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Chapter 1

CONTOURING

general contours, Index contour

1.2 Criteria for selection of contour interval

1.3 Characteristics of contours

1.4 Methods of control for contour survey

1.4.1 Direct method

1.4.2 Indirect method i.e. grid method, cross section

method and radial method

1.5 Methods of interpolation of contours

1.6 Uses of contour maps

1.7 Contour Gradient

1.8 Contour of some natural features

2 | Textbook of Surveying for Diploma in Engineering II Year I Part (CTEVT)

EQUIVALENT, GENERAL CONTOURS, INDEX CONTOUR

1.1.1 Contour

The line of intersection of a level surface with the ground surface is

known as the contour line or simply the contour. It can also be defined

as an imaginary line on the ground, joining the points of equal

elevation above the assumed datum. It is a plan projection of the

plane passing through the points of equal heights on the surface of the

earth. A map showing only the contour lines of an area is called a

contour map.

For example, a contour of 100 m indicates that all the points on this line

have an RL of 100 m. Similarly, in a contour of 99 m, all points have an

RL of 99 m, and so on (Fig1.1).

still water in a pond. If the level of the water surface is 100 m, then

periphery of water represents a counter of 100 meters. Now, suppose

that water level is reduced by 1 m, the new outside boundary of water

will then represent a contour of 99 m, (fig 1.1).

The vertical distance between any two consecutive contours is known

as a contour interval. The contour interval is kept constant on a map

to depict correct topography of the terrain. Suppose a map includes

contour lines of 100 m, 98 m. 96 m and so on. The contour interval

Chapter 1 Contouring | 3

increase in elevation.

The horizontal distance between any two consecutive contours is

known as horizonta1 equivalent. It is not constant. It varies according

to the steepness of the ground. For steep slopes, the contour lines run

Close together and for flatter slopes they are widely spaced.

Topographic maps may have many contour lines. It is not possible to

label the elevation of each contour line. To make the map easier to read every

fifth contour line vertically is an index contour .Index contours are shown by darker

brown lines on the map. These are the contour lines that are usually labeled. The map

below is a section of a topographic map. The thin lines are the normal contours or

general contours. The thick lines are the index contours. Notice that elevations are

only marked on the thick lines. Because we only have a piece of the topographic map

we cannot look at the margin to find the contour interval.

But since we know the elevation of the two index contours we can calculate the

interval ourselves.

The vertical distance between consecutive contour is termed as

contour interval. It is desirable to have a constant contour interval

throughout the map. In special cases, a variable contour interval may

also be provided. A variable contour interval is, as far as possible

avoided since it gives a false impression of the relative steepness of

4 | Textbook of Surveying for Diploma in Engineering II Year I Part (CTEVT)

are taken as 1 to 15 m .The smaller the contour interval, the more

precisely the terrain relief is predicted on the plan. The contour

interval depends upon the following factors

i) Scale of the map

ii) Purpose of the map

iii) Nature of the Country

iv) Time

v) Funds

1. Scale of the Map: The contour interval is kept inversely

proportional to the scale of the map. If scale of the map is small,

the contour interval is kept large so that there is no overcrowding

of the contours. On the other hand, if the scale of the map is

large, the contour interval can be kept small.

2. Purpose of the Map: The contour interval on a map also depends

upon the purpose for which map is prepared. If the map is

prepared for accurate earthwork calculations, small contour

interval is to be used for accurate work. In the case of location

surveys, setting out for drainage, reservoir and road, where

extent of the survey is large, a large contour interval is to be

chosen.

3. The nature of the Ground: The contour interval depends upon

the general topography of the terrain. For a flat ground, the

contour interval is small, but for a steep slope, the contour

interval a large. If the ground is broken, the contour interval is

kept large so that the contours do not come too close to each

other.

4. Time: Contour interval is kept large when time is less.

5. Funds: Contour interval is kept large when funds as less.

The following table suggests some suitable value of contour

interval based on the nature of the terrain and scale of the map

from the following formula:

20

Contour interval = in meters

Number of centimeters per kilometer

50

= in Feet

Number of inches to a mile

Chapter 1 Contouring | 5

Example

Determine suitable C.I. on a map on scale of 1 : 25000.

Solution:

Given scale of the map is 1 : 25000

25000 m in field = 1 meter in map = 100 cm

Therefore,

For 25000 = 100 cm

100

For 1 km= × 1000 cm = 4 cm

25000

20

Contour interval= in meteres = 5 meters

4

1. Two contours of different elevation do not cross each other

except in the case of contours of a overhanging cliff or cave.

2. Contours of different elevations do not combine or unite to each

other except in the case of contours of a vertical cliff.

slope on the ground, when they are far apart it shows the gentle

slope on the ground, when contours are equally spaced they

represent a uniform slope and when they are parallel straight

and equivalent they represent a plane surface.

Bc punmia

5. A contour must form a close loop itself in the map or must go out

of the boundaries of the map.

6. A set of ring contours with higher values of contour inside and

lower values outside represents a hill and if the higher values are

6 | Textbook of Surveying for Diploma in Engineering II Year I Part (CTEVT)

like a pond.

7. Contour lines cross a watershed or ridge lines at right angle. they

form U-shape curve with the concave side of the curve towards

the higher ground level.

8. Contour lines a valley lines at right angles.They form sharp V-

shape curve across it with convex side with the convex side of the

curve towards the higher ground.

10. Contours do not pass through permanent structures such as

buildings.

11. Depression between summit are called saddle or pass.

The method of establishing/plotting contours in a plan or map is

known as contouring. Contouring consists of finding elevations of

various points in the area surveyed. At the same time the horizontal

positions of those points should also be found. Thus, it needs vertical

control and horizontal control in the work. For vertical control levels.

Theodolite or clinometers may be used while for horizontal controls

chain, compass, plane table or theodolite are used. Based on the

instruments used, there can be different methods of surveying.

However, broadly speaking there are two methods of surveying:

i) Direct methods ii) Indirect methods

Chapter 1 Contouring | 7

In the direct method, the contour to be plotted is actually traced on

the ground. In the direct method, two survey parties are generally

work simultaneously, one locating the points on the contours and the

other surveying those points. Points which happen to fall on a desired

contour are only surveyed, plotted and finally joined to obtain the

particular contour. This method is slow and tedious and thus used for

large scale maps, small contour interval and at high degree of

precision. Direct method of contouring can be employed using Level

and Staff and plane table as follows:

Vertical control

In this method, first of all, a benchmark is require to be fixed in the

project area.

The level is set up on any commanding position and back sight is

taken on the bench mark. Let the back sight reading on the bench

mark be 1.485 m.

If the reduced level of the bench mark is 100 m, the height of

instrument would be = 100 + 1.485 = 101.485 m.

To locate the contour of 100.5 m value, the staff man is directed to

occupy the position on the ground where the staff reading is

=101.485 -100.500 = 0.985 m.

Mark all such positions on the ground where the staff reading

would be 0.985 m by inserting pegs.

Similarly, for 101 m contour locate the points where the staff

reading would be 101.485 -101 = 0.485 m

The contour of 101.5 m cannot be set from this setting of the

instrument because the height of instrument for this setting of the

instrument is only 101.485 m. Therefore, locating contours of higher

value, the instrument has to be shifted to some other suitable position.

Establish a forward station on a firm ground and take fore sight on it.

This point acts as a point of known elevation, for shifting the position

of the instrument to another position, from where the work proceeds

in the similar manner till the entire area is contoured.

Horizontal Control

For horizontal control for that point is usually exercised with plane

table survey. Then staff man is directed to another point on the same

contour. After locating few points. Plane table person draws each

contour line. Simultaneously 2-4 contour lines are traced in the area

levelling instrument can command. Then instrument station is shifted

8 | Textbook of Surveying for Diploma in Engineering II Year I Part (CTEVT)

by taking change point. Shifting of leveling and plane table need not

be simultaneous. For getting speed in leveling, sometime hand level

or on Abney level are used. In this method, after locating a first point

on a contour line say 90 in contour line the surveyor stands on that

point with hand level suspended at a convenient height. Forevery

point selected horizontal control is exercised and plotted. For large

scale works theodolite or compass traverse may be adopted.

Figgggggggggggg change

In this method, some guide points are selected along a system of

straight lines in the field, generally as corners of well-shaped

geometrical figures such as squares, rectangles, and then spot levels

are determined. Elevations of desired contours are interpolated in

between spot levels and contour lines are drawn by joining points of

equal elevation. While interpolating, it is assumed that the slope

between any two adjacent guide points is uniform .Indirect methods

are less expensive, less time consuming and less tedious as compared

to the direct method. These methods are commonly employed in

small scale surveys of large areas or during mapping of irregular

surface or steep slope. There are three different ways usually

employed for indirect method of contouring:

1. Square or grid method

2. Cross section method

3. Redial method

Chapter 1 Contouring | 9

In this method, the area to be surveyed is divided into a grid or series

of squares (Figure 0). The square size may vary from 5 m x 5 m to 25

m x 25 m depending upon the nature of the terrain, the contour

interval required and the scale of the map desired. Also, the grids may

not be of the same size throughout but may vary depending upon the

requirement and field conditions. The corners of the squares are

numbered serially, as 1, 2, 3, ........ and so on. A temporary bench-mark

is set up near the site and the level is set up at a suitable position. The

staff readings on the corners of the squares are taken and noted in the

level book maintaining the sequence of the serial numbers of the

corners. The RLs of all the corners are calculated. The skeletons of the

squares are plotted to a suitable scale of the map. The respective RLs

are written on the corners of the square, after which the contour lines

are drawn by interpolation. Special care should be taken to give the

spot levels to the salient features of the ground such as hilltops,

deepest points of the depressions, and their measurements from

respective corners of the grids, for correct depiction of the features.

The method is used for large scale mapping and at average precision.

In this method a base line, centre line or profile line is considered.

Cross-sections are taken perpendicular to this line at regular intervals

(say 50 m, 100 m etc.). After this, points are marked along the cross-

sections at a regular intervals (say 5 m, 10 m, etc.). A temporary

bench-mark is set up near the site, Staff readings are taken along the

base line and the cross sections. The readings are entered in the level

hook: the base line and the cross-section should be mentioned. The RL

of each of the points are calculated. The base line and cross sections

are plotted to a suitable scale. Subsequently the RLs of the respective

10 | Textbook of Surveying for Diploma in Engineering II Year I Part (CTEVT)

points are noted on the map, after which the required contour line is

drawn by interpolation. This method is suitable for route survey,

where cross-sections are taken transverse to the longitudinal section.

(figure)

Radial Method

Radial method is also known as tacheometric method. In this method

a number of radial lines at known angular interval are drawn on the

ground and position of the points at equal distance are marked. Spot

levels of these points and horizontal distances from instrument station

are determined by taking tacheometric observation and tacheometric

formula. The points are plotted to the scale of the map and spot levels

are entered. The contours of desired values are then located by

interpolation. This method is convenient in hilly terrain where

chaining is difficult, with level stations chosen at high points so as to

command a large area from each.

S.N. Direct method Indirect method

1 Very accurate method Less accurate method as

compared to direct method

2 Relatively slow and tedious Quicker, less tedious and can

and expensive be carried out at low cost

3 Suitable for contouring of Suitable for hilly area and

C h a p t e r 1 C o n t o u r i n g | 11

undulation

4 Points are graphically located Points are interpolated in the

on the ground office

5 Calculations cannot be Calculation can be checked

checked at the end of the work when needed

6 Appropriate for small projects Appropriate for large projects

requiring high accuracy such requiring moderate to low

as, layout of buildings, factory, accuracy such as, layout of

structural foundations etc. highway, railway, drainage

canal etc.

After finding RL of many points on the ground and plotted the

position of those points. Points on contour lines are identified

assuming uniform slope between any two neighboring points is

uniform. This process of drawing contour proportionately between

the plotted ground points or inbetween plotted contour is known as

interpolation of contour.For example. For this purpose any one of the

following three methods may be used.

i) Estimation

ii) Arithmetic calculation

iii) Mechanical or Graphical method.

i) Estimation

In this method the position of the contour points between guide

points are located by estimation and the contours are the drawn

through them. This method is extremely rough and is used for small

scale works only such as topographical map of scale 1:50, 0000.

ii) Arithmetic Calculation

In this method, positions of the contour between two known points

are located by making accurate arithmetic calculations. This is most

accurate method but time consuming.

For example, let A, B, D and C be the guide points plotted on the map,

having elevations of 607.4, 617.3, 612.5 and 604.3 meters respectively

(Fig. 10.12). Let AB BD CD =CA 1 m on the plan and let it be required

to locate the Position of 605,610 and 615 m contours on these lines.

The vertical difference in elevation between A and B is (617.3 - 607.4)

= 9.9 m. Hence the distance of contour points from A will be:

12 | Textbook of Surveying for Diploma in Engineering II Year I Part (CTEVT)

1

Distance of 610 m contour points = × 2.6 = 0.26 m and

9.9

1

Distance of 615 m contour point = × 7.6 = 0.76 m

9.9

These two contour points may be located on AB.

Similarly, the position of the contour points on the lines AC, CD, BD

and also on AD and BC may be located. Contour lines may then be

drawn through appropriate contour points as shown in Fig. 1 0. 12.

In the graphical method, the interpolation is done with the help of a

tracing paper or a terracing cloth. There are two methods:

Method 1: Parallel Lines Method

On a tracing sheet several parallel lines are drawn at regular interval.

Every fifth or tenth line is made dark for easy counting. If RL of A is

98. 4 m and that of B is 100.2 m and also assume bottom most dark

line represents 98 in RL and every parallel line is at 0.2 in intervals.

Then hold a point on second parallel line on A. Rotate tracing sheet so

that 100.2th parallel line passes through point B. then intersection of

dark lines on AB represents the points on 99 mm and 100 m contours.

Similarly, contour points along any line connecting two-level points

can be obtained and contour lines interpolated and pricked. This

method maintains the accuracy of arithmetic calculations, at the same

time is fast also.

C h a p t e r 1 C o n t o u r i n g | 13

In this method a line PQ is drawn on a tracing sheet from the

midpoint of PQ say R, a perpendicular line RO is drawn. O" is

selected at any convenient distance. PQ is divided into a number of

equal parts, say 20 parts. Then the radial lines from 'O' to these

equally spaced points are drawn. A number of guide lines l-l, 2-2, etc.

are drawn parallel to PQ. To interpolate between two points A and B

on drawing sheet, tracing sheet is held with its guide lines parallel to

AB. OQ is assigned a contour line point just below that of RL of A. Of

dark lines are at every 5 ray interval, and contours are required at

every 1 mm interval, the interval between two consecutive rays is 0.2

m. Appropriate ray is made to appear on A and tracing sheet is

rotated till the ray corresponding to B coincides with B. Then the

contour points on AB correspond to the dark lines intersection with

AB. These points are produced and the contour points on line AB are

obtained. Thus, in this case also exact interpolation is made

mechanically.

Drawing Contours

After locating contour points between a networks of guide points,

smooth contour lines are drawn connecting corresponding points. For

drawing contour lines French curves should be used. A surveyor

should not lose the sight of characteristics of the contours. Brown

color is preferred to draw the contours so that they can be easily

distinguished from other features: Every fifth contour is made thicker

for easy readability. On every contour line its elevation is written

either above, below or by breaking the line. If map size is large, it is

written at the ends also. However, in writing these elevations

uniformity should be maintained.

14 | Textbook of Surveying for Diploma in Engineering II Year I Part (CTEVT)

Contours provide valuable information about the nature of terrain.

This is very important for selection of sites, determination of

catchment area of a drainage basin, to find inter-visibility between

stations etc. Some of the salient uses of contours are described below.

1. To Determine Nature of Ground

From a given contour plan, the section along any given direction can

be drawn to know the general shape of the ground or to use it for

earth calculations for a given communication line in the direction of'

the section. Thus, let it be required to draw the section along the line

xy through the contour map (Figure 18.3). The intersection points

between the line and contours are projected at different elevations of

the contours are projected and joined by smooth curve. The smooth

curve depicts the nature of the ground surface along XY.

2. To Locate Route

Contour map provides useful information for locating a route at a

given gradient such as highway, canal, sewer line etc. Let it be

required to locate a route from P to Q at an upward gradient of 1 in

100. The contour map of the area is available at a contour interval of 5

meter at a scale of 1 : 10000. The horizontal equivalent will therefore

be equal to 100 meter. Then with centre at P with a radius of 2 cm

draw an arc to cut the next higher contour, say at q. With q as centre,

mark the next higher contour by an arc of radius 2 cm say at r.

Similarly, other points such as s, t, u, ......... etc. are obtained and

joining the points provides the location of route. (Figure 18.2)

C h a p t e r 1 C o n t o u r i n g | 15

When the intervisibility between two points cannot be ascertained by

inspection of the area, it can be determined using contour map. The

intervisibility is determined by drawing a line joining the

stations/points say AB and plot the elevations of the points and

contours intersected by AB as shown in Figure 18.3. If the intervening

ground is found to be above A'B' line, the intervisibility is obstructed.

In the figure, the ground is obstructing the line of sight.

The catchment area of a river is determined by using contour map.

The watershed line which indicates the drainage basin of a river

passes through the ridges and saddles of the terrain around the river.

Thus, it is always perpendicular to the contour lines. The catchment

area contained between the water shed line and the river outlet is then

measured with a planimeter (Figure 18.4).

16 | Textbook of Surveying for Diploma in Engineering II Year I Part (CTEVT)

The storage capacity of a reservoir is determined from contour map.

The contour line indicating the full reservoir level (F.R.L) is drawn on

the contour map. The are aenclosed between successive contours are

measured by planimeter (Figure 18.5). The volume of water between

F.R.L and the river bed is finally estimated by using either

Trapezoidal formula or Prismoidal formula.

Thus, if A1, A2, .........., An are the areas enclosed by various contours

and h is contour interval, the reservoir capacity will be given by

h

V = (A1 + A2) by trapezpidal formula

2

h

and V = (A1 + 4A2 + A3) by primoidal formula

3

6. Selection of a Canal Alignment

Suppose a reservoir is to be constructed at R across a river. An

irrigation canal RL is required to be constructed to irrigate the areas of

C h a p t e r 1 C o n t o u r i n g | 17

ridge. We know that water in canals flows under gravity. From the

contour map (Fig. 7.24) it may be noted that the elevation of the

reservoir site R is 547 m approx. The canal alignment should therefore

be kept below this level.

The imaginary Iino lying throughout on the surface of the earth and

preserving a constant inclination to the horizontal, is known as

contour gradient. The inclination of a contour gradient is generally

given either as rising gradient or falling gradient and is expressed as

the ratio of the vertical height in a specified horizontal distance.

Suppose the bed of a canal is lowered by one meter in a length of 100

meters, then, the gradient is 1 in 100. If we know the inclination of the

contour gradient, its direction may be easily located on the ground by

using one of the following surveying instruments.

i) Clinometer

ii) Theodolite

iii) Level

iv) Ghat tracer

Location of contour gradient:

Suppose it is required to locate the centre line of a road in a hilly area

with a ruling gradient of 1 in 20. Let the starting point A be on a 94.00

m contour line (Fig. 6.16). Since the contour interval is 2 m and

gradient 1 in 20, the horizontal distance between A and the point on

the next contour (96 m) is 2 x 20 = 40 m. With the centre at A and

18 | Textbook of Surveying for Diploma in Engineering II Year I Part (CTEVT)

the contour line of 96.00 at point B. Taking B as the centre and with

the same radius, another arc is drawn to get the next point C. The

other points are located in a similar manner.

1. By Abney level

The Abney level (Fig. 6.17) is nothing but an improved type of

clinometer. It consists of a telescope and spirit bubble. A mirror is

provided over the bubble at an angle of 45° to help observe the image

of the bubble. The bubble tube is attached to the vernier arm which

can be rotated by a worm-and- wheel arrangement. To fix the contour

gradient, the index of the vernier is set to the angle corresponding to

the given gradient. The Abney level is held over the starting station A

against a pole at a suitable height C. A mark D is made on another

pole at the same height. This pole is held over the next point of

gradient. It is made to move up or down along the hill slope until the

mark D is bisected at point B; at the same time the bubble should be at

the centre of its run. Now the line joining the station point A to the

point B is practically parallel to the line of sight and therefore on the

given gradient. The points A and B are marked on the ground with

pegs. The Abney level is then shifted and held on the point D. The

next point of the gradient is fixed according to the previous

procedure. The other points are fixed on the gradient in similar

fashion.

C h a p t e r 1 C o n t o u r i n g | 19

2. By levelling Instrument

In this method, the RL of the starting point is first determined with

reference to the permanent bench-mark. Then the level is set up at a

suitable position and a BS reading is taken on the starting point. Thus

the HI is calculated for this setting. Then, by knowing the gradient

and the peg interval, the RLs of the successive pegs are calculated.

After this, the required staff readings on the pegs are determined. The

locations corresponding to the calculated staff readings are identified

and the points marked on the ground with pegs.

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