tree Growth: Pine and Popular when mixed with Seabuckthorn thrive due
to nitrogen fixation and protection from the cover. Chinese results indicate that mixed
stands of Pine and Seabuckthorn have 1.3 to 1.7 times higher growth rate.3
• Other Uses: Wind breaks and stream/ river bank stabilization can be obtained.
Seabuckthorn is propagated from:
• Seed (germination rate 80 to 95 % - 1 Kg seed produces 104 to 133 thousand saplings).
1 Feasibility Study of Seabuckthorn Development in Pakistan, Lu Rongsen, ICIMOD (Nepal),
MINFAL (Pakistan) 1996.
2 Dr. Abdul Wahid Jasra, NADRI, NARC, Islamabad.
3 Chinese Success Models of Seabuckthorn Development, A Tour Report, Dr. A.W. Jasra,
NADRI, 1996
• Hardwood Cuttings: 2-3 year old shoots, rooting rate is 50 to 70 %.
• Softwood Cuttings: & to 10 cm cuttings with several leaves are used and propagated in plastic
film houses for 2 years.
• Aerial Seeding: 400 mm rainfall and 6 to 8 days of continuous cloudy and rainy days are
required. At germination rates of 1 % a density of 1 plant per 10 square meters is used. Pre-
germination of seed treated with Natural Rooting and Fruiting Hormones is recommended.
OBJECTIONS: The unfortunate experiences of Eucalyptus and Wild Mulberry have raised
fears of Invasive Species in the minds of many Foresters and NRM specialists. Alongwith
resistance to change this is causing delay in the establishment of this plant. To ally some of these
fears it is pointed out that Seabuckthorn is a native of Pakistan The variety that flourishes here is
Hippopchae rhamnoides (turkestanica) This sub-species is suited to arid hot summers and cold
winters. About 3,000 hectares of wild Seabuckthorn Forests exist in Baltistan, Gilgit, Chitral and
Swat at altitudes between 2200 to 2800 m. At present afforestation has been carried out in
Balochistan and Waziristan (FATA).
Hippopchae rhamnoides (turkestanica) Seabuckthorn Sub-species suited to arid hot summers/
cold winters.
Thrives from sea level to 5200 m. Annual coverage temperature is 0° C -12° C, though it can
survive temperatures as high as 40° C. Minimum temperature tolerance is as low as - 40° C.
Annual precipitation range requirement is 600 to 700 mm as most suitable. Precipitation of 300
to 1000 mm range is acceptable.
Soil requirements are well-drained, sandy or stony soils with soil pH range of 5.5 to 8.3. The
plant can tolerate salinity of 1.1 %. The plant has a very strong root system with a taproot of 3 m
and horizontal roots of 6 to 10 m. Self-propagation through root turions enable the plant to
produce 10 to 20 generations. The fruit of this plant contains 60 to 80 % juice. This juice has 200
to 1500 mg per 100 g and is rich in vitamins, sugar organic acids and amino acids. The fruit
contains 3 to 5 % pulp oil and 8 to 18 % seed oil rich in unsaturated acids, B- carotene and
vitamin E. The leaves contain 11 to 22 % crude protein, 3 to 6 % crude fat and some flavonoids.
The fruit can be used to make soft drinks, health food, medicines and cosmetics. China has a
Seabuckthorn Industry with over 100 factories producing over 200 products with a gross value of
about US$ 40 million annually. The leaves and tender branches are excellent fodder for sheep,
goats and cattle. In China 51 species of birds and 29 species of animals are dependent upon this
plant as a part of their food chain.
Nitrogen Fixing Capacity: An 8 to 10 year old Seabuckthorn Forest can fix 180 Kg of
nitrogen/ha/year (72 Kg/acre/year or 9 Kg/kanal/year).
• Biomass Production: A 6-year-old Seabuckthorn plantation can produce 18 tons of fuel-wood
per hectare. Heat value is 4785.5 calories/ Kg. One ton of wood is equal to 0.68 tons of standard
coal.
• Erosion Control: Compared to waste land a 7 year old plantation can reduce 99 % runoff and
96 % oil loss.
• Soil Fertility: Nitrogen, phosphorus and organic contents of soil are greatly increased.
• Companion Tree Growth: Pine and Popular when mixed with Seabuckthorn thrive due to
nitrogen fixation and protection from the cover. Chinese results indicate that mixed stands of
Pine and Seabuckthorn have 1.3 to 1.7 times higher growth rate.
Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 21
• Seed (germination rate 80 to 95 % - 1 Kg seed produces 104 to 133 thousand saplings).
• Other Uses: Wind breaks and stream/ riverbank stabilization can be obtained. Seabuckthorn is
propagated from:
• Hardwood Cuttings: 2-3 year old shoots, rooting rate is 50 to 70 %.
• Softwood Cuttings: & to 10 cm cuttings with several leaves are used and propagated in plastic
film houses for 2 years.
• Aerial Seeding: 400 mm rainfall and 6 to 8 days of continuous cloudy and rainy days are
required. At germination rates of 1 % a density of 1 plant per 10 square meters is used. Pre-
germination of seed treated with Natural Rooting and Fruiting Hormones is recommended.
FOREST ECO-SYSTEM PROTECTION: ECONOMY GENERATION.
1. INTRODUCTION:
It is, by now, a well-known fact that trees and Forests are the foundation upon which the entire
world of renewable natural resources is balanced. Man has interfered in the Natural Forest Eco-
System in many ways. Clear cutting and reduction in the forest canopy are the most blatant
means of interference. When these activities are curtailed, other less obvious means are used.
Removal of forest litter is perhaps the most damaging. This is the first level of the forest food
chain. Secondly, it forms the natural habitat for microorganisms that are essential to the
dynamics of the ecological cycle. Upland, stony soils have a very slow weathering process and
hydro-thermic cycle. With reduction in the forest canopy, impaction and erosion capacity of
raindrops are greatly increased. The absence of an under-story, as found in mixed tree and bush
forests, further compounds this situation. The velocity of falling raindrops is curtailed as they
strike the trees and filter down to the forest floor. If this does not happen, the soil is struck with
higher velocity raindrops and is subject to movement on the surface. Water bearing particles of
soil are aided in erosion capacity. These soil particles act like tiny blades to further erode the
nutrient rich topsoil. Thus even the tertiary-source of nutrients is removed. The sources of forest
nutrition are:
• Forest Litter that decomposes into Humus.
• Symbiotic bacteria/ micro-organisms/ fungi that fix nitrogen.
• Mineralized top soil (subjected to weathering).
• Transport of minerals within soil profile (no profile – no transport). Thus it is obvious that our
forest Eco-Systems have been destabilized (preservation of nutrients/ minerals circulated within
soil – vegetation sub system). Depleted forest resources with reduced canopy cover and
malnourished trees with stunted growth do not serve the purpose that Nature intended them for.
Also natural regeneration and young sapling are the first to suffer. Thus the future of the forest is
even bleaker than the present. Rank exploitation of timber resources in a non-sustainable way is
the primary cause. However, the populations that live in close proximity to forests have a right to
the natural resource. They have needs for:
• Fuel wood.
• Fodder.
• Building material.
• Income generation.
How is it possible to deny them access to these resources? Motivation through pointing out that it
takes years to rebuild nutrient cycling and the attendant harmful effects upon the environment of
deforestation are not sufficient to achieve forest protection. Alternates that are viable, cost
effective and practicable are called for. The question arises do they exist? The answer is a
resounding YES! Some alternates are discussed in this paper.
Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 22
 Extensive use of compost and water gel crystals in agri/ horticulture. Seed
Treatment by naturally occurring enzymes and use of Complete, Eco-safe Plant Nutrition.
Innovative Cultural Practices. Traditional and Innovative Water harvesting.
For longer moisture retention.

Composting is the aerobic (oxygen-demanding) decomposition of organic materials by


microorganisms under controlled conditions and is Mother Nature’s process tuned by man. The
product resulting from the controlled biological decomposition of organic materials
 Sanitized through the generation of heat
 Stabilized to the point where it is beneficial to plant growth
 Provides humus, nutrients, and trace elements to soils
Physical Benefits
 Improved soil structure, reduced density, increased
 Permeability (less erosion potential)
 Resists compaction, increased water holding capacity
Chemical Benefits
 Modifies and stabilizes pH
 Increases cation exchange capacity (enables soils to retain nutrients longer, reduces
nutrient leaching)
Biological Benefits
 Provides soil biota – healthier soils
 Suppresses plant diseases
 Hydro Seed Mulching for Slope Stabilization and Erosion Control.
To establish vegetation/ forests/ ensure slope stabilization and erosion control along with
erosion control structures. To remediate watershed degradation which causes decline in
groundwater table. Watershed management is aimed at recharging groundwater aquifer,
rehabilitating rangelands, controlling flash floods and enhancing fuel wood production in the
target area.
The recent land slide in Village Puna, Tehsil Havellian, Abbottabad District is a case in point
where Slope Stabilization avoids such hazards created due to lack of vegetation and poor road
construction practices. Slope Stabilization uses Hard or Soft Armoring (Retaining Walls, Gabion
Stone Holders, Fabric lays) for serious problems and Hydro Seed Mulching that bonds the soil
along with seeds and nutrients and disallows washing away due to rain. This allows the plants to
take root and provide the function of holding the slope. The time taken for establishing Green
Control is covered by the Polymer application.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 23


Polyacralamide (PAM), Water Gel Crystals & Hydro Seed Mulching
Erosion Control
Polyacrylamide (PAM) is a long-chain molecule. PAM seeks out and binds to the broken edges
of clay particles, which carry a negative charge. By increasing the cohesiveness of soil particles
on the soil surface of a field, PAM makes soil more resistant to the highly erosive shear forces
exerted by water flowing over it. When used according to the NRCS standard, polyacrylamide
(PAM) increases infiltration in addition to nearly eliminating furrow erosion. Increase in
infiltration varies with several soil attributes, especially texture. Silt loam soils have shown about
a 15% increase in net infiltration and a 25% increase in lateral wetting from shallow furrows
between low, flat beds. PAM preserves a more pervious pore structure during the formation of
surface seals during irrigation, thus allowing increased infiltration. The greater infiltration
associated with PAM-treated furrows can boost crop yields in sloping areas such that it's almost
like giving the farmer the added yield equivalent of another irrigation during the growing season.
Studies have shown that because PAM holds the top soil in place, it also keeps phosphorus,
nitrogen, pesticides, weed seeds, and micro organism out of waste water. It takes very little
PAM to dramatically cut erosion and increase infiltration. Just 10 parts per million (ppm) added
to the advancing stream can reduce erosion by 70-99%.

 
These photos are from a site where there was poor vegetation establishment with
the normal hydroseeding application.  It was decided to re-hydroseed the slopes using the
soil-specific polymer to aid the establishment of the vegetation.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 24


Extensive 1-year trials by PFRI, Gatwala, Faisalabad on Seed Treatment and PAM submitted by
Petitioner over 5 years ago. Results communicated to Chairman PARC…….No Action!

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 25


Water Crisis Causes and Solutions:

The so often taken for granted continuous miracle of life on Earth has a tenuous
foundation upon water. This life-bestowing drop is sadly mistreated, polluted and
dangerously depleted. The dangers inherent in ignoring the life-threatening situation that
is emerging in so vital a sector as water availability, both in terms of quality and quantity
has to be avoided at all costs. Mounting shortfalls in Food Production leading to famine
like conditions takes into account scarcity as well as improper application of irrigation
water, declining fertility levels of the soil, incorrect plant nutrition and cultural practices
all leading to dropping yields. All this can be tackled with Complete Plant Nutrition,
drought proofing, Composting and Conservation Irrigation including the use of water
crystals.
Pakistan is facing serious concerns regarding water availability, quality and
supply and will perforce have to come up with dynamic, innovative and cost effective
strategies to ensure survivability. Current and foreseen problems of impending water and
energy crisis serve to confirm this statement. Increasing population and growth in the
economy place added demand for municipal, industrial and agricultural water supply.
The production of ethanol and biodiesel has as yet to be catered for as well as the need to
support environmental uses. There is no system to regularly monitor surface and ground
water quality, deteriorating due to aquifer pollution; excessive pumping/mix with salts;

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 1


Industrial and Municipal Pollution. There is a great need to incorporate latest High Tech
developments and tools in order to effectively tackle this grave problem.
To highlight the nexus between water and poverty, it is not that we do not have
water, sheer waste and pollution is depriving the poor of quality and quantity of this
precious resource. A single wet spell should not bring about complacency; rather we
should examine lessons learnt and take action in their light.
Seasonal localized and widespread flooding is common in Pakistan, resulting in
loss of life, substantial damage to urban and rural property and infrastructure, public
utilities and loss of agricultural crops and lands. Despite the construction of reservoirs
and major investments in flood protection, there is still a considerable flood hazard. The
main causes of floods in Pakistan are the progressive denudation of river catchments and
the general deterioration of the river channels from significantly reduced flows during
non-flood seasons. It is estimated that between 1950 and 2001 total losses from floods
have been of the order of US $10 billion and over 6,000 lives were lost.
The Member (Water), WAPDA, Sardar Mohammed Tariq has estimated (April 1999)
that groundwater storage capacity in Pakistan is 55 MAF1. Ground water pumpage in the
Indus Basin has increased from 3.34 MAF in 1959 to 48 MAF in 1996-7 2. Groundwater
use has reached a stage whereby further exploitation will be fraught with adverse
consequences, as it will exceed the natural rate3. Irrigated agriculture, in Pakistan, covers
74 % (16.2 million hectares) out of the total cultivated area of 22 million hectares.
Irrigated agriculture uses 97 % of available water and produces 90 % of agricultural
produce. It accounts for 25 % of GDP, earns 70 % of the export revenue and employs 50
% of the work force directly and another 20 % indirectly. Although the share of
agriculture in GDP has declined over the years, it is still the largest single contributor to
GDP. However, despite its importance the level and growth of agricultural production
falls short of its real potential. The sustainability of irrigated agriculture is threatened due
to continuous deterioration of the irrigation infrastructure.4
Total Surface Surface Ground Overlap TOTAL RENEWABLE Pop Area Dependency
internal water: water Actual water Actual c50.000 WATER RESOURCES ratio
renewable total 50.000c Actual
water external
resources (actual)
52.400 170.270 217.670 55.000 55.000 222.670 150 m 796100 76.47%
00ha
These are exciting times in climate science. Discoveries that grew out of a line of
research that began 50 years ago as a small geophysical field experiment are making their
way onto the public stage. A big secret about how climate behaves was buried a mile
deep in the polar ice on Greenland, and scientists went there and found it. What the earth
was keeping from us was this: When change comes, it can be big and fast. The whole
record that we expected to be smooth as a knife blade is punctuated with enormous
lurching changes between warm and cold, wet and dry. This is the signature of abrupt
climate change. Climate change can be dangerous, even catastrophic. The Pentagon was
mulling over a private think tank study it had commissioned that painted a particularly
1
South Asia – Water Vision 2025, Country Report, Pakistan.
2
Dr. M. N. Bhutta, Vision on Water for Food & Agriculture: Pakistan Perspective, Regional South Asia
Meeting on Water for Food and Rural Development, June 1-3, New Delhi, 1999.
3
South Asia – Water Vision 2025, Country Report, Pakistan.
4
South Asia – Water Vision 2025, Country Report, Pakistan.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 2


gloomy scenario of abrupt climate change as a threat to national security during the new
century. “Military confrontation may be triggered by a desperate need for natural
resources such as energy, food and water,” its authors warned. This was not meant to be a
prediction of the future, but rather a device to encourage strategists to begin thinking in
different terms about climate.
There is nothing imaginary about abrupt climate change or, for that matter, about
this story of its discovery. It is not a hypothesis or a computer simulation. It is a solid
theory supported by a careful reading of the remarkable direct evidence, the hard data
that scientists pried from the earth itself. Since the early 1990s, all of the world’s oceans
have yielded high-resolution sediments bearing the familiar signs of abrupt climate
changes. As the signs of abrupt change became more and more global in scope. Among
the most valuable sites are those in the North Pacific off the California coastline, in the
northern Arabian Sea off the coast of Pakistan, in the tropical Atlantic north of
Venezuela, and in the subtropics near the island of Bermuda. different ocean and
atmospheric conditions preserved annually layered tropical Indian Ocean sediments in the
northeastern Arabian Sea that revealed a finely detailed profile of abrupt climate change.
The continental shelf off Pakistan is a region of intense upwelling of nutrients and such
robust biological productivity that the respiration of marine organisms depletes the water
of dissolved oxygen
In 1998, a team of German researchers led by Hartmut Schulz presented sediment
records from the Arabian Sea that are remarkably similar to Greenland climate
oscillations over the past 110,000 years. When Greenland and North Atlantic
temperatures were relatively high during the warm periods of a Dansgaard-Oeschger
cycle, strong southwest monsoon activity led to high biological productivity; an oxygen-
depleted Arabian seafloor; and dark, carbon-rich, well-preserved annual bands. Pale,
carbon-poor disturbed laminations marked times of weaker monsoons and coincided with
cold North Atlantic Heinrich events. Schulz wrote in Nature that these links between
high-latitude and low-latitude climate events suggested “the importance of common
forcing agents such as atmospheric moisture and other greenhouse gases.”
Rainfall: Rainfall in Pakistan is markedly variable in magnitude, time of occurrence and
its aerial distribution. However, almost two-thirds of the rainfall is concentrated in the
three summer months of July - September. The mean annual precipitation ranges from
less than 100 mm in parts of the Lower Indus Plain to over 750 mm near the foothills in
the Upper Indus Plain.
There are two major sources of rainfall in Pakistan: the Monsoons and the
Western Disturbances. The relative contribution of rainfall in most of the canal
commands is low when compared with the two other sources of irrigation water i.e.,
canal water and groundwater. More than 60% of the kharif season rainfall is concentrated
in the month of July for almost all of the canal commands.
The Monsoons originate in the Bay of Bengal and usually reach Pakistan, after
passing over India, in early July. They continue till September. The Indus Plains receive
most of their rainfall from the Monsoons. There are two periods of thunderstorms in
Pakistan: (1) April-June (2) October-November. These periods are the driest parts of the
year, particularly October and November. During this time, thunderstorms caused by
convection bring sporadic and localized rainfall.

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Pakistan lies in an arid and semi-arid climate zone. The entire Indus Plains (canal
command areas) receive an average seasonal rainfall of 212 mm (95% confidence
interval ± 28) and 53 mm (95% confidence interval ± 8) in the kharif and rabi seasons,
respectively.
The rainfall varies as we move from the north and northeast to the south of the
country. It is only the canal command areas in the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP)
and the northern-most canal commands of the Punjab Province that receive some
appreciable amount of rainfall during the summer as well as the winter season. The canal
commands upstream of the rim stations (i.e., in the NWFP) receive almost 55% of their
annual rainfall during the kharif season. The canal commands in the Upper and Lower
Indus Plains receive 75% and 85- 90% of the annual rainfall respectively, during the
kharif season. The annual variability of rainfall increases as one moves south. The canal
command areas of Guddu and Sukkur Barrages fall in an area where variability is the
highest.
Based on 10-year average (1990-1999), data from the Pakistan Meteorological
Department of annual rainfall in some of the major cities is as follows:

Glacier: The catchment area of the Indus Basin contains some of the largest glaciers in
the world, outside the Polar Regions. The glacial area of the upper Indus catchment is
about 2,250 km2 and accounts for most of the river runoff in summer.
The Kabul River, which is mainly snow-fed, originates from the Unai Pass of the
Southern Hindukush at an elevation of 3,000 m above sea level (masl). It drains eastern
Afghanistan and then enters Pakistan just north of the Khyber Pass.
The Jhelum River rises in Kashmir at a much lower elevation than the source of
the Indus River. It falls much less rapidly than the Indus River after entering Pakistani
territory. The Chenab River originates in the Himachal Pardesh in India, at an elevation
of over 4,900 masl. It flows through Jammu in Indian-held Kashmir and enters Pakistani
territory upstream of the Marala Barrage.
The snow and ice melt from the glacial area of the Upper Indus catchment supply
approximately 80% of the total flow of the Indus River in the summer season. The annual
flows in the Kabul River are less than one-third of that in the Indus River. However, the
Kabul River starts to rise approximately a month earlier than the main stem of the Indus.
Its flows are of significance for fulfilling the late-rabi early-kharif (March to May)
irrigation requirements of the canals.

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Snowmelt accounts for more than 50% of the flow in the Jhelum River. However,
the Jhelum is much more dependent than the Indus on the variable monsoon runoff. Both,
the Jhelum and Chenab River catchments can simultaneously be influenced by the
Monsoons. Since the Chenab River rises at higher altitudes, snowmelt accounts for a
considerable proportion of its runoff.
Rivers and Dams: The embryonic Indus river system, which is the main source of
surface water in Pakistan, most likely was created some fifty million years ago, when the
Indian Plate (Gondwanaland) first collided with Eurasia (Angaraland). Between the two
plates was the Tethys Sea, which was shallow and sandy and up-folded to form the great
Himalayan Mountains in the Mesozoic era. These mountains, their an unbroken snow
cover, have become the primary source of water to the Indus system.
The average annual flow-rates of major rivers has been calculated between 1922-
61 to indicate water flows before the Indus Water Treaty, 1985-1995 to indicate the post-
treaty flows and the 2001-02 flows to present the current situation of drought conditions.
These are presented in the table below.
River Average Annual Average Annual Average Annual
Flow (1922-61) Flow (1985-95) Flow (2001-02)
MAF MAF MAF
Indus 93 62.7 48.0
Jhelum 23 26.6 11.85
Chenab 26 27.5 12.38
Ravi 7 5.0 1.47
Sutlej 14 3.6 0.02
Kabul 26 23.4 18.9
       
Total 189.0 148.8 92.62
The history of dam construction in Pakistan is relatively short. The perennial
River Indus fulfilled the irrigation needs and the drinking water supply was served by
tapping the vast underground water reservoir. Before independence, there were only three
dams in Pakistan, and none on the major rivers. Two of the dams were in the water scarce
area of Balochistan i.e. the Khushdil Khan Dam - 1890 and the Spin Karaiz - 1945. The
Namal Dam, 1913 was located in the Mianwali district of the Punjab.
The construction of dams in Pakistan was initiated in 1955, when the country was
facing an acute power shortage. Work on the Warsak Dam on Kabul River near Peshawar
was undertaken.
Later, when India stopped water supplies to the network of canals in Pakistan, it
became imperative to build large storages and link canals to restore water to the affected
canal system. This resulted in the construction of two gigantic dams, Mangla with a gross
storage capacity of 5.88 MAF and Tarbela with 11.62 MAF, as a part of the Indus Basin
Replacement Works. Apart from replacement works, a number of relatively smaller
schemes of irrigation and water supply dams were also undertaken.
Surface Water: The accounting of surface water resources in the Indus System is based
on river inflows measured at Rim Stations. A rim station, in the context of the Indus
Basin Irrigation System, is defined as a control structure (reservoir, barrage, etc.) on the
river just when the river enters into Pakistani territory or upstream of the canal-irrigated
Indus Plains of Punjab and Sindh Provinces.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 5


The rim stations for the Indus System rivers are the Kalabagh Barrage (or
sometimes Tarbela Reservoir) for the main Indus River, Mangla Reservoir for the Jhelum
River, Marala Barrage for the Chenab River and Balloki and Sulemanki Barrages for the
Ravi and Sutlej Rivers.
The Indus River and its tributaries, on an average, bring 154 MAF of water
annually. This includes 144.91 MAF from the three Western rivers and 9.14 MAF from
the Eastern rivers. Most of this, about 104.73 MAF, is diverted for irrigation. 39.4 MAF
flows to the sea and about 9.9 MAF is consumed by the system losses which include
evaporation, seepage and spills during floods.

The flows of the Indus and its tributaries vary widely from year to year and within
the year. As is the case with the water availability, there is significant variation in annual
flows to the sea.
The waters of the Indus Basin Rivers are diverted through reservoirs/barrages into
canals, classified as Main Canals. These main canals then distribute the irrigation water
into their command areas through a network of branch canals.
The Indus Basin Irrigation System comprises of three major reservoirs, 16
barrages, 2 head-works, 2 siphons across major rivers, 12 inter river link canals, 44 canal
systems (23 in Punjab, 14 in Sindh, 5 in NWFP and 2 in Balochistan) and more than
107,000 water courses. The aggregate length of the canals is about 56,073 km. In
addition, the watercourses, farm channels and field ditches cover another 1.6 million km.

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The system utilizes over 41.6 MAF of groundwater, pumped through more than 500,000
tube wells, in addition to the canal supplies.
Outside the Indus Basin, there are smaller river basins. One on the Mekran coast
of Balochistan drains directly in to the sea and a closed basin (Kharan). These in total
amount to an inflow of less than 4 MAF annually.
Groundwater-Historic Development: Before the introduction of widespread irrigation,
the groundwater table in the Indus Basin varied from about 40 feet in depth in Sindh and
Bahawalpur areas to about 100 feet in Rechna Doab (the area between Ravi and Chenab
Rivers). After the introduction of weir-controlled irrigation, the groundwater table started
rising due to poor irrigation management, lack of drainage facilities and the resulting
additional recharge from the canals, distributaries, minors, water courses and irrigation
fields. At some locations, the water table rose to the ground surface or very close to the
surface causing waterlogging and soil salinity, reducing productivity.
In the late 1950s, the Government embarked upon a programme of Salinity
Control and Reclamation Projects (SCARPS) wherein large deep tube wells were
installed to control the groundwater table. Over a period of about 30 years, some 13,500
tubewells were installed by the Government to lower the groundwater table. Of these,
about 9,800 tube wells were in the Punjab.
The projects initially proved to be quite effective in lowering the water table but
with time, the performance of the SCARP tubewells deteriorated. The development of
deep public tube wells under the SCARPS was soon followed by private investment in
shallow tube wells. Particularly in the eighties, the development of private tube wells
received a boost, when locally manufactured inexpensive diesel engines became
available. Most of these shallow tube wells were individually owned.
Now more than 500,000 tubewells supply about 41.6 MAF of supplemental
irrigation water every year, mostly in periods of low surface water availability. These
tubewells compensated the loss of pumping capacity of the SCARP tubewells and helped
in lowering the water table.
Status of Groundwater in Pakistan: The Indus Basin was formed by alluvial deposits
carried by the Indus and its tributaries. It is underlain by an unconfined aquifer covering
about 15 million acres in surface area. In the Punjab, about 79% of the area and in Sindh,
about 28% of the area is underlain by fresh groundwater. This is mostly used as
supplemental irrigation water and pumped through tubewells. Some groundwater is
saline. Water from the saline tube wells is generally put into drains and, where this is not
possible, it is discharged into large canals for use in irrigation, after diluting with the
fresh canal water.
In the last 25- 30 years, ground water has become a major supplement to canal
supplies, especially in the Upper Indus Plain, where ground water quality is good. Large
scale tubewell pumpage for irrigation started in the early sixties. There are presently more
than 500,000 tubewells in the Indus Basin Irrigation System (IBIS) and the annual
pumpage in all canal command areas has been estimated to be over 50 BCM. According
to a study, the total groundwater potential in Pakistan is of the order of 55 MAF.
Major part of the groundwater abstraction for irrigation is within the canal
commands or in the flood plains of the rivers. However, the amount of abstraction varies
throughout the area, reflecting inadequacy/unreliability of surface water supplies and
groundwater quality distribution.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 7


The quality of groundwater ranges from fresh (salinity less than 1000 mg/l TDS)
near the major rivers to highly saline farther away, with salinity more than 3000 mg/l
TDS. The general distribution of fresh and saline groundwater in the country is well
known and mapped, as it influences the options for irrigation and drinking water supplies.

Pakistan has diverse and varied Agro-Ecological Zones and is broadly divided
into three Hydrological Regions, plus one with no water resources. The Indus Basin, the
major source of Pakistan’s water, covers 566,000 sq. kms. including the whole of the
Punjab, NWFP, Sindh and part of Baluchistan. Its Drainage Basin covers 1.06 million sq.
kms. The Indus Basin was formed by alluvial deposits carried by the Indus and its
tributaries. It is underlain by an unconfined aquifer covering about 15 million acres in
surface area. In the Punjab, about 79% of the area and in Sindh, about 28% of the area is
underlain by fresh groundwater. The Indus Plain covers 25% of the total land area, with
most of the irrigated agriculture and 80 to 85% of the population concentrated here. The
Kharan Desert in West Baluchistan with inland drainage covering 15% of Pakistan is the
second and the Arid Makran Coast lying along the Arabian Sea in Southern Baluchistan,
covering 14% of Pakistan in the South West is the third with Cholistan and Thar Deserts
in Punjab and Sindh Provinces respectively having no Water Resources. These four
Regions have completely different demands and requirements. Each Region should be
managed in accordance with Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM)
techniques. A study of Trans Basin Water Management for Aquifer Recharge and
Managed Underground Storage needs to be carried out immediately.
To analyze the issue on Provincial basis:
Punjab: Some 9.78 million acres are underlain with groundwater of less than 1000 mg/l
TDS, 3 million acres with salinity ranging from 1000 to 3000 mg/l TDS and 3.26 million
acres with salinity more than 3000 mg/l TDS. Saline waters are mostly encountered in the
central Doab areas. The Cholistan area in southern Punjab is well known for highly
brackish waters, which cannot be used for drinking purposes. Groundwater with high
fluoride content is found in the Salt Range, Kasur and Mianwali. There are also reports of
high fluoride content, ranging from 65 to 12 mg/l in groundwater in the Bahawalpur area.
Samplings of groundwater in Jhelum, Gujrat and Sargodha districts have shown
concentrations of arsenic well above the WHO guideline value of 50 g/l.
Sindh: Around 28% of the Sindh province has access to fresh groundwater suitable for
irrigation i.e. the water has less than 1000 mg/l TDS. Close to the edges of the irrigated
lands, fresh groundwater can be found at 20 - 25 m depth. Large areas in the province are

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 8


underlain with groundwater of poor quality. Indiscriminate pumping has resulted in
contamination of the aquifer at many places where the salinity of tubewell water has
increased. The areas with non-potable, highly brackish water include Thar, Nara and
Kohistan. In Tharparkar and Umarkot, the situation is further complicated by the
occurrence of high fluoride in the groundwater.
KP: In KP, abstraction in excess of recharge in certain areas such as Karak, Kohat,
Bannu and D.I. Khan has lowered the water table and resulted in the contamination from
underlying saline water.
Baluchistan: The Makran coastal zone and several other basins contain highly brackish
groundwater. Local communities use groundwater with TDS as high as 3000 mg/l, for
drinking purposes, as there are no alternatives. In Mastung Valley, the groundwater has
been found to have high fluoride content. The Makran coast and Kharan have also been
reported to have high fluoride groundwater. The general distribution of fresh and saline
groundwater in the country is well known and mapped, as it influences the options for
irrigation and drinking water supplies.
Water Analysis For Urban/ Rural/ Industrial Areas:
Urban domestic water use: Access to water for domestic purposes in the urban areas is
limited to about 83% of the population with 57% having piped supply to their homes.
Recent water use in the urban sector is 4.3 MAF. The demand is expected to increase to
about 12.1 MAF by the year 2025.
Industrial: Water consumed by major industries is only about 1.2 MAF per year, mostly
from ground water.
Rural domestic water use: 0.8 MAF, with only about 53% of the rural population
having access to drinking water from public water supply sources.
The hydrology of our Mega Cities has undergone a fundamental change, the
aquifers are not being recharged adequately and sewage infiltration has polluted the sub-
surface water to create a health hazard. Water pollution is a main concern in Pakistan.
The source is from both municipal and industrial uses, with only about 1% of wastewater
treated before disposal. This has become one of the largest environmental problems in
Pakistan. Water logging and salinity pose a major threat to the sustainability of irrigated
agriculture in about 30 percent of irrigated lands, which is directly related to the low
efficiency of irrigation systems, which in turn is a result of inadequate irrigation
management both at the system and at farm level.
A minimum of 1,200 cubic meters per person/ per annum is required for
sustainability of life, at 1,000 c/m economic development is severely curtailed and at less
than 500 c/m water availability life is threatened.
The practice of overdraft of groundwater or unsustainable water mining is
widespread and has already resulted in diminished availability resulting in untold misery
and drudgery for countless citizens. We must create a balance between extraction and
recharging and ensure that our sub surface water is not polluted by sewage. The problem
has to be tackled both at the Macro or top Government level as well as at the Micro or
Grass Roots level in order to be effective. Water is not only required for the Agricultural
Sector, presently consuming 97% of this resource, it is needed for Industry, Environment,
Domestic consumption, Sanitation as well as for Power Generation. There is no question
of monopolization and we must plan and use water to a high degree of efficiency in order
to ensure sustainable development across the board. To evaluate an attempt at Wheat or

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 9


Rice Export, it is tantamount to Exporting Water. We have not taken into account the
amount of water that we have expended to produce these grains. Our targets should
include self-sufficiency in grain and export of high value, processed horticultural produce
to take maximum advantage of the water resource that is expended. Global warming with
resultant unpredictable weather patterns threatens both amount of water as well timing of
water availability. Thus growing demand and diminishing supply is certain in both short
and long term. One aspect of unsustainable groundwater mining is that large storage
space has been created in existing aquifers. Lessons to be learnt are that water must be
managed with care and use has to be intensified in order to use water in a more
productive manner. Unused as well as under utilized water supplies will have to be
tapped including flood flows, urban storm water, brackish water and reclaimed waste
water.
Increased knowledge that has uncovered the inter relatedness of Natural
Resources and the entire eco system demands that management systems and approaches
have to be reconsidered and approached in a holistic and integrated manner. It is
universally accepted amongst ecological experts that surface storage and conveyance is
no longer a viable alternate. High risks, environmental damage, reduced water quality
that actually impairs plant growth in the long term, social problems and high cost of such
facilities have eliminated this means of addressing water scarcity. Water conservation,
harvesting and intensive management are some of the alternate tools available to address
this problem. Voluntary water transfer including water rights, purchase of water on the
spot market along with water market development help by converting water to more
profitable use and as yet have to be adequately addressed at the National level.
Water availability during wet seasons or years and the need to keep water where it
can be easily accessed points to some form of storage in order to meet demand where and
when required. High evaporation losses’ leading to increased concentrations of salinity as
a direct result of Global Warming means that we have to rethink our approach towards
water containment. The soil pH levels that determine uptake or otherwise of nutrients has
alkalinized to above 9 in the Punjab and Sindh due to use of Dam water for irrigation
over a long period of time. Depressed yields due to non uptake of nutrients as well as
saline encrustment of the root system when fields are dry cause stress upon the plant and
directly results in declining yields, tip die back and sudden death syndrome in trees. It is
reported that 10 % of Pakistan’s Mango Orchards have succumbed to this factor, Citrus
and Loquat orchards are similarly threatened in NWFP.
Irrigation water is not rainwater and it is even farther from distilled water. The
water of rivers, reservoirs, and artesian wells is always a solution of chemical
compounds: a dilute solution (mountain streams have a salt concentration of 0.1-0.4 g/1);
a weakly concentrated solution (up to 1-3 g/1), made so as a result of evaporation or
transpiration; or a highly concentrated solution (up to 5-8 g/1) due to the dissolution of
salt precipitates, the intrusion of ocean water, or intensive evaporation. Natural water
always carries dissolved organic matter and relatively stable little-polymerized solutions
such as fulvic acids in particular. Water is always saturated with gaseous CO 2 and O2 and
sometimes with H2S and CH4, particularly at low temperatures.
Even the freshest and purest water is a complicated compound of oxygen-
hydrogen containing various isotopes and polymers with ready silicon and oxygen
tetrahedrals and OH and H groups capable of destroying the crystal lattices of minerals
and substituting metals in them. Weakly and moderately mineralized, alkaline natural

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 10


waters of rivers, lakes, and subsurface basins are more aggressive. Irrigation waters are
strong and complex chemical agents entering into prolonged, diverse chemical and
physical reactions with soil minerals, mineral solutions and colloidal compounds, organic
substances, and the intrasoil biomass. The complexity of these reactions is aggravated by
the fact that soil solutions are constantly diluted by irrigation and further concentrated by
evapotranspiration. The salt concentration of irrigation water in soils increases by
tenfold, amounting to 5-7 g/1 in the best non-saline soils. The concentration of salt in
weakly saline soil solutions is 15-25 g/1. And the moisture in strongly salinized soils has
a salt concentration of up to 75-150 g/1, i.e., thousands of times as high as that of normal
river water.
The economic and social effects of irrigation have been exceptionally great in the
history of mankind. Irrigation has been a most effective, though complicated, way of
controlling climatic aridity since ancient times. It was not by chance that ancient
civilizations emerged and developed simultaneously and in parallel with the emergence
of ancient irrigation and drainage systems in the valleys and deltas of the Murgab, Amu
Darya, Syr Darya, Hwang Ho, Yangtze, Nile, Ganges, Indus, Mekong, Tigris, Euphrates,
and Liber rivers.
Irrigated fields constitute a very complicated anthropogenic ecological system
that includes the following interacting components: land, climate, water, soil, plants,
animals and microorganisms, machinery, fertilizers, biocides, human activities, crop
yield, and wastes. The farmer, agronomist, engineer, researcher, planner, and manager are
far from always understanding and keeping in mind all the elements of this highly
complicated system, a system that not only should be productive under human
management, but also should continue to function effectively as time goes on.
The necessary increase in food production will depend on the rate at which
irrigated areas are expanded and existing irrigation systems are improved. Almost half of
the world's irrigated area is believed to be in developing countries and that area should
probably be doubled by the year 2000 to satisfy the food requirements of their growing
populations. , future irrigation reserves will be obtained by cautiously increasing the use
of groundwater and surface water (without overdrawing) and by controlling salinization.
Improving water-use practices and the technology of existing irrigation systems,
recovering the fertility of saline soils, and training personnel and farmers will contribute
to increasing food production by larger amounts and at a faster rate. 50 million hectares,
the result would be an exceptionally large quantity of products worth on the order of 25
billion dollars (U.S.).
Irrigated soils often lose their fertility because of the accumulation of toxic salts
contained in the ground or the irrigation water. As another example, excessive irrigation
and losses of water by seepage from canals cause swamping. Extensive erosion
sometimes occurs on slopes as a result of irrigation. Often, soil destruction, puddling, and
compaction also occur. The control of over compaction in irrigated soils is an urgent and
constant task of irrigated agriculture.
The yields of irrigated crops should be at least 2.0-2.5 times as high as present
yields, provided that soil salinity is eliminated, land is fertilized, and advanced land-
cultivation practices and new varieties of crops are introduced. Pakistan, and some
countries of Africa and South America, landlords have used all the advantages of
irrigated agriculture and fertilization to obtain high yields of new varieties of wheat and
corn created by geneticists during the green revolution. Small farmers have not received
any benefits from the green revolution, since they had no opportunity to irrigate and
fertilize new varieties of crops.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 11


A system for classifying irrigated areas according to the extent of natural drainage
has been worked out and adopted in the USSR (Kovda, 1946). The real peculiarities of
areas from the viewpoint of the extent of natural drainage are more complicated and
diverse. They should be evaluated on the basis of profound integrated studies.
Unfortunately, this is rarely done, and the design of new irrigation systems is limited only
by consideration of the topography of an area and by the geometry of irrigation
structures. Ignoring the complexity of natural conditions and implementing irrigation
projects in a routine manner result in catastrophic consequences (salinization, swamping,
etc.)
The experience of Tanzania and Kenya in creating representative and test
irrigation plots for training farmers in modern agricultural techniques for cultivating
wheat and corn and obtaining high yields deserves popularization and expansion. The
development of irrigated agriculture will improve the biospheric envelope of our planet,
generate additional amounts of oxygen, bind man-made carbon dioxide, and involve the
use of composted wastes and by-products for fertilizers and of treated industrial and
municipal waste water for irrigation.
Conservation Irrigation including sprinkle, drip and sub surface (reticulation) irrigation
has to be introduced and encouraged at all costs. Reforestation through Pre-germination
of forest trees seed doping with natural rooting and fruiting hormones and polymer
coating along with Nutrients has to be resorted to. This practice can be easily extended to
Range Management. Given favorable rainfall it is possible to establish large stands
through aerial seeding. At present this practice is carried out at 1% survival rates whereas
the afore outlined method can increase survival to 40%. Community involvement to
protect the seedlings from goats will have to be ensured. Conventional plantation by hand
has to be encouraged through establishing Environment/ Predator Protected Nurseries
that grow a mix of Farm Forest/ Fodder/ Timber and Fruit trees on a sustainable and
commercial basis through Community Organizations; Sewage Treatment through the use
of Bioaugmentation (addition of live bacteria to augment existing colonies) and
Phytoremediation (use of plants and trees to uptake toxic elements) through the
establishment of Reed Beds and Artificial Wetlands is seeing increasing use in developed
Countries. Our weather conditions make this method even more cost effective and
efficient than those used in the Northern Latitudes; Water Harvesting including surface
and roof top harvesting has to be introduced and widely disseminated. Surface Water
Harvesting can be used additionally as soil conservation structure for instance building of
low-cost pre fabricated cement ring tanks at gully heads; Aquifer Recharging; Alternate
Energy Pumping; Water Recycling and supply of Potable Water are some of the options
that have to be examined and adopted.
Water Quality: The Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources, which launched
its National Water Quality Monitoring Program in 2001, documents the water quality
situation throughout Pakistan and submitted its fifth and final Report in 2007.  The
report examines the water quality of 357 samples taken from 23 major cities, eight
rivers, six dams, four lakes, two canals and one reservoir to analyse contaminants
against an array of quality standards.
Every major city reported unsafe drinking water. None of the water sources
tested in Bahawalpur, Kasur, Multan, Lahore, Sheikhupura and Ziarat was safe for
drinking purposes. All of the 22 surface water bodies evaluated in the report were found
to be contaminated with colioforms and E. Coli; 73 per cent had a high level of

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 12


turbidity, three had high concentrations of irons and 27 per cent showed excessive
concentrations of iron and fluoride.
Approximately, 60% of Pakistanis get their drinking water from hand ormotor
pumps (in rural areas, this figure is over 70 per cent). It is estimated that as manyas 40
million Pakistanis depend on the supply of irrigation water for their domestic use.
According to a United Nations Children’s Fund study, 20-40 per cent of the hospital
beds in Pakistan are occupied by patients suffering from water-related diseases such as
typhoid, cholera, dysentery and hepatitis and that water-related diseases account for
one-third of all deaths. According to the World Bank’s 2006 Environment Assessment,
Pakistan employs Daily Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) –– the years of healthy life lost
to illness and premature mortality –– as the standard measure to calculate the economic
cost of environmental degradation. It finds that poor water quality in Pakistan accounts
for more than 2.5 million DALYs. Total health costs are estimated at Rs114 billion or
approximately 1.81 % of the GDP.
Most surface water pollution is associated with untreated discharge of waste
 
water from urban areas. Effectively, none of the estimated 2,000 million gallons of
sewage discharged into surface water bodies in Pakistan daily, is treated. Industrial
effluent, under law, is to be regulated by environment protection agencies through self-
monitoring and reporting programmes under the Pakistan Environment Protection Act
but, proverbially, enforcement is lax (and made more challenging after the
18th Amendment).
 
The water quality situation in Pakistan is an environmental catastrophe.
Untreated waste water, industrial effluent and agricultural run-off is poisoning our
water and people. However, the interest in taking this issue up, enforcing the law and
making a difference does not appear to exist. 5
Access to clean water and the provision of sanitation facilities are crucial
elements of any habitat. However, in my experience, there is a disconnect — very few
people understand the importance of water and sanitation.
In Lahore, the entire city’s sewage is discharged, untreated, into River Ravi. It is
 
estimated that nearly 800,000 kilograms of biological oxygen demand pollution load is
 
discharged into Ravi every day. Given urbanization and industrial growth, the pollution
 
in the river can only increase. Industrial and domestic waste flowing in the river then
join the irrigation waters heading for South Punjab.
The environmental and health effects of this pollution are immense. The Ravi
can scarcely sustain any biological life and is dangerous for recreational purposes. The
polluted irrigation water affects crops and the health of anyone unlucky enough to rely
on it for drinking. And, as the river and irrigation waters flow, the pollutants they carry
also seep into the aquifer, leading to more crop and health issues.
In Lahore, there have been plans and proposals to deal with the sewage problem.
Yet, four years into the present government, not a single sewage treatment plant has
 
been commissioned. The reasons given are financial more than environmental. A
sewage treatment plant for North Lahore that would treat about 30 per cent of the city’s
effluent would cost billions to construct. That is not the problem, however. The
 
5
The Pakistan Water Quality Crisis. By Ahmad Rafay Alam. Published in The Express Tribune, March
 
15th, 2012.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 13


problem is, paying for its running costs and ensuring it has electricity. But financial
concerns should not trump environmental concerns. 6
Constructed Wetlands: The developments of Bioaugmentation through Microbial
Agents for cleaning sewerage water and use of constructed wetlands has led to
inexpensive and ecologically sound methods of recycling water. Wetlands will yield
biomass that can be used for fodder, paper pulp (papyrus reeds) compost and even
generating electricity. Annual production of papyrus in tropical conditions can be in
excess of 100 tons/ha/year while the foliage can be sustainably cropped for fodder.
Papyrus stems can be used for matting and thatching roofs Water that has passed through
the wetland can be used to irrigate crops and/or introduced to a fishpond in this final
stage, Remaining nitrates and phosphates stimulate the growth of phytoplankton – The
favorite food of the Tilapia (Oriochromis niloticus L.), A food fish becoming increasingly
popular in Europe. Such systems may actually yield a profit for local communities, and
would be a powerful tool in breaking the poverty cycle.
 Constructed wetlands are an effective, environmentally friendly means of treating
liquid waste.
 Wetlands are effective at reducing loads of BOD/COD, nitrogen, phosphorus, and
suspended solids. Reduction can be up by 98%.
 Despite current usage patterns, it is tropical and subtropical climates, which hold
the greatest potential for the use of wetlands; cold climates bring problems with
both icing and thaw.
 Constructed wetlands require little maintenance, and remain effective after more
than 10 years of use.
 Use of constructed wetlands in developing countries can provide real economic
benefits by providing biomass and supporting aquaculture.
 One of the main problems with producing a treatment scheme in a developing
country is the lack of money for general maintenance and repair. With reed beds
there are no mechanical or electrical parts to break down, and once they are
established they are virtually indestructible. Using local labor and materials
means that the capital outlay for the scheme is also considerably reduced as
expensive imports are almost totally eliminated.

6
The Express Tribune Opinion. On Providing Sewage. By Ahmad Rafay Alam. Published: February 1,
2012

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 14


New Generation Reed Bed Systems:

Total COD d COD BOD5 TSS TP P-PO4 TKN

Raw Sewage 495 190 215 225 8.5 6.4 42.8


Filter A outflow 92 70 0 18 5.8 5.3 19.6
Final Outflow 58 40 16 12 5.6 5.1 10.1
Removal (%) 87.5 80 92.5 94.5 40 28 76

Wetlands Integrated within a Village Food Production Cycle:

Managed Underground Storage (MUS) is a concept that has been adopted in


technologically advanced Nations to a large extent. This is but a repeat of our ancestral
practice embodied as the Karez system of making water available. This system directly

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 15


addresses the problem of aquifer depletion and water quantity as well as quality concerns.
It should be realized that in the near future no single strategy will adequately address all
our concerns regarding water. What is required is that the problem be approached in
systematic and integrated manner that makes use of all available options and measures to
remove the threat of water scarcity.
At present our carry over capacity is insufficient for even one crop to the next,
what to talk about 2/ 3 years of drought conditions. To cite the example of The Holy
Quran and draw attention to Surah Yusaf where 7 years of plenty and 7 years of drought
was the interpretation of a dream by Hazrat Yusaf (AS). Water Conservation was first
practiced by the Prophet Yusaf (AS) when he successfully led Egypt through drought,
over 2000 years ago. The modern Aswan Dam was constructed keeping in mind a carry
over capacity of 7 years for its command area. The United States has a storage capacity
of 6,500 cubic meters per person while we hold a meager capacity of 132 cubic meters.
Water Harvesting, Conservation Irrigation and Sewage Treatment have to be introduced
and widely practiced and that too at affordable price.
Managed underground storage provides many of the benefits of surface water
storage while eliminating many of its drawbacks. Vulnerability of surface infrastructure
to natural and man made hazards are implications that cannot be ignored due to the fact
that water supply cannot be disrupted and also the colossal amount of devastation that
would occur in case of surface water storage failure. Decades of experience and detailed
study are available for replication if MUS is implemented to provide seasonal or multi
year storage.
An aquifer is a layer, formation, or group of formations of permeable rock or
sediment saturated with water and with a degree of permeability that allows water to be
withdrawn or injected (Fetter, 2001; Marsily, 1986; Lohman et al., 1972). A Managed
underground storage system has five components; water source; method of recharge;
storage system and management approach; method of recovery and end use of the
recovered water. Surface water; groundwater; treated sewage water and storm water are
all sources for MUS systems and are utilized in a number of ways.
Various forms of MUS based upon surface recharge have been in use for
millennia. MUS systems using well recharge are a recent introduction but have been in
use for more than forty years. There is, therefore, adequate experience and technological
skills to tap for implementation. Managed underground storage of recoverable water can
be achieved by using different methods. Surface spreading through the use of recharge
basins, modified stream beds, pits and shafts; vadose zone wells, and recharge or ASR
wells, plus others including watershed management, water harvesting or enhancement of
natural recharge are some of these methods. Existing aquifers can be improved, after
mapping, by constructing underground weirs. Trans Basin Management is also viable for
use and storage of surplus water.
Ground-penetrating radar (GPR), electrical conductivity and laser sounding are
some of the methods used for mapping underground aquifers, determining geological
structures and material properties. GPR is sensitive to water content and provides a
method for mapping groundwater surfaces including perched water tables. Detailed
databases along with three-dimensional (3D) applications and visualization of aquifer
properties are available through commercial software packages while hydrologic
computer models can be built up for study and planning. The Public Domain or Open

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 16


Source Revolution has introduced availability of free software to assist in every aspect of
water management. For example, WASH123D (Watershed Systems of 1D Stream-River
Network, 2D Overland Regime, and 3D Subsurface Media) developed by the Waterways
Experiment Station for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is used for modeling
of detailed watershed management plans. It is capable of representing a watershed system
as a combination of 1D river or stream, 2D overland, and 3D subsurface subdomains.
WASH123D is a physically based, spatially distributed, finite-element, integrated surface
water and groundwater model. WASH123D is applicable to a variety of problems,
including flood control, water supply, water quality, structures, weirs, gates, junctions,
evapotranspiration, and sediment transport for both event and continuous simulations.
WASH123D can provide a water budget for the full hydrologic cycle.
MUS systems can restore local water levels in stressed aquifers in arid or semiarid
regions created by excessive groundwater mining or over withdrawal within a well field
and can restore the natural flow pattern of the regional aquifer. MUS in shallow aquifers
can thus have major effects on the interaction between groundwater and surface water. If
surface water is diverted from streams and lakes for aquifer recharge, it may not only
affect downstream flow, but also cause deterioration in water quality. This as well as
other considerations emphasize the importance of having a clear understanding of the
hydrogeologic system. MUS must be kept in the context of other water management
activities and tools. (ENDS 4,165 words)
Forest Canopy has the affect of decreasing the impact velocity of falling rain, organic
content of the soil and underlying soil strata has the affect of increasing infiltration as
opposed to surface run off. Absence of forest canopy and soil organic content leads to
accelerated soil erosion, when gravel mining of stream beds as well as lack of silt control
structures in streams eventually leads to lowering of stream beds to an extent where
horizontal and lateral aquifer recharge is no longer possible as the stream bed is on bed
rock. This results in minimal natural aquifer recharge, enhancement of recharge or
watershed management, reforestation and soil erosion control measures offer an effective
method to allow recharge through increase in infiltration. Terraced agriculture in hill
country has been a traditional method of water harvesting. If correctly built and kept well
maintained they are effective in controlling erosion and increasing infiltration. If these
terraces are allowed to fall into disuse, as has happened in the Earthquake and 1992 Flood
Affected Areas of Western Galliyat, Abbottabad, damaged retaining walls, gully erosion
impact negatively upon the hydrological regime.
Expenditure: Government expenditure in the water sector has randomly fluctuated since
independence, because the allocation of funds for the development of the sector have not
observed consistent growth patterns. Also, the relative priority of water sector has
changed during various government regimes. The expenditure in the water sector as
accrued during the 5-year development plans of the government are shown in the graph
below:

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 17


The goals of the government for the development of water resources are reflected
in the WAPDA Vision 2025 document, which stipulates the addition of 64 MAF of
storage capacity and about 27,000 MW of additional power - mainly through hydel
sources, by the year 2025. The estimated investment for Vision 2025 will be $50 billion
spread over the next 25 years.
The Indus River Basin: The Indus Plain covers 25% of the total land area, most of the
irrigated agriculture takes place here and 80 to 85% of the population is centered here.
The Indus Basin Irrigation System commands an area of 36.2 million acres, is the largest
contiguous irrigation system in the world and is the agricultural and economic centre of
the country.
The Indus River and its tributaries on average bring about 152 million acre feet
(MAF) of water annually. This includes 143 MAF from the three Western rivers and 8.4
MAF from the Eastern rivers. Most of the inflow, about 104 MAF, is diverted for
irrigation, with 38 MAF flowing to the sea and about 10 MAF consumed by system
losses.
Irrigation System: The Indus Basin Irrigation System comprises three major reservoirs,
16 barrages, two head-works, two siphons across major rivers, 12 inter-river link canals
(all in Punjab), 44 canal systems and more than 107,000 water courses. The aggregate
length of the canals is 34,834 miles. The System also utilises an estimated 41.6 MAF of
groundwater pumped through more than 600,000 tube wells (mostly private) to
supplement the canal supplies. In addition, there are over 200 civil canals in NWFP,
which irrigate about 0.82 million acres and are managed by local tribal populations.
Outside the Indus Basin, there are two smaller river basins in Balochistan. The Makran
Coastal Basin includes the Dasht, Hingol and Porali rivers, which discharge individually
into the Arabian Sea. The closed Kharan Basin comprises the Kharan Desert and Pishin
Basin and includes Pishin, Mashkhel and Baddo rivers which discharge into shallow
lakes and ponds that dry out completely in the hot season. The total inflow of the two
basins is less than 4 MAF annually. The streams are flashy in nature do not have
perennial supply. About 25% of the inflow is used for flood irrigation.
Agriculture: Agriculture is the single largest sector of Pakistan’s economy, contributing
24.7% of GNP (2000-2001) and more than 60% of foreign exchange earnings. Some 68%
of the rural population depend on the sector and 46% of the labor force is employed in it.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 18


The principal crops include wheat, rice, cotton, sugarcane, oilseeds, fruits,
vegetables and pulses. While there have been improvements in productivity of some
crops, the overall yield per hectare of most crops is far below their demonstrated
potential. Main reasons for this include an uncertain policy environment for pricing and
marketing of staples, generation and dissemination of technology to the farmers and
inefficient post harvest processing and storage.
Water logging and salinity pose a major threat to the sustainability of irrigated
agriculture in about 30 percent of irrigated lands, which is directly related to the low
efficiency of irrigation systems, which in turn is a result of inadequate irrigation
management both at the system and at farm level.
Domestic and Industrial Water Use and Waste Water Disposal: Access to water for
domestic purposes in the urban areas is limited to about 83% of the population, with 57%
having piped supply to their homes. Present water use in the urban sector is of the order
of 4.3 MAF. The demand is expected to increase to about 12.1 MAF by the year 2025.
Rural domestic water use is currently 0.8 MAF, with only about 53% of the rural
population having access to drinking water from public water supply sources.
Water consumed by major industries is about 1.2 MAF per year, mostly from
ground water.
Environment: Water pollution is a main concern in Pakistan. The source is from both
municipal and industrial uses, with only about 1% of wastewater treated before disposal.
This has become one of the largest environmental problems in Pakistan.
Hydropower Generation: Total installed power generation capacity in Pakistan is
17,980 MW, which includes hydropower generation capacity of 5,042 MW, thermal
power generation capacity of 12,509 MW and nuclear power generation capacity of 462
MW. The thermal capacity includes 6,003 MW supplied by private power plants
developed and operated by the private sector. Pakistan presently has surplus power
generation capacity but this will change in the near future.
Floods: Localized and widespread flooding is common in Pakistan, resulting in loss of
life, substantial damage to urban and rural property and infrastructure, public utilities and
loss of agricultural crops and lands. Despite the construction of reservoirs and major
investments in flood protection, there is still a considerable flood hazard. The main
causes of floods in Pakistan are the progressive denudation of river catchments and the
general deterioration of the river channels from significantly reduced flows during non-
flood seasons. It is estimated that between 1950 and 2001 total losses from floods have
been of the order of US $10 billion and over 6,000 lives were lost.
Impending Water Crisis:
I crave your attention to a very serious and potentially dangerous situation
appertaining to a most vital sector as Water that can threaten our continued survival!
Climate Change and our present Wasteful Water Regime, is adversely impacting
future availability of potable and irrigation water in Pakistan. This is fast leading to a life-
threatening situation, due to Government inaction and inability to move beyond Policy
Formulation to on-ground application.
We need to immediately come up with innovative and effective solutions to
remove constraints and ensure survival on an emergency basis before it is too late!
Traditional means to tackle problems are incapable of resolving the issue of Environment
Protection and Climate Change.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 19


The Honorable Supreme Court is requested to review the issue as well as my
humble attempts for interventions as per prepared Technical Brief and Presentation, in
order to provide me a hearing. I may be heard as a common citizen aware of
Bioenvironmental Management in order to suggest “A Way Forward.”
The undersigned petitioner is compelled to knock at the doors of the Superior
Judiciary to avert a catastrophe of unimaginable proportions for our Nation. The
appropriate corridors have failed to respond to the repeated calls of the petitioner and are
lost in the confusion created and prevalent in the power palaces. The Honorable Supreme
Court of Pakistan remains the only ray of hope.

Petitioner Name : Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan


CNIC : 61101-8299188-9
Email ID : timurhyat@gmail.com
Mobile No : +923015456088
Address : 1 Gulistan Colony, College Road, Abbottabad
Cc: Honorable Chief Justice,
Supreme Court of Pakistan.
Islamabad.
Logical Call To Action - Request.7
Climate Change Impacts:
Climate Change is likely to disturb the river flow patterns in the future. Initial
periods will be of rapid glacier melt and fewer but heavier bouts of precipitation. After
this 25-30 year period, there are projections for prolonged periods of drought. Pakistan
gets about 142 MAF of river water every year, this figure could be as low as 106 MAF.
Global warming will melt most of glaciers in Pakistan unless nature intervenes to
reset the balance of snowfall. This escaping water resource needs to be captured and
stored underground for future use. When a glacier disappears, the stream or river it feeds
shuts down and flows are restricted to rainfall inflow.
Major Concerns:
 Increased variability of Monsoon;
 Projected recession of Hindu Kush Himalayan Glaciers (HKH) threatening Indus
River System (IRS) Flows;
 Increased risks of Extreme Events (floods, droughts, cyclones, extreme high / low
temperatures etc.);
 Severe water- and heat-stressed conditions in arid and semi-arid regions leading
to reduced agricultural productivity;
 Increase in Deforestation; Loss of Biodiversity;
 Rapid melting of Glaciers;
 Increased intrusion of saline water in the Indus delta due to sea level rise; Risk to
mangroves and breeding grounds of fish;
7
Petition addressed to Honorable Justice Ejaz Afzal . Supreme Court of Pakistan,
Islamabad. 26-11-2015.
Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 20
 Health Risks.
Examples of Pakistan's Vulnerability:
 Increasing Extreme Events over the last two decades;
 Devastating super floods in 2010, 2011 and 2014 (about 2200 deaths, 20 million
people homeless, $ 10 Billion damages in 2010 alone);
 Large scale flooding in 1992, 1997, 2003, 2006, 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015.
 History's worst drought during 1999 - 2002; Droughts in Thar area of Sindh and
Cholistan area of southern Punjab in 2014;
 Intense heat waves during 2003, 2005, 2007 and 2010 (53.7 0C); At least 748
people have died in four days as a result of a severe heat wave in Karachi and at
least 33 deaths in other parts of the Country, in June 2015.
 Severe cyclonic storms in 1999, 2007 and 2010; the tropical cyclone 'Ashobaa'
came near the Karachi coast in 2015.
 Increased flooding due to glacial melt in current year (2015). Recent glacial lake
outburst floods (GLOF) in Tajikistan, Kazakhstan and Pakistan, as well as the
recent announcement by IOM that unseasonal snowmelt has resulted in over
30 floods and landslides in Afghanistan during July 2015, there comes a timely
study by the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS) that claims tens of
thousands of glaciers are melting faster than ever.
Suggested Actionable, Practical Interventions as Replicable Demonstrations by
Petitioner as Turn Key Bioenvironmental Consultant:
# INTRAVENTION SUGGESTED LOCATION
1 Conservation Irrigation especially Sub-Soil On-Site
(Reticulation) Irrigation.
2 Ensure Sewage Treatment through Energy Domes and Site under control of
Constructed Wetlands. Abbottabad Cantonment/
Pakistan Military Academy.
Unused, British Era Built,
Sewage Treatment Plant.
3 Extensive use of compost and water gel crystals in On-Site
agri/ horticulture. Seed Treatment by naturally
occurring enzymes. Innovative Cultural Practices.
Traditional and Innovative Water harvesting.
4 Complete, Eco-safe Plant Nutrition. On-Site
5 Hydro Seed Mulching for Slope Stabilization and Village Puna, Tehsil
Erosion Control. Havellian, District
Abbottabad, K.P.
6 Use of saline water for Solar Ponds. Tehsil Lillah, District Pind
Dadan Khan , Punjab.
Matters Requiring Urgent Government Action:
1. Financial enablement for turnkey demonstrations as tabled above.
2. Aquifer mapping over the length and breadth of the Country.
3. Aquifer improvement; underground Weirs to create underground Dams; ensured
recharging; prevention of pollution and remediation of already polluted
underground reservoirs.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 21


4. Phase out large Dams, build check or delay action dams.
5. Use run of the rivers for hydro energy generation.
I am obliged to bring to the Notice of Your Honor that after many years of
Advocacy my latest effort was to submit a Public Petition to the Honorable Senate of
Pakistan, now overdue, only regarding biomelioration of waste water to solve the
problems of aquifer pollution and urban water availability. Tracking No  :  PP-334
Date: 25-05-2015
Water! Threat or Survival? Logical Call To Action Request.
Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan 12/ 01/ 2015

Flowing Gutters from the Water Towers of Pakistan:

Climate Change Impacts

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 22


Climate Change is likely to disturb the river flow patterns in the future. According
to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC (2007), initial periods will be
of rapid glacier melt and fewer but heavier bouts of precipitation. After this 25-30 year
period, there are projections for prolonged periods of drought. Consequently, much
reduced water resources and more pressure on possible allocation of water flows will
occur.
Pakistan's Total Annual Water:
Pakistan gets about 142 MAF of river water every year, this figure could be as
low as 106 MAF.
Threatened Glaciers:

Global warming will melt most of glaciers in Pakistan unless nature intervenes to
reset the balance of snowfall. When a glacier disappears, the stream or river it feeds shuts
down and flows are restricted to rainfall inflow.

Preamble:

I have repeatedly approached concerned Authorities in the Federal, Punjab,


Baluchistan and KP Provincial Governments with Key interventions guaranteed to
ameliorate the lot of our hapless citizens as well as the eco niche that we inhabit. At
this time an application is lying with the Senate (on its website), duly forwarded to
various Ministries for action. Unfortunately my Low-Cost alternatives have not
received any consideration and this has forced me to take recourse to the Ultimate
Court of Appeal. I pray that a hearing to my requests may please be made.

Petition:

The most serious problem of water availability and aquifer pollution from waste
water can be readily addressed by biomelioration of waste water. Aquifer pollution is a
main concern in Pakistan……..

We Urgently Need:

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 23


1. Aquifer Mapping over the Length and Breadth of the Country.
To learn about Aquifer condition and capacity in order to plan realistically.

The Finished Product:

2. Aquifer improvement; underground Weirs to create underground Dams;


ensured recharging; prevention of pollution and remediation of already polluted
underground reservoirs:
Much of our irrigated soil is afflicted with secondary salinization arising from
Dam Water irrigation leading to a raise of Ph to even 9 (highly alkaline) where plants are
unable to uptake nutrients from the soil. Most of the remaining is subject to waterlogging
and Salinity.
To Create Underground Fresh Water Reservoirs: There is a need to build
groundwater dams, which store water underground, rather than on the surface. Water that
is stored in the soil does not evaporate like lakes; rivers; ponds and streams and does not
cause secondary salinization. It is clean; healthy; free from parasites and can be stored for
thousands of years. Secondly, and weir failure will not result in catastrophe due to
escaping water as in the case of Mega Surface Dams. Natural Causes or Enemy Action
will not threaten the Nation and nor will the Storage fail due to siltation. The key is to

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 24


find ways to capture wet season rainfall underground. Check and delay action dams as
well as Forests and vegetation will help infiltration of rain water. Another method
consists of river or stream beds reinforced at suitable locations with several meters of
form work of concrete and steel, which goes five to six meters underneath the bed to the
clay lens. This slows the flow of the river, giving monsoonal rains more time to seep into
the aquifer. It builds up the water table towards the surface and that creates many
thousands of times more water storage than existed previously and much more storage
than a traditional weir. Beneath the Pingtung Plain in Taiwan there is an underground
“water corridor” known as the “Twin Peak Ditch” built during the Japanese occupation.
For more than 80 years groundwater has been extracted using this underground weir” and
it has continuously provided water for local irrigation. Its yearly average output of almost
30 million tons is more than that of Tainan’s Paiho Reservoir.
Naturally occurring below grade water is subject to recharging and flow. Some
sites can be improved to retain more water rather than allowing all to flow out.
Underground dams are used to trap groundwater and store all or most of it below the
surface for extended use in a localized area. They can also be built to prevent saltwater
from intruding into a freshwater aquifer. Underground dams are typically constructed in
areas where water resources are minimal and need to be efficiently stored. They are most
common in northeastern Africa and the arid areas of Brazil while also being used in the
southwestern United States, Mexico, India, Germany, Italy, Greece, France and Japan
There are two types of underground dams: a sub-surface and a sand-storage dam.
A sub-surface dam is built across an aquifer or drainage route from an impervious layer
(such as solid bedrock) up to just below the surface. They can be constructed of a variety
of materials to include bricks, stones, concrete, steel or PVC. Once built, the water stored
behind the dam raises the water table and is then extracted with wells. A sand-storage
dam is a weir built in stages across a stream or wadi. It must be strong, as floods will
wash over its crest. Over time, sand accumulates in layers behind the dam, which helps
store water and, most importantly, prevents evaporation. The stored water can be
extracted with a well, through the dam body, or by means of a drain pipe.
3. Conservation Irrigation especially Sub-Soil (Reticulation) Irrigation:
To conserve water resource and provide plants with water when needed in
required quantity only. Thus merely 10% of flood irrigation water will achieve better
results. Conservation irrigation by means of Sprinklers, Drip or Sub-Soil are effective
in conserving the amount of water expended while catering fully to the water needs of
the plants.
Sub-surface Textile Irrigation is the most efficient irrigation method available

Tap Assembly, 200m x Nano, Spinlock T, Spinlock Joiner and auto-Flushing Valve

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 25


Sprinkle; Misting and Drip irrigation save more water progressively than the
current wasteful flood irrigation practiced by our farmers. Reticulation is by far the most
efficient. We will need to manufacture locally from recycled material to keep costs down.

4. Ensure Sewage Treatment through Energy Domes and Constructed


Wetlands:
To eliminate pollution; eradicate disease pathogens; deny space for disease vectors
breeding; recycle safe water and create energy (Methane and Heat).
Harnessing Biomethanation for Energy Generation & Environment Protection:
At great personal expense and effort I have perfected Design of Energy Domes on
Innovative principles as a Super Insulated, Disaster-proof and low cost structure that
would tap Methane Gas and heat from the waste slurry and use for energy generation;
effectively kill all viruses and disease pathogens present in liquid waste including Polio
Virus; Remediate the water as nutrient rich compound for Agriculture; Horticulture and
Aquaculture as well as recycled water for non consumptive use.
Every year, millions of people, most of them children, die from diseases
associated with inadequate water supply, sanitation and hygiene. Each and every day,
some 6,000 children in developing and emerging countries die for want of clean water
and sanitation. although far more people suffer the ill effects of poor water and sanitation
services than are affected by headline-grabbing topics like war, terrorism, and weapons of
mass destruction, those issues capture the public imagination – as well as public
resources – in a way that water and sanitation issues do not. In many cities, towns and
rural areas of Pakistan today people live and raise their children in highly polluted
environment. Urban and peri-urban areas are among the worst polluted and disease
ridden habitats. Much of this pollution, which leads to high rates of disease, malnutrition
and death, is caused by lack of adequate excreta disposal facilities and inadequate solid
waste collection and disposal service. As communities expand and population increase,
Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 26
the situation will grow worse and the need for safe, sustainable and affordable sanitation
technology or system will be even more critical. Sewage infiltration into groundwater has
made most of the world’s potable water undrinkable, unless immediate and emergency
measures are taken to restore the environment and stop pollution, we will be unable to
meet Pakistan’s water demands in the near future. It is estimated that a community of
10,000 people generate 40-acre inches of sewage effluent per day which is equivalent of
1 million gallons of wastewater. The prime objective of this presentation is to promote
sustainable Liquid Waste Management Systems that support Green House Gas (GHG)
emission reduction through The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).
Biological Treatment: Biological treatment is the most economical of waste treatments
available today. In biological systems, the dynamics are biochemical as opposed to
chemical, and the active agents are living entities. In chemical treatment we have to
increase the quantity of chemical proportionally to deal with a higher load of reactant, in
a biological system the biological additive can grow to help compensate for increased
loadings. The septic system is a biological process. Like any living thing, it has certain
nutritional requirements to function properly and functions best in a suitable
environment. However, the best first step in optimizing the performance of a septic
system is to have a complete ecosystem of the organisms required for the most complete
breakdown of the waste.
Use Liquid Waste as a Resource:
Energy will be recovered from the heat in the sewage and from biogas generated
in the treatment process. Materials which have nutrient value will be recovered from
wastewater treatment plants. Water will be recovered from the wastewater treatment
process and storm water will be kept separate from effluent.
Integrated Resource Recovery: This is a concept and approach that integrates the
management of water, wastewater, energy and solid waste services to recover resources
and value and to help increase resiliency. IRR planning and resource recovery actions in
this plan support the Climate Action Plan, the Energy Plan, and Living Water Smart.
An Energy Dome that combines liquid waste-treatment with biodegradable solid
waste consisting of four, 30ft. domes (two each of Anaerobic and Aerobic Design) with
allied equipment will optimally generate 10 MW-hours of electricity while treating
10,000 gallons (8% solid content) of waste per day. This is adequate to maintain 500 to
1,000 homes, depending upon energy requirements. An energy dome of this size, capable
of generating 3,650 MW-hours annually and should cost under Rs. 50 million. This
system costs less than coal or nuclear for initial set up as well as maintenance while
remaining completely sustainable. The 3 inch concrete with Basalt Rebar dome's disaster-
proof construction and adobe cover of 1 to 2 feet imparts the ultimate flexibility for
architectural design. It is ideally suited for small as well as large-scale structures such as
homes, shops, mosques, auditoriums, schools, athletic facilities, arenas, stadiums,
gymnasiums, convention halls, stores, shops, and warehouses, including cold
store/freezer operations. Insulated concrete domes provide excellent energy efficiency.
Heating and cooling a dome typically costs 1/4 to 1/2 less than a conventional building
the same size. This cost savings has to do with how the dome is constructed. The thermal
mass of the concrete and adobe combined create an R value of 50-60 with extremely low
air filtration. Low maintenance is also a quality of a Monolithic Dome. Snow and rain
cause very little stress on the exterior of a dome since its shape sheds water quickly. In a

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 27


well constructed Dome leaks are rare compared to conventional domes and are easily
repaired. The American Institute of Architects has acclaimed the geodesic dome "the
strongest, lightest and most efficient means of enclosing space known to man". They
handle hurricane winds, extreme snow loads and are the safest structure in an earthquake.

Geodesic Dome Bamboo Frame:


The Design: The design consists of an aero dynamic geodesic dome that covers the most
floor space with the least walls or roof and rests, but is not grouted to, a floor of 2 tons
per square foot bearing capacity. This results in freedom for the structure to move with,
rather than resist earthquakes up to 9 on the Richter scale. Secondly, the aero dynamic
design does not oppose high velocity wind and allows it to flow over the structure thus
providing capability to resist up to 250 mph winds. Rising temperatures in summer and
increased cold in winters is resulting in increased need of energy for heating and cooling
at a time when energy is scarce and prohibitively costly. This is yet another factor which
is adequately catered for by emplacing the lowest possible cost and abundantly available
adobe insulation material. Arising from the technology of our own cultural streams rather
than the inappropriate western technologies, the concept is ready for ownership by our
people.
Culture: The dome of Muslim architecture is the prototype of the Geodesic dome which
is the strongest structure in an engineering sense and consists of 40 triangular facets. The
compressional forces of traditional architecture are replaced by pre-stressed “tensional
members” which is best described as “Tensigrity” or Tensional Integrity of the structure.
Each member is linked to the other and passes on applied force to the others to provide
equal strength of all members. Similarly, gravitational forces from below or impactional
forces from above are not resisted but are allowed to flow through the structure.
Structure: The structure consists of an RCC shell of 3 inch thickness that is covered with
1-2 foot adobe with a soil-cement layer upon curing. This system is capable of rapid
erection by using permanent inner and outer shuttering, utilizing pressure filling of
concrete over Steel Bar Re-enforcement (Rebar) or Basalt Rebar for lower carbon rating.
Steps involved are; Firstly, construction of floor pad. Secondly; erection of inner
shuttering. Thirdly, erection of outer shuttering and pressure filling; Fourthly, curing and
removal of outer shuttering and finally emplacement of adobe cover and removal of inner
shuttering.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 28


Mega Cities in Advanced Countries are recycling their water 7 to 11 times to extract
benefit from every drop.

Unique Low-Cost; Super-Insulated and Disaster-Proof Construction developed by


the Petitioner. Can be used for Habitation, Storage, Utilities, Commercial &
Industrial Uses.
Constructed Wetlands:
Having introduced this technology to the former Chairman PARC, I am
constrained to point out that the PARC is using this system and even exporting to other
Countries without prior bacteria and disease pathogen treatment. In fact plants grown to
remediate the effluent are being harvested and sold to be fed to poultry farms thus
introducing disease pathogens into the food chain.
Wetlands are a system of artificial swamps that imitate the purification processes
performed by natural swampland and filter out organic material, suspended solids and
heavy metals. The constructed wetlands are the means of rehabilitating the river
ecosystem and its surroundings. The water is then pumped and piped out for use in crop
irrigation and urban landscaping. A constructed wetland is an ecological wastewater
treatment facility that uses a series of pools, in which a variety of aquatic plants grow to
simulate a natural wetland environment, to purify water As the water flows from one pool
to the other it undergoes biological purification, and the resulting water can be used to
irrigate commercial short rotation forest The project combines ecology (recycling
wastewater) with research to eventually yield an economically feasible forestry venture.
1. 90-95% BOD reduction (Biological Oxygen Demand)
2. 90-95 % TSS reduction (Total Suspended Solid reduction)
3. 45-80% Nitrogen reduction - This ratio varies greatly in regards to local
conditions and time of test.
4. 30-60% Phosphorus reduction - The same variability of ratio as in
Nitrogen can be observed.
5. Over 98% Coliform bacteria reduction
If the effluent coming out of the WWG unit/s is to be further used for subsurface
irrigation, the waters will know a secondary nutrient uptake process and thus meet even
higher standards at final discharge.
While the treated water discharged from the Wastewater Gardens ® is highly reduced
in bacteria, it is not up to drinking standards as we normally don't use a final disinfectant
such as chlorine or ultra-violet lights. This means that you can grow and eat fruits and

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 29


some types of medicinal plants for example, or grow fodder for animals, but shouldn't
plant leafy vegetables destined to human or animal consumption.
The discharge water could also be used for flushing toilets but the cost of
pumping it back into houses usually makes this option uneconomical.
Since WWG systems rely on green plants and microbes, they perform more
rapidly in warm, sunny conditions, the approach is ideal for climates ranging from
tropical to Mediterranean-type climates. In these conditions with higher temperatures and
increased sunlight, system effectiveness is high year-round. Applications for colder
regions for example, can however also be very effective in high elevation sites with long
winters. However, in colder climates, sizing per resident must be larger to accomplish
similar treatment.
A WWG Unit:

5. Extensive use of compost and water gel crystals in agri/ horticulture. Seed
Treatment by naturally occurring enzymes and use of Complete, Eco-safe Plant
Nutrition. Innovative Cultural Practices. Traditional and Innovative Water
harvesting:
For Longer Moisture Retention:

Composting is the aerobic (oxygen-demanding) decomposition of organic


materials by microorganisms under controlled conditions and is Mother Nature’s process
tuned by man. The product resulting from the controlled biological decomposition of
organic materials
• Sanitized through the generation of heat
• Stabilized to the point where it is beneficial to plant growth
• Provides humus, nutrients, and trace elements to soils
Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 30
Physical Benefits:
• Improved soil structure, reduced density, increased
• Permeability (less erosion potential)
• Resists compaction, increased water holding capacity
Chemical Benefits:
• Modifies and stabilizes pH
• Increases cation exchange capacity (enables soils to retain nutrients longer,
reduces nutrient leaching)
Biological Benefits:
• Provides soil biota – healthier soils
• Suppresses plant diseases
Complete, Eco-safe Plant Nutrition:

The Green Revolution increased yields and thus put off the scepter of faminefrom
many a 3rd World Country. However, this revolution unwittingly fostered thepollution
of the environment by using unstabalized chemical fertilizers, which, inturn led to the
heavy use of pesticides. With growing knowledge and a body ofevidence to
spur them on, Agri Scientists applied their ingenuity to overcome theseproblems while
maintaining and even increasing yields. Some alarmists pressedpanic buttons and
advocated return to natural farming; a misnomer as there isnothing natural about
farming. This gave rise to Organic Farming, which name isused to include the most
unscientific of practices including the use of raw manureand resultant chemical
ill-effects that are similar to that of unstabalized chemicalfertilizers (excessive nitrate
nitrogen build up) and lead to pest infestations
(Chemical Trail – Chemitaxi for crawling insects and build up of excessive amino acids
to attract flying pests).
The hormone balance of a plant dictates its growth characteristics. Nutrients are
used to derive these hormones. Weather and its extremes of heat and drought
compounded by insects and disease, restrict genetic potential utilization to 35 - 40%.
Complete Plant Nutrition pushes this efficiency up.
The existing Food Chains and Webs need to be reinforced and replenished in order to
ensure health and continued functioning.
The vital human requirements for food, water and air cannot be left to the mercy of
ruthless, short sighted and short-term exploitation that leaves death, destruction and permanent
loss in its wake!

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 31


This fact is a dire necessity and can no longer be held in abeyance. Nor is it productive
to enter into useless and repetitive argumentations. International and National Politics cannot
be allowed to subvert the achievement of Eco Stability.
Von Liebeg’s Law states that the yield of a crop is limited by the nutrient in least
supply. This means that supply of whichever of the essential building materials is restricted in
terms of quantities required by the plant, it will restrict the yield. Apart from Chloride and
Nickel, which help a plant to use urea, a plant needs at least 17 nutrient elements critical for its
survival. Carbon, Oxygen and Hydrogen constitute over 95% of a plant’s needs and are
supplied from the air and water. The rest are taken from the soil. Soil pH determines tying
down or availability of Nutrients and 6.8 pH is the break point as nutrients except
Molybdenum and Chlorine are more easily absorbed in Acidic Soil. Foliar feeding of essential
nutrients is firstly, more efficient (70% foliar absorption compared with 30% soil borne
uptake, radio isotope analysis). Secondly, the mutual antagonism/ stimulation between various
essential nutrient elements is overcome. Roots act as a transport system for raw and inorganic
nutrient elements to the leaves where they are converted into food and sent to the roots for
storage. It has been determined that foliar feeding is six times more efficient for Clay Loam
and Organic soils and 20 times more efficient for sandy loams. Loss by leaching is 2% for
foliar (chelated nutrients) and 70% for soil.
The hormone balance of a plant is responsible for dictating its response to
environmental factors. Changes in climate affect hormone balance. This is more in some
varieties and less in others. This is dictated by the genetics of a plant.
Innovative Cultural Practices: Reusable plastic trays to collect dew from the air,
reducing the water needed by crops or trees by up to 50 percent.

The square serrated trays, made from non-PET recycled and recyclable plastic
with UV filters and a limestone additive, surround each plant or tree. With overnight
temperature change, dew forms on both surfaces of the tray, which funnels the dew and
condensation straight to the roots. If it rains, the trays heighten the effect of each
millimeter of water 27 times over.
The trays also act as mulching and block the sun so weeds can’t take root, and
protect the plants from extreme temperature shifts. “Farmers need to use much less water,
and in turn much less fertilizer on the crop,” which translates to less groundwater
contamination.
Low-Cost Surface; Roof-Top & ‘Pukka’ Surface Water Harvesting:
In general, water harvesting is the activity of direct collection of rainwater. The
rainwater collected can be stored for direct use or can be recharged into the groundwater.
Rivers, lakes and groundwater are all secondary sources of water. At present, we depend
entirely on such secondary sources of water. In the process, we forget that rain is the
ultimate source that feeds all these secondary sources and remain ignorant of its value.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 32


Water harvesting means to understand the value of rain, and to make optimum use of
rainwater at the place where it falls. Because of high intensities and short duration of
heavy rains, most of the rain falling on the surface tends to flow away rapidly, leaving
very little for the recharge of groundwater. This is also due to deforestation.

Built by the petitioner at National Center for Rural Development (NCRD) at Chak
Sha
hzad, Islamabad in place readily constructed by anyone in place of plastic water
tanks introduced by ERRA.
6. Hydro Seed Mulching for Slope Stabilization and Erosion Control:
To establish vegetation/ forests/ ensure slope stabilization and erosion control along
with erosion control structures. To remediate watershed degradation which causes
decline in groundwater table. Watershed management is aimed at recharging groundwater
aquifer, rehabilitating rangelands, controlling flash floods and enhancing fuel wood
production in the target area.
The recent land slide in Village Puna, Tehsil Havellian, Abbottabad District is a
case in point where Slope Stabilization avoids such hazards created due to lack of
vegetation and poor road construction practices. Slope Stabilization uses Hard or Soft
Armoring (Retaining Walls, Gabion Stone Holders, Fabric lays) for serious problems and
Hydro Seed Mulching that bonds the soil along with seeds and nutrients and disallows
washing away due to rain. This allows the plants to take root and provide the function of
holding the slope. The time taken for establishing Green Control is covered by the
Polymer application.

Polyacralamide (PAM), Water Gel Crystals & Hydro Seed Mulching:


Erosion Control:
Polyacrylamide (PAM) is a long-chain molecule. PAM seeks out and binds to the
broken edges of clay particles, which carry a negative charge. By increasing the
cohesiveness of soil particles on the soil surface of a field, PAM makes soil more
resistant to the highly erosive shear forces exerted by water flowing over it. When used
according to the NRCS standard, polyacrylamide (PAM) increases infiltration in addition
to nearly eliminating furrow erosion. Increase in infiltration varies with several soil

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 33


attributes, especially texture. Silt loam soils have shown about a 15% increase in net
infiltration and a 25% increase in lateral wetting from shallow furrows between low, flat
beds. PAM preserves a more pervious pore structure during the formation of surface seals
during irrigation, thus allowing increased infiltration. The greater infiltration associated
with PAM-treated furrows can boost crop yields in sloping areas such that it's almost like
giving the farmer the added yield equivalent of another irrigation during the growing
season. Studies have shown that because PAM holds the top soil in place, it also keeps
phosphorus, nitrogen, pesticides, weed seeds, and micro organism out of waste water. It
takes very little PAM to dramatically cut erosion and increase infiltration. Just 10 parts
per million (ppm) added to the advancing stream can reduce erosion by 70-99%.

These photos are from a site where there was poor vegetation establishment with
the normal hydroseeding application.  It was decided to re-hydroseed the slopes using the
soil-specific polymer to aid the establishment of the vegetation.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 34


Extensive 1-year trials by PFRI, Gatwala, Faisalabad on Seed Treatment and PAM
submitted by Petitioner over 5 years ago. Results communicated to Chairman
PARC…….No Action!
7. Use of Saline Water for Solar Ponds:
To generate energy/ mariculture and capture evaporation for fresh water.
Saline Water:

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 35


In Pind Dadan Khan District, Punjab, Pakistan where saline water exists, the salt
content is greater than sea water. We can generate as much as 35 KW in summers and 15
KW in winters with a peak production as high as 150 KW from a pond of 7,000 square
meters. Saline water is allowed to develop a Salinity Gradient due to evaporation and
feeding of saline water to the top of the pond. Thus the water at the bottom is denser and
traps and retains heat from the sun. Using Rankine Engines and trapped heat energy is
generated. If the pond is covered with plastic to create a Solar Still, a huge flat plate
collector and if evaporating vapor is trapped and condensed we can achieve greater
efficiencies as well as collect distilled water for drinking and irrigation. Due to the
growing scarcity of water, an essential element for survival, alternate sources have to be
tapped. Apart from recycling and harvesting there is a possibility of producing drinking
water from solar stills. This principle is simple as the sun’s heat is trapped to heat water
to produce steam. The vapor is then condensed to reappear as pure water. The scale of the
operation will be determined by need and it can be extended to produce sufficient water
for single family drinking and cooking purposes.
8. Phase out Large Dams, Build Check or Delay Action Dams:
To ensure soil conservation; recharge of aquifers to prevent floods.
9. Use Run of the Rivers for Hydro Energy Generation:
Low-cost and safe.
Core Petition:
I, the undersigned, call on all that powers that be, to keep our Water unsullied;
unpolluted, free from waste; equitably distributed, wisely used and conserved with all
requisite interventions in order to assure our continued survival at least apropos to this
vital sector.
Petition Background:
The so often taken for granted continuous miracle of life on Earth has a tenuous
foundation upon water. That life-bestowing drop is sadly mistreated, polluted and
dangerously depleted. The dangers inherent in ignoring the life-threatening situation that
is emerging in so vital a sector as water availability, both in terms of quality and quantity
are staggering. To highlight the nexus between water and poverty, it is not that we do not
have water, sheer waste and pollution is depriving the poor of quality and quantity of this
precious resource.
The hydrology of our Mega Cities has undergone a fundamental change, the
aquifers are not being recharged adequately and sewage infiltration has polluted the sub-
surface water to create a health hazard. A minimum of 1,200 cubic meters per person/ per
annum is required for sustainability of life, at 1,000 c/m economic development is
severely curtailed and at less than 500 c/m water availability life is threatened.  Pakistan
once a water surplus country is now facing severe water shortage. The per capita water
availability is reduced from 5,600 cubic meters to 1,100 cubic meters.
We must create a balance between extraction and recharging and ensure that our
sub surface water is not polluted by sewage. The problem has to be tackled both at the
Macro or top Government level as well as at the Micro or Grass Roots level in order to be
effective.
Firstly, the immense bodies of policies formulated by various Governments and
Agencies has to be reviewed and practical measures be adopted to replace mere verbiage.
The logical next step is to form Water User Associations at sub regional levels. Water is

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 36


not only required for the Agricultural Sector, presently consuming 97% of this resource,
it is needed for Industry, Environment, Domestic consumption, Sanitation as well as for
Power Generation. There is no question of monopolization and we must plan and use
water to a high degree of efficiency in order to ensure sustainable development across the
board.
Our targets should include self-sufficiency and not export in grain and export only
of high value horticultural produce to take maximum advantage of the water resource that
is expended.
To cite the example of The Holy Quran and draw attention to Surah Yusaf where
7 years of plenty and 7 years of drought was the interpretation of a dream by Hazrat
Yusaf (AS). Water Conservation was first practiced by the Prophet Yusaf (AS) he
declared when he successfully led Egypt through drought, over 2,000 years ago. The
modern Aswan Dam was constructed keeping in mind a carry over capacity of 7 years for
its command area.
The United States has a storage capacity of 6,500 cubic meters per person while
we hold a meager capacity of 132 c/m. At present our carry over capacity is insufficient
for even one crop to the next, what to talk about 2/ 3 years of drought conditions.
Aquifer Improvement; Water Harvesting; Conservation Irrigation and Sewage
Treatment have to be introduced and widely practiced and that too at an affordable price.
We are direly in need of an actionable Water Policy with clearly delineated
prioritization from the Federal Government. Laws should be enacted in order to regulate
water extraction and municipal waste dumping. The case of the Punjab is a foremost
example. If preventive measures are not taken the Punjab will be pumping salt water
within a few years. Whither then the Food Basket of Pakistan?
Forests are facing extreme stress and eye-wash projects of tree plantation have to
stop! The recent exercise by the KP Govt. is an effort to befool the masses as trees
planted in the last season were not old enough to be planted out. To plant trees in an arid
area in the beginning of winter is a criminal act and has recently been done by a Leader
of a Political Party.
Indiscriminate burning of Solid Waste leads to spread of carcinogenic particles
while open air dumping provides ideal environment for proliferation of Disease Vectors
(Flies; Mosquitoes, Rats, etc.)
“Military confrontation may be triggered by a desperate need for natural
resources such as energy, food and water.” This is not meant to be a prediction of the
future, but rather a device to encourage strategists to begin thinking in different terms
about climate.
Climate change can be dangerous, even catastrophic. When change comes, it can
be big and fast.
The Pentagon was mulling over a private think tank study it had commissioned
that painted a particularly gloomy scenario of abrupt climate change as a threat to
national security during the new century.
But there is nothing imaginary about abrupt climate change. It is not a hypothesis
or a computer simulation. It is a solid theory supported by a careful reading of the
remarkable direct evidence, the hard data that scientists pried from the earth itself. Since
the early 1990s, all of the world’s oceans have yielded high-resolution sediments bearing

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 37


the familiar signs of abrupt climate changes. The signs of abrupt change have become
more and more global in scope.
Pakistan is rated among the top 10 most vulnerable countries to climate change as
per independent international assessments such as that by German Watch, an NGO based
in Germany. Listed below are the major climate change related concerns of the country
and some recent examples of its vulnerability to climate change related extreme events:
Major Concerns:
 Increased variability of Monsoon;
 Projected recession of Hindu Kush Himalayan Glaciers (HKH) threatening Indus
River System (IRS) Flows;
 Increased risks of Extreme Events (floods, droughts, cyclones, extreme high / low
temperatures etc.);
 Severe water- and heat-stressed conditions in arid and semi-arid regions leading
to reduced agricultural productivity;
 Increase in Deforestation; Loss of Biodiversity;
 Rapid melting of Glaciers;
 Increased intrusion of saline water in the Indus delta due to sea level rise; Risk to
mangroves and breeding grounds of fish;
 Health Risks.
Examples of Pakistan's Vulnerability:
 Increasing Extreme Events over the last two decades;
 Devastating super floods in 2010, 2011 and 2014 (about 2200 deaths, 20 million
people homeless, $ 10 Billion damages in 2010 alone);
 Large scale flooding in 1992, 1997, 2003, 2006, 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015.
 Localized Cloud Burst rains causing urban flooding of Lahore (1996), Islamabad
(2001) and Karachi (2009); glacial lake overflow flood (GLOF) warning. Floods
have affected as many as 136,000 people in the region with 653 houses damaged
and 175 villages affected. Around 2,705 houses were also damaged, leaving
almost 7,000 people affected.
 History's worst drought during 1999 - 2002; Droughts in Thar area of Sindh and
Cholistan area of southern Punjab in 2014;
 Intense heat waves during 2003, 2005, 2007 and 2010 (53.7 0C); At least 748
people have died in four days as a result of a severe heat wave in Karachi and at
least 33 deaths in other parts of the Country, in June 2015.
 Severe cyclonic storms in 1999, 2007 and 2010; the tropical cyclone 'Ashobaa'
came near the Karachi coast in 2015.
 Increased flooding due to glacial melt in current year (2015). Recent glacial lake
outburst floods (GLOF) in Tajikistan, Kazakhstan and Pakistan, as well as the
recent announcement by IOM that unseasonal snowmelt has resulted in over
30 floods and landslides in Afghanistan during July 2015, there comes a timely
study by the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS) that claims tens of
thousands of glaciers are melting faster than ever.
The undersigned petitioner is compelled to knock at the doors of the
Superior Judiciary to rid our nation of a catastrophe of unimaginable proportions.
The appropriate corridors have failed to respond to the repeated calls of the
petitioner that are lost in the cacophony created and prevalent in the power palaces.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 38


The Honorable Supreme Court of Pakistan remains the only ray of hope.
Governments draw their cause of existence from the simple rule of providing service
to the people and must have the right vision to make decisions about the future of
the nations. In present day scenario nothing is more important than water and they
are obliged to ignore it at our peril. The Welfare of the Common man and Woman
is the Supreme law! The Parliament is not Supreme, rather it is only Allah (SWT)
who is Supreme. He has Created all as equals and Parliament is the voice of the
People who are all the Khalifas of the Supreme Allah (SWT).
The Honorable Supreme Court is requested to bring the issue as well as my
humble attempts for interventions to the direct notice of the Honorable Prime
Minister of Pakistan to provide me a hearing I suggest that I may be appointed as
Bioenvironmental Consultant assigned with special task enabled to demonstrate and
suggest “A Way Forward”

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 39


Actionable Interventions
Bioenvironmental Consultant, Enabled Demonstrations:
# INTRAVENTION SUGGESTED LOCATION
Conservation Irrigation especially Sub-Soil On-Site
(Reticulation) Irrigation.
1 Ensure Sewage Treatment through Energy Domes and Site under control of
Constructed Wetlands. Abbottabad Cantonment/
Pakistan Military Academy.
Unused, British Era Built,
Sewage Treatment Plant.
2 Extensive use of compost and water gel crystals in agri/ On-Site
horticulture. Seed Treatment by naturally occurring
enzymes. Innovative Cultural Practices. Traditional and
Innovative Water harvesting.
3 Complete, Eco-safe Plant Nutrition. On-Site
4 Hydro Seed Mulching for Slope Stabilization and Village Puna, Tehsil
Erosion Control. Havellian, District
Abbottabad, K.P.
5 Use of saline water for Solar Ponds. Tehsil Lillah, District Pind
Dadan Khan , Punjab.

Matters Requiring Urgent Government Action:


1. Financial enablement for turnkey demonstrations as tabled above.
2. Aquifer mapping over the length and breadth of the Country.
3. Aquifer improvement; underground Weirs to create underground Dams; ensured
recharging; prevention of pollution and remediation of already polluted
underground reservoirs.
3. Phase out large Dams, build check or delay action dams.
4. Use run of the rivers for hydro energy generation.

Annex I: Additional Secretary, CAD, Islamabad


For DG Alternate Energy Board, Islamabad.
from: Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan <timurhyat@gmail.com>
to: Akbar Shamim <akbar.shamim17@gmail.com>
1. Sustainable & Appropriate Livelihoods Research institute.
2. Energy Dome Estimate.
3. Hydroseeder Erosion Control.
4. Siltstop Erosion Control.
5. Sustainable Development.
date: Wed, Aug 12, 2015 at 11:49 AM
subject: Proposals
mailed by: gmail.com

Annex II: Biomelioration, LEADS, Islamabad


from: Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan timurhyat@gmail.com

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 40


to: main@lead.org.pk
date: Sat, Sep 5, 2015 at 11:15 AM
subject: Energy Dome for Biomethanation of Solid & Liquid Waste.
mailed-by: gmail.com
2. Bioenergy.
3. Annex I.
4. Annex II.
5. Annex III.

Annex III: Additional Chief Secretary, KP


from: Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan <timurhyat@gmail.com>
to: psacskpk@yahoo.com
date: Mon, Dec 15, 2014 at 10:47 AM
subject: Sustainable & Applied Livelihoods Research Institute
mailed-by: gmail.com
1. Abbottabad Fund for Sustainable Development.
2. AFSD Meeting Notes.

Annex IV: ADC to PMA Commandant


from: Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan <timurhyat@gmail.com>
to: hammadghazanfar2699@gmail.com
date: Mon, May 19, 2014 at 11:00 AM
subject: Proposal
mailed-by: gmail.com
1. Detailed project Proposal with technical Briefing for Revival of Jogni Sewage
Treatment Plant for Liquid & Solid Waste Treatment and Energy Generation.
Annex V: Provincial Secretary, Punjab
To: The Secretary,
Environment.
Govt. of The Punjab.
Lahore.
1. Letter for Eradication of Polio Virus from Liquid Waste with energy generation as
CDM Project.
# INTRAVENTION Competent Competent Rs.
Administrative Financial in
Authority Authority millions
1 Mobilization of Honorable Prime Honorable
Bioenvironmental Consultant. Minister of Pakistan Prime
2 Conservation Irrigation District Irrigation Minister of
especially Sub-Soil Department through Pakistan
(Reticulation) Irrigation. Secretary Irrigation KP through
3 Ensure Sewage Treatment General Officer Special Grant
through Energy Domes and Commanding,
Constructed Wetlands. Abbottabad/
Commandant Pakistan
Military Academy,

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 41


Kakul, Abbottabad &
Nazim, Nawansher,
District Abbottabad
4 Extensive use of compost and District Agricultural
water gel crystals in agri/ Officer, Abbottabad
horticulture. Seed Treatment through Secretary
by naturally occurring Agriculture KP
enzymes. Innovative Cultural
Practices. Traditional and
Innovative Water harvesting.
5 Complete, Eco-safe Plant
Nutrition.
6 Hydro Seed Mulching for Deputy Commissioner,
Slope Stabilization and Erosion Abbottabad through
Control. Chief Secretary, KP
7 AFSD Re-Notified after Notified Board/
Reconstitution of Board/ Governing Body of
Governing Body to pursue AFSD, District Nazim
Sustainable Development Abbottabad
Initiatives. Petitioner appointed
as Bioenvironmental
Consultant/ Project Director.
TOTAL

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 42


Harnessing Biomethanation for Energy Generation & Environment Protection:

Organic Waste Bio-Gas Plant Methane +


Soil Amendment

Table of Contents:
1. Introduction: .........................................................................................................6
1.1 Definitions:.........................................................................................................6
1.1.1 Liquid Waste:...............................................................................................6
1.1.2 Biomelioration: ...........................................................................................6
1.1.3 Bioenvironmental Management: ................................................................6
1.1.4 Bioremediation:...........................................................................................6
1.1.5 Methanogenesis:..........................................................................................6
1.1.6 Bioaugmentation: ........................................................................................6
1.1.7 Phytoremediation: .......................................................................................6

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 1


1.1.8 Bio-Oxidation: ............................................................................................7
1.1.9 Composting: ................................................................................................7
1.2 The History of Methane:...................................................................................7
1.3 Reasons for Failures:.........................................................................................8
1.5 What’s Different Now?......................................................................................8
1.5 Advantages & Disadvantages:..........................................................................9
1.5.1 Advantages:.................................................................................................9
1.5.2 Disadvantages..............................................................................................9
2. Liquid Waste:.......................................................................................................10
2.1 Households: .....................................................................................................12
2.2 Service Industries: ..........................................................................................13
2.3 Manufacturing Industry: ...............................................................................13
2.3.1 Waste Stream or Wastes having as Constituents:......................................14
2.3.2 Other Hazardous Waste Streams: .............................................................16
2.4 Hazardous Waste Management:....................................................................16
2.4.1 Hazardous Waste Characteristics:.............................................................16
2.4.2 Bioaugmentation Treatment Materials:.....................................................17
3. Health Issues:.......................................................................................................22
3.1 Major Excreta Related Diseases:...................................................................22
3.2 Excreta Related Diseases and their Characteristics:....................................23
3.3 Survival Time of Pathogens by different Disposal Treatment Conditions.24
4. Managing the Use of Water:...............................................................................24
4.1 BACT: ..............................................................................................................24
4.2 The Sustainable Region Initiative (SRI): ......................................................24
4.2.2 Integrated Resource Recovery:..................................................................25
4.2.2 Use Liquid waste as a Resource:...............................................................26
4.3 Water Treatment Projects Design Philosophy for Developing Countries: 28
5. Biological Treatment:..........................................................................................29
5.5 Wastewater Treatment Plants:.......................................................................30
5.2 Methane:...........................................................................................................30
5.2.1CH4 + 2 O2 → CO2 + 2 H2O (ΔH = −891 kJ/mol (at standard conditions)). .30
5.3 Methanogenesis:...............................................................................................32
Strains of Methanogens:................................................................................................32
5.4 Thermophillic Digesters:..................................................................................33
5.5 Energy:...............................................................................................................33
5.5.1 Daily Waste and Methane Production by Dairy, Beef:.............................35
5.5.2 Waste Methane Contents and Petrol Equivalents:.....................................36
5.5.3 Developing Technologies:.........................................................................36
5.6 Safety:...............................................................................................................36
5.7 Composition:....................................................................................................36
5.8 Fertilizer and Soil Conditioner:....................................................................37
5.9 Waste Heat Recovery:.....................................................................................37
5.10 Biochemical Process:.......................................................................................37
5.11 Physical Process:..............................................................................................38
5.12 Alternative Biological Production routes:.....................................................38
6. Generation Process:.............................................................................................38

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 2


6.1 Optimum Conditions for Digester Operation:..............................................38
6.2 System Management: .....................................................................................39
6.2.2 Preferential Degradation of Specific Compounds: ...................................39
6.2.3 Improved Nitrification ..............................................................................39
6.2.4 Other Areas: ..............................................................................................39
6.2.6 Method: .....................................................................................................39
6.3 Gas Production. ...............................................................................................40
6.3.1 pH: ............................................................................................................40
6.3.2 Ammonia Concentration: ..........................................................................40
6.3.3 Uniform loading:.......................................................................................41
6.3.4 Key Consideration:....................................................................................41
6.3.5 Important Issue:.........................................................................................41
6.3.6 Establishment: ...........................................................................................42
6.3.7 Suitability of Raw Material:......................................................................42
6.3.8 Percentage of Solids:.................................................................................42
6.3.9 Temperature of Operating Cycle:..............................................................42
6.4 Digester Construction Requirements:...........................................................42
6.5.1 Insulating: .................................................................................................42
6.4.2 Stirring: .....................................................................................................42
6.5 Digester Innovations:.......................................................................................43
6.5.1 Corn Cob Digesters....................................................................................43
6.5.2 Energy Dome.............................................................................................44
7. “Makeen Qatil Makanoon Kay”........................................................................44
7.1 Standing on the Outside, Looking In:............................................................45
7.2 Present Trends:................................................................................................45
7.2.1 “Israaf:”......................................................................................................45
7.2.2 Eco-Disaster:..............................................................................................45
7.2.3 Unaesthetic:...............................................................................................45
7.2.4 Un-Scientific:.............................................................................................45
7.2.5 Expensive:..................................................................................................45
7.2.6 Non-Traditional:........................................................................................45
7.2.7 Site-Orientation:........................................................................................46
7.2.8 Energy Conservation:................................................................................46
7.2.9 Thermal Characteristics:............................................................................46
7.2.10 Earth Shelter:.............................................................................................47
7.2.11 Roof:..........................................................................................................47
7.2.12 Walls:.........................................................................................................47
7.2.13 Floors:........................................................................................................47
7.2.14 Basements:.................................................................................................47
7.2.18 Prevailing Adobe Homes:..........................................................................48
7.2.19 Geodesic Dome Construction:...................................................................48
7.2.20 Weather/ Climate Orientation:...................................................................49
7.2.21 Location:....................................................................................................49
7.2.22 Summary:...................................................................................................49
7.3 Concept: ...........................................................................................................49
7.3.1 Effort: ........................................................................................................50

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7.3.2 Other Uses: ...............................................................................................50
7.3.3 The Design: ...............................................................................................50
7.3.4 Culture: .....................................................................................................50
7.3.5 Structure: ...................................................................................................50
7.3.6 Designing and Trials: ................................................................................51
8. Size of the Plant:..................................................................................................51
8.1 Sizing a Bio Gas Plant.....................................................................................51
8.2 Summary..........................................................................................................52
8.3 Double Stage: ..................................................................................................53
9. Residual Products: ..............................................................................................54
9.1 Class A Sludge: ...............................................................................................54
9.1.1 Composting the Digestate:.........................................................................55
9.2 Gas Contamination and Contaminants: .......................................................55
9.3 Purification of Landfill and Digester Gas: ...................................................57
9.3.1 Gas Scrubbing Technologies:....................................................................58
10. Determining the Feasibility of Methane Production:.......................................61
11. Conclusion:............................................................................................................63
Table of Tables:
Table 1: Sewage Capacity...................................................................................................5
Table 2: History of Methane................................................................................................6
Table 3: Reasons of Failure.................................................................................................7
Table 4: What's Different Now!..........................................................................................7
Table 5:Advantages.............................................................................................................8
Table 6: Disadvantages........................................................................................................8
Table 7: Sewage Statistics.................................................................................................10
Table 8: Liquid Waste Sources..........................................................................................11
Table 9: Food Group Disposal via Sink/ Sewer................................................................12
Table 10: Leather Industry Effluent Analysis...................................................................12
Table 11: Industrial Hazardous Liquid Waste Categories.................................................13
Table 12: Industrial Waste Constituents............................................................................13
Table 13: Explosives Waste Constituents..........................................................................16
Table 14: Explosives Waste Degradation Products...........................................................17
Table 15: Bioaugmentation Treatment Materials..............................................................17
Table 16:Proposed Bioremediation Process......................................................................18
Table 17: Major Excreta Related Diseases........................................................................22
Table 18: Excreta Related Diseases & Characteristics......................................................22
Table 19:Pathogen Survival Times by Disposal/ Treatment.............................................23
Table 20: Best Available Control Technology (BACT) 3Rs.............................................23
Table 21: Overarching Principles......................................................................................24
Table 22: Sustainability Principles....................................................................................24
Table 23: Design Philosophy Indicators............................................................................26
Table 24: Technology Imperatives....................................................................................27
Table 25: Conditions for High Quality Water Production.................................................27
Table 26:Methane Combustion Process Equations...........................................................29
Table 27: Use & Consumption of Biogas..........................................................................33
Table 28: Dry Manure Methane Production......................................................................34

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Table 29: Waste Methane Contents & Petrol Equivalents................................................34
Table 30: Methane Composition & %...............................................................................35
Table 31: Ammonia Concentration Effect on Methane Production..................................39
Table 32:C:N Ratios..........................................................................................................40
Table 33: Orientation Factors............................................................................................44
Table 34: Energy Conservation.........................................................................................45
Table 35: Current Adobe Construction Climatic Adaptation Advantages........................46
Table 36: Current Adobe Construction Climatic Adaptation Disadvantages....................47
Table 37: Gedesic Dome Construction Advantages..........................................................47
Table 38: Advantages of Proposed Construction..............................................................48
Table 39: Methane Production Residual Products.............................................................52
Table 40: Digestate Composting Advantages....................................................................53
Table 41: Gas Purification Reasons...................................................................................56
Table 42: Purification Process...........................................................................................58
Table 43: PSA Scrubbing Advantages..............................................................................59
Table of Figures:
Figure 1: Gas Street Lamp.................................................................................................8
Figure 2: Geodesic Digesters.............................................................................................9
Figure 3: Green House Gasses.........................................................................................10
Figure 4: Liquid Waste....................................................................................................10
Figure 5: Sewerage Systems Components.......................................................................12
Figure 6: Treatment Perspective......................................................................................20
Figure 7: Sustainable Resource Initiative........................................................................27
Figure 8: Wastewater Treatment Stages..........................................................................30
Figure 9: Biochemical Process........................................................................................37
Figure 10: pH Effects.........................................................................................................40
Figure 11: Stirrer................................................................................................................43
Figure 12: Geodesic Dome Bamboo Frame......................................................................44
Figure 13: Sizing a Digester..............................................................................................51
Figure 14: Flow Chart Waste Disposal..............................................................................53
Figure 15: Large Scale Composting..................................................................................55
Figure 16: Digester Gas Contents......................................................................................55
Figure 17: Wet Scrubbing..................................................................................................58
Figure 18: PSA Cycle.......................................................................................................59
Figure 19: PSA..................................................................................................................59
Figure 20: Moving Towards the Future.............................................................................63

1. Introduction: Sewage infiltration into groundwater has made most of the world’s
potable water undrinkable, unless immediate and emergency measures are taken to restore the
environment and stop pollution, we will be unable to meet Pakistan’s water demands in the near
future. It is estimated that a community of 10,000 people generate 40-acre inches of sewage
effluent per day which is equivalent of 1 million gallons of wastewater. The prime objective of
this presentation is to promote sustainable Liquid Waste Management Systems that support
Green House Gas (GHG) emission reduction through The Clean Development Mechanism
(CDM).

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Table 1: Sewage Capacity:

# Numbers Effluent Energy


1 1 person 100 gallons pd/ 1.46 acre inches pa
2 25 persons 2,500 gallons pd 8 kWhrs pd
3 Manure of 1 cow 3 kWhrs pd

It takes 2.4 kWhrs to light one 100 W bulb for 24 hrs.

1.1 Definitions:

1.1.1 Liquid Waste: Waste water from the community, including faecal matter, urine,
household and commercial waste water that contains human waste but does not include
stormwater.
i. Sewage/ Blackwater: Waste discharged from the human body into a toilet, and
the water used for flushing the discharge.
ii. Sullage/ Greywater: Wastewater from a bath, basin, kitchen, laundry or
shower.
iii. Liquid Trade Waste: All liquid waste other than sewage of a domestic nature.
iv. Hazardous Liquid Waste: Waste material that, when improperly handled, can
cause substantial harm to human health and safety or to the environment. It is
generated primarily by chemical production, manufacturing, and other industrial
activities.
1.1.2 Biomelioration: Biological amelioration or using Biological means to improve or rectify
existing harmful conditions.
1.1.3 Bioenvironmental Management: The attempt to minimize the impact on the
environment of Natural Resource exploitation can be termed as Bioenvironmental
Management.
1.1.4 Bioremediation: A more cost effective method of remediation as compared to
incineration or physical and chemical remediation methods
1.1.5 Methanogenesis: Or Biomethanation is the formation of methane by microbes known
as methanogens.
1.1.6 Bioaugmentation: The addition of non-toxic and non-pathogenic microorganisms,
species of live bacteria suspended in a liquid medium that are non-offensive to humans,
animals, plants and all types of aquaculture.
1.1.7 Phytoremediation: The use of plants to remove environmental pollutants from sites
contaminated with inorganic and organic wastes. A form of ecological engineering that
has proven effective as well as relatively inexpensive and holds great promise as a low-
cost remedial approach.
1.1.8 Bio-Oxidation: The process of agitation or vertical drop of water to induce oxidation
through aeration.
1.1.9 Composting: Process by which organic materials are biodegraded by microorganisms,
resulting in the production of inorganic/organic byproducts and energy in the form of
heat, carbon-dioxide and water.

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1.2 The History of Methane:
Table 2: History of Methane:
10th Century BC Used to heat water in Assyria
16th Century Used to heat water in Persia
17th Century Flammable gases found to be emitted from decaying organic matter
1776-1778 Methane discovered and isolated by Alessandro Volta. Relationship between
the amount of decaying organic matter and the amount of flammable gas
produced demonstrated.
1808 Methane produced via controlled anaerobic digestion of cattle manure
1859 First digestion plant built in Bombay
1895 Biogas recovered from a sewage treatment plant in England fueled street
lamps. The technology was developed in Exeter, where a septic tank was used
to generate gas for the sewer destructor lamp, a type of gas lighting.
1904 The first dual-purpose tank for both sedimentation and sludge treatment was
installed in Hampton, England. 1930s - Developments in microbiology
identified the anaerobic bacteria and conditions needed to promote methane
production
1970s Energy crisis renewed interest in AD
1970s - 80s Lack of understanding and overconfidence resulted in numerous failures
China, India and Thailand reported 50% failure rates
Failures of farm digesters in U.S. approached 80%

Figure 1: Gas Street Lamp:


1.3 Reasons for Failures:
Table 3: Reasons of Failure:
1 Inadequate operator training.
2 Management failures.
3 Benefits oversold.
4 Operations too small to justify digester.
5 High costs of Infrastructure.
6 Excessive operating costs.
7 Unreliable market for biogas.
8 Impurity of Gas produced.
9 Lack of appropriate microbial inoculation.
10 Prevailing Contractor System.

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.5 What’s Different Now?
Table 4: What's Different Now!
1 Improved designs and better understanding of O&M requirements.
2 Cogeneration to raise volume of Methane captured.
3 High prices for liquid fuel & natural gas.
4 Market evolving for biogas energy.
5 Microbe culture in Laboratories.
6 Methods of scrubbing gas produced along-with valuable by-products evolved.
7 Possibility of deploying Multi-Use, Integrated Plant to address different problems
simultaneously.
8 Revolutionary; New; Low-cost; Low-Carbon; Super-Insulated; Disaster-Proof Construction
developed in Pakistan.
9 System of CDM/ Carbon Credits created.

Anaerobic Digester: Aerobic Digester:


Figure 2 Geodesic Digesters
.5 Advantages & Disadvantages:
.5.1 Advantages:

Table 5:Advantages:

# ITEM
1 The odor potential of a well digested waste is considerably reduced.
2 Sanitary Aspects: The breeding of flies and mosquitoes is eliminated as the digestion proceeds in
the absence of oxygen.
3 Efficient Use of Waste Material: Refuse, that is otherwise a problem to dispose, is put to highly
economic use.
4 Anaerobic digestion reduces loss of nitrogen from 18.5 % to 1.0 % when compared to the
conventional handling of farmyard manure. Carbon loss is reduced from 33 % to 7.3 %.
Phosphorus, potassium and calcium are not lost at all.
5 Digested waste has slightly less fertilizer value than non-digested waste, but it is more readily
available to plants. It is simply converted to a more useful form.
6 If concentrated and compressed, it can also be used in vehicle transportation. Compressed biogas
is becoming widely used in Sweden, Switzerland, and Germany. A biogas-powered train has been
in service in Sweden since 2005. Biogas also powers automobiles, in 2007, an estimated 12,000
vehicles were being fueled with upgraded biogas worldwide, mostly in Europe.

1.5.2 Disadvantages:

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Table 6: Disadvantages:
# ITEM
1 A Methane Digester is large and expensive. The expense stems from the fact that it must be well-
insulated, air-tight and supplied a source of heat. The size of a conventional digester is equal to 15-
20 times the daily waste volume produced, or more if the waste is diluted before digestion. The
volume of waste that must be disposed of increases accordingly if dilution water is used.
2 A very high level of management is required.
3 A methane digester can be extremely sensitive to environmental changes, and a biological upset
may take months to correct. Methane generation ceases or is very low during an upset.
4 Start-up--usually the most critical phase of methane generation-is difficult. Methane-producing
bacteria are very slow-growing, and several weeks are required to establish a large bacterial
population.
5 Methane produced is mixed with corrosive gasses that increase wear and tear of machinery.
6 Methane is difficult to store, since at normal temperatures the gas can be compressed but not
liquefied without special, very expensive equipment. Methane is extremely explosive when mixed
with air at the proportions of 6-15 percent methane. Digester gas is heavier than air and settles to
the ground, displacing oxygen. If hydrogen sulfide is present, the digester gas can be a deadly
poison.
7 The decomposition of Liquid and Biodegradable Solid waste in the open releases two main
gases that cause global climate change: nitrogen dioxide and methane. Nitrogen dioxide
(NO2) warms the atmosphere 310 times more than carbon dioxide and methane 21 times
more than carbon dioxide Green House Gasses (GHG).

Figure 3 Green House Gasses


Landfill/ Sewer gas: Sewer gases may include hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, methane, carbon
dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides. Improper disposal of petroleum products such as
gasoline and mineral spirits contribute to sewer gas hazards. Sewer gases are of concern due to
their odor, health effects, and potential for creating fire or explosions.

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Table 7: Compounds Proposed for Degradation
# Compounds to be Degraded:
1 Mono, Di and Tri-Nitro Toluene
2 Nitrocellulose (cellulose nitrate)
3 Tetryl
4 Sulfate
5 Oil & Grease
6 Sulphide
7 Chlorine
8 Chloride
9 Lead
10 Iron
11 Cadmium
12 Chromium
13 Nitrocellulose (cellulose nitrate)

Phase 1.
Biodegradation of the Municipal Liquid Treatment Effluents (Aerobic, Anaerobic and
Facultative).
Phase 2.
Biodegradation of Municipal Solid Waste through Anaerobic Composting with
Bioaugmentation.
Phase 3.
Biodegradation of Hazardous Liquid Waste through Bio-oxidation and Phytoremediation.
Phase 4.
Biodegradation of Hazardous Liquid Waste through Anaerobic Slurry Decomposition with
Bioaugmentation.

Application and Sampling Methods:


Initially, sampling the site will involve samples from monitoring points placed around the
site. Sampling should be conducted to determine contaminant levels as well as nutrient levels in
the effluents. Sampling of the water would also be important. Information on the nutrient levels
is important so that possible growth rates can be established.
Foreseeable Problems:
The problems that can occur during the bioremediation of these explosive compounds
could arise from the bacteria and fungi unable to adapt to the extreme anaerobic or anaerobic
environment for example the anaerobic fungi isolated from the rumen might not tolerate the
conditions given. Due to the assumption made, that this fungi will be able to degrade
nitrocellulose in an ideal laboratories conditions may not necessary mimic the activities in the
environment. Other microorganisms, like the de-nitrifiers which grow relatively fast, might use
up the entire available nitrate and inhibit their own growth. Furthermore, the assumption that the
ammonium ions and nitrate ions are in equilibrium might not hold due to an influx of microbial
activities, which might inhibit denitrification. This inhibition of denitrification may occur due to
temperature increase in the summer, nutrient levels too low or too abundant.
Problems that might occur during biodegradation, or might already be occurring include
the release of nitric oxide, nitrous oxide and nitrogen dioxide into the environment. This needs to

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 10


be monitored, as both nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide are toxic to humans and to many other
organisms. Nitrous oxide is able to diffuse up to the lower atmosphere and up to the stratosphere
where it reacts with the ozone causing partial damage to the protective layer (Boyd, 1988). UV
penetration to the surface of the earth is further increased.
Costs:
The need for prevention of environmental contamination from hazardous wastes is
overwhelming. The cost for remediation of these contamination sites all over Pakistan is
estimated at over 10 Arab Rupees, and even at this cost most sites would not be achieve 'pristine'
condition. Most technologies currently considered for remediation are expensive and often do
not effectively alleviate the pollution hazard. Bio/ Phytoremediation is usually much cheaper
than other clean-up options, and provides great adaptability and tailorabilty to specific
environments (Walker and Kaplan, 1992).
Health Issues:
Major Excreta Related Diseases:
Table 8: Major Excreta Related Diseases:
Category Disease Transmission Mechanism
Fecal Oral  Hepatitis A  Person to Person Contact
(Non Bacterial)  Amoebic Dysentery  Domestic Contamination
 Rotavirus
 Giardiasis
Fecal Oral  Cholera  Person to Person Contact
(Bacterial)  Salmonellosis  Domestic Contamination
 Shigellosis  Water Contamination
 Many forms of  Crop Contamination
Diarrhea
Soil Transmitted Helminths  Hookworm  Compound Contamination
 Roundworm  Communal Defecation Areas
 Whipworm  Crop Contamination
Tapeworms  Beef Tapeworm  Compound Contamination
 Port Tapeworm  Field Contamination
 Fodder Contamination
Water-Based Helminths  Schistosomisis  Water Contamination
Excreta Related Insect  Filariasis  Insects Breeding/ Feeding in Poor
Vectors  Some Fecal Oral Sanitation Sites
Diseases

Excreta Related Diseases and their Characteristics:


Table 9: Excreta Related Diseases & Characteristics:
Disease Specific Reservoir Transmission Incubation Period
Agent
Hookworm Necator Man Fecal contamination of the soil; Few weeks to
(Anctlostomiasis) americanus eggs hatch, infective larvae several months
Ancylostoma penetrates the bare skin, usually of
duodonale the foot.
Ancylostoma
ceylanicum
Ascariasis Ascarsis Man Ingestion of infective eggs from Two months
(Roundworm) Lumbricoids contaminated soils, salads and other
foods eaten raw, eating with
contaminated hand.
Tapeworm Taenia Man Ingestion of raw or partially cooked 8 to 14 weeks

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saginata meat containing infected larvae
passed through feces.
Entrobiasis Entrobius Man Direct transfer of infected eggs by 3 to 6 weeks
(Pinworm, vermicularies hand from anus to the mouth;
Thread worm) indirect through contaminated
fomites.
Poliomyelitis Poliovirus Man Direct contact with pharyngeal Commonly 7 to 12
type 1,2,3 secretion or feces of infected person. days range from 3
to 21 days
Bilharziasis Schistosoma Man Exposure to infected water during Months
haematobium bathing or wading.
Schistosoma
mansoni
Strongyloidiasis Strongyloids Man, Infected soils in moist soil 17 days
stericolaris possibly contaminated with feces penetrates
dogs the skin usually of the foot
Viral Diarrhea Ratavirus Probably Probably fecal-Oral and possibly Approximately 48
Man Fecal-Respiratory hours
Infectious Hepatitis A Man Person to Person by the Fecal-Oral From 15 – 50 days
Hepatitis A virus route depending on dose
Cholera Vibrio Man Ingestion of water contaminated From a few hours
Cholerae with feces or vomitus of patients, to five days
ingestion of food contaminated with
dirty hand, fomites etc.
Shigellosis Shigella Man Direct or indirect Fecal-Oral One to seven days,
(Bacillary bacteria transmission from patient or carrier usually one to three
Dysentery) species days
Typhoid and Salmonella Man both By food or water contaminated by Usually ranges
Paratyphoid typhi patients and feces or urine of a patient or carrier; from 1-3 weeks
especially fruits; vegetables harvested from depending on dose
carriers sewage contaminated area.
Giardiaa Giardia Man, Ingestion of cysts in feacally 5-25 days or longer,
lambliasis laambia possibly contaminated water or less often median is 7-10 days
other wild or faecally contaminated food
domestic
animals
Amoebiasis Entmobeba Man Epidemic outbreaks result mainly From a few days to
Histolitica from ingestion of faecally several months or
contaminated water containing years. Commonly 2-
amoebic cysts. Endemic spread 4 weeks
involves hand to mouth transfer of
feces from contaminated raw
vegetables, by flies or soiled hands
of food vendors
Tricuriasis Tricuruis Man Ingestion of developed eggs, which Indefinite
Tricuria have been deposited with feces on
to the ground
Survival Time of Pathogens in days by different Disposal or Treatment Conditions.
Table 10:Pathogen Survival Times by Disposal/ Treatment:
Conditions Bacteri Viruse Protozoa Helminthes
a s (Ascaris)
Soil 400 175 10 Many months
Crops 50 60 Not Not known
known
Night Soil, feces, sludge 20-30° C 90 100 0 Many months

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Composting (anaerobic at ambient temperature) 60 60 30 Many months
Thermophilic Composting (50-60° C maintained for 7 7 7 7 7
days)
Waste Stabilization Ponds (Retention Time greater 20 20 20 20
than 20 days)
Managing the Use of Water:
BACT: Best Available Control Technology (BACT) is based on optimum capacity to promote
pollution prevention using the 3Rs and Resource, Recovery and Residuals Management e.g. for
sewage discharges, pollution prevention using the 3Rs means to:
Table 11: Best Available Control Technology (BACT) 3Rs:
# Results
1 Reduce the toxic contaminants discharging to sewers and ultimately in the effluent;
2 Reuse the municipal sludge beneficially as a soil conditioner, fertilizer or for making top soil; and
3 Recycle the effluent economically as irrigation or industrial process water.
Secondary sewage treatment best meets these goals and will satisfy the toxicity
prevention requirements of Environment Protection. Secondary Treatment enables nutrients and
water to be economically recovered and residuals to be beneficially managed. Tertiary treatment
can be readily applied to reduce specific contaminants when necessary. Secondary sludge and
effluent can be routinely tested for toxicity and metals, and provide a good monitor on toxic
discharges to the sewer and the effectiveness of source control programs. BACT for sewage
discharges has therefore been determined to be secondary treatment.
The Sustainable Region Initiative (SRI1): This idea is derived from Canadian Good
Governance in Metro Vancouver and has its framework for decision making as well as the
mechanism by which sustainability imperatives are moved from ideas into action. The SRI has
been driven by three overarching principles which state that decision making must cater for:

Table 12: Overarching Principles

# Principles
1 Have regard for both local and global consequences, and long term impacts;
2 Recognize and reflect the interconnectedness and interdependence of systems;
3 Be collaborative.

These provide the foundation for the three sets of sustainability principles.
Table 13: Sustainability Principles
# Sustainability Principles
1 Protect and enhance the natural environment (conserve and develop natural capital);
2 Provide for ongoing prosperity (conserve and develop economic capital);
3 Build community capacity and social cohesion (conserve and develop social capital).
The long-term vision for liquid waste management is that all elements of liquid waste
will be efficiently recovered as energy, nutrients, water or other usable material or else returned
to the environment as part of the hydrological cycle in a way that protects public health and the
environment.
This vision and the Sustainable Region Initiative are supported by three goals:
Goal 1: Protect Public Health and the Environment:

1
Metro Vancouver, Canada.

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Public health and the environment are protected by managing sanitary sewage and storm
water at their sources, and providing wastewater collection and treatment services protective of
the environment.
Goal 2: Use Liquid Waste as a Resource:
Energy will be recovered from the heat in the sewage and from biogas generated in the
treatment process. Materials which have nutrient value will be recovered from wastewater
treatment plants. Water will be recovered from the wastewater treatment process and storm water
will be kept separate from effluent.
Goal 3: Effective, Affordable and Collaborative Management:
Monitoring, maintaining and investing in liquid waste infrastructure are essential to
ensuring effective system performance and preventing costlier repairs. Innovative alternative
approaches to traditional treatment systems will be explored. Opportunities for positive synergies
with other utilities and regional management systems will be pursued—such as integrated storm
water management plans. Sources of risk will be identified and mitigated.
Integrated Resource Recovery: This is a concept and approach that integrates the management
of water, wastewater, energy and solid waste services to recover resources and value and to help
increase resiliency. IRR planning and resource recovery actions in this plan support the Climate
Action Plan, the Energy Plan, and Living Water Smart.
The Energy Plan: A Vision for Clean Energy Leadership: In support of the Provincial
Government’s vision for “clean energy leadership” and electricity self-sufficiency by 2016, this
plan seeks to expand the production of biogas from wastewater, and to recover heat energy from
wastewater for use in district heating systems. The IRR approach to integrating liquid and solid
waste management will also support the Bio-Energy Strategy: Growing Our Natural Energy
Advantage. In partnership with Municipalities and the Private Sector, initiatives in these areas
will reduce greenhouse gas emissions, diversify the region’s sources of energy, provide
renewable energy and increase our energy independence. Water Smart objectives supported by
this plan include the requirements to complete and implement municipal Integrated Stormwater
Management Plans, support rainwater harvesting and water reclamation actions, the development
of an understanding of what makes streams healthy, watershed management planning in priority
areas, and helping address the impacts of climate change and climatic variability on local water
resources. This will be supported by the ongoing work of a new overarching integrated utility
management advisory committee.
Use Liquid waste as a Resource:
The goal of using liquid waste as a resource marks two important advances in the
thinking about liquid waste in the context of Metro Vancouver’s sustainability framework.
The first is the recognition that the traditional and still vitally important functions of
liquid waste management to protect public health and the environment will ultimately be
achieved most beneficially by converting liquid waste into usable resources. Liquid waste is a
source of green energy and nutrients and, in addition to stormwater; it can provide alternative
sources of water. Strategies are included in this plan to address these opportunities.
The second, which follows logically from the first, is the recognition that the
opportunities for cost effective resource recovery from liquid waste are magnified when explored
in the context of integrated resource recovery from the whole range of urban management
systems. This is essentially the implementation of the second ‘overarching imperative’ of the SRI
framework: “Recognize and reflect the interconnectedness and interdependence of systems”.

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A major challenge for Metro Vancouver and its members will be to adapt the legacy
sewerage and stormwater infrastructure of the 20th century to a more sustainable, integrated 21st
century system focused on integrated resource recovery. This will involve embracing new
technologies and reshaping communities and their infrastructure so that the resources and energy
recovered can be used efficiently and effectively: integrating a new kind of liquid waste
infrastructure with building design, community and nature. This involves managing liquid wastes
as a resource, minimizing discharges, minimizing financial risks, and maximizing the quality of
discharges.

Figure 4 Sustainable Resource Initiative


Water Treatment Projects Design Philosophy for Developing Countries:
What type of technology is?
Table 14: Design Philosophy Indicators:
# Indicators
1 Acceptable?
2 Sustainable?
3 Easily operable?
4 Replicable?
5 Replaceable or maintainable?
6 Beneficial / not a liability?
These are some of the questions that must be clearly answered in order to have viable and
sustainable community based sanitation. In many cities, towns and rural areas of Pakistan today
people live and raise their children in highly polluted environment. Urban and peri-urban areas

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 15


are among the worst polluted and disease ridden habitats. Much of this pollution, which leads to
high rates of disease, malnutrition and death, is caused by lack of adequate excreta disposal
facilities and inadequate solid waste collection and disposal service. As communities expand and
population increase, the situation will grow worse and the need for safe, sustainable and
affordable sanitation technology or system will be even more critical.
Secondly, the technology must:
Table 15: Technology Imperatives:
# Technology Imperatives
1 Produce reliable Treatment.
2 Ensure easy Plant Operation and maintenance.
3 Minimize Imported items.
4 Reduce Mechanization and Instrumentation.
5 Maximize local labor during construction and operation.
6 Limit Energy demands.
7 Use local materials whenever possible.
8 Provide adequate flexibility.
For Water Treatment Projects to produce high quality water several conditions must be met:
Table 16: Conditions for High Quality Water Production:
# Conditions
1 Staff must understand the process and equipment.
2 Mechanical and electrical equipment must be durable.
3 Spare parts and the availability of local repair and maintenance must exist.
4 Process units that will perform under varying water qualities and forgive occasional oversight of
operations personnel must be purchased.
5 Reliable suppliers of equipment with dependable local agents must be available.
Biological Treatment: Biological treatment is the most economical of waste treatments
available today. In biological systems, the dynamics are biochemical as opposed to chemical,
and the active agents are living entities. In chemical treatment we have to increase the quantity
of chemical proportionally to deal with a higher load of reactant, in a biological system the
biological additive can grow to help compensate for increased loadings. The septic system is a
biological process. Like any living thing, it has certain nutritional requirements to function
properly and functions best in a suitable environment. However, the best first step in optimizing
the performance of a septic system is to have a complete ecosystem of the organisms required for
the most complete breakdown of the waste.
Bacteria are typically 1-2 um wide and 2-20 um long. Due to the small size, shape or
morphology they can be examined only by using a high power microscope (x1000) and staining
techniques. The Gram Stain is the basic criteria used to categorize the groups of bacteria as either
gram positive or gram negative, indicating a fundamental variation in cell-wall structure.
 Use of oxygen in degrading organic matter
o uses oxygen only -- aerobic;
o can metabolize with or without oxygen -- facultative;
o does not use oxygen – anaerobic.
 Use of carbon sources
 organic -- heterotrophic; carbon dioxide -- autotrophic
 Optimum growth at different temperatures
o Thermophiles -- 55-75° C
o Mesophiles -- 30-45° C
o Psychrophiles:

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 16


 Obligate -- 15-18° C
 Facultative -- 25-30°C
Aerobic wastewater treatment systems operate in the temperature range of 10-40° C and
therefore contain mainly mesophilic bacteria. These include both the gram positive types, such as
Bacillius, and the gram negative types, such as Pseudomonas Successful bioaugmentation
requires total system management If the microbiological population can be viewed as a
workforce, then the consultant or system manager is responsible for keeping the workforce
productive.
If liquid wastes are discharged into rivers, ponds, lands, etc., without proper treatment,
the result is offensive odor and pollution of water and air as they will emit gases like methane
and Carbon Dioxide. By adopting environmental friendly technologies, these problems can be
mitigated. These waste waters can be treated using numerous processes depending on the type
and extent of contamination. A typical wastewater treatment plant includes physical, chemical
and biological treatment processes.
Methane is generated in landfills as waste decomposes and in the treatment of
wastewater.
Sewer gas is a complex mixture of toxic and nontoxic gases produced and collected in
sewage systems by the decomposition of organic household or industrial wastes, typical
components of sewage. Sewer gases may include hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, methane, carbon
dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides. Improper disposal of petroleum products such as
gasoline and mineral spirits contribute to sewer gas hazards. Sewer gases are of concern due to
their odor, health effects, and potential for creating fire or explosions.
Anaerobic digesters were originally designed for operation using sewage sludge and
manures. Sewage and manure are not; however, the material with the most potential for
anaerobic digestion, as the biodegradable material has already had much of the energy content
taken out by the animals that produced it. Therefore, many digesters operate with co-digestion of
two or more types of feedstock which can increase energy output tenfold for only three times the
capital cost, relative to a slurry-only system.
Wastewater Treatment Plants:
Wastewater treatment facilities employ anaerobic digesters to break down sewage sludge
and eliminate pathogens in wastewater. Often, biogas is captured from digesters and used to heat
nearby facilities. Some municipalities have even begun to divert food waste from landfills to
WWTPs; this relieves waste burdens placed on local landfills and allows for energy production It
is estimated that 544 large WWTPs (those that process more than five million gallons of
wastewater per day) currently utilize anaerobic digesters to produce biogas. A WWTP digester
that also processes food waste will have a payback period of around 6 months to 3 years Modern
method of treating industrial waste water is by installing advanced anaerobic digestion plants.
Modern high rate reactors can reduce the COD of the waste water by 85-95%.

Figure 5 Wastewater Treatment Stages


Methane:

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Methane is the simplest alkane and a major component of natural gas, about 87% by
volume. The major source of methane is extraction from geological deposits known as natural
gas fields. Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula CH4. It is probably the
most abundant organic compound on earth. The relative abundance of methane makes it an
attractive fuel. Methane is a relatively potent greenhouse gas. The concentration of methane in
the Earth's atmosphere in 1998, expressed as a mole fraction, was 1,745 nmol/mol (parts per
billion, ppb), up from 700 nmol/mol in 1750. By 2008, however, global methane levels, which
had stayed mostly flat since 1998, had risen to 1,800 nmol/mol. Methane is a tetrahedral
molecule with four equivalent C-H bonds, its electronic structure is described by four bonding
molecular orbitals (MOs) At room temperature and standard pressure, methane is a colorless and
odorless gas. The familiar smell of natural gas as used in homes is a safety measure achieved by
the addition of an odorant. Methane has a boiling point of −161 °C (−257.8 °F) at a pressure of
one atmosphere. As a gas it is flammable only over a narrow range of concentrations (5–15%) in
air. Like other hydrocarbons, methane is a very weak acid. In the combustion of methane,
multiple steps are involved. The following equations are part of the process, with the net result
being:
CH4 + 2 O2 → CO2 + 2 H2O (ΔH = −891 kJ/mol (at standard conditions))
Table 17:Methane Combustion Process Equations:
# Equation
1 CH4+ M* → CH3 + H + M
2 CH4 + O2 → CH3 + HO2
3 CH4 + HO2 → CH3 + 2 OH
4 CH4 + OH → CH3 + H2O
5 O2 + H → O + OH
6 CH4 + O → CH3 + OH
7 CH3 + O2 → CH2O + OH
8 CH2O + O → CHO + OH
9 CH2O + OH → CHO + H2O
10 CH2O + H → CHO + H2
11 CHO + O → CO + OH
12 CHO + OH → CO + H2O
13 CHO + H → CO + H2
14 H2 + O → H + OH
15 H2 + OH → H + H2O
16 CO + OH → CO2 + H
17 H + OH + M → H2O + M*
18 H + H + M → H2 + M*
19 H + O2 + M → HO2 + M*
The species M* signifies an energetic third body, from which energy is transferred during
a molecular collision.
Methane in the Earth's atmosphere is a significant greenhouse gas with a global warming
potential of 25 compared to CO2 over a 100-year period (although accepted figures probably
represent an underestimate). This means that a methane emission will have 25 times the effect on
temperature of a carbon dioxide emission of the same mass over the following 100 years.
Methane has a large effect for a brief period (a net lifetime of 8.4 years in the atmosphere),
whereas carbon dioxide has a small effect for a long period (over 100 years). Because of this
difference in effect and time period, the global warming potential of methane over a 20 year time
period is 72. The Earth's atmospheric methane concentration has increased by about 150% since
1750, and it accounts for 20% of the total radiative forcing from all of the long-lived and
globally mixed greenhouse gases (these gases don't include water vapor which is by far the
Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 18
largest component of the greenhouse effect). Usually, excess methane from landfills and other
natural producers of methane is burned so CO2 is released into the atmosphere instead of
methane, because methane is a more effective greenhouse gas. Recently, methane emitted from
coal mines has been successfully utilized to generate electricity.
Globally, over 60% of total CH4 emissions come from human activities. Methane is
emitted from industry, agriculture, and waste management activities globally; the Agriculture
sector is the primary source of CH4 emissions.
Methanogenesis:
Also known as biomethanation is the formation of methane by microbes known as
methanogens. Organisms capable of producing methane have been identified from the domain
Archaea, a group phylogenetically distinct from both eukaryotes and bacteria, although many
live in close association with anaerobic bacteria. The production of methane is an important and
widespread form of microbial metabolism. In most environments, it is the final step in the
decomposition of biomass.
Methanogenesis in microbes is a form of anaerobic respiration. Methanogens do not use
oxygen to respire; in fact, oxygen inhibits the growth of methanogens. Methanogenesis is the
final step in the decay of organic matter. During the decay process, electron acceptors (such as
oxygen, ferric iron, sulfate, and nitrate) become depleted, while hydrogen (H 2) and carbon
dioxide accumulate. Light organics produced by fermentation also accumulate. During advanced
stages of organic decay, all electron acceptors become depleted except carbon dioxide. Carbon
dioxide is a product of most catabolic processes, so it is not depleted like other potential electron
acceptors.
Only methanogenesis and fermentation can occur in the absence of electron acceptors
other than carbon. Fermentation only allows the breakdown of larger organic compounds, and
produces small organic compounds. Methanogenesis effectively removes the semi-final products
of decay: hydrogen, small organics, and carbon dioxide. Without methanogenesis, a great deal of
carbon (in the form of fermentation products) would accumulate in anaerobic environments.
Strains of Methanogens:
 Methanobacterium bryantii.
 Methanobacterium formicum.
 Methanobrevibacter arboriphilicus.
 Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii.
 Methanobrevibacter ruminantium.
 Methanobrevibacter smithii.
 Methanocalculus chunghsingensis.
 Methanococcoides burtonii.
 Methanococcus aeolicus.
 Methanococcus deltae.
 Methanococcus jannaschii.
 Methanococcus maripaludis.
 Methanococcus vannielii.
 Methanocorpusculum labreanum.
 Methanoculleus bourgensis (Methanogenium olentangyi & Methanogenium bourgense).
 Methanoculleus marisnigri.
 Methanofollis liminatans.

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 Methanogenium cariaci.
 Methanogenium frigidum.
 Methanogenium organophilum.
 Methanogenium wolfei.
 Methanomicrobium mobile.
 Methanopyrus kandleri.
 Methanoregula boonei.
 Methanosaeta concilii.
 Methanosaeta thermophila.
 Methanosarcina acetivorans.
 Methanosarcina barkeri.
 Methanosarcina mazei.
 Methanosphaera stadtmanae.
 Methanospirillium hungatei.
 Methanothermobacter defluvii (Methanobacterium defluvii).
 Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum).
 Methanothermobacter thermoflexus (Methanobacterium thermoflexum).
 Methanothermobacter wolfei (Methanobacterium wolfei).
 Methanothrix sochngenii.
Different organisms are able to survive at different temperature ranges. Ones living
optimally at temperatures between 35 and 40°C are called mesophiles or mesophilic bacteria.
Some organisms can survive at the hotter and more hostile conditions of 55 to 60°C; these are
called thermophiles or thermophilic bacteria. Methanogens come from the domain of archaea.
This family includes species that can grow in the hostile conditions of hydrothermal vents, so are
more resistant to heat, and can, therefore, operate at high temperatures, a property unique to
thermophiles.
Thermophillic Digesters:
Thermophillic (high-temperature) digesters have been designed that operate satisfactorily
at a 5-day detention time and a solids level of 10-20 percent. Digester gas production has been
around 11 cubic feet per pound of volatile solids destroyed. Operation is normally started by
bringing the digester up to a temperature of 1300F at a rate of about 30F per week.
In many ways, thermophillic digestion is better than digestion at 95 0F. Gas production is
about 20 percent higher and solids breakdown about 10 percent higher. In addition, the higher
temperature kills more pathogenic bacteria, thus allowing the digested waste to be used as a feed
supplement without further sterilization.
But thermophillic bacteria digestion also has its disadvantages. The methane content of
the gas is somewhat lower (55 percent), and digester operation is not quite as stable as
conventional digesters.
Energy: Methane is important for electrical generation by burning it as a fuel in a gas turbine or
steam boiler. Compared to other hydrocarbon fuels, burning methane produces less carbon
dioxide for each unit of heat released. At about 891 kJ/mol, methane's heat of combustion is
lower than any other hydrocarbon but the ratio of the heat of combustion (891 kJ/mol) to the
molecular mass (16.0 g/mol, of which 12.0 g/mol is carbon) shows that methane, being the
simplest hydrocarbon, produces more heat per mass unit (55.7 kJ/g) than other complex
hydrocarbons. In many cities, methane is piped into homes for domestic heating and cooking

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purposes. In this context it is usually known as natural gas, which is considered to have an
energy content of 39 megajoules per cubic meter, or 1,000 BTU per standard cubic foot.
The gases methane, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide (CO) can be combusted or oxidized
with oxygen. This energy release allows biogas to be used as a fuel. Biogas can be used as a fuel
in any country for any heating purpose, such as cooking. It can also be used in anaerobic
digesters where it is typically used in a gas engine to convert the energy in the gas into
electricity and heat. Biogas can be compressed, much like natural gas, and used to power motor
vehicles. In the UK, for example, biogas is estimated to have the potential to replace around
17% of vehicle fuel. Biogas is a renewable fuel so it qualifies for renewable energy subsidies in
some parts of the world. Biogas can also be cleaned and upgraded to natural gas standards
when it becomes bio methane.
By 2010, there was 35GW of globally installed bioenergy capacity for electricity
generation, of which 7GW was in the United States. A 2 cubic meter bio-digester can produce 2
cubic meter of cooking gas. This is equivalent to 1 kg of LPG.
United Nations Development Program as one of the most useful decentralized sources of
energy supply, as they are less capital-intensive than large power plants. With increased focus
on climate change mitigation, the re-use of waste as a resource and new technological
approaches which have lowered capital costs, anaerobic digestion has in recent years received
increased attention among governments in a number of countries
If localized anaerobic digestion facilities are embedded within an electrical distribution
network, they can help reduce the electrical losses associated with transporting electricity over a
national grid. Biogas from sewage works can be used to run a gas engine to produce electrical
power, some or all of which can be used to run the sewage works. Some waste heat from the
engine is then used to heat the digester. The waste heat is, in general, enough to heat the digester
to the required temperatures. The power potential from sewage works is limited The scope for
biogas generation from non-sewage waste biological matter – energy crops, food waste, abattoir
waste, etc. - is much higher, estimated to be capable of about 3,000 MW. Food waste is currently
co-digested with primary and secondary municipal wastewater solids and other high-strength
wastes. Compared to municipal wastewater solids digestion alone, food waste co-digestion has
many benefits. Anaerobic digestion of food waste pulp provides a higher normalized energy
benefit, compared to municipal wastewater solids: 730 to 1,300 kWh per dry ton of food waste
applied compared to 560 to 940 kWh per dry ton of municipal wastewater solids applied. If
manure from “Gawala” Colonies is added to the digester for co-generation a manifold increase of
benefits can be achieved, for instance one cow can produce enough manure in one day to
generate three kilowatt hours of electricity; only 2.4 kilowatt hours of electricity are needed to
power a single one hundred watt light bulb for one day.
Engine efficiency can be improved by removing carbon dioxide from the digester gas
before combustion, then burning the remaining methane. Digester gas can also be injected into
the air stream in a stationary diesel engine. Up to 90 percent of the fuel entering an engine by this
technique can be methane gas.

Use & Consumption of Biogas:

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Table 18: Use & Consumption of Biogas:
Use Units of consumption of gas
For cooking purposes (per person per day) 12 to 15 cft
To operate gas lamps 2j cft per mantle per hour
To operate gas engines Ib cft per BHP per hour
To operate electricity 22 cft gas 1 Unit equivalent to 1 kWh of electricity
In place of petrol 225 cft gas 1 gallon equivalent to petrol
In place of diesel oil 250 cft gas 1 gallon equivalent to of diesel oil
Methane production is usually expressed in terms of cubic feet of gas generated per
pound of volatile solids destroyed. Volatile solids are the organic portion of livestock waste;
about 80 percent of the manure solids are volatile. A gallon of liquid manure containing 8
percent solids potentially can provide about 3 3/4 cubic feet of digester gas, or 2 1/2 cubic feet of
methane (Roughly 10-13 cubic feet of gas can be produced per pound of volatile solids destroyed
in a properly-operating digester. Since about half of the volatile solids added can be destroyed
and half to three-fourths of the gas produced will be methane, about 5 cubic feet of digester gas
(3 cubic feet of methane) can be produced per pound of total manure solids added. In terms of
digester size, it is possible to produce 3/4 to 2 1/2 cubic feet of gas (1/2 to 1 1/2 cubic feet of
methane) per cubic foot of digester volume. The gas production expected from various livestock
species is shown below:
Daily Waste and Methane Production by Dairy, Beef per 1,000 Pounds of Animal Weight.
Table 19: Dry Manure Methane Production:
Item Dairy Beef
Raw manure (lb.) 82.0 60.0
Total solids (lb.) 10.4 6.9
Volatile solids (lb.) 8.6 5.9
Methane potential (cu.ft.)* 28.4 19.4
* Based on 65 percent of gas being methane
Waste Methane Contents and Petrol Equivalents:
Table 20: Waste Methane Contents & Petrol Equivalents:
Item Methane per Ton Dry Waste Tons of Petrol Equivalents per Ton of Dry Waste
Food waste 500 0.43
Paper 330 0.28
Grass 310 0.26
Branches and 110 0.09
leaves
Start-up can be speeded by providing a source of methane bacteria. One way of doing
this is to initially fill 20-25 percent of the digester volume with active waste digester sludge from
a municipal sewage plant, then to gradually increase the amount of livestock waste added at each
loading over a 6-8 week period until the system is fully operational. Another, perhaps more
effective method, is the production of methane bacteria in laboratories.
Developing Technologies:
Research is being conducted by NASA on methane's potential as a rocket fuel. One
advantage of methane is that it is abundant in many parts of the solar system and it could
potentially be harvested on the surface of another solar-system body, providing fuel for a return
journey. The assembly of a 5,500-pound-thrust liquid oxygen/liquid methane rocket engine has
been completed. Current methane engines in development produce a thrust of 7,500 pounds-
force (33 kN), which is far from the 7,000,000 lbf (31 MN) needed to launch the Space Shuttle.

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This propulsion technology is under consideration as the way off the Moon for human explorers;
such engines will most likely propel voyages from the Moon or send robotic expeditions to other
planets in the solar system.
Safety:
Methane is not toxic; however, it is extremely flammable and may form explosive
mixtures with air.
Composition:
Table 21: Methane Composition & %:
Typical composition of biogas
Compound Chemical %
Methane CH4 50–75
Carbon dioxide CO2 25–50
Nitrogen N2 0–10
Hydrogen H2 0–1
Hydrogen sulphide H2S 0–3
Oxygen O2 0–0
Fertilizer and Soil Conditioner:
The solid, fibrous component of the digested material can be used as a soil conditioner to
increase the organic content of soils. Digester liquor can be used as a fertilizer to supply vital
nutrients to soils instead of chemical fertilizers that require large amounts of energy to produce
and transport. The use of manufactured fertilizers is, therefore, more carbon-intensive than the
use of anaerobic digester liquor fertilizers. The notable advantage of using a bio-digester is the
sludge which is a rich organic manure called digestate.
Waste Heat Recovery:
Approximately 75 percent of fuel energy input to an engine is rejected as waste heat.
Therefore, it is common practice to recover engine heat for heating the digester and providing
water and space heat for the farm. Commercially available heat exchangers can recover heat
from the engine water cooling system and the engine exhaust. Properly sized heat exchangers
will recover up to 7,000 BTUs of heat per hour for each kW of generator load, increasing energy
efficiency to 40 – 50 percent. A biogas fueled engine generator will normally convert 18 – 25
percent of the biogas BTUs to electricity, depending on engine design and load factor.
Biochemical Process:
Carbohydrates Sugars
Carbonic Acids
& Alcohols
Hydrogen
Fats Fatty Acids Acetic Acid Methane
Hydrogen Carbon Dioxide Carbon Dioxide
Carbon Dioxide
Proteins Amino Acids Ammonia

Hydrolysis Acidogenesis Acetogenesis Methanogenesis


Figure 6 Biochemical Process:
The Biochemical digestion process is as follows:
 Bacterial hydrolysis of the input materials to break down insoluble organic polymers,
such as carbohydrates, and make them available for other bacteria.
 Acidogenic bacteria then convert the sugars and amino acids into carbon dioxide,
hydrogen, ammonia, and organic acids.

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 Acetogenic bacteria then convert these resulting organic acids into acetic acid, along with
additional ammonia, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide.
 Finally, methanogens convert these products to methane and carbon dioxide. The
methanogenic archaea populations play an indispensable role in anaerobic wastewater
treatments.
Physical Process:
In the case of co-generation with biodegradable solid waste, after sorting or screening to
remove any physical contaminants from the feedstock, the material is often shredded, minced,
and mechanically or hydraulically pulped to increase the surface area available to microbes in the
digesters and, hence, increase the speed of digestion.
Alternative Biological Production routes:
Apart from gas fields, an alternative method of obtaining methane is via biogas generated
by the fermentation of organic matter including manure, wastewater sludge, municipal solid
waste (including landfills), or any other biodegradable feedstock, under anaerobic conditions.
Rice fields also generate large amounts of methane during plant growth. Cattle belch methane
accounts for 16% of the world's annual methane emissions to the atmosphere. One study reported
that the livestock sector in general (primarily cattle, and chickens) produces 37% of all human-
induced methane. Early research has found a number of medical treatments and dietary
adjustments that help slightly limit the production of methane in ruminants A more recent study,
in 2009, found that at a conservative estimate, at least 51% of global greenhouse gas emissions
were attributable to the life cycle and supply chain of livestock products, meaning all meat,
dairy, and by-products, and their transportation. Many efforts are underway to reduce livestock
methane production and trap the gas to use as energy.
Generation Process:
Optimum Conditions for Digester Operation:
Every application is different. In general, so long as the objective is to remove organic
constituents, biological treatment is the most effective and most economical. Biologically, we
can usually get BOD down to 1 or 2 parts per million with a successful treatment, yet certain
applications require further reduction down to parts per billion levels. For this extreme reduction,
chemical treatment would be necessary. For instance, biological treatment will never yield
potable water. This must be achieved with chemical treatments like ozone and chlorine. Most
applications consist of a primary, secondary and tertiary treatment, the primary being mostly
physical like filtration settling, etc. The secondary is typically a biological treatment to organics.
The tertiary treatment is a final, polishing and clarification treatment. It is typical that the tertiary
treatment would incorporate some chemicals like polymers to aid in flocculation. In certain
applications where there are no organics, it is appropriate to only use chemical treatment. For
instance, a metal plating factory has only metals in the water. Bacteria will do nothing and a
hydroxide must be used to chemically interact with the metal compounds and flocculate out.
Activated carbon is a typical chemical treatment for final polishing of water. Polymers are used
to further flocculate and settle colloidal solids. In certain applications in the past, the use of
Bioaugmentation has allowed users to significantly reduce the amount of polymers being used
in the final treatment without affecting solids settling characteristics. This will net a huge costs
savings to the user. In general, most applications should incorporate a biological treatment. This
treatment is usually good in most applications for discharge to the sewers or rivers. In most
particular applications, chemicals can be used as polishers in the tertiary treatment. Chemical
only treatments are only applicable in waters that have no organics, a situation that is very rare.

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System Management: The system manager must provide an acceptable work environment for
micro-organisms by controlling the key operation parameters such as pH, temperature and
oxygen levels. He must compensate them with nutrients to ensure good growth and a healthy
population. He has to know when to lay off workers through wasting to keep the population
young and vital. Finally, the successful system manager knows when to hire new workers to
provide special skills not found in his workforce. Bioaugmentation is the mechanism to provide
these skills workers.
The biomass is the "workforce" of a waste treatment system. In a dynamic state of flux,
different microbes are dying while others grow and become more dominant. Under adverse
conditions such as toxic shock, certain bacterial populations may be reduced or eliminated,
causing poor effluent quality. Examples of toxic shock would be black liquor spills in paper mills
or a process upset in a chemical plant sending high levels of terpenes to the wastewater plant.
A critical part of the success of a bioaugmentation program is proper application.
Because every system is unique, it is essential that products are properly applied.
Bioaugmentation programs should be implemented with the help of qualified consultants capable
of surveying the total system, assessing the best solution to the problem, and documenting the
impact of the program. Simply dumping a product into the influent is not bioaugmentation.
Preferential Degradation of Specific Compounds: By adding selected organisms, low levels of
particular compounds can be achieved that are not possible with the indigenous population.
Compounds such as phenols, chlorinated aromatics and aromatic hydrocarbons are but a few
compounds that can be reduced with bioaugmentation
Improved Nitrification -- Many industrial waste plants have difficulty in achieving nitrification
because of design limitations or toxic shocks. By regularly adding nitrifying bacteria, the proper
population for ammonia removal can be maintained.
Other Areas: Other areas where bioaugmentation offers benefits include odor reduction, oil and
grease removal, rapid system start-up and improved tolerance to toxic shocks.
Purpose: The purpose of bioaugmentation is to facilitate a gradual shift in the microbial
population, not to totally replace the existing biomass. The population shift must be
accomplished in a planned and controlled manner to maintain the integrity of the microbial
ecosystem. Over-feeding the selected microorganisms could result in a biomass no better
equipped to handle the broad range of compounds in the influent than the original population.
Method: Bio-augmentation dosage problems typically follow a descending application schedule
to accommodate that fact that the benefits of the addition are multiplied. These programs usually
involve a “purge” or “inoculation” dosage to establish the population quickly.
The “purge” or “inoculation” is followed by an intermediate maintenance dosage to
support the development of the required population. Finally, a regular maintenance addition is
used to maintain the required population to maintain the biochemical improvements, which have
been realized through the “inoculum” and “intermediate maintenance” dosages.
Unlike that added to municipal sewage digesters, livestock waste is fairly uniform in
composition. Monitoring digester operation, nevertheless, is a good idea and can be
accomplished fairly easily, using gas production or pH of the digester liquid as an indicator.
Gas Production: This is the simplest and most reliable indicator. In a batch-loaded digester (one
in which waste is added every month or so), if gas production drops off gradually, the food
supply available to the bacteria is probably depleted, indicating it's time to add more waste to the
digester. If gas production drops off rapidly (within 1 or 2 days), the reason is probably an upset

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 25


digester. Among the potential causes, the major ones are: too high a level of toxic compounds in
the waste feed, too high a feed rate or too cold a temperature in the digester.
A low digester temperature could be the result of a failure in the heating system. If a large
amount of waste is added at one time, it should be preheated to 950F to prevent thermal shock to
the methane bacteria. Better performance is usually obtained with continuous loading i.e. where
the digester is loaded with smaller amounts of waste on a daily basis.
pH: A near-neutral acidity (pH=7.0) is a good indicator of proper operation. This means that the
bacterial populations are in balance, with the `acid formers' producing only as much organic
acids as the `methane formers' can use. A pH below 6.0 indicates a digester upset. Less-than-
optimum environmental conditions can cause a digester upset, usually resulting in acid
conditions. This is because acid-forming bacteria will thrive under a much wider range of
environmental conditions than the slower-growing methane-forming bacteria. Acid conditions
can be temporarily controlled by adding an alkaline substance such as lime. However, the
original cause of the imbalance must be found and corrected if gas production is to be
maintained.

Figure 7: pH Effects:
Ammonia Concentration: As Ammonia is present in large quantities in urine it can inhibit
methane production if present in large enough concentrations. Ammonia concentration at 1,500
parts per million (ppm) is considered to be the maximum allowable for good methane
production. Above that level, the waste should be diluted with non-sewage water.
Effect of Ammonia Concentration on Methane Production:
Table 22: Ammonia Concentration Effect on Methane Production:
Concentration (mg/l of Ammonia-N) Effect
5 - 200 Beneficial
200 - 1000 No adverse effect
1500 - 3000 Possible inhibition at higher pH Values
Above 3000 Toxic
Uniform loading: (preferably daily).
Key Consideration: Carbon: Nitrogen Ratio of the input material is the key consideration. This
ratio is the balance of food a microbe requires to grow; the optimal C: N ratio is 20–30:1. Excess
N can lead to ammonia inhibition of digestion. The primary limitation on co-generation of
livestock waste along with liquid waste loading rates is the high nitrogen (N) content compared
to its carbon (C) content. The ratio of carbon to nitrogen in manure added to the digester should
be 20 parts C to one part N for optimum methane production.

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Crop residues and leaves, which are usually low in nitrogen content but high in carbon,
could be useful in improving digester performance. Mixing crop residue with high nitrogen
livestock waste provides a more favorable C:N ratio; and gas production increases accordingly.
If the liquid waste; cow manure and crop residue/ leaves is not enough, for gas
production requirements, it can be mixed with vegetable and food waste to cover the deficiency.
However, this mixture has to meet certain conditions to be suitable for the digestion process.
This should never exceed a ratio of 35:1, and even 30:1 is quite high. A high ratio will
slow the digestion process; a lower ratio will allow it to proceed well and will ensure a good
fertilizer with high nitrogen contents. Substances with low ratio are unsuitable for open air
composting because so much nitrogen is lost to the atmosphere, as soon as it is turned into
ammonia. However, the Biogas plant avoids this, as the atmosphere is sealed, and the ammonia
cannot escape.
Carbon: Nitrogen Ratios:
Table 23:C:N Ratios:
# Material C/N N (% )

1 Urine 0.8 15 – 18
2 Blood 3 10 – 14
3 Cow Manure (dung) 25 1.7

Important Issue: The most important initial issue when considering the application of anaerobic
digestion systems is the feedstock to the process. Almost any organic material can be processed
with anaerobic digestion; however, if biogas production is the aim, the level of putrescibility is
the key factor in its successful application. The more putrescible (digestible) the material, the
higher the gas yields possible from the system.
Establishment: Populations of anaerobic microorganisms typically take a significant period of
time to establish themselves to be fully effective. Therefore, common practice is to introduce
anaerobic microorganisms from materials with existing populations, a process known as
"seeding" the digesters, typically accomplished with the addition of sewage sludge or cattle
slurry.
Suitability of Raw Material: Certainly, large quantities of antibiotics and cleaning disinfectants
should be kept out of the digester. For this reason, consider excluding farrowing building waste
from the digester. The antibiotic rumensin is also toxic to methane bacteria and should not be fed
to cattle whose waste is to be used for methane generation.
Percentage of Solids:
Ideally the slurry in a gas plant digester should be 7% - 9% solid material, pure manure is
18% dry matter; it must be diluted with a roughly equal part of water to achieve this level. If
vegetable waste is added, more water will have to be added, depending on the solid content of
the vegetable matter. It makes greater “ecological sense” to utilize sewage for this purpose.
If vegetable waste is used the gas plant should be provided with some kind of a
mechanical agitation system, otherwise, the heavy leaves or straw will settle to the bottom and
fermentation will be very slow.
Temperature of Operating Cycle:
The operating cycle is the number of days after which with regular feeding and discharge
of the gas plant, the entire contents are replaced by fresh material. At temperatures averaging
about 75°F, manure will take about 50 days to be completely digested. Light vegetable waste

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 27


will be digested in about 70 days at this temperature. A mixture of manure and vegetable waste
will take about 50 - 60 days, depending largely on the quantity and the kind of the vegetable
waste added. If temperature is artificially maintained between 90°F and 100°F, the fermentation
period will not be more than 28 days for manure and 45 days for vegetable waste. Accordingly,
large size plants that have such temperature control will be based on an operating cycle in this
range.
Digester Construction Requirements:
Insulating: Because temperature is critical to methane generation, heat conservation in the
digester is essential. To utilize the insulating properties of the soil, consider mounding the soil up
around the tank or burying the tank in a well-drained site so that the soil's full insulating potential
can be realized.
Heating. The system most commonly used to provide a year-round 95F temperature for methane
generation is a heat exchanger where hot water pipes are placed within the digester. The water
can be heated outside the digester, possibly using a methane-fired water heater. For best results,
waste should be preheated before adding it to the digester. As much as five times more heat may
be needed for the preheating process as for maintaining digester temperature.
Stirring. Mixing is important to ensure adequate contact between the bacteria and the waste and
also to help strip gas out of the liquid. Mixing can be done using either:
 Mechanical mixer.
 Compressor to bubble collected gas back through the digester liquid.
 Closed-circuit manure pump.
A mechanical stirrer works well as long as a good air seal is maintained. Atmospheric
oxygen must be excluded from the digester, to eliminate the threat of explosion.
For the mechanical or pump-type methods, to determine the horsepower (hp) needed to
mix the digester contents, use the equation:
hp=0.185 x % total solids x liquid capacity (in 1,000 cft units).
For example, a 10,000-cubic foot digester containing waste at 6 percent solids would
require a 11.1 hp mixer (0.185 X 6% X 10). As to frequency of stirring, some small-scale studies
indicate that intermittent stirring (3-4 times per day) is about as effective as continuous stirring.
If a compressor is used for mixing, piping can be inserted into the digester, and
recirculated gas from a storage unit injected by means of an open pipe or diffuser at the bottom
of the tank. This creates turbulence and keeps the solids in suspension.
Any gas piping used should either slope back to the digester or have condensate traps to
prevent water vapor from condensing and blocking the lines when the gas cools. Also, it is
important that a gas meter be installed on the gas collection line in order to monitor digester
operation; a high, stable gas production level usually indicates good operation.

Figure 8: Stirrer

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Digester Innovations:
Corn Cob Digesters
A laboratory study at Purdue University found that an anaerobic digester containing corn
cobs can be used to treat swine waste and produce methane at temperatures as low as 65F. The
study used a detention time of 5 days and a loading rate of 7.5 pounds of volatile solids per cubic
foot per day. This system holds a great deal of promise for on farm use, with daily gas
production as high as 1.5 volumes of gas per volume of digester.
Since the cobs are high in carbon but low in nitrogen, they improve the C:N ratio by
supplying additional organic carbon. They also provide a support medium onto which bacteria
can attach and be retained within the digester instead of being removed with the digester effluent.
An Energy Dome that combines liquid waste-treatment with biodegradable solid waste
consisting of four, 30ft. domes (two each of Anaerobic and Aerobic Design) with allied
equipment will optimally generate 10 MW-hours of electricity while treating 10,000 gallons
(8% solid content) of waste per day. This is adequate to maintain 500 to 1,000 homes, depending
upon energy requirements. An energy dome of this size, capable of generating 3,650 MW-hours
annually and should cost under Rs. 20 million. This system costs less than coal or nuclear for
initial set up as well as maintenance while remaining completely sustainable. The 3 inch concrete
with Basalt Rebar dome's disaster-proof construction and adobe cover of 1 to 2 feet imparts the
ultimate flexibility for architectural design. It is ideally suited for small as well as large-scale
structures such as homes, shops, mosques, auditoriums, schools, athletic facilities, arenas,
stadiums, gymnasiums, convention halls, stores, shops, and warehouses, including cold
store/freezer operations. Insulated concrete domes provide excellent energy efficiency. Heating
and cooling a dome typically costs 1/4 to 1/2 less than a conventional building the same size.
This cost savings has to do with how the dome is constructed. The thermal mass of the concrete
and adobe combined create an R value of 50-60 with extremely low air filtration. Low
maintenance is also a quality of a Monolithic Dome. Snow and rain cause very little stress on the
exterior of a dome since its shape sheds water quickly. In a well constructed Dome leaks are rare
compared to conventional domes and are easily repaired. The American Institute of Architects
has acclaimed the geodesic dome "the strongest, lightest and most efficient means of enclosing
space known to man". They handle hurricane winds, extreme snow loads and are the safest
structure in an earthquake.

Figure 9: Geodesic Dome Bamboo Frame:

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Site-Orientation:
The first factor for planning a house is the location and orientation. Whereas location is often
predetermined due to availability; inherent location defects can be overcome by means of correct
orientation. The direction of window and door openings and their grouping is termed as the
structures orientation. This is affected by the following:
 Table 24: Orientation Factors:
# Major Factors
1 Sun: This is the most important determining factor to make structure energy efficient.  A factor of increasing
importance due to rising energy costs and global warming. Solar angles vary from summer to winter and have to
be taken into consideration depending upon site location where heat gain in summer and heat loss in winter is to
be avoided
2 Wind: Prevailing winds of an area when catered for will provide ventilation in summer and prevent heat loss in
winter.
3 Vegetation: Vegetation provides a host of uses from aesthetic to erosion/ dust noise control and insulation. This
factor can also be actively used for income supplementation and/ or nutrition enhancement.

Energy Conservation:
As mentioned previously this factor is of increasing importance and has become almost crucial. 
This aspect is addressed by the following;
Table 25: Energy Conservation:
# Item:
1 Surface Area: Buildings with large surface areas will experience greater heat gain/ loss when least required. A
circular configuration encloses the most space with the least wall area. This results in compact structures
without compromising space availability.
2 Roof Loads: Heavy roof loads for insulation require unconventional structural systems. The best of such
systems is the Geodesic Dome. This design distributes the load evenly to all walls.
3 Shuttering: An aspect that has fallen into disuse for no apparent reason. The use of slatted wooden shutters is of
enormous benefit. The incorporation of directional skylights or windows facing south reflects sunlight into the
house in winters but is screened out in summer with the change in the suns angle. The energy loss at nighttime is
greatly reduced by using the insulated shutter in winters.
Thermal Characteristics:
The inherent heat loss/ gain features of a structure are termed as its thermal characteristics.
Thermal Mass: This affects the heat capacity, which is the amount of energy required to change
the temperature by 1 degree. A building with a large thermal mass within the insulation heats and
cools at a low and slow rate. Whereas the opposite takes place at small thermal mass. Where
temperature inside the building is more of question of survival rather then comfort this factor
takes on increased importance. Passive solar use greatly diminishes requirements of external
energy sources in winters.
Earth Shelter:
The interaction between roof; walls and floor is to a greater degree when earth shelter is used.
Roof:
The geodesic dome provides the least roof surface area of any structure. This combined with a
thick earth berm around the walls leads to a high thermal mass. This results in moderate and
stable heat gain/ loss. Shading by trees is much easier. If new planting is required the growing
period can be covered by using green netting on bamboo poles which is easier and uses less
material then required for square or rectangular roofs, secondly use of fruit or vegetable vines is
also easier.

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Walls:
The door and window openings not only affect the strength of the building but also the net heat
gain/ loss. Properly designed south facing openings, directly exposed to the sun in winters and
shaded in summers should be used. These will provide a positive heating affect in winter and
minimize gain in summer. Surrounding vegetation will decrease heat gain and consequent
reflection/ conduction from the immediate vicinity.
Floors:
The interior temperature begins to rise due to warm/ hot incoming air or conduction in summer.
An un-insulated floor responds by drawing heat out of the building at a greater rate in an attempt
to maintain a steady temperature. Studies show that a three-fold increase in heat loss occurs in
summer to aid in stabilizing the interior temperature to comfortable levels. A vapor barrier of
existing roofing material under a relatively thin compacted floor will not act as a major
impediment to this process.
Basements:
With additional increase in expense a sizable below grade, well type room can be added to the
structure at any time without affecting the existing building. This room will have even more
desirable thermal characteristics in extremely severe climates. In this case pre-cast concrete
planks are used as roofing material/ floor of the above grade room. Since these possess poor
insulation especially where waterproofing is not required, the heat loss characteristics are not
affected. Indeed these can be positively aided by provision of exhaust/ covering with rugs.
Berming:
Provision of a sloping earth berm around the structure will provide even greater insulation and
lead to greater thermal mass. Secondly improved drainage characteristics can be readily
incorporated. Thirdly utility rooms such as kitchen and bath/ washrooms can be conveniently
built into these berms. Fourthly a greater degree of stability is ensured.
Internal Heat Gain:
Depending upon the size and life style of the occupants there is a net heat gain inside the
structure. This is estimated at 12 to 15 KwHrs per day in winter and 7 to 9 KwHrs in summers
for a small household (5 to 7 individuals). A good cross ventilation plan and exhaust of kitchen
heat to the outside will curtail this heat in summer. Retention of kitchen heat in winter and use of
shuttering will add to comfort in winter.
Well-Designed Openings:
Recessed and shaded openings will greatly add to prevention of heat gain/ loss when required.
These will automatically aid in preventing entry of insects as well as dust into the interior of the
house. Properly fabricated windows can provide net heat gain in winters.
Prevailing Adobe Homes:
The concept of adobe housing is ancient and is still being used in many under-developed/
developing Countries. Inexpensive material and quick building have always been the hallmarks
of such types of building. Insecurity of tenancy adds to the requirement of building an
inexpensive and semi-permanent home. Crude and primitive, they nonetheless provide some
features of climatic adaptation that are worth considering.
Table 26: Current Adobe Construction Climatic Adaptation Advantages:
# Advantages:
1 Earthen walls gain and lose heat slowly.
2 Material readily available, usually free of cost.
3 Quick drying/ fast building.

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Table 27: Current Adobe Construction Climatic Adaptation Disadvantages:
# Disadvantages:
1 Roofing gains and loses heat rapidly.
2 Needs constant maintenance.
3 Leaking roofs.
Geodesic Dome Construction:
Table 28: Geodesic Dome Construction Advantages:
# Advantages:
1 Inexpensive and readily available Insulation materials (Clay).
2 Quick to build.
3 Virtually indestructible.
4 Fire proof.
5 Insect proof.
6 Earthquake proof.
7 Waterproof.
8 Highly hygienic.
9 Low cost.
10 Super Insulation.
Usual concepts of low cost houses are inefficient and depressing. This concept utilizes the
extremely pleasing design of a Geodesic Dome and incorporates the advantages of Earth
Sheltered and Passive Solar Techniques.
Weather/ Climate Orientation:
In cold climates or hot areas the house is built facing the South for maximum solar gain in
winters and minimum in summers. Prevailing cold and hot winds are also taken into account.
Table 29: Advantages of Proposed Construction:
# Advantages:
1 More Space at low cost.
2 More aesthetic surroundings for children.
3 More Privacy.
4 Space Age design acts as stimulus to imagination.
5 More Privacy.
6 Indoor Toilets provide hygienic surroundings.
7 Stimulates Pride of possession.
8 Raises self-esteem.
9 Encourages Nation Building.
10 Fosters Cohesiveness in Society.
11 Removes Apathy.

Bio Gas
Size of the Plant:
The size of the plant is determined by multiplying the average volume of slurry to be fed
per day as to supply the gas and fertilizer desired, by the number of days in the operating cycle.
Sizing a Bio Gas Plant.
In a two-stage digestion system (multistage), different digestion vessels are optimized to
bring maximum control over the bacterial communities living within the digesters. Acidogenic
bacteria produce organic acids and more quickly grow and reproduce than methanogenic
bacteria. Methanogenic bacteria require stable pH and temperature to optimize their
performance. Under typical circumstances, hydrolysis, acetogenesis, and acidogenesis occur
within the first reaction vessel.

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The organic material is then heated to the required operational temperature (either
mesophillic or thermophillic) prior to being pumped into a methanogenic reactor. The initial
hydrolysis or acidogenesis tanks prior to the methanogenic reactor can provide a buffer to the
rate at which feedstock is added. Some European countries require a degree of elevated heat
treatment to kill harmful bacteria in the input waste. In this instance, there may be a
pasteurization or sterilization stage prior to digestion or between the two digestion tanks.
Notably, it is not possible to completely isolate the different reaction phases, and often some
biogas is produced in the hydrolysis or acidogenesis tanks. Passive solar heating can be used to
save on direct energy consumption.

Figure 10: Sizing a Digester:


Summary:
This table summarizes the steps in designing a gas plant. The items in double boxes are
the independent variables i.e. they are determined before any designing is done. The single
boxed items are dependent variables. The plainly written items are free options which may be
chosen on the basis of convenience and local conditions Thus production requirements determine
how big a gas plant should be. With a small plant one has the options of one or two chambers in
his digester, and with a big plant, one can choose between a single or double stage plant, or
multiple single stage plants connected in series. Production requirements when considered
together with the availability and suitability of the raw material determine the amount and type
of the raw material to be used. Artificial heating and agitation is necessary for large plants, hence
it is boxed. For small plants it is not always necessary. It only becomes necessary if the raw

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 33


material used in a small plant contains vegetable matter. Hence it is semi-boxed to show that it is
purely for a small gas plant.
Double Stage: When such a large digester volume is required that construction in a single tank is
impractical, the two stage gas plant is constructed. Here the digester volume is divided between
two tanks. Digestion is carried out in the first tank until 80% of the total gas volume is evolved,
and completed in the second tank. This necessitates the calculating of two operating cycles, and
two volumes. The secondary digester is built without heating or agitation system, although it
should have insulation. The primary digester should have all these. When the primary tank is
operated with heating and agitation, 80% of the gas is evolved from fresh slurry after 15 days.
This will be the operating cycle of the primary digester. Its volume should be sufficient to
accommodate all the slurry fed in 15 days. A siphon transfers the slurry into the second digester
when this volume is exceeded i.e. when the tank contains more than what will be fed in 15 days.
The primary tank is intended mainly to produce gas. The function of the second digester is
mainly to complete the decomposition. If gas is evolved so much the better, but the cooler
temperatures present there might cause production to be quite low. Agitation' is not used because
it would disturb the separation of the decomposed solid settled at the bottom, from the only
partially decomposed slurry coming in from the siphon. Construction should be in cement and
concrete. Since this material will absorb the gas a non-porous, non-absorbent coating must be
applied to the inside right down to the level which is exposed to the gas.
Determining the Feasibility of Methane Production:
The economics of methane production are generally considered questionable, even at today's
escalating fuel prices. But energy costs and availability tomorrow is changing this feasibility
drastically. The following example, while by no means a complete economic analysis, should
provide a rough idea of the value of methane generation.
Example:
Sr. Items and calculations Value
A. Determine potential volume of gas produced per day.
1. Gas produced per unit of input materials.
2. Total gas produced per day. Quantity of input x Step A.1
3. Total methane produced per day. Step A.2/ ½
B. Determine amount and value of energy produced.
1. Energy value per day. (Assumes ¼ of the methane must be recycled to provide heat for
the digester. As compared to cost of Natural Gas.
Energy value of methane x usable methane x Step A.3 = BTU/day
2. Natural Gas equivalent of heat produced.
Step B.1 / BTU/gal. Natural Gas
3. Rupee value of energy produced per day.
Price of Natural Gas x Step B.2
4. Rupee value of energy produced per year.
Days/yr. x Step B.3
C. Determine digester tank volume and dimensions.
1. Design liquid volume in the digester
Below Grade Volume
2. Total digester volume (including 1/2 day's storage for gas produced) in cubic feet.
Step C.1 + (1/2 day x Step A.3)
3. Total digester volume in gallons.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 34


Gals./cu.ft. x Step 0.2
4. Dome dimensions.
5. Diameter of circular sump for height chosen.
((Step C.2 / Step C.4) x 1.27)1/2
D. Determine Digester Cost, including Insulation, Heater and Mixer.
1. Cost of digester, including pump.
2. Cost for digester insulation on cover and sidewalls.
a. Insulation covering. (One way to insulate is to construct a larger diameter tank around the
digester and insulate the space between. The outer tank does not need to be as watertight
or sturdy as the inner tank. Assume cost of the exterior tank is 1/2 the digester tank).
Step D.1 x 1/2
b. Digester sidewall surface area.
Step C.4 x Step C.5 X 3.14
c. Digester cover area.
(Step C.5)2 x 0.79
d. Total digester surface area.
Step D.2.b + Step D.2.c
e. Insulation cost.
Insulating cost/sq.ft. x Step D.2.d
3. Cost of the water heater.
a. Heater sized to supply 30 BTU per hour per cubic foot of digester liquid volume.
Heater capacity/cu.ft. x Step 0.1.
b. Heater cost.
4. Digester mixer cost.
a. Mixer sized to stir digester contents having about 10 percent solids.
Step C.1/1000 x pct. solids x 0.185
b. Mixer cost. (Assume a 3-in. diaphragm pump and piping system to
re-circulate digester contents).
5. Total digester cost.
Steps D.1 + D.2.a + D.2.e + D.3.b + D.4.b
E. Determine the Cost of holding Digester Effluent until Disposed.
1. Effluent produced per day in kgs.
2. Effluent produced per day in cubic feet.
Step E.1 / kgs./cft.
3. Storage volume needed for x-day(s) capacity in cubic feet.
Days capacity x Step E.2
4. Storage volume needed for x-day(s) capacity in gallons.
Gals./cu.ft. x Step E.3
5. Cost for a prefabricated storage structure.
Construction cost/gal. x Step E.4
6. Cost for an earthen storage structure.
Construction cost/gal. x Step E.3
F. Determine cost of a gas storage unit.
A gas storage unit must also be constructed or else a use developed which consumes gas
at the rate it is produced.
For this example, assume no gas storage is needed.

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G. Determine total cost of this methane generation system.
1. Total cost with a prefabricated storage.
Step D.5 + Step E.5
2. Total cost with an earthen storage.
Step D.5 + Step E.6
H. Determine the economic feasibility. (The Rupee value of methane produced
in Step B.4 can be used to determine the payback period).
1. Capital investment that can be paid back in 7 years.
2. Total breakeven investment.
Step H.1 – Total Investment.
(In case of Carbon Credits attained or Cost Returned the situation will be different.
However, it makes good economic sense to work out Economic Feasibility).

Conclusion: By now, I am sure that all will agree that the discussed exercise is not only badly
needed, it is also highly desirable and affordable. A CMD Project that commands carbon Credits
is the requirement of the day. In this manner, given seed money for initial establishment, a
recycling of Capital along with Socially Generated Waste is made possible. In this case we do
not have to ask “How much will it cost, rather ask what will it cost not to implement the
Project?”

Figure 11: Moving Towards the Future

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Energy:
Bacteria: Research must be immediately launched in Genetically Engineered Bacteria for Diesel
Production through Plant Waste and Hydrogen Gas production from Slurry of
Biodegradable Solid & Liquid Waste.
Biodiesel: Several non-edible oilseeds have been identified as suitable for conversion to
biodiesel. Particularly attractive are inedible oils from the seeds of Jatropha curcas.
Jatropha is of special interest, being tolerant of saline and alkaline soils, of near-arid and
semi-arid ecologies. Plants of Jatropha are established in many local areas on land ill suited
to food crop cultivation. Biodiesel can be derived from waste cooking oils, an example
which nations addicted to fried foods would be wise to emulate.
Biogas: Produced by microbial fermentation of human and animal excreta and other waste,
methane has been used as a household fuel in the People's Republic of China for many
generations. A British organization, Energy Saving Trust, estimates that methane from all
human and animal waste in Britain could provide fuel sufficient for 50 per cent of the
nations lorries and buses, with a consequent reduction of 95 and 80 per cent of CO 2 and
NOx emissions, respectively, from vehicle exhausts. Sweden captures and uses biogas to
fuel many of its buses and refuse trucks.
Small Hydroelectric: Azad Jammu & Kashmir has vast potential for installing small
Hydroelectric Bulb Turbines for generating electricity. This is all the more important in the
light of requirement of local self-reliance in all fields.
Solar Energy: Passive and active solar energy use has to be promoted and can be done so if
indigenous production facilities are encouraged.
Wind Energy: Latest designs for Wind Machines have greatly increased efficiencies and should
be locally produced.
Geo-Thermal Energy: Extensive Survey needs to be launched in order to seek possible Geo
Thermal Sites for Energy Production.
Energy Cells: Production of Energy Cells should be launched on priority. With the emergence
of low-cost generation of Hydrogen Gas, these cells will find cost effective utilization in
energy production.
Salt-Gradient, Solar Ponds:
One Kg of salt can supply as much electricity and three times as much heat as a Kg of coal
burned in a combustor.
Naturally occurring Salt Ponds, first discovered in 1902 a few meters below Lake Medive in
Transylvania with temperatures reaching 84 Degrees Centigrade at the bottom.
Result of varying salinity, bottom fed by bed of salt, surface washed by constant stream of fresh
water.
Salinity gradient gives the lake a vertical density difference and allows to trap and store solar
energy.
Artificial Salt-Gradient, Solar Ponds.
Thermal Energy to:
Heat Buildings.
Drive Industrial Processes.
Generate Electricity.
Desalt Water.
Power Cooling Systems.

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Israel: 7,000 sq. m. Pond provides 35 KW in Summer and 15 KW in Winter with a peak of 150
KW.
Working:
The Pond/ Lake absorbs solar radiation in the water and material at bottom.
Heated water expands and becomes less dense, quickly rising to the surface to lose heat to the
atmosphere.
Salt-Gradient.
More Salt : More Dense.
Surface 5% by weight and relatively light.
Increase salt by depth till 20% by weight.
Bottom heats and expands.
Cannot rise, as it is denser than the top.
Becomes non-convecting.
Warm Water trapped below.
Lower waters can reach boiling point and over, recorded at 107 Degrees centigrade.

Three Zones:
Surface Zone: Wind, evaporation and surface cooling in evenings, creates surface zone: 1/10 to
½ m deep.
Non-Convecting Zone: 1 to 1 ½ m in depth.
Bottom Storage Zone: 1 to 2 m or as little as ½ or as much as several meters.

The deeper the zone the more the heat.


Lowest zone traps heat for long periods.
Damping daily or even seasonal changes.
Can be tapped for energy at night as well as day.
Even during long periods of cloud cover or even ice cover.
Depends upon location, water clarity and ambient temperature.
Solar Pond can trap 10 to 20 % Solar energy.
Each sq. m = ½ to 2 gigajoules of thermal energy per year.
(about 1 million BTU)
Flat Plate Collector of 1 m square is twice as efficient but 10 times more cost.

Evaporation and mixing of salt water increases salinity of the surface, destroying the gradient.
Feed saline water to the bottom and less saline to the surface.
Heated water is used to extract from hot brine through Heat Exchanger.
Thermo Electric Devices
Organic Rankine Cycle Engine (Turbine powered by evaporating organic fuel).

Factors to Determine Effectiveness:


• Availability of Lo-Cost land, salt and water.
• Favorable climate conditions: Sunny days and high temperatures.
• Favorable ground conditions, soil impervious to heat and water, lack of moving
groundwater, no nearby drinking water. Low price compared to other energy sources.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 38


Fresh

Evaporation Pond
Solar Gradient Pond

SALINA:
Salt flat, marsh or lake – dry or saline water.
Low-salt water fed through submerged diffuser.
Mixing technique called Redistribution.

100 sq m – heat for single family home in developed countries.


50 to 100 families village.
Heat for converting as much Bio mass to alcohol/ methane
1/1000 th as much as forest for fuel cooking.

Brine of Oil Wells and Geo Thermal Units can be used.


US = $35/ sq m for 2000 sq m pond (1978)
$ 73/ sq. m. for 1000 sq. m. in 1981.
For Thermal Energy = competitive.
Electricity competitive for off grid and remote locations.
Outlet for extracting brine has to be carefully sited to avoid cold spots.
Dollars per sq. m. Conservative Best
Thermal Energy 28 7
Electricity (base load) 20 12
PerformanceMegajoules per sq. m./ year

Average site Superior Site


Thermal Energy: 900 1700
Electricity (base load) 55 110
Energy Cost (20% annual charge to amortize cost): $/ gigajoule
Conservative Best case
Thermal Energy:
Average: 6.22 1.56
Superior: 3.29 0.82

Electricity:
Average: 26.00 16.00
Superior: 13.00 8.00
In order to utilize a resource that is not considered as a resource but rather a nuisance we must
turn towards technology. Salt-Gradient, Solar Ponds are an innovative method of generating
electricity from saline water. One Kg of salt can supply as much electricity and three times as
much heat as a Kg of coal burned in a combustor. In 1902 naturally occurring Salt Ponds were
discovered a few meters below Lake Medive in Transylvania with temperatures reaching 84ºC at
the bottom resulting from varying salinity. The bottom was fed by bed of salt whereas the
surface was washed by a constant stream of fresh water. This resulted in what was termed as a

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 39


Salinity Gradient which created a density difference in vertical column in the lake and allowed it
to trap and store solar energy. Similarly Artificial Salt-Gradient, Solar Ponds can be constructed
in areas with saline water for example in Pind Dadan Khan where the water is more saline than
even sea water due to natural drainage from the Salt Range. Ponds can be constructed to provide
Thermal Energy to: Heat Buildings; Drive Industrial Processes; Generate Electricity; Desalt
Water and Power Cooling Systems. In Israel a working Artificial Salt Gradient Solar Pond of
7,000 sq. m. pond area provides 35 KW in summers (1 KW per 200 sq. m.) and 15 KW in
winters (1 KW per 467 sq. m.) with a peak of 150 KW (1 KW per 47 sq. m.).
The Pond/ Lake absorbs solar radiation in the water and material at the bottom. Heated
water expands and becomes less dense, quickly rising to the surface to lose heat to the
atmosphere creating a Salt-Gradient. More Salt content in the water makes it denser, the surface
water is comparatively 5% by weight and relatively light. Salt increases by depth till it is 20% by
weight. Thus water at the bottom heats and expands and cannot rise, as it is denser than the top.
Warm Water becomes non-convecting and is trapped below. Lower waters can reach boiling
point and over, even recorded at 107ºC. There are three zones in an Artificial Gradient Salt Pond:
The Surface Zone: Wind, evaporation and surface cooling in evenings, creates a surface zone:
1/10 to ½ m deep. This is followed by the Non-Convecting Zone: 1 to 1 ½ m in depth and finally
the Bottom Storage Zone: 1 to 2 m or as little as ½ or as much as several meters. Lessons learnt
are: the deeper the zone the more the heat; Lowest zone traps heat for long periods, damping
daily or even seasonal changes; Can be tapped for energy at night as well as day, even during
long periods of cloud cover or even ice cover; Depends upon location, water clarity and ambient
temperature; Evaporation and mixing of salt water increases salinity of the surface, destroying
the gradient; Feed saline water to the bottom and less saline to the surface; Solar Pond can trap
10 to 20 % Solar energy; Each sq. m = ½ to 2 gigajoules of thermal energy per year (about 1
million BTU) and lastly, Flat Plate Collectors (Passive Solar) of 1 m square are twice as efficient
but 10 times more costly.
Thermo Electric Devices are used for energy generation, heated water is used to extract
heat from hot brine through a Heat Exchanger. Organic Rankine Cycle Engine (Turbine powered
by evaporating organic fuel) is one such example. Organic Rankine Cycle Engines (ORCEs) are
similar to the large steam Rankine cycle engines typical to the coal-burning electric power
plants. The factors to determine effectiveness of Solar Ponds are: Availability of Low-Cost land,
salt and water; Favorable climate conditions: Sunny days and high temperatures; Favorable
ground conditions, soil impervious to heat and water, lack of moving groundwater, no nearby
drinking water and Low price compared to other energy sources.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 40


Water Power:
How Much Power Is Available?
Flow and Head
The first step in assessing the feasibility of any hydroelectric system is to determine the amount
of power that you can obtain from the stream at the site. The power available at any instant is
primarily a product of the flow volume and "head." Flow volume is typically measured in cubic
feet per second (cfs) or gallons per minute (gpm). Higher flow means more available power.

Head is a measure of the pressure of falling water, and is a function of the vertical distance that
water drops and the characteristics of the channel, or pipe, through which it flows. Higher head
means more available power. The higher the head the better, because less water is needed to
produce a given amount of power. If less water is needed, then smaller, more efficient, and less
costly turbines and piping can be used.

Hydroelectric sites are broadly categorized as low or high head sites. "Low head" typically refers
to a change in elevation of less than 10 feet (3 meters). A vertical drop of less than 2 feet (0.61
meters) will probably make a hydroelectric system unfeasible. A high flow rate can compensate
for low head, but a larger and more costly turbine will be necessary. It may be difficult to find a
turbine that will operate efficiently under very low head and low flow.

Determining Head
When determining head, you must consider both gross or "static" head, and net or "dynamic"
head. Gross head is the vertical distance between the top of the penstock (the piping that conveys
water, under pressure, to the turbine) and the point where the water discharges from the turbine.
Net head is gross head minus the pressure or head losses due to friction and turbulence in the
penstock. These head losses depend on the type, diameter, and length of the penstock piping, and
the number of bends or elbows. You can use gross head to approximate power availability and
determine general feasibility, but you must use net head to calculate the actual power available.

Determining Flow
Environmental and climatic factors, as well as human activities in the watershed, determine the
amount and characteristics of stream flow on a day-to-day and seasonal basis. A storage
reservoir can control flow, but unless a dam already exists, building one can greatly increase cost
and legal complications.

You may be able to obtain stream flow data from the local offices of the U.S. Geological Survey,
the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the county engineer, or
local water supply or flood control authorities. If you cannot obtain existing flow data for your
stream, you will need to do a site survey. Generally, unless you are considering a storage
reservoir, you should use the lowest average flow of the year as the basis of the system design.
Alternatively, you can use the average flow during the period of highest expected electricity
demand. This may or may not coincide with lowest flows.

There may be legal restrictions on the amount of water that you can divert from a stream at
certain times of the year. In such a case, you will have to use this amount of available flow as the
basis of design. There are a variety of techniques for measuring stream flow. For more

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 41


information on these methods, consult the references below or your local library for books that
cover hydroelectric systems, surveying, or civil engineering.
You may be able to correlate your survey data with long-term precipitation data for your area, or
flow data from nearby rivers, to get an estimate of long-term, seasonal low, high, and average
flows for your stream. Remember that no matter what the volume of the flow is at any one time,
you may be able to legally divert only a certain amount or percentage of the flow. Also, try to
determine if there any plans for development or changes in land use upstream from your site.
Activities such as logging can greatly alter stream flows.

Determining Power
Once you have the flow and head figures, you can roughly estimate the potential power
available, in kilowatts (kW), with the following formula:

Gross Head x Flow x System Efficiency (in decimal equivalent) x C = Power (kW)
C is a constant (the value is different in English and metric units).
Examples:
1. 20 feet x 2 cfs x 0.55 x 0.085 = 1.9 kW or: 6 meters x 0.05 cms x 0.55 x 9.81 = 1.62 kW
2. 50 feet x 0.8 cfs x 0.55 x 0.085 = 1.9 kW or: 15 meters x 0.02 cms x 0.55 x 9.81 = 1.62
kW

Note that in the two examples, much less flow is needed at a higher head to produce the same
amount of power. Turbine and generator efficiencies depend on make and operating conditions
(head and flow). Generally, low head, low speed water wheels are less efficient than high head,
high speed turbines.

The overall efficiency of a system will range between 40 percent and 70 percent. A well-
designed system will achieve an average efficiency of 55 percent.

Turbine manufacturers should be able to provide a close estimate of potential power output for
their turbine, given the head and flow conditions at your site. There will also be line losses in any
power lines used to transmit the electricity from the generator to the site of use.

Conversion Factors
Here are some of the conversion factors you may need to assess your site’s feasibility:
1 cubic foot (cf) = 7.48 gallons
1 cubic foot per second (cfs) = 448.8 gallons per minute (gpm)
1 inch = 2.54 centimeters
1 foot = .3048 meters
1 meter = 3.28 feet
1 cf = .028 cubic meters (cm)
1 cm = 35.3 cf
1 gallon = 3.785 liters
1 cf = 28.31 liters
1 cfs = 1,698.7 liters per minute
1 cubic meter per second (cm/s) = 15,842 gpm
1 pound per square inch (psi) of pressure = 2.31 feet (head) of water
1 pound (lb) = .454 kilograms (kg)
Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 42
1 kg = 2.205 lbs
1 kilowatt (kW) = 1.34 horsepower (hp)
1 hp = 746 Watts.

Other Considerations
Many other factors will determine whether developing the site is practical. Penstock routing and
placement is important. You will need to inspect and clean the penstock intake regularly.
Freezing weather, livestock, and vandals can damage exposed piping, but burying it may not be
practical or cost-effective. The piping must have adequate support to keep it from breaking apart
or moving under the weight and pressure of the water. The turbine/generator should be above the
stream’s flood stage. A power line from the generator could be expensive.

Regulation of Hydropower Projects Access to water and the use, control and diversion of water
flows is subject to federal and state regulation. Other regulations apply to any physical alteration
of a stream channel or bank that may effect water quality or wildlife habitat. This is true
regardless of whether or not the stream is on private property. If your project will have minimal
physical impact, and you are not planning to sell power to a utility, there is a good chance that
the legal process will not be too complex.

There are many local, state, and federal regulations that govern, or will effect, the construction
and operation of a hydroelectric power plant. The larger the system, the more complicated,
drawn out, and expensive the permitting and approval process will be. Penalties for not having
the permits or necessary approvals can be severe. You will not escape the consequences by
pleading ignorance. Although the legal process may seem burdensome, the intention of the laws
is to protect all users of the resource, including the plant, fish, and animal communities that
utilize the water.

When planning a hydroelectric system, your first point of contact should be the county engineer.
He or she will be the most informed about what restrictions govern the development and/or
control of water resources in your area.

The two primary federal agencies that you will need to deal with are the Federal Energy
Regulatory Commission (FERC) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Try contacting the
nearest office to you to see if they will assist you; both may be listed in the U.S. government
section of your phone book.

If your project involves a discharge of dredge or fill material into a watercourse or wetland, you
may also need a permit from your local district office, they should help determine if you will
need a permit.

You will also need to determine whether, and to what extent, you can divert water from the
stream channel, and what restrictions apply to construction and operation of the system.

Finding Turbines:
Only a few companies make micro hydroelectric turbines. Most available turbines are high head
turbines. Low head, low flow turbines may be difficult to find, and may have to be custom-made.
It is possible to fabricate low to moderately efficient water wheels and turbines in a well-
Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 43
equipped metal workshop. You may be able to find and refurbish old but operable turbines at
abandoned hydro/mill sites. Commercially available turbines and generators are usually sold as a
package. Do-it-yourself systems require careful matching of a generator with the turbine
horsepower and speed.

Financing Feasibility
The process of accurately determining economic feasibility can be complex. One very simple
method is to add up all the estimated costs of developing the site and for operating and
maintaining the system over the expected life of the turbine. Divide this amount by the system
capacity (in watts), giving you cost/watt. You can compare this to the cost/watt cost of power
from some other source.

If you are considering selling hydroelectricity to a utility, you should calculate a levelized, life-
cycle cost per kilowatt-hour (kWh) using standard discounting techniques, and compare that with
the kWh price that the utility will pay you for the electricity. The cost per kWh is determined by
dividing total life-cycle costs by the estimated amount of energy, in kWh, the system will
produce over its operating life. For more information on project economic analysis, consult your
local library or bookstore for books on microeconomics, project feasibility assessment,
agricultural economics, or life-cycle cost analysis.

Publications
The references below provide additional information.
 Protected waterways in Oregon (NWPPC, Wild & Scenic Rivers Act)
 Oregon Revised Statues Chapter 543 (Hydroelectric Projects) and Oregon Administrative
Rules Chapter 690, Division 50 (Appropriation and Use of Water for Hydroelectric
Power Projects) and Division 51 (Appropriation and Use of Water for Hydroelectric
Power and Standards for Hydroelectric Applications).
 Microhydropower Systems: A Buyers Guide, Natural Resources Canada (2004).
 Home Power (magazine), P.O. Box 520, Ashland, OR 97520. Phone: (800) 707-6585.
Email: hp@homepower.org; World Wide Web: www.homepower.com. Published bi-
monthly. Contact for ordering back issues and subscription information. Selected articles:
• "From Water to Wire: Building a Microhydro System," P. Talbot, (No. 76) pp. 8-
22, April/May 2000.
• "Homemade Hydro Homestead," B. Schultz, (No. 37) Oct/Nov 1993, pp. 34-36
• "Hydro Basics," J. Crowley, (No. 42) Aug/Sep 1984, pp. 34-36.
• "Hydro Siting,"P. Cunningham, (No. 8) Dec/Jan 1989, pp. 17-19.
• "Induction Motors for Small-Scale Hydro," B. Haveland, (No. 71), Jun/Jul 1999,
pp. 36-44.
• "A Microhydro Learning Experience," L. Woofenden etal., (No. 76) pp. 64-71,
April/May 2000.
• "Micro Hydro Power in the Nineties," P. Cunningham and B. Atkinson, (No.44)
Dec 94/Jan 95, pp. 24-29.
• "Rules for Surviving Micro Hydro Power," T. Kinzel and S. Kingsley, (No. 47)
Jun/Jul 1995, pp. 16-21.
• "Self-Cleaning Hydro (intake) Screens," P. Geddes, (No. 71, Jun/Jul 1991, pp. 64-
67.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 44


• "Ultra-Low Head Hydro," C. MacLeod, (No. 23) Jun/Jul 1991, pp. 6-10.
• "Water Power in the Andes," R. Davis, (No. 71) Jun/Jul 1999, pp. 50-54
 How To Build and Operate Your Own Small Hydroelectric Plant, J. Butler, TAB Books,
1982. Out of print. Check local library and inter-library loan system. This book contains a
detailed description of a small-hydro system in Vermont and useful information on
building a hydro system.
 Microhydropower Handbook, E & G Idaho, Inc., U.S. Department of Energy, 1983, (2
Vols.). Available from: National Technical Information Service,
5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161;
Phone: (800) 553-6847; Email: orders@fedworld.ntis.gov;
Vol 1, 428 pp., $71.50, Order No. DE83006697;
Vol. 2, 408 pp., $71.50, Order No. DE83006698.
This handbook contains detailed information on system design, construction, operation,
economics, and legal and environmental issues.
 Micro-Hydro Design Manual: A Guide to Small-Scale Water Power Schemes, A. Harvey,
et al., Intermediate Technology Development Group, London, 1993. Available from
Stylus Publishing (see Organizations). 288 pp., $55.00 plus shipping and handling. ISBN
185339-103-4.
This manual covers design, operation and maintenance, commissioning, electrical power,
induction generators, electronic controllers, management, and energy surveys.
 Micro-Hydro Pelton Turbine Manual, J.Thake, Intermediate Technology Development
Group, London, 1999. Out of print. 320 pp. ISBN 185339-460-2. This book provides
information on how to manufacture Pelton turbines.
 Micro Hydro Power Sourcebook, A. Inversin, National Rural Electric Cooperative
Association (NRECA), 1986.
Available from NRECA International Foundation, IPD9-202,
4301 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22203-1860;
Phone: (703) 907-5500.
Cost: $22.00 plus $4.00 shipping and handling.
This manual thoroughly describes all aspects of micro-hydro system design and
installation in a developing country context, but contains information applicable
anywhere.
 Motors as Generators for Micro-Hydro Power, N. Smith, Intermediate Technology
Development Group, London, 1994. Available from Stylus Publishing (see
Organizations). 84 pp., $12.00 plus shipping and handling,
ISBN 185339-286-3. This is a guide to the use of induction motors for electricity
generation.
 Pumps as Turbines: A User’s Guide, A. Williams, Intermediate Technology
Development Group, London, 1995. Available from Stylus Publishing (see Organizations
below). 84 pp., $12.00 plus shipping and handling, ISBN 185339-285-5. This is a
practical book for using standard water pumps as water turbines.
 Solar Living Sourcebook, J. Schaeffer, ed., Chelsea Green Publishing Company, 1996.
Available from: Real Goods Trading Corporation, 200 Clara Street, Ukiah, CA 95482;
Phone: (800) 762-7325; Email: realgood@realgoods.com;
World Wide Web: www.realgoods.com 712 pp., $30.00.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 45


This book contains a section on hydro systems, and lists micro turbines available by mail
order from Real Goods.
 Water Current Turbines: A Field Workers Guide, P. Garman, Intermediate Technology
Development Group, 1986. Available from Stylus Publishing (see Organizations). 100
pp., $25.00 plus shipping and handling, ISBN 094668-827-3. This guide describes
experience with the current turbine.
Micro Hydro Pros – Advantages
Efficient energy source
It only takes a small amount of flow (as little as two gallons per minute) or a drop as low as two
feet to generate electricity with micro hydro. Electricity can be delivered as far as a mile away to
the location where it is being used.
Reliable electricity source
Hydro produces a continuous supply of electrical energy in comparison to other small-scale
renewable technologies. The peak energy season is during the winter months when large
quantities of electricity are required.
No reservoir required
Microhydro is considered to function as a ‘run-of-river’ system, meaning that the water passing
through the generator is directed back into the stream with relatively little impact on the
surrounding ecology.
Cost effective energy solution
Building a small-scale hydro-power system can cost from $1,000 – $20,000, depending on site
electricity requirements and location. Maintenance fees are relatively small in comparison to
other technologies.
Power for developing countries
Because of the low-cost versatility and longevity of micro hydro, developing countries can
manufacture and implement the technology to help supply much needed electricity to small
communities and villages.
Integrate with the local power grid
If your site produces a large amount of excess energy, some power companies will buy back
your electricity overflow. You also have the ability to supplement your level of micro power
with intake from the power grid.
Micro Hydro Cons – Disadvantages
Suitable site characteristics required
In order to take full advantage of the electrical potential of small streams, a suitable site is
needed. Factors to consider are: distance from the power source to the location where energy is
required, stream size (including flow rate, output and drop), and a balance of system components
— inverter, batteries, controller, transmission line and pipelines.
Energy expansion not possible
The size and flow of small streams may restrict future site expansion as the power demand
increases.
Low-power in the summer months
In many locations stream size will fluctuate seasonally. During the summer months there will
likely be less flow and therefore less power output. Advanced planning and research will be
needed to ensure adequate energy requirements are met.
Environmental impact

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 46


The ecological impact of small-scale hydro is minimal; however the low-level environmental
effects must be taken into consideration before construction begins. Stream water will be
diverted away from a portion of the stream, and proper caution must be exercised to ensure there
will be no damaging impact on the local ecology or civil infrastructure.
Misconceptions – Myths about hydro power
Small streams do not provide enough force to generate power
The Truth: Energy output is dependant on two major factors: the stream flow (how much water
runs through the system) and drop (or head), which is the vertical distance the water will fall
through the water turbine.
A large water reservoir is required
The Truth: Most small-scale hydro systems require very little or no reservoir in order to power
the turbines. These systems are commonly known as ‘run-of-river’, meaning the water will run
straight through the generator and back into the stream. This has a minimal environmental
impact on the local ecosystem.
Hydro generators will damage the local ecosystem
The Truth: Careful design is required to ensure the system has a minimal impact on the local
ecology. A small amount of energy compromise may result, but this will ensure that the project
does not have an effect on local fish stocks. The Environment Agency requires that stream levels
must be maintained at a certain level in order to sustain the life within. Since there is no loss of
water in the generation process, these requirements can easily be met.
Micro hydro electricity is unreliable
The Truth: Technology advances (such as maintenance-free water intake equipment and solid
state electrical equipment) ensure that these systems are often more reliable in remote areas.
Often these systems are more dependable than the local power main.
The electricity generated is low quality
The Truth: If the latest electronic control equipment, inverters and alternators are used, the
resultant power supply has the potential to be of higher quality the main electrical power grid.
Hydro power is free
The Truth: Micro power development can be cost-intensive to build and maintain. There are
some fixed maintenance costs. These costs vary according to site location and material
requirements.
Micro-Hydro Resources
General Microhydro Information from Picoturbine
They offer plans, books, and kits for renewable energy education and homebrew projects.
Projects are available as free, downloadable do-it-yourself plans, as well as kits that include all
the materials for a modest charge. Have some hard-to-find books on homebuilt renewable energy
and classic renewable energy titles.
Microhydro Directory
Web directory of information about micro hydro electric power generator systems and turbines.
Microhydro Discussion Group
This Yahoo discussion group focuses on technical and non-technical aspects of run-of-river
micro hydropower schemes.
Microhydro Power Calculator (and more)
A energy output calculator that makes easy work out of all the calculations required to determine
the potential micro hydro resource at either an existing or a new system.
Microhydro Web Portal

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 47


Microhydro web portal is the starting point for micro-hydro related information.
Moorehead Valley Hydro
Thompson and Howe Energy Systems feature some interesting micro hydro case studies.
Other Power
Otherpower is a large information resource with a large variety of homemade small-scale
renewable energy examples; including many micro hydro projects.
A new hydro power technology is being developed by Sarfraz Ahmad Khan of Pakistan. In
theory these hydro plants would not require a reservoir and would have a minimal impact on the
environment. They could be run side-by-side in rows and would be much cheaper to build,
operate and maintain. Sarfraz has high hopes that his ideas could revolutionize hydro power in
his country and across the globe. He is currently seeking expert confirmation of his ideas; this
article provides a brief summary of his ideas along with some of the 3D images he has created.

SketchUp File 1 | Download SketchUp


What is this Project?
This project is an idea based upon the principal of converting the potential energy of wild
flowing rivers into electrical power (without having a huge reservoir). As we know in hydro-
power generation there are two major aspects which play vital role: first is water head and
second is water velocity. In this structure of equipment, we try to obtain maximum output from a
river’s velocity. Very high water head cannot be achieved with out huge cost.
What are the ideal locations for this kind of project?
Mountain Ranges where the downward inclination of a river is remarkable, including areas near
to the glaciers, or near to the sources of rivers (Mountain Ranges). In Pakistan there are many
possible sites like Kaghan, Naran, Sawat Valley, Kashmir, Chitral, and Skardu.
What are the advantages of this project?
1. Less expensive
2. Environment friendly.
3. Maximum output achieved.
4. Multiple setups in one row (breast wheel).
5. Jobs are created in hilly regions.
6. Low maintenance (minimum staff required).
What are the disadvantages?
These hydro power units can only achieve maximum performance in the summer season when
the river’s flow is strongest. In the winter months the flow of water is reduced and out-put can be
significantly lower. However, this project should feasible enough as it does not require a large
budget to build, operate and maintain. Moreover, electricity needs are higher in the summer

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 48


months anyway, so this type of hydro technology would help to fulfill the country’s electricity
demands during peak season.

SketchUp File 2 | Download SketchUp


Brief working details
1. This project can be engineered in the mountain ranges where the rivers have a high velocity
and a narrow width.
2. The first phase is to construct the concrete walls on the banks of the river to straighten the
flow of water.
3. After that the stream holding structure will be constructed (mostly metallic). It will hold the
stream collector bodies at a certain point where max pressure of water may be achieved to make
the powerful out let stream and water head approx 2m.
4. Stream collector bodies may be gripped by metallic rods of stream collector holding structure
which would be connected to the simple water level monitoring system. As the water level rises
in the river the stream collector bodies would be lifted upward to reduce the extra pressure of
water. When the water level gets lower the system could automatically push the stream collector
bodies down.
5. Once we achieve the stream outlet pressure, a generator holding structure can be installed in
front of the stream outlets. The potential energy of water can rotate the electricity generator to
produce the electric power.
6. Several units of this set up can be installed in a row in order to reduce the cost and maximize
the output.
Possible challenges
1. The stream collector bodies water cause water levels to rise more than the required head. In
this case some water exhaust canals in the sideway (for flood event) may help.
2. Computerized water level monitoring systems should be able to move the steam collector
bodies and rotator upward or downward. This will keep the flow and function of the generator
steady so that it will not be affected by the increase or decrease of the water level.
3. Floating wooden logs or trees may damage the system. To prevent this, a metallic grid should
be installed (before installation) in order to filter out river debris.
4. For safety and to prevent damage in the event of flooding or rough rivers, stream collector
bodies and rotators could be pulled upward and out of the water surface.
System components
 Stream collector bodies.
 Stream collector holding structure.
 Concrete walls.
 Stream outlet.
 Generator holding structure.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 49


 Generator turbine.
 Sideways canals for excessive water flow.
 Water level monitoring system, connected to the mechanical system (for lifting the
stream collector bodies and turbine units, upward and downward).
 Infrastructure for electrical power stabilization and distribution.
Estimated power output
Volume of water per sec = 18 ~ 25m³
Velocity of water = 9.8m / sec
Water head = 2m
Efficiency = 75 %
Request for analysis and conclusions
I am looking for assistance with this project. I would like to know if this project would be
feasible, so I am asking for your expert opinion and analysis. Ultimately I would like to construct
a small lab model in order to prove my hypothesis, but I have been unable to acquire technical
assistance. Some of the more important factors still to be considered are the tentative costs and
power output.
– Sarfraz Ahmad Khan
109-West, Blue Area, Islamabad, Pakistan
Cell Phone: 0092-322-5106080
Fax: 0092-51-2828409
Phone: 0092-51-2206873
0092-51-5576127
Applications of a Schauberger Vortex, with the Tesla Turbine
(some fresh air for a dying planet)
Dynamic Hydropower
The suction turbine or jet turbine of Viktor Schauberger

Hydropower engineering, up to this day, is almost exclusively concerned with two variables,
one being the altitude differential between head water and turbine and the other the quantity of
water that can be brought to flow through the turbines. This page was originally created by, and
is used with exclusive permission from Josef Hasslberger. It has been edited for content. You
may visit the original webpage at http://www.hasslberger.com, where you will find even more
documentation on the vortex theories proposed by Viktor Schauberger. It is a very well laid out
site.
A third important variable, the velocity of flow of water, is generally not thought to be important.
It is taken into consideration only as the velocity resulting from the release of water pressure
connected to and dependent on altitude differential but not as an important factor in its own right.
In fact, current design of hydropower facilities normally excludes utilization of the dynamic
energy potential inherent in the free flow of water. A dam destroys this natural energy potential
by bringing the water from its dynamic state of flow to a static state, a complete absence of
motion. If we study the writings of Viktor Schauberger and Ludwig Herbrand, we find that the
energy inherent in the free and unhindered flow of water may be potentially much greater than
that obtainable from the exclusive use of pressure resulting from altitude differential. A normal
flow of water rather than an altitude-induced pressure, has been used in mills and old blacksmith
hammer works of the pre-industrial era.
Viktor Schauberger

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 50


In recent times, it was Viktor Schauberger, the Austrian inventor and genial observer of nature's
ways who first advocated the use of increased water velocity rather than water pressure for the
production of hydroelectric power. He obtained a patent for what he termed a jet turbine
(Strahlturbine) as early as the year 1930. The principles used by Schauberger in order to increase
water velocity were the jet configuration of the water inlet pipe and the promotion, by spiral
ribbings on the inside of the jet, of a vortex motion of the water (similar in design to
Schauberger's Whorle Pipes).
Schauberger's patent actually gives us two very important clues to innovative changes in
hydropower technology. The first one is, that a pipe configured as a funnel or jet will increase
the velocity of the water's flow by restricting the space available in which the water may flow.
This increase in velocity is especially great if the funnel or jet allows the water to form a
characteristic flow pattern known as a vortex. This vortex pattern itself has a tendency, quite
separate from the jet-effect, to increase the velocity of the water, to decrease its temperature and
to augment the water's density.
The second innovation proposed by Schauberger is a revolutionary design of the turbine,
obtaining rotation at very high speeds and at the same time avoiding the usual difficulties of
cavitations found in normal high speed turbine designs. In fact Schauberger's turbine wheel is of
conical shape, with blades spiraling down the surface of the cone in a corkscrew pattern, and it is
located in the center of the jet of water. The corkscrew turbine wheel parts the flow of water,
takes up the water's dynamic energy and lets the flow continue without major disruption.
Turbines of current design , hacks the water into thousands of destructive counter flows and
cross vortices, thus wasting much of the available energy and causing the common problem of
cavitations, a super fast corrosion and destruction of turbine blade material.
Here is the description of this new type of turbine as given in Schauberger's patent number
117 749: The subject of the invention is a hydropower machine, which utilizes the living energy
of a jet of water for the purpose of power generation. According to the invention, the turbine
wheel is a cone with corkscrew-like blades. The cone is aligned with its axis in the direction of
the axis of the jet. In this way the jet of water is split and diverted out of its course and thus gives
its whole living energy to the spinning cone in a way that, providing the length of the cone and
the width of its base are in a correct relation to each other and provided the blades are set at the
correct angle, these parameters depending on the speed of the water jet, the water will flow out
of the machine without agitation.
The illustration (image right) is an approximate schematic representation of the invention. The
spinning cone, which is aligned with its axis (1) in the direction of the water jet leaving the jet
pipe (2), is made up of blades (3) in the form of a corkscrew. The ends (4) of these blades (3) are
bent somewhat upwards against the direction of the arriving water jet in order to cause a
diversion of the jet and to transfer as much as possible of the living energy of the jet to the
spinning cone. On the inside of the jet pipe (2) there are screw-like ribs (5) promoting a spin,
which according to actual observations increase the speed of the water jet and the efficiency of
the machine.
PATENT CLAIMS:
A jet turbine, distinguished by the fact that in the path of the water jet and aligned with its axis so
as to split the jet, there is a turbine wheel in the form of a cone, the surface of which is formed of
corkscrew-like blades.
A jet turbine according to claim 1, distinguished by a jet pipe (2) with ribs (5) slanted in the
direction of spin of the turbine wheel's.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 51


This patent was applied for in 1926 and granted in 1930. It seems that Schauberger actually used
a small turbine of this design in a stream of water near the forest wardens' building during those
years, but no reliable records are available.
Herbrand
Another instance of the use of the dynamic powers of flowing water has been documented by
Ludwig Herbrand, a German engineer who as a student in the mid 1930's was called to evaluate
and calculate the parameters of some generators and exciter units that had recently been installed
in the Rheinfelden power station, as well as to design electrical overload protection and relevant
switching mechanisms for these generators. He was also required to compare the generators with
those of another power station that had been described in an article of a specialized magazine.
Much to the dismay of the then young and inquisitive engineering student, it seemed that the
generators under examination were supplying more electrical energy than they should have,
according to accepted theory. One of the generators of the Rheinfelden power plant, with 50
cubic meters of water per second and an altitude differential of only one meter supplied just as
much power as a generator in near Ryburg-Schwsrstadt, which had a capacity of 250 cubic
meters of water per second and an altitude differential from head waters to turbine of 12 meters!
That fact was confirmed by prof. Finzi, the designer of the turbines and generators, saying to
young Herbrand: "Do not worry about this. It is correct. The generator has been working
without problems for some time now. Make the calculations backwards and you will see for
yourself. We are electrical engineers. Why, those other problems are not ours to solve, we leave
them to the water people. We have repeated our measurements and the generator's yield of
power is exactly as specified. The only thing is - no one knows about this."
Herbrand was soon drafted into the army and World War II did not allow him to pursue the
matter further. Only much later, in the 1970s and 1980s, Herbrand came back to the calculations
made for his engineering exams and tried - so far without success - to interest industry and
government in this different and more efficient use of hydropower.
Technical facts
I shall attempt to delineate here the technical facts, using calculations that are based on accepted
formulas and physical considerations confirmed by actual experiment, to show that with a
different approach to hydropower engineering, we could obtain significantly more electrical
power than is being extracted from hydro resources today, with simpler machinery and less
expenditure, as well as less disturbance to the environment. As mentioned above, current
hydropower engineering works with water pressure, obtained as a result of the altitude
differential between head waters and location of the turbine. This pressure, when released
through the turbine, results in a momentary acceleration of the water and thus in a certain
velocity of the water jet. This velocity is calculated with the formula
v = Ã 2 g h ... v being the velocity, g the gravitational acceleration of the earth (9.81 m/sec2) and
h the altitude differential measured in meters. Example: An altitude of 12 m results in a velocity
of à 2 . 9.81 . 12 = 15.3 m/sec. The progression of velocity in relation to altitude differential is
shown in the following table.
altitude diff. 12 m 24 m 36 m 8 m 60 m
velocity 15.3 m/sec 21.7 m/sec 26.6 m/sec 30.7 m/sec 34.3 m/sec
altitude diff. 72 m 84 m 96 m 108 m 120 m
velocity 37.6 m/sec 40.6 m/sec 43.4 m/sec 46 m/sec 48.5 m/sec
altitude diff. 132 m 144 m 156 m 168 m 180 m
velocity 50.9 m/sec 53.15 m/sec 55.3 m/sec 57.4 m/sec 59.4 m/sec

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 52


altitude diff. 192 m 204 m 216 m 228 m 240 m
velocity 61.4 m/sec 63.3 m/sec 65.1 m/sec 66.9 m/sec 68.6 m/sec

These values are rendered graphically below.

We see that the curve of velocity at first increases more steeply and then tends to flatten with
higher altitude differentials.
Let us now examine the energy output in kilowatt with increasing altitude differential.

The increase of energy output is linear, as shown in the graphic above.


Calculation
The electric energy that can be obtained from water is calculated on the basis of the velocity of
flow and the mass of the water, i.e. magnitude of flow measured in cubic meters per second,
according to the formula
E kin = . v 2 (kw)
An example, assuming a velocity of 25 m/sec and a mass of 5 cubic meters per second: 5 : 2 =
2.5 . 25 . 25 = 1562.5 kw. For the purpose of comparison, here are some further examples
(assuming a small constant flow of water, only 2 cubic meters per second):

velocity 15 m/sec 20 m/sec 25 m/sec 30 m/sec 35 m/sec


energy 225 kw 400 kw 625 kw 900 kw 1225 kw

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 53


velocity 40 m/sec 45 m/sec 50 m/sec 55 m/sec 60 m/sec
energy 1600 kw 2025 kw 2500 kw 3025 kw 3600 kw

velocity 65 m/sec 70 m/sec 75 m/sec 80 m/sec 85 m/sec


energy 4225 kw 4900 kw 5625 kw 6400 kw 7225 kw

velocity 90 m/sec 95 m/sec 100 m/sec 105 m/sec 110 m/sec


energy 8100 kw 9025 kw 10000 kw 11025 kw 12100 kw
These figures show, that a doubling of velocity quadruples the power output, a threefold increase
of velocity leads to a nine fold increase of power output. In other words, we have an
exponential increase. The curve of energy increase plotted against water velocity is shown in
this third graphic.

The graphic representation makes it clear, that a velocity increase brings progressively larger
increases of energy. Therefore, the higher the velocity of the water, the greater the overall
efficiency of the power plant! For the purpose of utilizing hydropower for generating electrical
energy, it is however quite irrelevant whether the velocity of the water is the result of pressure
obtained through altitude differential or whether it is obtained in some other way, such as
encouraging the natural tendency of water to flow. And it seems that we can increase the velocity
of flow of water almost at will.
How to increase electrical output
There are two basic variables in hydropower engineering that determine electrical output. They
are the amount of water available and the velocity of flow. The first variable, the amount of
water available, depends very much on location and is generally not subject to increase by
human intervention. It is the second variable, the velocity of the water's flow, which can be
manipulated in many ways. Apart from increasing water pressure, which is a comparatively
inefficient way to increase flow velocity, this parameter can be influenced by other, more simple
and more cost effective engineering solutions. It is a common principle in rocketry to increase
the velocity of flow of the hot exhaust gases by a restriction of the path of flow of these gases.
This is called the jet principle and has been used successfully for decades. The same principle
can be used to increase the velocity of a flow of water, such as a river. In fact, where a river is
forced, by the natural configuration of terrain, to flow through a narrow gorge, the velocity at the
narrowest point is much higher than it is before and after the rivers passage through the gorge.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 54


This effect can be utilized by finding a natural gorge or by artificially narrowing a river's bed so
as to bring about an increase in water velocity.
Another way to increase velocity of flow in water is to promote the formation of a longitudinal
vortex. This is a rolling or spinning motion, the axis of which coincides with the direction of
flow of the water. Such vortices have the property of causing an increase of the velocity of flow,
and a contraction of the diameter of the space needed by the body of water. They also cause a
lowering of the water's temperature and thus an increase in its density. (The highest specific
density of water is reached at a temperature of + 40 C.)
Water has a natural tendency to form vortices, especially if its flow is accelerated by some
external influence such as gravity. We can observe this by noting the swirl with which a full
bathtub or sink or any other container full of water empties, if the water is forced to flow through
a pipe connected to a hole in the bottom of the container. But even a simple water faucet,
releasing a flow of water, will show this same phenomenon if the water flows relatively
undisturbed, without bubbles or agitation. As the water picks up speed, it forms a distinctly
funnel-shaped vortex right before our eyes.
A confirmation of this tendency of vortices to increase water velocity (or in other words to
decrease resistance to the water's flow) comes from experiments performed in 1952 at the
Technical College in Stuttgart by Prof. Franz Pspel and Viktor Schauberger. The experiments
were performed with pipes of different materials and different shapes, to determine if either
materials or shapes had an influence on the resistance of the flow of water in pipes. It seems that
best results were achieved with copper pipes, and that this material caused less resistance to the
water's flow than even the smooth glass pipes used as comparison. But the most important datum
emerging from these experiments is, that by using a certain spiral configured pipe, based on the
form of the kudu antelope's horn, the friction in this pipe decreased with an increase in velocity
and at a certain point, the water flowed with a negative resistance.
Theory and practice
The best theory is not worth the paper it is written on, if it cannot be put into practice. We shall
therefore examine the practical utilization of these principles in hydropower engineering. The
object is to increase the velocity of the flow of water to such a degree that the resulting jet will
release more kinetic energy than conventional utilization of water pressure achieved with
comparable means.
Step 1:
As a first step, a river's normal flow is brought to higher velocity by the expedient of a wall that
gradually restricts the river's bed. This will increase the normal velocity of flow of 2 – 5 m/sec to
a sizeable 10 – 15 m/sec.
Step 2:
At this point, in order to further increase velocity, we must provide a channel of flow that more
closely resembles the shape of a natural vortex. We do this by channeling the already swiftly
flowing water at the narrowest point of the river bed into an approximately round funnel
or jet-pipe, which gradually further restricts the diameter of the water's channel of flow and
thereby causes a further increase in velocity.
In order to aid this process, we can promote the formation of a vortex in the funnel or jet-pipe
which will ensure that the water exits the jet at a considerable velocity. This is done either by
spiral ribs on the inside of the jet-pipe as proposed by Schauberger, or by forming the whole pipe
in a slightly corkscrew configuration.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 55


Installing a turbine and generator at the release point of the water jet, of the design proposed by
Schauberger, although, for all practical purposes, a conventional turbine design will suffice.
Another excellent application for the bladeless disk turbine of Nikola Tesla's original design,
may also be used.
Where step 1 is not practicable because of the river being too small, or where we simply want to
adapt existing power plants to utilize the dynamic energy of water flow, step 2 can still be
profitably combined with current small hydropower plant design, by altering the shape of the
penstock to a funnel or jet-pipe configuration, thus obtaining part of the velocity increase from
normal use of gravity and another part through the specific action of the jet effect and the vortex
flow.
No theoretical limitation
Are there limits to how fast a water-jet can be made to flow? This is a question we should
obviously ask ourselves before embarking on this kind of project. It seems that theoretically
there are no limitations, as long as the vortex mode of flow is used. If water is forced to flow in
straight pipes, resistance increases with the increase of velocity. Not so when we allow the water
to flow at its natural mode, accommodating the resulting vortex in our pipe design. In this case,
resistance can be very low and even negative, as shown by the experiments performed in
Stuttgart. For purposes of estimating the potential benefits of using the dynamic powers
inherent in the flow of water, we can conservatively assume that we should be able to
obtain, without particular difficulties, velocities between 40 and 50 m/sec. This is an
estimation based on the observation of Herbrand that at the Rheinfelden power plant a
velocity of 35 m/sec was achieved.
We can see from the above statistical tables that 45 m/sec of velocity are equivalent to an altitude
differential of more than 100 meters. And assuming that we have a flow of water of 10 cfm/sec,
we can predict (at v = 45 m/sec) an energy output of 10 megawatt. This is a considerable amount
of power and it can be obtained almost anywhere along the normal course of a river, without the
costly and environmentally questionable practice of constructing a dam and a man made lake to
obtain 100 meters of altitude differential. If it is true that the water's velocity of flow can be
increased almost at will and with comparatively simple means at a fraction of the cost of
current hydropower designs, someone might ask: Why are we not using this obviously
superior method?
Let's look to Nikola Tesla's fantastic speech, as recorded to the Manufacturers Record;
September 9th, 1915."The Wonder World To Be Created By Electricity." for some insight.
THE POWER OF THE FUTURE
"We have at our disposal three main sources of life-sustaining energy- fuel, water-power and the
heat of the sun's rays. Engineers often speak of harnessing the tides, but the discouraging truth is
that the tidewater over one acre of ground will, on the average, develop only one horse-power.
Thousands of mechanics and inventors have spent their best efforts in trying to perfect wave
motors, not realizing that the power so obtained could never compete with that derived from
other sources. The force of wind offers much better chances and is valuable in special instances,
but is by far inadequate. Moreover, the tides, waves and winds furnish only periodic and often
uncertain power and necessitate the employment of large and expensive storage plants. Of
course, there are other possibilities, but they are remote, and we must depend on the first of three
resources."
"If we use fuel to get our power, we are living on our capital and exhausting it rapidly. This
method is barbarous and wantonly wasteful, and will have to be stopped in the interest of coming

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 56


generations. The heat of the sun's rays represents an immense amount of energy vastly in excess
of water-power. The earth receives an equivalent of 83 foot-pounds per second for each square
foot on which the rays fall perpendicularly. From simple geometrical rules applying to a
spherical body it follows that the mean rate per square foot of the earth's surface is one-quarter of
that, or 20 3/4 foot-pounds. This is to say over one million horse-power per square mile, or 250
times the water-power for the same area. But that is only true in theory; the practical facts put
this in a different aspect."
"For instance, considering the United States, and taking into account the mean latitude, the daily
variation, the diurnal changes, the seasonal variations and casual changes, this power of the sun's
rays reduces to about one-tenth, or 100,00 horse-power per square mile, of which we might be
able to recover in high-speed low-pressure turbines 10,000 horse-power. To do this would mean
the installment of apparatus and storage plants so large and expensive that such a project is
beyond the pale of the practical. The inevitable conclusion is that water-power is by far our most
valuable resource. On this humanity must build its hopes for the future. With its full
development and a perfect system of wireless transmission of the energy to any distance man
will be able to solve all the problems of material existence. Distance, which is the chief
impediment to human progress, will be completely annihilated in thought, word and action.
Humanity will be united, wars will be made impossible and peace will reign supreme." Nikola
Tesla, September 9, 1915

Fixed ideas and the law of conservation of energy


It is very hard to un-learn something one studied and especially if what was learned was then
needed to pass an examination. The weight of so called natural laws brought to bear to support
these doctrines makes it even more difficult for any one person to stand up and say hey, we have
overlooked something here! Of course everybody knows that water has to be pressurized if we
are to use it for hydroelectric power generation. And everybody knows as well, that the
technology of hydropower engineering has been well in hand since the turn of the century. So
why bother to look any further?
Not so Ludwig Herbrand. He has fought an unceasing battle for more than 20 years now, to
obtain recognition for this new technology. Literally hundreds of letters to government and
industry, as well as international institutions with just so many negative replies, more or less
politely telling him that his proposals are not welcome. It is difficult to break through this barrier
of knowledge, especially when the experts think they see a violation of the law of conservation
of energy. Conservation of energy is invoked when calculations do not seem to permit a higher
energy output. But in this case we have a factor that has been neglected in our calculations, not a
violation of conservation laws.
Water is an accumulator of energy
There is some evidence that the decrease of water temperature that is a consequence of vortex
motion provides the energy to the water that we then see as kinetic energy in the form of
increased water velocity. In this way a vortex would transform heat (which is random molecular
motion) into dynamic energy (which is motion in a certain direction). Schauberger stressed the
fact that water could store enormous amounts of energy by being heated up. He states in an
article about the Danube river that in order to warm up 1 cubic meter of water by only 0.1 degree
C, one needs about 42,700 kgm of energy, saying that this goes to show the enormous energies
that are bound when water is heated up and are released when water cools down.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 57


Thermodynamics, as taught in our schools and universities does not allow for such a two-way
transformation of heat at low temperature differentials. Thermodynamics is based on observation
of steam machines and has little to do with nature, although some insist that the so-called laws of
thermodynamics are natural laws. Nevertheless, thermodynamics is not able to explain certain
natural phenomena. In calculations of electrical power yield, velocity is not considered
separately but as a result only and exclusively of altitude differential. That is like saying, there is
no other way of achieving water velocity than pressure. It may be the way the experts calculate,
but physical reality is different. Water velocity, as we have seen, is not exclusively linked to
pressure but may be achieved with different means.
Thus the correct way to calculate is to start from velocity and arrive at the power output. Altitude
differential and the velocity equivalent as calculated in the formula given above are a special
case, not the general rule. We must distinguish between the pressure-induced velocity equivalent
and the natural velocity of flowing water. That is to say we must distinguish between gravity and
inertia. These two forces are similar in their effects but they are nevertheless two distinctly
different forces. This article does not allow a detailed examination of the physical forces
involved.
I hope that this article may contribute to overcoming the knowledge barrier, the various
everybody know in the field of hydro engineering. To anyone wishing to utilize the dynamic
powers of water I recommend a study of the writings of Viktor Schauberger, the great
master of hydro engineering who remained an outsider to official science all of his life, because
his views were so radically different from those of the professors of his time. With the union of
Tesla's Bladeless Boundary Turbine & Pump, and Victor Schauberger's water accelerating
techniques through the jet funnel and whorle pipes...a true step towards "non-polluting, free
energy", derived from our nation's rivers, would result. I offer another concept of vortex and
water power, in the form of an invention from a Mr. David Dennard (May God Bless his soul) -
WHIRLPOWER the power from tapping a whirlpool through its precession.

So What's The Problem?


Well, the problem is not the technology...it's the implementation of the technology!!! I'll be very
brief with an explanation. Here's the official stance; currently, In the United States, you need to
get an F.E.R.C. License to install a hydro electric plant. In order to get a License you need to
coordinate the installation with DEO, Fish & Wildlife, Stream Encroachment, SPEDES, The
US Army Corp of Engineers (if navigable), Dam Safety, National & State Historical Society
and every other "Tom, Dick & Harry" out there. Furthermore, in order to obtain the license, you
need to compete, which means you need to develop the project at a 75-80% of maximum flow.
This is done to insure the site is beneficial. The long & short of this is, although you spend all
this money to maximize the hydraulic turbines, they only run 20 % of the year at the maximum
design capacity. Combine this with hydraulic flows' peak in the spring and fall (not peak times
during summer & winter) when there is a glut of power on the market and you are lucky to get 2
cents per kWh. That's the short and simple of it. Until the American people get "fed up" enough
to initiate changes in the political make-up of the system...we get it right up the "you know
what" in regards to being able to have virtually non-polluting, environmentally sound electrical
energy production. Think about this - we could easily implement all of the technology presented
on this webpage quite easily. From a company standpoint, i.e.: profitability and
sustainability, we simply could not afford to do so...that is, as long as these license
restrictions are kept in place. All of this is up to the American people to decide. Eventually,

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 58


I'm sure we will be forced into finding environmentally sensible and sustainable power
generation...until then...we wait. To put it another way, so appropriately coined on the hit sit-com
"Seinfield" - Yadda, yadda, yadda...!!! And that's the way our government will remain, until,
enough citizens finally voice their opinions with VOTES to change this, and DEMAND that
water (power) is used for all our electrical generation needs. Clean, free power from WATER
flows and rivers and wave power.
So, to "re-quote" Nikola Tesla from one of the above paragraphs - " The inevitable conclusion
is that water-power is, by far, our most valuable resource. On this, humanity must build its
hopes for the future. With its full development and a perfect system of wireless transmission of
the energy to any distance, man will be able to solve all the problems of material existence.
Distance, which is the chief impediment to human progress, will be completely annihilated in
thought, word and action. Humanity will be united, wars will be made impossible, and peace
will reign supreme." Nikola Tesla, September 9, 1915 ; If only that were true. Thank you for
your time
Frank Germano, President, Global Energy Technologies, Inc.
Frank Germano; frank at germano dot com
Co-Founder and President
International Turbine And Power, LLC
931 Rumsey Avenue, PO Box 550
Cody, Wyoming
(our former corporate entity, above)

Suggested book:"Living Energies " by Callum Coats. Viktor Schauberger's Brilliant Work
with Natural Energies, explained ( ISBN: 0-946551-97-9)
The original translation of Viktor Schauberger's work, "Living Water", by Olof
Alexanderson...start here, and get each one in order. This is an excellent, brief introduction to
the thought of Viktor Schauberger, and I hope it inspires works which are more complete.
Callum Coates' books reach in this direction, but what is really needed are more people to read
these books, synthesize their information, and come up with new and original books which take
us further into depth in these areas. This will probably involve synthesizing the work of
Schauberger, Grander, Bienveniste, and others. An understanding of Schauberger is very
important for those attempting to reconstruct an Indigenous European Perspective. Schauberger
has the elements of a modern water shaman, and his shamanic / intuitive techniques of letting his
body float with the water should be closely correlated with what Hans Peter Duerr has to say
about "out of body" experience in his tome "Dreamtime". Although Schauberger lived in the
20th Century, his perspective allows us to imagine back what earlier indigenous practitioners
may have been like. The Colonial, Imperialist Europe is only one side of the coin of Europe. We
must also include the suppressed indigenous, pagan, and green sides. Significantly, the
Inquisition represents a watershed in European history where a great deal of the indigenous
healers and theorists were wiped out in holocaust proportions. An understanding of Schauberger,
coupled with an appreciation of Steiner, Hildegard of Bingen, Hans Peter Duerr, and others, will
allow us to reconstruct what a noncolonial, nonimperialist Europe was like. Understanding
water's nature is essential in this regard, for water forms the basis of our understandings of flow.
Furthermore, understanding water's energetic qualities will help us understand how it interacts
with the body. Traditional Chinese Medicine, for example, would benefit from an accurate and
holistic understanding of water's qualities. In short, this book is an excellent appetizer.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 59


The book that started it all...Living Energies, Callum Coats first Viktor Schauberger book. If
you only buy one book, this would be the one to get. Fantastic. Living Energies, May 23, 2001
Reviewer: Frank D Germano, from Tafton, PA United States: This book started it all! Callum
Coats basically brought to "light" the resurgence of interest in Viktor Schauberger's theories.
This is truly a brilliant work. Water as a carrier of vital energy information, trees as bio-
condensers of energy between the deep earth and the sun, how self-cleansing rivers nourish the
landscape, how the future of the earth depends on the replanting of natural forests, revolutionary
agricultural implements, free energy heater-coolers, jet engines and gravity defying machines
invented by Schauberger in the 30's and 40's, home power generators...it's pretty much all here. It
was a hard book for me to put down once I started reading, and I go back to it continually for
reference. This book pretty much sums up Schauberger's work, which Coats then
compartmentalized and expanded in the "Eco-Technology" series with four other books. I would
highly advise getting this book, first, and reading it thoroughly, before moving on to the series,
as it is a fascinating preface into discovering who Viktor Schauberger WAS, and learning just
how far-reaching his theories were, and applicable to us, today. FDG.

1,) The first book of the "Eco-Technology series" - The Water Wizard - This book gives a lot
of history on Schauberger. The nature of water, May 23, 2001
Reviewer: Frank D Germano, from Tafton, PA United States: This is the first book of the "Eco-
Technology" series, and as so, gives you the foundation of the theories presented by Viktor
Schauberger, and amplified by Callum Coats. It DOES contain quite allot of previous
information written in Living Energies (Coat's first Schauberger book), however, the discussion
and the text is much more thoroughly covered. The substance of water, water supply, deep-sea
water, the consequences of drinking purely mechanically treated water, notes on the secrets of
water, high-frequency water, the pulsation and healing power of water, river regulation,
groundwater tables, temperature and movement of water...notice my use of the word WATER.
Yes, this book is about water, but, by reading it, just wait until you discover what you DID NOT
know about "water". It is a very good start, and as I said, a foundation for understanding the
theories of Viktor Schauberger. FDG.

2.) Part two of the "Eco-Technology series" Nature As Teacher, A great book on living with
nature. A very nice read.
Our Senseless Toil, May 23, 2001: Reviewer: Frank D Germano, from Tafton, PA United States:
I had to use a title from one of the books' opening chapters. This book is going to annoy some
people. Callum Coats presents Viktor Schauberger's theories in a modern light. The laws of
Nature, Questions for Science, Nature as Teacher, the fish-eagle, the swing, the trout, the ox,
dancing logs and stones, the Genesis of water, the coming bio-technical age, the secret of the egg

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 60


form...these are elucidated...then comes the fun stuff... the age-old secret of the atom, implosive
breathing, life-force and animated breathing, is there perpetual motion (?), organic syntheses, the
false world view, the mechanical equivalent of heat, plasmolytic motion; this volume gives
tremendous insight into what is happening in the world, today, and practical solutions on HOW
we may yet save our world. Most telling is Schauberger's inane gut feelings on the powers at
work in the environment, and living water. Hey, it's only volume two of the series. Get all four,
and see how these books will influence YOU to change the way we look at the earth . FDG

3.) The Fertile Earth , part three of the "Eco-Technology series. Pure drinking water, how to
make it, the benefits produced in the body...the natural flow and paths of rivers, and how man
has disturbed nature...organic, natural farming...trees as the life giving force on the earth...it's all
hear! Are you trying to save Mother Earth?, May 23, 2001
Reviewer: Frank D Germano, from Tafton, PA United States: If you are in any way interested in
the environment, then this book will appeal to you. This is the third book in the highly acclaimed
"Eco-Technology" series by Callum Coats. Not only does the book delve into what man is doing
to harm the environment, it also offers "fresh" ideas on what we can and should DO about it. I
can't believe "Green Peace" or some other pro-environmental group doesn't have this book as
part of their by-laws! Fascinating. Of coarse, the entire book is based on the revolutionary work
of Viktor Schauberger. This one, if you are into farming, just have a back-yard garden, or are a
hard core pro-earth person, will keep you reading till the end...and want to read the entire series.
A very well written and inspiring book. A different view of natural phenomena, the influence of
temperature and water movement, forestry, agriculture, the energy industry, the dying forest,
timber and water in the building industry, soil fertilization, increased productivity...wow! Again,
whether you are just into learning what's happening to the earth, and why, or you are serious
about trying to DO something to stop the damage already done, this book will open your eyes.
FDG

4.) The Energy Evolution , the final book of the "Eco-Technology series" (If you are
interested in the designs and patents on Schauberger's devices, this is the book. Culmination of
the Eco-Technology Series, May 23, 2001
Reviewer: Frank D Germano, from Tafton, PA United States: This book, being the fourth and
last of the Eco-Technology series, is an incredible finish. Naturally, all of the book deals with
Viktor Schauberger, and his theories on living water, and the environment. This book, however,
goes deeper into the actual inventions than the previous ones. It contains almost all of
Schauberger's patent information, most of which, even though "lost" originally, is now amplified
and explained by Callum Coats. The Trout Motor, the Repulsine, and the rest of Viktor's

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 61


inventions fall in place like a well stacked deck of cards. You could very easily build these
wonderful engines, yourself (with some help from a good machine shop, of coarse!). If you have
waited for the conclusion of the series, your wait will be well worth the time. I highly suggest
you pick up this copy. FDG

Here comes the newest books on Viktor Schauberger - "Hidden Nature", by Alick
Bartholomew. Just buy it; it's a great read!

Sacred Living Geometry:


The Enlightened Environmental Theories of Viktor Schauberger:

Editorial Reviews: The research of Callum Coats takes us on a journey through the life and
inventions of Austrian ecologist Viktor Schauberger (1885-1958). Now, for the first time, you
can view the evidence in this detailed, three-hour illustrated lecture presentation on this two
video set. Viktor Schauberger was a genius whose ideas were far ahead of his time. He worked
as a "forest-master" in the Austrian Alps when they were still a true wilderness. This experience
was to influence his entire life's work. Schauberger prophesied the environmental crises we are
seeing today, predicting that unless we start to cherish rather than exploit our world, we would
surely destroy ourselves. He demonstrated how deforestation would deplete the world of water,
causing deserts and climatic chaos. Asked about our technology, "How else should it be done?"
His answer was "exactly in the opposite way that it is done today!" His maxim: "Comprehend
and Copy Nature!" From his precise observations of the processes of Nature, Schauberger
pioneered a completely new understanding of the nature of water as the most important life-
giving and energy-empowered substance on the planet. This led him to develop a radical new
science which flew in the face of conventional scientific thinking but which, today, is being
increasingly recognized for its highly-relevant implications for civilization. Viktor Schauberger
might have made a career as a brilliant inventor. Forced, for a time, to develop radical new forms
of propulsion for the Third Reich, he went on to work on devices utilizing the principles of
implosion - hundreds of times more powerful than conventional power sources. Even in the
weeks just before his death, US government and commercial interests were exerting pressure on
him to reveal his secrets. Schauberger's deep insights in the special properties of water and nature
hold immense implications for future technology and ecology.

Neo-AeroDynamic
Turbine Goes Against the Flow
The patent-pending, Neo-Aerodynamic turbine invented by Phi Tran harnesses torque from both
kinetic and pneumatic energy of the fluid flow (wind or water). Since the 'lift' forces are caused
by artificial flow of the fluid (air/wind) around the center of the turbine, the turbine's worst
enemy -- turbulence -- is neutralized.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 62


The efficiencies are high enough to make this turbine design economically competitive with
fossil-fuel-generated electricity. It is able to function well in low wind areas, making it ideal for
city/urban roof top and back yard settings, requiring no tower.
"A $10-15,000 roof top or backyard device will produce enough electricity for one
California family including heat for cooking and air conditioning." -- Phi Tran
The design is applicable to harness energy from any of the following resources: Wind, River,
Creek, Ocean current, Tidal current and Wave.
Company is seeking investors.
Contents
1 About
1.1 Official Website
1.2 Interview
1.3 Latest Developments
 1.3.1 June 1, 2007
1.4 Videos
1.5 Patents
1.6 Independent Testing
1.7 Overview
1.8 How It Works
1.9 Feature Comparison
1.9.1 Wind application advantages
1.9.2 Water application advantages
1.9.3 Wind application disadvantages
1.9.4 Water application disadvantages
1.10 Cost
1.11 Profiles
1.11.1 Company
1.11.2 Inventor: Phi Tran
1.12 Contact
1.13 Comments
1.14 See also
Official Website
 http://www.neo-aerodynamic.com
Latest Developments
June 1, 2007
The company is presently producing 10 beta units to disperse around various nations. It hopes to
have the first 1000 residential units installed by the end of 2007.
Videos
 http://www.nextenergynews.com/windpower/windpower9.html as a wind turbine
 http://www.nextenergynews.com/hydropower/hydropower1.html as a dam-less hydro
turbine
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MXSWATvU_aI for the data report and calculation
formula.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 63


Independent Testing
Tests are under guidance to report to Dr Ajit Thakker of the University of Limerick in Ireland
and at least one other independent labs have tested the device with consistent results. Three more
independent academic research projects are set up for the coming fall semester.
A researcher a Oxford University in Amsterdam said that the lift into the wind makes this design
superior. Add to that the advantage of the vast surface area, which does not work much against
the turbine on the leeward side due to the lift.
Overview
Phi Tran writes:
Neo-Aerodynamic introduces a new technology to extract kinetic energy from a flowing fluid,
providing “unheard-of? amounts of electricity as the final result; this “rate has not been seen
before?. During the development of this technology we have gone from one surprising result to
the other. At times we could not believe our eyes when we read the measurements; in the end we
had to settle for what the equipment tells us.
Neo-Aerodynamic indeed sparks a new energy revolution by providing for the first time in
history a concrete means for humans to harness most of their energy needs through a renewable
resource. For example: a 2m diameter by 2m height hydro Neo-Aerodynamic device could
generate a NET power of several megawatts.
Neo-Aerodynamic provides the most INEXPENSIVE means to generate electricity even when
compared to fossil fuel engines.
Neo-Aerodynamic has a high sensitivity to the fluid stream and a superb rate of energy return
allowing it to be economically deployed in almost every corner of the world. With wind, you feel
it you get it. With water, you see it you get it.
How It Works
Phi Tran writes:
Fluid always goes from a hi- to a low-pressured place. In fluid aerodynamic; when something
stands in its flow it then causes the flow facing front having higher pressure. Using airfoil in the
path of the flow; its aerodynamic effect will cause a lift, like it works with an airplane.

Observations from introducing color streams of fluid to the device, analyzing the video clips.
On the wind facing (wind make) side; the flow are then redirect outward form the center. It then
causes the “lift? on airfoils to push it turning. Once the device is turning it causes the center to
have lower pressure; the outside air then rushes in to fill those vacuums. This flow is then
redirected to cause “lift? on the airfoil. When turning; the special arrange of the airfoil allowing
the volume of the air passing through the upper chamber are always more then of the lower
chamber. This also causes the lift to make the device turn.
In short; Neo-Aerodynamic uses the artificial flow of the air to cause the lift on its airfoils. That's
why it's called Neo-AeroDynamic.

In case of a horizontal axis propeller it's easy to understand that its swept area is on the surface
that is parallel to the cross section of it axis. In this case it is the same as the wind facing surface.
In case of a Neo-Aero-Dynamic device the swept area is the same area as the cross section of the
airfoils sweep. It is the surface that's parallel to the cross section of it's axis. Therefore as of the
wind, the swept area of a Neo-Aero-Dynamic device is on a horizontal plane. This concept is
VERY IMPORTANT because we will use the swept area to calculate the output of a Neo-Aero-
Dynamic device.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 64


It’s also very important that the commonly understood “swept area? that we use to calculate the
rated output of the horizontal propeller does not apply to this device because:
 There's no wind move through its airfoils.
 Turbulence and the attack angle of each airfoil changes at every moment.
 On each airfoil; the pressure posing on the upper chamber and the lower chamber are
different and constantly changing.
As the result; known methods such as "Betz" limit become useless. Everything we use to
calculate the output has to come from actual measurements on either wind tunnel test models or
real life installation.

The Calculation of the Output


Wind tunnel model tests and real life devices have proven:
 The output of the device is proportional to the square of the diameter of the rotor or
proportional to it swept area. Please see the “Swept Area? above.
 The output of the device is proportional to the height of the device.
 The output of the device is proportional to the wind speed at it power 3 (V^3).
 O = a x D^2 x H x V^3, where:
o O is output; usually in Watts;
o D is diameter;
o H is height;
o V is fluid flow speed;
o a is a parameter representing the effectiveness of the device (higher when the
diameter increases), plus the density of the fluid and the type of airfoil. As an
example; in ocean level, the density of the wind: if D , H in U.S. feet, V in m/s,
then a would be 0.0087 for device has diameter of 1 feet or less, above that and
less then 2 feet it would be 0,01018. It becomes more then 0.02 for NACA series
7 and 6 feet diameter. When the Neo-AeroDynamic device is used as a turbine in
a water stream; we expect the parameter to be 786 times the value as it is when
functioning in the air (water is 786 times heavier then air).

A NOTE AND QUESTION There is something always puzzling us when we apply our actual
measurements to calculate the CP (Capacity performance) with the wind facing area equal to D x
H. If we apply the above equation then the CP is proportional with the diameter. We and at least
one other independent laboratory have spent times and times to make sure our measuring
equipments are right. So far we use the above equation to set up the expected/projected results
before build, however the actual NET outputs are always beyond that and those on the "open air"
seem to be better functioning then those in the wind tunnel.
I post this note to ask the "great mind(s)" Please help us to explain the phenomena.
Feature Comparison
Wind application advantages
 works on "you feel it you get it", it does not require years of observation and gathering
data.
 mainly works on pneumatic force of the wind therefore it's not effect by turbulence or
wind drag.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 65


 has phenomenally high capture rate; because its capture rate is at least proportional to its
diameter.
 does not require a tower, allowing equipment to be maintained at or close to the ground.
 can be scaled independently its width and or its height to fit your application.
 works on low wind speed while other technologies provide too little.
 increases its effectiveness along with the density of the medium (air and water) while
other decrease.
 only requires a fraction of the investment compare to other technologies (HAWT). This
makes it the most inexpensive to build and the fastest turn around of your investment.
 simple to operate; no yawing, no controller to have it facing to the wind.
 safe in reaction to the wind rush.
 low profile; not being scenic pollution.
 quiet.
 does not have shadow nuisances.
 can be adapted to city/subdivision residential area or backyard.
 works in both air and water medium.
 Hydro Neo-Aerodynamic can be either float or bottom dwelling.
 Both Hydro and aero devices are compact; easy to be transported or making it portable.

Water application advantages


As a stream turbine it has the following advantages including:
 Elimination of the costly dam building
 Enable mankind to tap into thousand, thousand miles of river the forgotten renewable
energy source, to be placed where it's needed, voiding the high cost of transmission loss.
 Neo-Aerodynamic works on virtually any water flow (speed, head).
 It does not require the water to be deep and work even on a very low water speed as
shown in the video.
 After generating power; the turbine will lowering the speed of the water stream to reduce
the soil erosion problems.
 One of the main advantages is a Neo- Aerodynamic allowing the device to be scaled
independently in horizontally or vertically to fit your existing environment.
 Neo- Aerodynamic can also be modified to capture tidal flow and oceanic current, the
virtually untapped blue power.
 Neo- Aerodynamic neutralize the worst enemy; the turbulence; this gives an answer to
the question why it works while others fail.
 It may be used for all: river, ocean currents, and wave via ocean wave currents.
 It does not block the passage of fish.
 It is more efficient in energy conversion than dam hydro.
 It does not create stagnant water which results in.
o The production of disease causing malaria mosquitoes.
o Environment suited to disease carrying snails.
o The production of methane gas caused by submersion of trees.
 It does not require people to move from areas as do dams.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 66


 Permit the deposition of alluvial (water carried) soil during the flooding season for
farmers as compared to dams that block distribution of this valuable resource.
 They do not have the potential hazard that dams pose as they age or become weakened by
earthquakes
 They cost less to install, maintain (removal of silt) and remove than dams.
 They can be anchored in oceans where tidal or natural currents such as the Gulf Current
flows. Dams cannot be used in open seas.
 They can be installed almost anywhere along the course of the stream while most (not all)
places that are suitable for dam building have been already utilized.

Wind application disadvantages


 As of any technology, there may be a limit of how width and or how high it can be built.
 As of any technology, there may be a new, better "invention"?
 Being backed by actual models; despite the fact that Neo-Dynamic has the same or better
tip-speed, it usually requires a higher ratio gearbox (more expensive) to take advantage of
capturing the energy when the wind speed is slow.
Water application disadvantages
 Transmission line length would have to increase
 The amount of power might decrease during the dry season for rivers if water sources
declined but this will also be true of dam water as well since water levels also drop.
 While dam base hydro turbine can regulate output by turning-off number of turbines;
when the power is in less needed to save the "water" for later peek demand. Free-flow
does not have that capability.
 Dam base hydro turbines are more attractive to developer and/or investor because its
facility can be bigger, easier to manage.
*Thanks to Adrian Akau for most of the items on the above lists.
Cost
Phi Tran estimates a 1 MW Wind turbine would cost less than US $200,000.00; and a 1 MW
Hydro turbine would cost half that.
The return on investment is estimated at three to five years.
Profiles
Company
Privately held entity. Opportunities are open to individuals/parties who have the benefit of
mankind at heart.
Inventor: Phi Tran
Contact
Phi Tran
12415 Keepers Trail
Cypress, TX
E-Mail: ephitran@gmail.com
Construction for Creating Wild Brooks & Flow Regulation
by
Viktor Schauberger
The invention corresponds to a construction for creating wild brooks and flow-regulation through
the speed of water that is dammed, so that with oriented stones no destruction may come along

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 67


the course of the waterpath through the damming constructs, and to place the central line of the
watercourse in the middle of the stream.
The invention is illustrated in the drawings; Figure 1 is an example of water-conduction and
damming in the shape of transversely-placed dams.
The dams (1) are hollow and made of concrete placed and anchored to the ground with suitable
anchors (2), so that they cannot be displaced by the streaming water. The striations are placed
against the direction of the waterflow, upon which the water runs and along which it will sluice;
through this coursing the water loses the greatest portion of its energy and does not strike too
hard against the placed dams, forcing them out of place.
The dams can be placed at far or close distances from each other in the course of the constructed
brook. In order to lay the theoretical middle of the stream in the midst of the flow in far-off
places and also to prevent the destruction of the river shore through erosion, we will place
constructions by the sides of the flow that will act as dams as seen in Figure 2. In this figure the
dams are indicated by (3), while the stones are placed at (4) in opposite places. The middle line
of the waterflow (5) runs through them as illustrated.
Figure 3 shows in greater detail one of such constructs and Figure 4 a transverse cut through one
of them.
The constructions (3) are essentially triangular-shaped, and are jammed into the soil against the
shore so as to elevate and make the water flow towards a middle point.
The effect made by these constructions is further illustrated in Figure 4, where the dashed line
(6)-(6) in the transversal cut of the ground before the construction, which obliges the ground to
place itself along the dashed line because of the disturbed waterflow.
The oriented stones are placed between the constructions (3) and this builds a zone of still water
close to them, next to the shore, and also serves the purpose of directing the waterflow and to
protect the shores from erosion through water (Figure 3). The full line (5) indicates the middle
of the stream in the corresponding construction, while dashed line (5’) indicates the middle line
in the brook under the influence of the constructs.
Figures 1-4

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 68


Austrian Patent # 122,144
(April 10, 1931)
Artificial Channel for Transporting Logs
by Viktor Schauberger
The transportation of logs and other varied loads through water channels and other artificial
channels, though its low cost makes it competitive against other transportation means, suffers
under the condition that when moving along the water flow some logs, especially in curves, tend
to remain stuck and in this way sop the following logs, diminishing the general speed of the
transport. This is especially true for hard and dense woods that remain at the bottom of the
channel and move forward very badly.
It is known that the speed displayed by logs in water channels is greater than that of the
waterspeed; at those places the speed of the logs greatly surpasses that of the transporting
medium and it is seen from Figure 1 that the floating log creates a frontal wave (0) as it moves.
While lighter wood (Figure 2) floats without problems, heavier wood sits at the bottom of the
channel (Figure 3) and remains stuck; therefore the water impulse in channels is not enough to
produce the usual motion through sliding without external water spillage.

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 69


The invention pertains to a discovery that corrects these evils, namely the elimination of water
spillage through the implanting of wedges made of wood and the transportation of hard and
dense woods through sliding in the channels.
The speed of the water depends overall also on its sliding over the channel walls; in the usual
slanted channels, this important factor is eliminated because of their construction.
The channels’ cross-section is not semi-circular or straight, but rather, as seen in Figures 2, 3
and 4, semicircular (B) with an added semicircular bottom (U) which radius is half that of the
upper portion (B), so that along the line (E)-(F) in Figures 2 and 3, a resting portion (L) can be
included; the internal wall at the upper semicircular portion is of striated material (unretouched
cement, directionally nailed wood, etc.), and the underlying portion (U) of a sliding material
(flattened cement, polished wood, etc.), so that the water speed in the lower region (U) is much
greater than in the upper part (B).
This causes at once the sinking of water in the middle of the stream (Figure 4); in practice, when
a weight falls a certain distance, the water striking against the striated channel walls moves
further, maintaining the mass (H) in the midst of the flowing medium by means of the polished
underzone (U) that displaces the water faster.
When transporting floating light woods (Figure 2), this will not cause any disorder in the flow of
water, for the underzone (U) will run faster than the upper zone (B); in this manner it will not be
necessary to build dams outside the channel to contain the spilled water.
From light woods we expect little problem, but with hard and dense wood we must expect it to
sink deeper and to advance with difficulty, so that this kind of wood will sink itself into the
faster-running underzone (U), and advance in this fashion as if advanced by a transporting band.
When transporting hard and dense woods (Figure 3), different laws come into play; the wholly
submerged log (H) is entirely in the faster-running water, so that the pressure upon (E) and (F) of
the submerged sliding skids (L) makes them enter into action, for this time the usual impulse of
water is not enough to make the log (H) advance. If these means are not added the logs must
remain stuck in the bottom of the channel.
In opposition to the present (1931) transportation of hard wood through channels built with
hardened materials, the dense and hard wood will be transported by doubly-concave channels
with wall built with lighter materials, for they are not obliged to withstand such heavy loads. In
curves, where the moving wood is obliged to follow them we can, through the proper
construction (Figure 5) of the channel, with only a one-sided channel wall, make the log move
towards the outside where it will be held by the running water along the curve; if need be, we can
add sliding skids (L) as seen, which can be improved by the addition of wheels.
Figures 1-5

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 70


Austrian Patent # 134, 543
( August 25, 1933 )
Conduction of Water in Tubes & Channels
by Viktor Schauberger
This invention relates to the concentration of flowing water within polished conduits (pipes),
channels and tubes, so as to increase the amount of flowing medium passing through them.
The inventor has discovered that when a certain kind of turbulence happens in flowing water,
then a temperature difference takes place within it, producing also a difference in the water
speed, and that this happens especially in Waltz-like flows.
It is known that to hinder sedimentation, water channels and tubes are built of circular cross-
section, so that the flowing medium may drag with itself any sediments left; this is to provoke a
screw-like movement of water so that it may attract all particles in its path.
This invention pertains to a further development of this principle, to drag sedimented masses
with moving water.
The main idea of this invention is seen in Figure 2, where the usual path of flowing water (4) is
detoured by a wedge-shaped device into a different way (5).
Figure 5 shows an improvement of this idea by adding striations (6) to the wedge placed on the
inner wall of a channel or tube.
In Figure 1, we see the wedges grouped (2)-(2’)-(2") in groupings of three, and producing as a
result the screw-like flow (3)-(3’)-(3") through the internal portion of the conduit (1).

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 71


This makes the waterflow concentrate at the center of the tube, with a concentrical motion,
dragging along any particles left upon the walls.
Figure 3 also shows, in a lateral view, how the normal water path (4) is changed to a
concentrical one (5), to generate a concentrical flow in the flowing medium.
Figure 4 shows how open semi-circular channels can also be adapted to the same purpose.
Figures 1-5

Austrian Patent # 136,214


(January 10, 1934)
Installation & Correction of Flow in Draining Channels by a Contention & Stabilization of
Dammed Water
by
Viktor Schauberger
This invention pertains to an installation related to the conduction and regulation of flwo in water
channels by contention and stabilization in higher levels by means of dams integrated into them
that depend on the outer temperature of flowing water and mixing at will of light and hard water
conducted out of the basin by its own means, with which it is convenient to direct the outer-

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 72


flowing hard water for cooling the layers of lateral walls of the dam of the basin, as will be
shown herein.
It is known that for the management of water channels in all channel-building techniques that a
weighty argument, such as water temperature in earth vessels and air temperature as the
temperature difference between still and running water, is always left out; and it is also known
that the temperature differences between two or more watercourse modifies their speed when
they mix.
So far, only through artificial constructs in dams, the naturally-built water channels running
underground or only through ramparts (where only hard water with a temperature close to +4
degrees C. comes out), or by means of aquaducts placed atop dams (through which channels of
only light water of high temperature flows), find obstacles in their coursing through the channel
and cause erosion in their shores.
However, through a channel can also flow those waters with the corresponding right
temperature, so that they can be directed to damming the water masses and to diminish their
forward-going impulse or to increase their speed and their forward-going impulse in the willed
direction. We can also affect works of shore-correction just by correct regulation of water
temperature and also through the emplacement of dams which capacity of endurance is directly
proportional to the amount of water dammed and also to achieve an obstacle-free flow of water.
The widening of the channel through the emplacement of stones or elimination of same (ballast
banks) and the elevation of the shore, especially in curves, can be made by the corresponding
directing, but usually provokes a counterflow that erodes the whole work. Through several
devices that will be explained here, it is possible to steer both light and hard waters,
corresponding to the temperatures of each and also to the related fall of temperature, so that by
means herein explained each water will run along its own level.
At the same time with the regulation of the waterflow, it is necessary to install in the construction
of the closing dam of the basin, pipes that will effect the cooling of the dam’s pores through the
sides of the dam by means of small watercourses directed through the materials.
Then as temperature diminishes, the water within the dam’s pres loses its attraction for
dissolving salt and other stuffs, until it reaches its balance point at +4 degrees C, at which its
capacity for dissolving is the least and the filtration in the dam’s wall is the strongest. So far, it is
then when the light water infiltrated in the wall for cooling will go inside the materials through
the pores; in this moment, the channel walls close to the dam are filled with hard water at a
temperature of +4 degrees C, which lose their salts into the neighboring ground as they move,
creating in a few weeks of impregnation a further barrier against erosion, and if frost comes, it
will also contribute to the strengthening of the walls
In the drawings we find a further explanation of a device for this kind of installation; it is seen in
transverse cut in Figure 1 and in upper view in Figure 2; at Figure 3 we see an internal cutaway
view of the apparatus for steering water.
For the sake of regulating the flow of cold hard water and warm light water, ground nozzles (O)
are placed in the dam chamber (K) of basin (B) on both sides of the dam, which doors are
activated through a floating device (G) that moves because of temperature differences. The pipes
(W) of the nozzle (O) lead up to the upper-placed potion (K1) where the flow conduits (U1)-
(U2)-(U3), which are closed through gravity-activated valves (V1)-(V2), branch in different
heights from the upper-going pipe (W), and that lead further into the lateral wall of the basin,
spreading out there into the corresponding casts. At the foot of the dam’s internal wall will be
conveniently placed the outstanding portion (K2) to produce a whirling and better mixing of the

Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 73


water masses flowing over the wall. The door (T) in the nozzle (O) cleaves the soil of the water
channel, sinking itself into it, and is connected vertically by means of a shaft (F), coursing inside
the dam’s wall (H), with the floating device (G) that is built as a submersible bell. In the
illustrated wall (H), we find at different heights over the ground-nozzle (O) tube-shaped outlets
(A) that communicate with the tube leading upwards to the bell (G) and allow the automatic
emptying of the water basin.
When the pipe (W) is allowed to fill through the opening of door (T), it will allow a
communication between the pipe and the basin that will release pressure from door (T)
unilaterally, and in this fashion allow its free motion upwards. The door (T) should be built of
wood to allow the free motion of the bell (G) when the right water level is attained. The floating
bell (G), which connecting shaft (F) goes downward, can in this fashion, and because of the only
motion it is allowed to make, float upwards; the bell (G) in Figure 3 has an air valve (P) through
which opening can be introduced pressurized air within, so that the door (T) will be activated at
once. Through both an open end and with the outstanding tube (R), we can create a flow of water
through the floating up or down of the bell.
When the diving bell is fully sunk, without any air margin, it acts to totally close the valve; and
when we inject air within it, then raises to allow the opening of door (T).
In normal work, the atmosphere imprisoned within the bell (G) is equal to the usual atmospheric
pressure and thus the outer temperature of the environment acts as a control; depending on the
imprisoned air volume within (G), the outer temperature will make it raise or descend, allowing
the steering of door (T) upwards, so that the mass of hard water that will be conducted through
the nozzle (O), the pipe (W) and the flow tubes (U1)-(U2)-(U3), will depend on the changes of
outer temperature; the light water flows over its own flowing plate placed atop the dam’s crown
in the basin.
The interpenetration of light and hard waters can be improved through the construct (K2) placed
at the foot of the dam’s inner wall, and also because of the fact that hard water falls vertically
while light water does so spirally through flow tubes (U1)-(U2)-(U3), so that during their fall
they will combine.
Through heating from the sun’s rays, the diving bell (G) will further raise the door (T), and
through the channel a greater percentage of hard water will be eliminated with respect to the light
water that flows over the dam’s top, and instead with cooler external temperatures the door (T)
will remain either totally or almost totally closed and the channel will only conduct warm
overflowing liquid.
For a better mixing of light and hard water flowing over the dam’s top, I have placed the flow
tube (U2) in the lower part of the dam’s wall (K), so that it or (T) will prevent the water from
overflowing the basin’s level.
The water flowing within the dam’s lateral walls contributes to further cooling them and also to
leave deposited salts and other stuffs that it loses when reaching a temperature of +4 degrees C.
By opening the flow tube (U3) atop the dam’s wall, the upper portion of the dam can be affected
as indicated in the former paragraph; the welfare of the dam’s wall (in all its portions) needs this
process of impregnation so that its pores are closed and no filtration may happen.
The upper plate (M) serves to allow the overflowing of light water and to separate the hard water
flowing through the conduit (U3), thus helping to further its endurance.
Figures 1-3

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Austrian Patent # 138,296
(July 10, 1934)
Water Conduction
by
Viktor Schauberger
This invention pertains to a further improvement of the tubes and channels shown in Austrian
Patent # 134,543, where the water flowing within a conduit is led into the middle of the pipe to
force it to effect a circular motion, as seen in the forementioned patent.
This invention pertains to an improvement of said idea by conveniently placing in the water’s
path a device to produce whirling motions in the fluid.
The simple emplacement in the outer zone of the device will create turbulence between the
center and the perimeter, so as to generate a well-defined flow zone in the center and layers of
well-established stability from the perimeter inwards. The emplaced devices are of the kind
illustrated in Figure 1, where we have an element (2) with its two ends bent (4)-(5) and striations
dug out at the back (6); this device, when inside the tube (1) as seen in Figure 2, will meet the
incoming flow and twist it along the new path (3), so as to createa circular motion in the liquid.
Figure 3 shows the device of Figure 1 straightened out so as to show its true shape.
Figures 1-3

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Austrian Patent # 142,032
(June 11, 1935)
Construction for Fabricating Tap Water like that of Natural Springs
by
Viktor Schauberger
It is known that, to fabricate mineral water through devices, without any unhygienic condition in
the pipes or through the mixing of salts and compressed gases under pressure of at least 2-3
atmospheres, this is usually made under an even higher pressure.
It is also known that to generate soda water the water will be mechanically made to flow through
carbonic acid under a pressure of 12 atmospheres, so that the corresponding enrichment in the
forementioned cells make the water "active". In other procedures, this is done through
"cracking".
The creation of artificial mineral water will also include carbonic acid under more or less great
pressure of at least 1 atmosphere, so that the salts will mix evenly, as is done in several kinds of
mineral water; and in other kinds of waters there is a slight dissolution of carbonates (for
example, sodium bicarbonate) that also include carbonic acid, obtaining from this a prickling
taste. In the forementioned procedures it is necessary, for producing a good mineral water, that
the ingredients not be in free form but in combination and in relation so that the final product be
as similar as possible to natural spring water.

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As shown in the Figure 1, sterilized water flows through cold mercury light in tube (M) and
mixes with the diluted salts coming from (1). In container (C) the mentioned salts are diluted in
water and well mixed by revolving fan (G). The mixture and kinds of salts direct themselves
naturally through the sterile water outlet, and do so with different and permanent degrees of
hardness.
On the other side, so that the concentration is not too high, the artificially generated mineral
water’s hardness must not exceed factor 12 so that industry may not be hindered by it; anyway,
outgoing water needs for every 10 liters output 1 liter of diluted salts in the following
constituency and proportions:
Sodium Chloride (NaCl), 0.02 gr
Magnesium Sulphate (MgSO4), 0.02 gr
Sodium Biphosphate (NaPh2), 0.02 gr
Potassium Nitrate (KNO3), 0.008 gr
Calcium Oxide (CaO), 0.2 gr
The kind and proportion of these salts are the results of several hundreds of experiments. While
the calcium oxide dissolves itself in water, on the other hand the calcium hydrate is very
sensitive to the oxygen in the carbonic acid, and thus is affected by it and the mercury light.
For the sake of regulating the liquid flowing out of the container (C), this is inside at a constant
pressure of 0.1 atmosphere = 1 meter of acid water; the concentrated diluted salts will fall
dropping along the pipe (1) and when mixed with the contents from (A) will flow into the
apparatus (D) which turns them into droplets, where they will jump from the outflow holes of
pipe (N) towards the walls of the apparatus (D); during the process the water already processed
through carbonic acid will flow outside through the tube (K).
The droplets of both mixed liquids fall downwards and mix in the way as happens in nature,
where the droplets of rain first lose their salts and diluted gases