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Course Handout

DE/MM ZG541: PRODUCT DESIGN ● Course Handout

Course No. : DE ZG541/ MM ZG541


Course Title : Product Design
Instructor –In-Charge :
Srinivas Prakash Regalla
Dr. Srinivasa Prakash Regalla, PhD
Professor
Mechanical Engineering Department
Birla Institute Technology Science, Pilani
Hyderabad Campus November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !2

Course Handout Course Handout


● Course Description ● Scope and Objective
Introduction to creative design; user research and ● This course is designed to impart the knowledge required to
requirements analysis, product specification, Computer develop a new product – understand the opportunity, develop and
implement a concept. After the successful completion of this course,
Aided Design; standardization, variety reduction,
students shall be able to understand and implement the various
preferred numbers and other techniques; modular processes, tools and techniques required for a product design like
design; design economics, cost analysis, cost reduction product specification development; product architecture; concept
and value analysis techniques, design for production; generation, concept selection, concept testing and embodiment;
human factors in design: anthropometric, ergonomic, industrial design; design for X; analytical and numerical models;
psychological, physiological considerations in design physical prototypes, models and experimentation; human, legal
economic and social issues in product development; patents and
decision making; legal factors, engineering ethics and
intellectual properties.
society.

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Course Handout Course Handout
● Prescribed Textbook ● Reference Books
● Otto, Kevin and Kristin Wood, “Product ● Karl T. Ulrich and Steven D. Eppinger,
Design: Techniques in Reverse Engineering “Product Design and Development”, Tata
and New Product Development”, Pearson McGraw-Hill, 2003
Education, 2001. ● David G. Ullman, “The Mechanical Design
Process”, McGraw-Hill, 1992
● N. J. M. Roozenburg, J. Eekels, Roozenburg
N. F. M., “Product Design: Fundamentals
and Methods”, John Wiley and Sons, 1995

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Course Handout
Course Handout

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Course Handout Course Handout
Important links and information:
Elearn portal:
https://elearn.bits-pilani.ac.in
Students are expected to visit the Elearn
portal on a regular basis and stay up to date
with the latest announcements and deadlines.
Contact sessions: Students should attend the online
lectures as per the schedule provided on the Elearn
portal.

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Course Handout Course Handout


Evaluation Guidelines:
1.EC-1 consists of one online Quiz, which students will attempt them through the ● It shall be the responsibility of the
course pages on the Elearn portal, and one PD assignment, which is a group activity.
Announcements will be made on the portal, in a timely manner.
individual student to be regular in
2.For Closed Book tests: No books or reference material of any kind will be maintaining the self study schedule as
permitted.
3.For Open Book exams: Use of books and any printed / written reference material
given in the course handout, attend the
(filed or bound) is permitted. However, loose sheets of paper will not be allowed. online lectures, and take all the prescribed
Use of calculators is permitted in all exams. Laptops/Mobiles of any kind are not
allowed. Exchange of any material is not allowed.
evaluation components such as
4.If a student is unable to appear for the Regular Test/Exam due to genuine Assignment/Quiz, Mid-Semester Test and
exigencies, the student should follow the procedure to apply for the Make-Up Test/
Exam which will be made available on the Elearn portal. The Make-Up Test/Exam Comprehensive Exam according to the
will be conducted only at selected exam centres on the dates to be announced later. evaluation scheme provided in the
handout.
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What is Flip Mode Classroom?
● Here our effort is to make use of the
classroom for discussion and problem
solving while the topic description and
theoretical lecture are converted into
digital content and supplied to the student
apriori
● Student is expected to study the digital
content before coming to the class so that
he can effectively participate in the applied
discussion in the classroom

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Learning Objectives
● Types of Design
● What is Engineering Design
DE/MM ZG541: PRODUCT DESIGN ● What marks a true product designer?
● Product Development Models
L1-1-2-July-29-2017-Journey in ● Stage-gate model
● Spiral model
Product Design ● Hybrid model
● General 3-Phase Model: in Product Development Model
● Kolbe’s model of product design
Dr. Srinivasa Prakash Regalla, PhD ● General model of product design
Professor
● Summary Models: History of Product Development
Methodologies Evolution
Mechanical Engineering Department
● Few Conceptual/Case Study Problem Scenarios
Birla Institute Technology Science, Pilani
Hyderabad Campus November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !2

Introduction
● Product design is fraught with risks and
opportunities
● Forecast the market acceptance by
consulting customers before introducing
major enhancements
● Customers’ demands must be converted
into functional attributes of the product to
be developed

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Introduction (contd.) Introduction (contd.)
● Competitive Weapons of Design Teams ● In what way the problems of PRODUCT
◦ Understanding competition DESIGN are different from those of other
◦ Understanding the time trends of introduction subjects?
of new technology – right time, right product ◦ Problems are open ended – there may be more
◦ Designing robust performance into the than one correct solution to the problem
product ◦ Nearer to real-world industry
◦ Offering as high quality as possible at the given ◦ Distinct and more challenging
price ◦ May often take longer to even understand
◦ Setting up of the problem should be given highest
priority

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Product Development versus Design (contd.)


● Product Development Includes:
● Product development (PD) encompasses
◦ Initial inspiring of new product vision
the entire set of activities to bring a new
◦ Marketing efforts
concept to a state of market readiness
◦ Technical engineering design activities (=?)
● Design process is a set of technical
◦ Development of manufacturing plans
activities ◦ Validation of product design to conform to
● Design is part of the whole of PD these plans
◦ Development of distribution channels for
marketing the product
◦ Business and financial management activities

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(contd.) (contd.)
● Design includes: ● Research and Development (R & D) is not
◦ Refinement of product vision into technical part of PD
specifications ● R & D are responsible for development of
◦ New concept development new technologies to a level of adoption by
◦ Embodiment engineering of the new product PD process
● Manufacturing process is also not part of
PD – even though manufacturing process
plan may be suggested by PD

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What is fuzzy front-end? Types of Design


● Fuzzy front-end is the set of activities that ● Original Design (or Invention) – highly
precede before a product is given go- innovative and novel
ahead for PD ● Adaptive Design (or synthesis) – less
innovative than Original Design
● There may be several products worthy of
● Variant Design (or modification) – far lesser
pursuance for PD but only one has to be innovative than Original Design and Adaptive
selected Design
● Fuzzy front-end also decides the portfolio ● Redesign – it can be any one of the above;
architecture for PD needed when existing product falls short of
● Design engineers play a big role in fuzzy
some criteria; redesign may be done in any
one of the above three ways
front-end ● “All design is redesign”

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What is Engineering Design? What marks a true product designer?
● Engineering design needs modeling to ◦ Clear and logical thinking
complete the design task – for example, ◦ Intuitive insight into the problem and
estimation
design of an automobile
◦ We must experience the design to be
● What is not engineering design should be designers
called craftsmanship – for example, the ● When such experience becomes difficult
furniture design to obtain in the midst of all complexities,
● The techniques of current course of we need special methods and techniques
Product Design are suited for products to direct our efforts – that is what
that need engineering design PRODUCT DESIGN course is all about

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Two modern product development


Modern Product Development models
● The method may vary from industry to ● Stage-gate model
industry ● Spiral model
● Xerox corporation and Ford motor
company may find the principles of our
course straightly applicable
● Raychem may not find it so
● The general techniques, however, can
be encapsulated and that is what we do in
this course

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The Stage-gate model Stage-gate model (contd.)
● It is also called as “Waterfall process” ● Whether to proceed or “kill” the product
● Stage (or phase or activity) is the extent ● The gates help the reviewing upper
of duration and work management to decide between – proceed
● There are several stages in the total or kill, the product development
product development process ● Preference is given to revision of
● These periodic stages are ended/separated
specifications and budget expansions
by gates instead of killing the product development
● A gate is the evaluation session by upper
● Effective for automobile and photocopier
management to check whether the
project is worth carrying forward industries

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Stage-gate model (contd.) The Spiral Model


● Spiral model = {(1st stage-gate process)
+1st version of working product}+{(2nd
stage-gate process)+2nd version of
working product}+…+{(nth stage-gate
process)+nth version of working product}
● At the end of each stage-gate process,
there is a partially working product

Two examples of stage-gate models, from Boeing.

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Spiral model (contd.) Hybrid Spiral/Stage-gate models
● Effective for time compressed industries such ● Suitable for integrated mechanical-
as software companies software product industries
● The model can deal with large uncertainties ● For example, the makers of Brinell
in consumer tastes/requirements hardness tester
● At the end of each stage-gate element, the ● The actual tester is developed based on
workable version is marketed to forecast the stage-gate process but the control
future course of development software is developed based on spiral
● Not typical in mechanical product industry model

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General 3-Phase Model: hases in Product Development Process (contd.)

General 3-Phase Model: Phases in


Product Development Process

UNDERSTAND THE
OPPORTUNITY

DEVELOP A CONCEPT

IMPLEMENT A CONCEPT

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General 3-Phase Model: First Phase: 
 General 3-Phase Model: First Phase: Understand the Opportunity (contd).
Understand the Opportunity
● A vision is built for the product ● “Visions are dime a dozen”
● We ask questions such as: ● Small story: King Virata asked Yudhishtara,
◦ What product do we wish to be out there? “What is the most difficult job to do?”.
◦ What is the difficulty with the current product Yudhishtara said after a split second
we use? thought, “To keep one’s own word.” King
◦ Why the current product does not do what
Virata nodded in satisfaction but persisted
we want it to? – “What is then the easiest job to do?”.
This time Yudhishtara replied after two
● Answers to these questions form the split seconds, “To give advice and to
vision for the new product express visions”.

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General 3-Phase Model: First Phase: Understand the Opportunity (contd).


General 3-Phase Model: Second Phase:
Develop a Concept
● The question is whether any vision can be ● Design of a set of general market
transferred into successful realization specifications for the product
● Whether the vision/idea can be developed ● Decide product positioning in the market
and implemented into a product at a ● Decide portfolio planning and
worthwhile profit? – market opportunity
development
● What the customer wants the product to
● Execute functional modeling to clearly
do?
● Use teardown methods to study
conceptualize what the product must do
● Architect the product by deciding the
competitors’ products
● What are the available technologies?
interfaces within and with outside world
of the product
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General 3-Phase Model: Second Phase: Develop a Concept (contd.)
General 3-Phase Model: Third Phase:
Implement a Concept
● Generate alternative conceptual design, all ● Embodiment Engineering is done – the
of which meet the functional requirement chosen concept is given form
● Select the best concept, or synthesize the ● Here the following issues are settled:
concepts into one concept to implement ◦ Specification of components to purchase
◦ Specification for parts to manufacture
◦ Specifications for their assembly into product

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General 3-Phase Model: Third Phase: Implement a Concept (contd.) General 3-Phase Model: Third Phase: Implement a Concept (contd.)

● Multi-physics modeling is done in this ● Robust Design methods are applied to


phase make the product performance immune to
● Performance metrics are developed unexpected variations in the variables
● Optimization of performance metrics with
respect to variables is done using DOE
● Design-for-X methods are applied on the
product
● Here “X” may be manufacturing, assembly,
maintenance, environment, recycling etc.

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General 3-Phase Model: What happens General 3-Phase Model: Reverse Engineering-Redesign
after the third phase? Methodology of Product Development: Kolb’s model

● Normally the product is never killed after ● It is an effective and practical strategy for successful
product development
completion of third stage; at best it is ● Kolb’s model of learning forms basis for this approach
modified ● Kolb’s model specifies a cycle consisting of four
activities:
● A physical prototype results ◦ Concrete experience (dissection, reverse engineering, case
studies)
● Production planning and manufacturing ◦ Reflective observation (discussions, journals, perturbations,
process design are underway individual activities)
◦ Abstract hypothesis and conceptualization (modeling,
● Advertisements at product launch are analysis, theory)
◦ Active experimentation (lab experiments, teardown, testing,
released with highlighting on product simulations)
features offering strong delight

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Kolb’s model of learning Reverse Engineering-Redesign Methodology of Product Development: Kolb’s model (contd.)

● In this methodology the phases can be


renamed as follows:
UNDERSTAND THE
REVERSE ENGINEER
OPPORTUNITY

DEVELOP A CONCEPT DEVELOP A REDESIGN

IMPLEMENT A CONCEPT IMPLEMENT A REDESIGN

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General reverse engineering and A reverse engineering and redesign
redesign methodology product development methodology

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Complete History of Theories and


Methodologies in Design Historical trends
● There are around 50 major design
theories in the history of product
development
● From Egyptian ‘cubit’ in 2500 BC rapid
developments occurred until Roman
empire in 27 BC
● There was no development until 1700s
● From 1700s till now, it has been a very
rapid development in theories, still
continuing
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Examples of product development
Examples of product development processes (contd.)

processes

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Examples of product development processes (contd.) Examples of product development processes (contd.)

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Examples of product development processes (contd.) Examples of product development processes (contd.)

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Golden Nuggets of this section Thank you!


● Modern product development involves the
application of objectively formulated methods
● Every company’s product development process
can be different
● Engineers must strive to develop their product
development process and strive to improve on it
● Reverse engineering-redesign methodology can be
very effective for novices having limited
experience
● The history of engineering design methodologies
is not complete yet; there is a lot of scope for
further systematization

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Contextual Setting

L-1-2-1:

MBTI tagging of members
Dr. Srinivasa Prakash Regalla, PhD
Professor & Head

Mechanical Engineering Department


Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani
Hyderabad Campus

November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !2

Learning Outcomes
Inventors of MBTI
◦ Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

"It is up to each person to recognize his or


her true preferences."
Isabel Briggs Myers

In developing the Myers-Briggs Type


Indicator instrument, the aim of Isabel Briggs
Myers, and her mother, Katharine Briggs, was
to make the insights of type theory
accessible to individuals and groups
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Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Jung’s Four Categories of Human Traits to
● MBTI is simple measurement indicator of Distinguish Personalities
how people behave and contribute in a ● First Category: How a person is energized
work environment – Extroversion vs. Introversion
● Each person is different – some are ● Second Category: What a person pays
outgoing, some are quiet – no worse and attention to: Sensory vs. INtuition
no better, they are just different ● Third Category: How a person decides:
● Different personalities are suited to Thinking vs. Feeling
different tasks ● Fourth Category: What kind of outlook on
● MBTI is based on work of Carl Jung: “It is life a person adopts: Judgment vs.
easier to go to Mars or to Moon than it is to penetrate Perception
one’s own being”.
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Summary and Overview of MBTI types


MBTI Personality Indicator
● Based Jung’s work sixteen personality
types can be defined

Extroversion vs. Introversion


Sensory vs. INtuition
Thinking vs. Feeling
Judgment vs. Perception

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How the personality traits and thereby How the roles change, Role Maps
Extroversion vs. Introversion
types are ascertained? Sensory vs. INtuition
Thinking vs. Feeling
● MBTI uses a questionnaire based on Jung’s Judgment vs. Perception

work to measure one’s personality type

Sensory vs. INtuition

Extroversion vs. Introversion

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How the roles change, Role Maps


Importance of MBTI
Extroversion vs. Introversion
Sensory vs. INtuition
Thinking vs. Feeling
Judgment vs. Perception
● An MBTI assessment should be taken by
all members in a team
Thinking vs. Feeling ● The result is for example a four letter
word, say INTJ
● If the team does not understand the
differences in personality types, conflicts
arise
Extroversion vs. Introversion ● Differences should be used as strengths
not as conflicts

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Golden Nuggets of this section
Importance of MBTI (contd.)
● Personality typing, such as MBTI, can assist
● MBTI can be used to understand team in team development, that is, in
roles and potential weaknesses reorganizing and utilizing personality
● For example, if a team has only IN type differences.
people but no EN type people, then it is
necessary to include some EF types, who
can bring the teammates together ● The MBTI is not to be used to pigeon-
hole or label team members but rather to
advance the team

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Thank you!

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Contextual Instance:

L-1-2-2:

PD Tools: Basics of Teams
Dr. Srinivasa Prakash Regalla, PhD
Professor & Head

Mechanical Engineering Department


Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani
Hyderabad Campus

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Learning Outcomes for L-1-2-1: PD Tools,


Scope of the Sub-module SM-1-2: Basics of Teams

● Importance of Imagination
● Basics of teams
● Imagination
● PRIDE principle
● Team Roles Models
◦ Wilde’s Model
◦ Belbin’s Model

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Introduction Why and what for, imagination?
● Imagination for
● Strategic team composition is necessary
◦ New technologies to provide required
● Imagination drives innovation and functionalities
development; Einstein:”Imagination is ◦ Novel solutions to both common and
more important than knowledge; extraordinary problems
knowledge is limited; imagination encircles ◦ Unique processes to improve people’s lives
the world”. ● No imagination – no newer products
● Mark Twain: “You can’t depend on your ● Without imagination – routine exercises
judgment when your imagination is out of by engineers – application of limited
focus” knowledge
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Why and what for, imagination? (contd.) Tasks at hand for a creative product
● Task breakdown among team members ● How to achieve a right composition of
should enhance and encourage imagination design teams
● Imagination may be curbed due to ◦ Challenge: Must create a vibrant environment
◦ Large bureaucracies
◦ Varied human personalities ● How to plan and schedule a product’s
◦ Inundating number of tasks development
● Imagination should culminate in collective ◦ Challenge: aptly structure the activities
creative consensus in the PD team

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Product Development Teams
Product Development Teams (contd.)
● Product = Idea emanating to satisfy some
need + physical embodiment of that idea ● Collective knowledge generation is essential
● Dichotomy between design team and for resulting in a set of control
manufacturing team in modern approach documentation
● Participants must be willing to share
Idea
Engineers: Design
Design Engineers:
Manufacturing
Product
intellectually
Team
Team ● Participants can not just show up for work
● Old craftsman era and keep quiet – they have to get along and
Product
share – otherwise product development
Idea Craftsman: Both Design
and Manufacturing
will not be effective

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…participants cannot keep quiet… Product Development Teams (contd.)

● Compose the specialties of team members


into a smoothly working process
All ideas are welcome.
● Successes in product development are
shared as a team – individual accolades
must take a subservient role
● Mark Twain’s words apply here: “Obscurity
and a competence, that is the life that is
best worth living”.

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The PRIDE principles
The Basics of Teams ● The PRIDE principles should be followed in
any product development project:
● A team is: ◦ Purpose – all members should have a clear understanding of the
● Two or more persons engaged in a common purpose of the team – a mission statement may be developed
(we will discuss mission statement in the next SM)
common goal
◦ Respect – team members should have mutual respect, trust and
● Who are dependent on one another for support
results ◦ Individuals – the design team must respect and productively utilize
individual differences
● Who have joint accountability for outcomes
◦ Discussions – the team should exercise open, honest and frequent
discussions; team leader must ensure that all members of the team
are on board for all key decisions
◦ Excellence – the team must strive for excellence in all actions –
accept nothing less than the best

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Team Composition Team Roles: Two Models


● Each individual has a role to play ● Wilde Model – categorization is based on
● Two types of roles: disciplines
◦ Technical responsibility roles
● manufacturing, mechanical engineering, electrical
engineering, testing and prototyping, materials, ● Belbin Model – categorization is based on
industrial design (style, ergonomics, aesthetics and behavioral aspects
product feel), solid modeling, suppliers and supply
chain, marketing, quality, management, etc.
◦ Non-technical responsibility roles
● General problem solvers
● Team players

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Wilde’s Model of Role Specification Belbin’s Model of Role Specification
Sixteen team roles are defined on ● He defined nine different behaviors
hierarchical importance: required for a functional team:
• Administrator/reviewer • Visionary 1) Organizer
• Troubleshooter/ • Strategist
inspector • Need-finder
2) Motivator
• Producer/test pilot • Entrepreneur/facilitator 3) Pusher
• Manager/coordinator • Diplomat/orator 4) Soldier
• Conserver/critic • Simulator/theoretician
• Expediter/investigator • Innovator
5) Gatherer
• Conciliator/performer • Director/Programmer 6) Listener
• Mockup maker/ 7) Completer
prototyper/modelmaker
8) Specialist
9) Evaluator

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Belbin’s Model (contd) Thank you!


● Belbin’s team roles can be divided into 3
categories: Action
● Action oriented oriented

● People Oriented
● Thought Oriented
Thought
oriented

People
oriented

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Contextual Setting

L-1-2-3-Strategic-Team-
Structures
Dr. Srinivasa Prakash Regalla, PhD
Professor & Head

Mechanical Engineering Department


Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani
Hyderabad Campus

November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !2

Strategies: Team Structures Sequential Functional Organizations


● The structure of the team is the ● The initial transformations from
organizational setup of members in the craftsmanship era to divided
team design+manufactuirng activities were
● Four different structures are normally handled by this structure
observed: ● Not very efficient because walls exist
◦ Sequential functional organization between groups
◦ Project core teams
◦ Matrix organizations
◦ Integrated product teams

November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !3 November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !4
Sequential Functional Organizations
Simultaneous or Concurrent Engineering
(contd.)
● Better focus on customers
● Improved cycle times
● “Over-the-wall” approach
● More efficient
● Skills from all functional groups are utilized
at all stages of PD
● At the heart of CE is the idea of multi-
functional teams or integrated product
teams.
November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !5 November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !6

Concurrent Engineering (contd.) Concurrent Engineering (contd.)


Time
● CE the effective simultaneous development of
different disciplinary subsystems
● The voices of all disciplines are included in the
early PD decisions before the choices made
adversely affect downstream product lifecycle
stages
● Compresses the development cycle
● The people of downstream PLC stages are
enabled to make early decisions on their
activities
The above CE procedure resulted in reduction in cycle time from 40
months to 27 months for Boeing
November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !7 November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !8
Golden Nuggets of this section

● Product development process tools seek to


Thank you!
enhance the creativity and imagination of a
design team, removing potential barriers
● Modern product development results in a
dichotomy between design and manufacturing.
Concurrent engineering approaches must be
used to develop a product effectively and
efficiently
● A common denominator of effective teams is
commitment, consensus and communication

November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !9 November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !10
Contextual Setting:

L-1-2-4-Team-Building-
Evaluation
Dr. Srinivasa Prakash Regalla, PhD
Professor & Head

Mechanical Engineering Department


Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani
Hyderabad Campus

November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !2

Learning Outcomes
Team Building (Basic Activities)
◦Team building ● Team building activities are those activities
◦Tangrams that help team members to come
together, to learn the team spirit etc.
◦Team evaluation through certain recreational activities
● Team building activities can greatly
enhance the ability of a team to perform

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Characteristics of Activities that are Fit for Team Building An exercise in Tangrams
● A clear goal or set of goals that are nonobvious (i.e., cannot ● Tangram is a mathematical puzzle, that can be used
be solved by inspection or previous knowledge) for team building
● A task that requires team cooperation and leadership for
success
● Tagram is a basic geometric puzzle comprising
● Inherent risk for failure, at least partially
seven fundamental geometric shapes known as
“tans”.
● A task that is not part of the everyday job or actual project
● A facilitator to help guide the team when a catalyst is needed
● The goal of this puzzle is to construct different
● An independent observer (may be a chosen team member) shapes using tans, like square, shark, mountain range,
that records the performance and responses of the team, bridge etc. through translation, rotation and flipping
outside the heat of battle ● The tans consists of one square, one parallelogram,
● A forum to discuss the activity, analyzing successes and and five triangles.
failures
● The five triangles have different sizes, 2 small, 1
● A competitive environment with other teams, with a prize
awarded to the winning team
medium and 2 large.

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Tanagram (contd.)

How the Tanagram game is played?


● A known shape is displayed to the player
● The player then attempts to reconstruct
the shape by manipulating the tans in
minimum possible time
● A set of tans is provided to each member
of the team (each of different color)
● Mixing up the tans among the team
members is a good idea as it will force
them to interact in order to complete the
task
November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !7 November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !8
Example team evaluation form

Team Evaluation
● It is essential to evaluate the psyche of the
team as the PD progresses
● Certain team issues may set in but not
resolved during the progress of PD
● Some evaluation tools exist (in the form
of questionnaire) which should be filled by
team members periodically
● After evaluation, action items must be
proposed

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Example team evaluation form (contd.)


Golden Nuggets of this section

● Team building and evaluation


exercises are an important
component in making progress

November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !11 November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !12
Thank you!

November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !13


Contextual Setting

L-1-2-5-PD-Planning-Tools
Dr. Srinivasa Prakash Regalla, PhD
Professor & Head

Mechanical Engineering Department


Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani
Hyderabad Campus

November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !2

Thus, Scope is Tools for…


Product Development Planning
●PD planning ● Tools are also needed to predict cycle
◦ Planning process times, costs, and labor within 10%
accuracy
◦ Basic planning and scheduling tools
●Gantt charts and task links

November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !3 November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !4
Planning Process Basic Planning and Scheduling Tools
● Product planning process must follow four ● The popular tools are:
systematic steps: ● Gantt charts – suitable for small projects
◦ What? – tasks ● Critical path methods (CPM) – suitable for
◦ When? – schedule large projects
◦ Where? – equipment and facilities
● Program evaluation and technical review
◦ How? – people, material, facility and equipment
costs (PERT) – suitable for large projects

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Example Gantt chart


Gantt Charts
● It is a basic planning and scheduling tool,
named after Henry Gantt
● They are essentially bar charts
● Vertical axis shows the activities and
horizontal axis shows the time
● Time may be indicated in weeks (should
not be either too coarse or too fine)
● The chart should be augmented with team
leader, task responsibility and resource
information

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Task Lists Role of Upper/Senior Management in
PD
● They are useful tools to support Gantt charts as
well as augment the Gantt charts
● Upper management plays an enormously
important role in the new-product development
● Task lists may be prepared out of the Gantt activities of any company.
charts by simply taking the tables of activities
● Good product development depends on a well-
● Task lists also state the deadlines, team members orchestrated and cooperative interplay between
responsible for the task, a checkbox to fill-in senior managers and cross-functional teams.
when the task is completed
● Each group acts within the framework of a well-
● Two types of Task Lists – Overall project list and constructed product-development process in
weekly lists. which the respective roles are clearly defined
and articulated.

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Role of senior management (contd.)


Golden Nuggets of this section
● Senior management’s roles:
◦ communicates the company’s vision, ● Product planning using Gantt chart or


defines the product development process,
preaches the importance of speed,
PERT & CPM must be completed
◦ identifies and overcomes barriers to fast product development, early and evaluated often, though it is
◦ creates cross-functional teams for projects of strategic
importance,
tedious and difficult
◦ empowers teams, ● Tangible milestones should be


manages the portfolio,
freezes product features early,
established using Task Lists early in a
◦ nurtures creativity, development project. Such milestones
◦ minimizes bureaucracy, provide clear measures of success.
◦ identifies marketplace needs,
◦ provides resources, and
◦ champions major projects

November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !11 November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !12
Thank you!

November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !13



Scoping Product Development:
Technical and Business
Concerns, Basic Methods
Dr. Srinivasa Prakash Regalla, PhD
Professor

Mechanical Engineering Department


Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani
Hyderabad Campus What new technology and into which components can be reasonably
incorporated to ensure market success?
November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !2

Thus, Scope is…


Product Design Scoping Means…
● Determining What to develop


S-Curves
S-Curves and New Product Development ● We have earlier defined three different
◦ Comments on S-Curves and Technology Forecasting
types of product Design:
● Basic Method: Mission Statement and Technical
● Original
Questioning
◦ Technical Questioning ● Adaptive
◦ Mission Statements

● Fingernail Clipper: Clarification and Mission ● Variant


Statement But how the PD team knows which
● Golden Nuggets of this section one to be undertaken now?

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Determining What to Develop When to outsource a component?
● Should a completely new technology be
introduced? - Original (Innovative) design ● Out source unless the component/
● Should the current product be refined? –
subsystem is defining characteristic of the
Adaptive Design product – that which makes it sell or
which is the core competence of the
● Should the product be expanded into
firm
variants? – Variant Design (Incremental
Improvement)
● Should it partly or fully be outsourced? –
some thoughts about this on the next
slide!
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S-curves
Technology Forecasting
● Product evolution occurs along S-curve
● Technology forecasting is essential to: ● X-axis time,Y-axis is one important product metric
● Initially it is difficult to innovate since the product is
◦ Predict what technological developments can new and difficult to introduce – this is the lower
occur leg to S-curve
◦ Understand when to introduce new ● In the next stage, there are rapid incremental
technology into the product – developments taking place, forming the middle
web of S-curve
◦ Whether to introduce incremental or disruptive
● In the final stage, once more there is no more
possibility of any incremental development
● A paradigm shift is needed in the product, that is
disruptive/innovative development
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Example: Lighting products
LED

CFL

1990

Color rendering index

Product metric = energy efficiency


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Comments on S-curve and Technology Forecasting

● Exceptions to S-curve: Moor’s law of Gordon Moore of Basic Method: Mission Statement and
Intel Corporation – the density of transistors on Technical Questioning
microprocessors doubles every 18 months
● S-curve says the technology should eventually top-out; The company has to understand three possible
Moor’s law says it never will top out environments prevailing in the market and plan
● The microprocessor industry is continuously jumping the introduction of new product accordingly:
over successive S-curves so there no top-out 1. Environment when they are introducing new
technology
2. Environment when the technology is rapidly
evolving
3. Environment when technology is topping out
The above “Technical Questioning” based basic
Several small S- Gordon Moore
method helps achieve that understanding
curves together
appear like a
straight line
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Risks and the Tools of weighing the risks Technical Questioning
● What is the problem really about?
● The two risks of new product ● What implicit expectations and desires are involved?
development: ● Are the stated customer needs, functional requirements, and
constraints truly appropriate?
◦ Technical risk – can we make it?
● What avenues are open for creative design and inventive problem
◦ Market risk – will they buy it? solving?
● What avenues are limited or not open for creative design? Limitations
on scope?
● What characteristics/properties must the product have?
● Two simple tools to understand and ● What characteristics/properties must the product not have?
clarify these risks: ● What aspects of the design task can and should be quantified now?
● Do any biases exist with the chosen task statement or terminology?
◦ Technical questioning Has the design no been posed at the appropriate level of abstraction?
◦ Mission statement ● What are the technical and technological conflicts inherent in the
design task?

November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !13 November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !14

Mission Statements Exercises:


Prepare a list of technical questions and from them obtain
● It emanates as a result of technical a mission statement for an improved/new version of
questioning the following products:
1. Tooth brush
2. Bicycle rear carrier
3. Bicycle handle assembly
4. Bicycle seat assembly
5. Motorbike seating subassembly
6. Car front wind shield wiper
7. Automatic night-time high/low beam shifter for cars

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Golden Nuggets of this section

● Understanding the various interests that pull and


Thank you!
constrain the development project
● Assessing project development risk, which
fundamentally arises from two independent
sources: market risk and technical risk
● Scoping the PD process using the preliminary
technique of S-curve

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The Learning Objectives:
● Determining What to develop: Advanced
Methods
Scoping Product Development: ◦ The Harvard Business Case Method
Technical and Business Concerns, 
 ◦ Design Drivers Method

Advanced Methods ● Golden Nuggets of this section

Dr. Srinivasa Prakash Regalla, PhD


Professor

Mechanical Engineering Department


Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani
Hyderabad Campus

November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !2

Advanced Method: Business Case


Analysis
● “Technical Questioning”, that we just
discussed, is a qualitative means
● We need more analytical and detailed
approach to complete the mission
● The Harvard Business Case Analysis Method
is an excellent tool

What new technology and into which components can be reasonably


incorporated to ensure market success?
November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !3 November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !4
Harvard Business Case Analysis Method
Product Development Economic Analysis
Process Step Description
1. Problem Statement What market problems are you addressing, fixing,
improving, making more efficient etc. ? Should be
limited ONE sentence. ● Two fundamental economic considerations
• Assumptions Discuss any limiting assumptions made in preparing
the business case proposal
are (1) risk and (2) time value of money
3. Major Factors List briefly major factors of the environment that 1. Risk: The project must have a higher
affect the decision. These could be capital constrains,
critical business needs, or directions (strategies) etc.
projected return on investment than a low-
risk alternative such as savings account or
4. Minor Factors List briefly factors that do not significantly affect the FD
problem, but may be considered
5. Alternatives List minimum three concrete or hypothesized
2. Time value of money : break-even point,
alternatives to address the problem. Under each return on investment, investment risk
alternative, list advantages and disadvantages.
6. Discussion of Alternatives Review each of the alternatives thoroughly and
identify the most feasible alternative
7. Recommendation State your recommendation with clarity
8. Implementation Describe the implementation plan with resources
November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !5 November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !6

Advanced Method: Design Drivers


Example: Finger Nail Clipper
● A design driver is an early decision that must be made but
that, once made, determines in large part many of
subsequent design decisions

Example:
Commercial
Aircraft

Permits

Constrains

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Exercises: Golden Nuggets of this section
1. Develop the design drivers for the criteria of (1) overall product
cost, (2) ease of driving, and (3) maintenance cost for a bicycle.
● Understanding the various interests that pull and
constrain the development project
2. Develop the design drivers for the criteria of (1) overall product ● Assessing project development risk, which
cost, (2) ease of driving, (3) maintenance cost, and (4) riding fundamentally arises from two independent
pleasure for a motor bike.
sources: market risk and technical risk
3. Develop the design drivers for the criteria of (1) injury-free ● Establishing design driver variables that, when
service, (2) locatability, and (3) multi-purpose for a nail clipper. specified, define other decisions directly
● Establishing technical specifications early
4. Develop the design drivers for the criteria of (1) injury-free
service, (2) being locatable, (3) being multi-purpose, (4) cost- ● Completing an economic analysis to establish
effective, and (5) as many shaves as possible with a single project cost limits and marketplace targets
cartridge, for a shaving cartridge for men.

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Thank you!

November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !11


Customer Need Models
● Different types of models exist
● Simplest and most useful model is:
L-2-1-2-Customer Needs Modeling, Basic
Methods It is a List, in which the needs are enlisted
and then additional information and
Dr. Srinivasa Prakash Regalla, PhD
importance weightages are included
Professor of Mechanical Engineering Department

Associate Dean of WILP


Birla Institute of Technology and Science Pilani
Hyderabad Campus

November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !2

Gathering Customer Needs Comparison of the Four Methods

● Different Need gathering methods exist: Collection


methods à
(1)
Interview Method
(2)
Questionnaires
(3)
Focus Group Method
(4)
Be the Customer

1. Interviews – best because provides most information Attribute↓

per quantity of effort; costly affairs Nature of the The design team Design team forms a A moderator facilitates a Design team travels to
Technique member(s) discusses the list of questions to session with a group of the locations of usage
2. Questionnaires – Usefulness of data is limited by the needs of a single
customer, one at a time,
which the customers’
responses are
customers preferably in
the company premises.
of their or
competitor’s product
efficiency of designing the questions at customer’s
environment.
collected. is used and act as a
customer.

3. Focus groups – moderator facilitates a Advantage Specific information If done properly, the One focus group meeting It is profitable because
session with a group of customers – The small size of a focus from each customer is
gathered while the
questionnaire can be
suitably designed to
uses fewer resources
(time and money) than
first-hand information
is obtained directly in
group does not allow statistically significant generalization of responses to a larger customer is using the obtain specific multiple personal terms of technical
population. product. responses relevant to interviews or large surveys descriptors because
the product. that fail to ask the team member is
4. Be the customer – design team members important questions.
 
involved.

should act as customers for their or competitor’s


products (wherever possible) – effective but not Limitation Works well only if the
product has a process
The usefulness of the
responses is limited by
The small size of a focus
group does not allow
Excessive demands are
placed on team

always possible, difficult many times, where it is not that is associated with
customer’s use.
how well the questions
are formulated.
statistically significant
generalization of
responses to a larger
member and not
always possible to
adopt.
possible? Surgical instruments! population.

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Focus Groups Advantages and Limitations of Focus Groups

● In this method of extracting customer needs, in


which a moderator facilitates a session with one
group of customers at a time.
● This method enables in gathering in-depth
information on customer needs.
● Well-run focus groups uncover real feelings and
issues and provide richer and more profound
information than personal interviews or surveys
because the dynamics of a group lead to more
developed answers than any individual customer
might supply on her/his own

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Interviews: the first need gathering Like/Dislike method: conducting


method interviews
● Two methods exist ● Interviewer should ensure that the
◦ Like/Dislike method customers describe not only what they do
◦ Articulated-use method not like but also what they do like
● “Why” questions to bring out latent needs
are essential
● Data collection form may be used to
document the needs

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Recall Kano’s Diagram:

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General hints for effective customer


interaction:
● Go with the flow: Willingly follow the
customer asking why and how questions
● Use visual stimuli and props:
● Suppress preconceived notions about
the product technology:
● Have the customer demonstrate:
● Be alert for surprises and latent needs:
● Watch for nonverbal information:
customer may not use language alone to
express but gestures etc. too
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Use data collection forms to record interviews
Articulated-use Method
● Particularly useful in uncovering the
latent needs
● The design team must see through how
the product is/will be used, in detail, by
going along with the customer and
witnessing the use – asking intermittent
questions etc.
● Will the simulation of use procedure
work?

November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !13 November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !14

Thank you!

November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !15


Learning Objectives
● Introduction

● Customer Satisfaction:Voice of the customer

● Kano’s Diagram

L-2-1-1-Fundamentals of Customer Needs ● Customer populations


Dr. Srinivasa Prakash Regalla, PhD
● Types of customer needs
Professor & Head

Mechanical Engineering Department


Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani
Hyderabad Campus

November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !2

Introduction
Customer Satisfaction:Voice of the
● Akio Morita, founder of Sony Corporation: “Our
plan is to lead the public to new products rather
customer
than ask them what they want. The public does not ● Considering the customers’ desires will
know what is possible, we do”. -aggressive pull the product – instead of wholly
● Is he suggesting push type manufacturing? needing to be pushed
● Creating awareness of the new product among
● Challenges in knowing the customers’
customers is fine
● However, in the current changed world, we want
voice:
to minimize risk, leave no stone unturned, by ◦ Lack of understanding of customer of what
ensuring that what we design and send is exactly will be the product – fuzzy inputs
what the customer “needs” ◦ Customers discuss only failings of the
● Companies should attempt to know the product, not what they want
customer’s voice and demand
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Kano’s diagram for any one given function

Aim of design team should be to


design the product to be above this
line

One-to-one
quality or linear
quality

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Customer Populations

● It is the set of varied types of persons


who we want to be purchasers of our new
product – having different expectations
and environments of use

● Statistical treatment is therefore necessary


– concepts of:
◦ average customer
◦ 3-sigma customer (lead customer)

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Customer Populations (contd.) Types of Customer Needs


● Direct Needs: Customers have no trouble
● Categorization based on different patterns declaring them clearly, when asked
– different countries, climates, and ● Latent Needs: Not directly expressed by
economies customers; needs probing
● Categorization by lead-gap usage: lead ● Constant Needs: Intrinsic to the task of the
customers are important product, and will always be there
● Developing product technology that
● Variable Needs: Not constant, may go away if a
suitable techno-solution is in the offing
merely satisfies the lead customers will in ● General Needs: Applies to all customers, i.e.,
turn simultaneously delight the average heating facility in cars in entire USA
customer ● Niche Needs: Apply only to a selected customers,
i.e., A/C in car in UK (it is a cold country for most part of the year)

November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !11 November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !12
Thank you!

November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !13


Customer Driven Reduces Implementation Time
¥ Creates Focus On Customer Requirements ¥ Decreases Midstream Design Change
¥ Uses Competitive Information Effectively ¥ Limits Post Introduction Problems
¥ Prioritizes Resources ¥ Avoids Future Development Redundancies
¥ Identifies Items That Can Be Acted On ¥ Identifies Future Application Opportunities
¥ Structures Resident Experience/Information ¥ Surfaces Missing Assumptions

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Promotes Teamwork Provides Documentation


¥ Based On Consensus ¥ Documents Rationale For Design
¥ Creates Communication At Interfaces ¥ Is Easy To Assimilate
¥ Identifies Actions At Interfaces ¥ Adds Structure To The Information
¥ Creates Global View-Out Of Details ¥ Adapts To Changes (Living Document)
¥ Provides Framework For Sensitivity Analysis

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What is QFD and Why it is needed? Characteristics of QFD
➢ In earlier days, if a knight wanted armor, he would tell the blacksmith and
blacksmith would make it accordingly applying his skill and understanding of what
would have to be done

➢ Nowadays, it is necessary to develop


techniques able to:
➢ integrate the multiplicity of functions aid
the customer and maker link to one
another,
➢ fully utilize the enormous wealth of
specific knowledge accumulated by the
specialists

QFD integrates
both vertical and horizontal processes

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What is the HoQ?


HoQ serves to describe the basic process underlying QFD: the transition (based
on a strategy of input–output) from a list of customer requirements, the “what,”
The QFD documentation
through to a list of considerations as to “how”
consists of 4 tables/forms
(i) product planning matrix, the requirements will be met
(ii) Part/subsystem deployment matrix, (product characteristics).
(iii) Process planning matrix, and
(iv) Process/quality control matrix. ‘WHATs’ and ‘HOWs’
for sample case of
customer’s desire
“To really have
A good cup of coffee”
The first of these is also called as the House of
Quality (HoQ) and we will discuss that next.
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Relationship between WHATs and HOWs
➢ Represented by specific symbols
placed at the intersections of the
relationship matrix to indicate,
weak, medium, or strong THANK YOU!
relationships, respectively
➢ The symbols commonly used are a
triangle for weak relationships, a
circle for medium relationships,
and two filled concentric circles for
strong relationships
Any questions?

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BITS Pilani
Pilani | Dubai | Goa | Hyderabad

MM ZG541

PRODUCT DESIGN
Dr. Srinivasa Prakash Regalla, PhD RL_3.3.3
BITS Pilani
Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department

Examples of House of Quality


Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani
Hyderabad Campus
Pilani | Dubai | Goa | Hyderabad

QFD Example:An Automobile Bumper


OK, Let’s Walk Through A Simple Example Customer Request:
There is too much damage to bumpers in low-speed collisions. Customer wants a
better bumper.

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QFD Example:An Automobile Bumper QFD Example:An Automobile Bumper
Step 1: Identify Customer(s) Step 3: Prioritize Customer Requirements
– Repair Department
– Automobile Owner
– Manufacturing Plant
– Sales Force

Step 2: Determine Customer Requirements/Constraints


– I want something that looks nice (basic)
– It must hold my license plate (performance)
– I want it strong enough not to dent (excitement)
– It must protect my tail-lights and head-lights (performance)
– I don’t want to pay too much (basic)

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QFD Example:An Automobile Bumper QFD Example:An Automobile Bumper


Put prioritized Customer Requirements into a House of Quality Chart Step 4: Competition Benchmarking
– Identify Competitors
– Test and Analyze Competitor Products
– Reverse Engineer Competitor Products
– Rate Competitor Products against customer requirements/constraints

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QFD Example:An Automobile Bumper QFD Example:An Automobile Bumper
Put competitive benchmarking information into Steps 5 and 6: Translate Customer Requirements into
House of Quality Chart Measurable Engineering Specifications and define target values
– Specify how license plate will be held
– Specify how to resist dents through material yield strength, young's modulus, etc.
– Specify with a dollar amount the term ‘inexpensive’

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QFD Example:An Automobile Bumper Some More House of Quality Examples


➢ Rock-Climbing Harness
➢ Blank House
➢ Suntex Process
➢ Windshield Wiper
➢ Restaurant Design
➢ Auxiliary Power Unit
➢ Refrigerator
➢ Continental Airlines

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Rock-Climbing Harness
Key to roof / correlation
Key to roof / correlation
+ - matrix symbols
matrix symbols -
+ Positive / Supporting
+ Positive / Supporting
-
- Negative / Tradeoff - Negative / Tradeoff
+ +
-
DIRECTION OF IMPROVEMENT
DIRECTION OF IMPROVEMENT
Performance Size of Technical TECHNICAL PLANNING MATRIX
TECHNICAL PLANNING MATRIX
measures range details
REQUIREMENTS REQUIREMENTS

CUSTOMER
REQUIREMENTS
CUSTOMER
Easy to put on 2 3 3 4 4 1.2 1.1 2.6 7 REQUIREMENTS
Comfortable when hanging 5 4 4 2 5 1.2 1.4 8.4 22

Fits over different clothes 1 1 1 5 2 1.2 1.0 1.2 3

Accessible gear loops 3 3 4 1 3 1.0 1.0 3.0 8

Does not restrict movement 5 2 2 3 5 1.6 1.4 11.2 29

Lightweight 3 3 2 5 3 1.0 1.0 3.0 8

Safe 5 4 3 3 4 1.0 1.2 6.0 16 TECHNICAL PRIORITIES Total (100%)


Attractive 2 2 2 5 3 1.2 1.1 2.6 7
PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL
TECHNICAL PRIORITIES 54 81.2 63 23.4 70.2 191.6 98.6 30 612 Total (100%) 38

PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL 9 13 10 4 12 31 16 5 Our Product Key to interrelationship matrix symbols


Our product Y 174g 250 5 4 4mm 1 4 Key to interrelationship matrix symbols
Competitor A's Product Strong interrelationship
Competitor A's product Y 193g 321 3 5 8mm 4 5 Strong interrelationship

Medium interreltionship
Competitor B's Product Medium interreltionship
Competitor B's product Y 157g 198 6 4 3mm 1 3

DESIGN TARGETS Y 160g 250 8 6 4mm 2 4 Weak interrelationship DESIGN TARGETS Weak interrelationship

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Correlation: Correlation:

Suntex Process Very Strong Relationship


Strong Relationship Suntex Process Very Strong Relationship
Strong Relationship
Weak Relationship Weak Relationship
Chemical Film Removal

Chemical Film Removal


Packaging: Appearance

Packaging: Appearance
Engineering Characteristics Engineering Characteristics
Soil Residue Removal

Soil Residue Removal


Product Preservation

Product Preservation
Packaging Material:

Packaging Material:
Quality of Suppliers

Quality of Suppliers
Pathogen Removal

Pathogen Removal
Wax Removal

Wax Removal
Customer Importance to Customer Importance to
Selling Points Selling Points
Requirements Customer Requirements Customer

Brand 2 Brand 2

Taste 5 Taste 5

Appearance 5 Appearance 5

Price 3 Price 3

Germ-free 4 Germ-free 4

Pesticide-free 3 Pesticide-free 3

Convenience 3 Convenience 3

Importance Weighting 4 4 2 5 5 3 4 Importance Weighting 4 4 2 5 5 3 4

Target Values 5 4 5 5 5 3 4 Target Values 5 4 5 5 5 3 4

Deployment Deployment

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Windshield Wiper

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Refrigerator

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House of Quality Example

You’ve been assigned temporarily to a QFD


team. The goal of the team is to develop a new
camera design. Build a House of Quality.

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THANK YOU!

Any questions?

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The basic definitions Samfung flat panel LCD
Portfolio
● Product Portfolios: The set Architecture Architecture
of different product

model: LCD model: LCD
TVs monitors
offerings that a company
Product Portfolios and Portfolio provides Architecture model: LCD
walls

Architecture Samfung flat panel LED


● Product Portfolio Portfolio
Architecture: The system Architecture Architecture

Dr. Srinivasa Prakash Regalla, PhD strategy for laying out model: LED
TVs
model: LED
monitors
components and systems
Professor & Head Architecture model: LED
on multiple products to walls
Mechanical Engineering Department
best satisfy current and
Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani
future market needs Can you write the portfolio
architecture for CRT
Hyderabad Campus
products?

November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !2

Thus, Scope is …
Introductory Considerations
● PRODUCT PORTFOLIO ARCHITECTURE


Portfolio Architecture types ● Two corporate objectives in developing
Fixed unsharing portfolio architecture
● Platform portfolio architecture product portfolio architecture: cost and
revenue
● Mass customization
● CHOOSING AN ARCHITECTURE TYPE
● Theory
● Production cost assumption ● Revenues from multiple market segments


Customer market models
Customer need distributions increase with large number of unique


Market basis for architecture decisions
Basic method: Estimated market segments
products in a portfolio; but at high


Advanced method: market surveys
PLATFORM ARCHITECTURE
manufacturing cost due to increased


Negotiating a modular family platform
Basic method: charts
production complexity
● Advanced method: functional architecting ● A portfolio with only a single product has
● Advanced method: optimization selection
● Non-platform based products low production cost but also limited
Platform based products
market satisfaction

● Golden Nuggets of this section

November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !3 November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !4
One clever(?) portfolio architecture Portfolio Architecture Types
● Develop subsystems within the products ● Three types of portfolio architectures can
that can be reused across the different be defined:
products ◦ Fixed unsharing
● This reuse can permit a manufacturer to ◦ Platform
attain both low cost and large market ◦ Massively customizable
variety ● This classification is based on market
● Is this really a clever architecture? Is it demands
always appropriate? ● Hybrids of the above architectures are
also possible

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Portfolio Architecture Types (contd.)

Fixed Unsharing Portfolio Architecture


● Each product in a portfolio is unique and
shares no components or systems with
Massively
customizable
any other product member in the
portfolio
Fabricate Adjustable for
to fit use

● It is applied and economical only when


the product sales is in very high volumes

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Fixed Unsharing Portfolio Architecture (contd.)
Fixed Unsharing Portfolio Architecture
● Robust/Adaptable offer: The products in the portfolio do not
(contd.) share any components, but individual products can be used
● Further classification: single offer and robust offer for different input parameter values
● Examples:
● Single Offer: The single offer architecture ◦ Laptop power adaptor (can work for input voltage range 110-240, at
provides only one option to the entire market. 50-60Hz.); Multisystem
For example screw driver set or laptop power ◦ Television can display images from NTSC or PAL or SECAM sources

adaptor with only one type of pins.

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Contd discussion: Example


Platform Portfolio Architecture
● The single offer architecture provides only
one option to the entire market: for ● Portfolio architectures in which the
example, 110 V, 60 Hz power supply for a products share components, modules, or
product; this is ok only in the US, in other systems to meet market variety
continents the customer needs to use ● The common components/modules/
another convertor to use the product systems among them are called as
● In the robust offer architecture, the platform
product has a power supply unit that can ● The supported components are called as
take power from a variety of outlets, variants
varying in the range 110-240 V and 50-60
Hz
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Four Types of Platform Architecture Modular product families
● Modular product families ● Set of products supported at any time by
● Modular product generations one platform
● Consumable platform architecture ● One very important opportunity of this
● Adjustable-for-purchase architecture architecture is the development of
derivative products
● Three such derivations are well known:
◦ Cost-reduced derivatives
◦ Product-line extensions
◦ Enhanced products

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Modular Product Generations Scalable Platform Architecture


● It is the architecture for product offerings that
share the same modular components in offerings ● The products share no common
that succeed each other in time components, but are all same except the
● The platform is common among the products size
but the outer shells form the variants and
change from generation to generation,
permitting easy upgrades in appearance as
market tastes change
● As new manufacturing processes, technology,
and markets become apparent, new platforms
are developed and introduced

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Consumable platform Standard platform
● A subset of a product system in a portfolio of products
● The components that are consumed that conforms to an industry-agreed standard
quickly are isolated ● Examples are fasteners, standardized software systems,
operating systems, file formats etc.
● For example, 35 mm film is a consumable ● There are two types of standards, open and proprietary
portfolio platform for photographic ● Open standards are those that a company or
cameras, as the film is isolated from any organization publishes and anyone can sell a product
conforming to the standard and not pay a royalty fee for
other part of a 35 mm camera copyright infringement
● Similarly the Canon toner cartridge, which ● Proprietary standards are those that a company or
is common for HP Laserjet and Apple consortium of company develops; any producer who
sells a product making use of the standard must make a
Laserwriter printers royalty payment

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Adjustable for purchase Thank you!

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Determining Need Importance
● Interview Data Method
● Questionnaire Method
● Cluster Analysis Method
L-2-1-4-Determining Need Importance
Dr. Srinivasa Prakash Regalla, PhD
Professor

Mechanical Engineering Department


Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani
Hyderabad Campus

November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !2

Interview Data Method Improved Basic Importance Rating


● It is an elementary approach ● First convert the responses into numerical
● Normalized weightings are constructed values, wCRij

The wCRi is the interpreted importance rank of the ith


need of customer.
“#times mentioned” is the number of persons who
expressed the need. Importance rating for ith need:
“#subjects” is the total number of persons
interviewed.
∑w j
CRij

wCRi =
One possible flaw: It includes a measure of
number of persons interviewed
obviousness of the need as opposed to its Here wCRij is the numerical importance rating for the ith
importance. need assigned by the jth customer.
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Questionnaire Method
● Send out questions to large number (min
30) customers
● Ask what they would like for 10% increase
price
● Let the customers give an importance
ranking between 1 to 5 for each need

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Cluster Analysis Method


● Previous methods assume constant value
of importance for each need
Response obtained ● When is price is cut half, for example, the
through Questionnaire
method: importance of noise generated by a
product may fall drastically
● A preference structure is needed to take
into such interdependencies into account
● Using conjoint analysis, such structure can
be built by offering a portfolio architecture
to customers to comment

Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, 24,


November Pilani
2018 !7 November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !8
Blender panel configuration shown to the customers. Old design had 18 buttons. In
redesign, several design factors were considered and customer comments were recorded.
Design factors considered in DOE
A. Letter size
B. Button size
C. Button color
D. Letter color
E. Background color
F. Shape
G. Number
H. Labels

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A total of 9 customers were interviewed. Regression Analysis of the data obtained:


● For each DOE experiment, average value
of the customers responses was found.
● Then the average importance value’s
dependence on design factors was found
by regression analysis of the data.

S1, S2, …, S9 are different subjects (customers)


questioned.
Design factor values are here in coded form of -1, 0 Here di are the design factors.
and +1.
In full factorial method, 3k = 38 = 6561 number
combinations for all 8 factors.
Here we have used fractional-factorial so get only 18.
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Customer Use Patterns
● It is defined as the “different ways the
product is used in as-it-is or modified
condition by the customer”
● Design team must collect all this
information, which will help in identifying
the portfolio architecture
● Activity Diagram can be built by listing all
activities from beginning to end by
customer

November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !13 November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !14

Thank you!

November 24, 2018 Srinivasa Prakash Regalla @BITS, Pilani !15


Scope
● Introduction
● Teardown Process
● Through an example

L-3-1-1-Product Teardown:

Fundamentals and One Case Study
Dr. Srinivasa Prakash Regalla, PhD
Professor Mechanical Engineering Department

Birla Institute of Technology & Science, Pilani


Hyderabad Campus

Srinivasa Prakash Regalla@BITS, Pilani !2

Introduction Teardown Process


● Step-1: List the design issues
● Product Teardown is the process of taking
● Step-2: Prepare for product
apart a product to understand it – to teardown
understand how the company is making
● Step-3: Examine the
the product succeed distribution and installation
● Thus, list of purposes of Product ● Step-4: Disassemble,
Teardown: measure, and analyze data
◦ Dissection and analysis during reverse by assemblies
engineering ● Step-5: Form a bill of
◦ Experience and knowledge for an individual’s materials
personal database
◦ Competitive benchmarking

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An Example Case Study for Product
Pureit is a very competitive product and within
Teardown:
short time it gained huge market share

● Electric Free
water purifier –
Pureit by HUL

HOW TO - Change Germkill-kit of


Get to know how it works Pureit
The example Case:

Inevitable cut-
open required

Purified water comes


here and enters the
tap outlet
Impure water
goes in here

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Ceramic Clay Candle


Plastic Bellow Spring

Red Bob

Plastic Closure Stem

Srinivasa Prakash Regalla@BITS, Pilani !11


How PureIt is working? What exactly the candle does?
● Turbidity of smaller size, suspended
● Water is poured into the upper container
materials and pathogens are removed from
● It flows through the first two stages of
water through mechanical trapping and
filtering before entering the germ kill kit adsorption in micro-scale pores of ceramic
containing the ceramic clay candle candles.
● Water flow up and through the candle’s pores,
● Colloidal silver is sometimes used in candle
in the process getting purified of germs for more effective pathogen removal.
● At the top of the candle, it exits from candle
● The candle also expends itself in the
through the side slit and falls into the hole at process, under the compressive load from
the bottom cylinder kit unit, and then flows the plastic bellows
out of the exit duct
● This makes

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Ceramic Clay Candles (contd)


Ceramic Clay Candles ● Highly turbid or iron containing water may
● Ceramic candle filters are effective in plug candle pores easily so that container
removing bacteria, protozoa, helminths and candle need to be cleaned more
and turbidity from water. frequently.
● Hence the two previous stages of
● It also removes some viruses and iron and
taste, smell and colour of water are purifications in PureIt.
improved. ● These stages make water pre-settled

● The effectiveness of the filter also depends


before pouring it into filter.
on the production quality, the initial water ● First two stages purify water to have less
quality, and the handling practices of users. iron (<0.3mg/L) and turbidity (<5NTU)
before entering the candle.
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How Turbidity is measured?
● Turbidity is measured in NTU:
Nephelometric Turbidity Units.
● The instrument used for measuring it is
called nephelometer or turbidimeter,
● It measures the intensity of light scattered at
90 degrees as a beam of light passes through
a water sample.
● However the PureIt is not equipped with a
Nephelometer to keep the cost of purifier
low.

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BILL OF MATERIALS (MATERIALS LIST)
GERM KILL KIT OF WATER PURIFIER
Part # Part Name Q Function Mass Finish DFM COST ANALYSIS DATA
TY (gm)
Manufacturing Dimensions
Process
Germ Kill Kit Blow molded ABS plastic parts,
thermally sealed
A1 Bellow 1 Permit graded 50 grams
Spring Assembly descent of bob-
stem system
001 Bellow spring 1 Apply compressive 30 grams Blow molded 20 mm dia; 2 mm
force free pitch
002 Transparent 1 To enclose the 20 grams Smooth; Blow molded 30 mm dia; 1 mm
cylindrical bellow spring transparent wall
container
A2 Candle Assembly 1 40 grams

003 Red bob with stem 1 For auto shut-off 10 grams Red colored Injection molded 20 mm dia
ABS

004 Ceramic clay 1 To kill germs and 30 grams Clay compression 10 mm dia; 60
candle pathogens molded mm length

A3 Outer casing 1 To enclose internal


parts of the kit
005 Upper enclosure 1 Cover the A1 and 50 grams Matt finished Injection moulded Oval; 50 mm by
A2 30 mm

006 Lower enclosure 1 To receive and vent 150 Matt finished Injection molded Oval; 50 mm by
Srinivasa Prakash Regalla@BITS, Pilani !25 water grams Srinivasa Prakash Regalla@BITS, Pilani
30 mm !26

Srinivasa Prakash Regalla@BITS, Pilani !27


Scope
● Introduction
● Teardown Process
● Teardown Methods
● SOP
L3-1-2-Product Teardown:
 ● Force flow diagrams
Systematic Techniques ● Measurement and experimentation
● Post-Teardown Reporting
Dr. Srinivasa Prakash Regalla, PhD ● Applications of Product Teardown
Professor Mechanical Engineering Department

Birla Institute of Technology & Science, Pilani


Hyderabad Campus

Srinivasa Prakash Regalla@BITS, Pilani !2

STEP-1: List the Design Issues Contd.


● Other factors that are typically needed to be known are:
● If it is a new project the design issues may be unknown – ◦ Quantity of parts per product unit
every facet about customer market, competitors,
◦ Dimensional measurements
features of competitors’ products are worth investigating
◦ Maximum, minimum and average material thickness
● If it is a redesign scenario, the following questions are ◦ Weight
worth seeking answers for by enquiring with the ◦ Color/finish
previous design team: ◦ Manufacturing process, including sufficient information for a
◦ What was difficult for them? Design for Manufacturing Analysis
◦ What design problem did they solve that they are proud of? ◦ Geometric, spatial, and parameter tolerances
◦ What related technologies were they interested in? ◦ Primary functions
◦ Cost per part or subassembly
◦ Other notes

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STEP-2: Prepare for Product Teardowns STEP-3: Examine the Distribution and
● Several tools need to be identified: Installation
◦ Sensors?
◦ Test equipment for measurement process? ● Examine the means to acquire parts,
◦ Camera? contain them, ship, distribute, and market
◦ Camcorder?
◦ Multi-meter?
the product
◦ Hardness tester? ● Distribution packaging should be
◦ Optical sensor? examined – it can be quite expensive
◦ Flow meter?
◦ Dynamometer?
● Consumer installation instructions and
◦ Calipers? procedures may be examined for costs,
◦ Strobe? effectiveness and liability
● Document the information into a written or electronic
report of the teardown

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STEP-4: Disassemble, Measure, and


Analyze Data by Assemblies Contd.
● This step is obvious, but is very important and must ● Avoid destructive testing during the first
scientifically carried out
iteration – functionality should not be
● Must be coordinated with measurements and
experimentation affected
● First, take pictures and measurements on the whole ● During further experimentation,
assembly before disassembly destructive teardown may be done, with
● Then:
full knowledge of it
◦ Take apart the assembly
◦ Take pictures in an exploded view (and/or produce a solid model
assembly diagram – electronic exploded view)
◦ Take measurements on the parts and assemblies to complete the
data sheets

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STEP-5: Bill of Materials (BOM)
● Write in a form the details of the product,
it is called as BOM
● Required for subsequent analyses including
cost and performance

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Teardown Methods Mechanism used to oscillate an arm through a designated angular range,
the arm being the source of power for the rotary motion

● Subtract and Operate Procedure (SOP):


◦ Step-1: Diassemble (subtract) one component
of the assembly
◦ Step-2: Operate the system through its full
range
◦ Step-3: Analyze the effect
◦ Step-4: Deduce the subfunctions of the missing
component
◦ Step-5: Replace the component and repeat the
procedure n times for all n components

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SOP DEVICE WORKSHEET

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The scope of the discussion
is…
➢ Product Architectures - Introduction
➢ Architecture types
➢ Integral
➢ Modular
➢ Architecture Examples
➢ Product Modularity - Background
➢ Types of modularity
L4-2-1-Product ➢ Function based modularity

Architecture
➢ Manufacturing based modularity
➢ Modular Design: Basic Clustering Method
Fundamentals ➢ Modular Design: Advanced Functional Method
➢ Architecture Based Development Teams
BITS Pilani Dr. Srinivasa Prakash Regalla, PhD ➢ A method of forming module-based development teams
Professor of Mechanical Engineering
Pilani|Dubai|Goa|Hyderabad
➢ Application of module-based development teams

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

The learning outcomes are… Product Architectures –


Introduction (1/2)
➢ Understand product architecture and its role in product ➢ Product architecture is the scheme by which the functional
development elements of the product are arranged into physical chunks
and by which the chunks interact
➢ Developing product architecture is a key milestone for any
➢ See the effect of different architectures class of products
➢ Key decisions on
➢ Look at examples of different architectures how the product
will physically
operate are made
at this stage

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
Product Architectures – Why formalization of product
Introduction (2/2) architecture is so important? (1/)
➢ “Develop a concept” phase is what gets shaped up in this
stage

➢ Product Architecture is the translation of customer needs


and business case into a realizable product concept(s).

➢ Product Architecture can also be defined as mapping from


product function to the product form.

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Why formalization of product How the development of product


architecture is so important? (2/) architecture progresses…
➢ Architecture also has profound implications for how the
➢ At basic level of product architecting, effective
product is designed, made, sold, used, repaired, etc.
layouts of components and subsystems is
➢ Architecture makes its influence felt during assembly created
➢ The following questions are to be answered
during this stage:
➢What alternative architectures exist?
➢How will subsystems interact?
➢How will the subsystems be divided and interfaced?
➢ Focus is on transforming product function to
form – mapping customer needs to a functional
model of a product

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
Two types of product
1. Integral Architecture
architecture
1. Integral architecture ➢ The components function-share; each function
may be implemented by multiple components or
multiple components may implement one
2. Modular architecture function

➢ Physical elements blend together at their


interfaces, which will have complex interactions

➢ Changes made to any component in a integral


architecture tend to propagate to many, if not all
other elements

➢ This architecture is applied on high-volume


products
BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Example of integral product 2. Modular Architecture


architecture
➢ Modules are assemblies of physical product
substructures that have a one-to-one correspondence
with a subset of production functional model

➢ They accomplish an overall function through the


combination of distinct building blocks or modules

➢ Difficulties may be faced in initial stages because


compatibility of the modules in first product needs to be
established with those in the subsequent products
An integral trailer exhibiting a complex mapping from
functional elements to physical components.(Ulrich, 1995)
BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
Example of modular product Example Case of Modular Architecture:
architecture Shop floor assembly Automation (1/)

See the video separately supplied. File name


GemotecModularArchitectureVideo

A modular trailer architecture exhibiting a one-to-one mapping from


functional elements to physical components. (Ulrich, 1995)
BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Example Case of Modular Architecture: Example Case of Modular Architecture:


Shop floor assembly Automation (2/) Shop floor assembly Automation (3/)
Advantages of modular design: Linear and rotary actuators:
➢ Engineering a custom design to meet your
automation application with catalog items
➢ Sophisticated systems can be designed in may
sizes and variations
➢ Long life and reliability due to system being
designed for your specific factory automation
application
➢ Available options for pneumatic or electric
actuators or hybrid solution (pneumatic and
electric actuators)
➢ High precision of all individual automation
components
➢ Extensive assembly adaption system
➢ Numerous applications with the same modules
leads to less maintenance inventory and the
ability to re-purpose for future requirements
BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
Example Case of Modular Architecture: Example Case of Modular Architecture:
Gripping modules (4/) Accessories and adapters (5/)

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Advantages of Modular
Architecture
➢ Modular products make economic sense

➢ They offer easier assembly and disassembly, modification


and reassembly

➢ Standardization of components

➢ Reconfigurability of devices

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956


The scope of the discussion
is…
➢ Product Architectures - Introduction
➢ Architecture types
➢ Integral
➢ Modular
➢ Architecture Examples
➢ Product Modularity - Background
➢ Types of modularity
L4-2-1-Product ➢ Function based modularity

Architecture
➢ Manufacturing based modularity
➢ Modular Design: Basic Clustering Method
Fundamentals ➢ Modular Design: Advanced Functional Method
➢ Architecture Based Development Teams
BITS Pilani Dr. Srinivasa Prakash Regalla, PhD ➢ A method of forming module-based development teams
Professor of Mechanical Engineering
Pilani|Dubai|Goa|Hyderabad
➢ Application of module-based development teams

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

The learning outcomes are… Product Architectures –


Introduction (1/2)
➢ Understand product architecture and its role in product ➢ Product architecture is the scheme by which the functional
development elements of the product are arranged into physical chunks
and by which the chunks interact
➢ Developing product architecture is a key milestone for any
➢ See the effect of different architectures class of products
➢ Key decisions on
➢ Look at examples of different architectures how the product
will physically
operate are made
at this stage

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
Product Architectures – Why formalization of product
Introduction (2/2) architecture is so important? (1/)
➢ “Develop a concept” phase is what gets shaped up in this
stage

➢ Product Architecture is the translation of customer needs


and business case into a realizable product concept(s).

➢ Product Architecture can also be defined as mapping from


product function to the product form.

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Why formalization of product How the development of product


architecture is so important? (2/) architecture progresses…
➢ Architecture also has profound implications for how the
➢ At basic level of product architecting, effective
product is designed, made, sold, used, repaired, etc.
layouts of components and subsystems is
➢ Architecture makes its influence felt during assembly created
➢ The following questions are to be answered
during this stage:
➢What alternative architectures exist?
➢How will subsystems interact?
➢How will the subsystems be divided and interfaced?
➢ Focus is on transforming product function to
form – mapping customer needs to a functional
model of a product

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
Two types of product
1. Integral Architecture
architecture
1. Integral architecture ➢ The components function-share; each function
may be implemented by multiple components or
multiple components may implement one
2. Modular architecture function

➢ Physical elements blend together at their


interfaces, which will have complex interactions

➢ Changes made to any component in a integral


architecture tend to propagate to many, if not all
other elements

➢ This architecture is applied on high-volume


products
BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Example of integral product 2. Modular Architecture


architecture
➢ Modules are assemblies of physical product
substructures that have a one-to-one correspondence
with a subset of production functional model

➢ They accomplish an overall function through the


combination of distinct building blocks or modules

➢ Difficulties may be faced in initial stages because


compatibility of the modules in first product needs to be
established with those in the subsequent products
An integral trailer exhibiting a complex mapping from
functional elements to physical components.(Ulrich, 1995)
BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
Example of modular product Example Case of Modular Architecture:
architecture Shop floor assembly Automation (1/)

See the video separately supplied. File name


GemotecModularArchitectureVideo

A modular trailer architecture exhibiting a one-to-one mapping from


functional elements to physical components. (Ulrich, 1995)
BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Example Case of Modular Architecture: Example Case of Modular Architecture:


Shop floor assembly Automation (2/) Shop floor assembly Automation (3/)
Advantages of modular design: Linear and rotary actuators:
➢ Engineering a custom design to meet your
automation application with catalog items
➢ Sophisticated systems can be designed in may
sizes and variations
➢ Long life and reliability due to system being
designed for your specific factory automation
application
➢ Available options for pneumatic or electric
actuators or hybrid solution (pneumatic and
electric actuators)
➢ High precision of all individual automation
components
➢ Extensive assembly adaption system
➢ Numerous applications with the same modules
leads to less maintenance inventory and the
ability to re-purpose for future requirements
BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
Example Case of Modular Architecture: Example Case of Modular Architecture:
Gripping modules (4/) Accessories and adapters (5/)

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Advantages of Modular
Architecture
➢ Modular products make economic sense

➢ They offer easier assembly and disassembly, modification


and reassembly

➢ Standardization of components

➢ Reconfigurability of devices

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956


The scope of the discussion
is…
➢ Product Architectures - Introduction
➢ Architecture types
➢ Integral
➢ Modular
➢ Architecture Examples
➢ Product Modularity - Background
➢ Types of modularity

L4-2-2-Types of
➢ Function based modularity
➢ Manufacturing based modularity

Modularity of Prod Archi ➢ Modular Design: Basic Clustering Method


➢ Modular Design: Advanced Functional Method
➢ Architecture Based Development Teams
BITS Pilani Dr. Srinivasa Prakash Regalla, PhD ➢ A method of forming module-based development teams
Professor of Mechanical Engineering
Pilani|Dubai|Goa|Hyderabad
➢ Application of module-based development teams

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Types of Modularity Function-based Modularity

Two macro types of modularity: ➢ Four classifications exist:

➢ Function based modularity – Slot modularity


– Applied to partition of functionalities of a product and
how these functions are distributed – Bus modularity

– Sectional modularity
➢ Manufacturing based modularity
– Relates more to the manufacturing techniques and – Mix modularity
assembly operations associate with a product

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
Slot Modularity Bus Modularity
➢ One basic device uses several different components to allow ➢ Describes a device mostly the main component of the
it to perform multiples tasks
system, that is equipped with a standard interface that
➢ Often provides the means to support customizable portfolio accepts any combination of different functioning modules
architecture: the same module is used across different
products in a portfolio
➢ Examples of slot modularity ➢ Examples are memory expansion slots in the computer
is Bosch power tools

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Sectional Modularity

➢ Exhibited by a chained inter-connection of modules


(called as sections), each equipped with a an identical
interface
➢ Office furniture is an example
➢ The modules can each individually accomplish different
product sub-functions
➢ Their recombination on the chain interface permits
different system (product) functions
➢ No one main module that can be called a device; rather
collection of modules is the product

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
Mix Modularity
➢ Combines several standard components together through
web of modules, not through chain
➢ Must be equipped with at least two complimentary interfaces
to create a new device
➢ Building blocks set is an example

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
Manufacturing Based
OEM Modules
Modularity
➢ Four classes exist ➢ Modules that an OEM can supply at less expense that could
be developed in-house
➢ They group subassemblies based on manufacturing
techniques and assembly operations ➢ Examples are power supplies for computers
➢ Four classes are:
▪ OEM modules
▪ Assembly modules
▪ Sizable modules
▪ Conceptual modules

Finger print scanner


BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Assembly Modules Example for Assembly Modules

➢ Group of components that solve related functions but are Part 16: Control Module with Ignitor
bundled to increase assembly ease

➢ Examples of such modularization are:


➢Heating sub-system for pools and bathtubs

➢Heating sub-system for bathtubs

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
Sizable Modules Conceptual Modules
➢ Components that are exactly the same except for their
physical scale ➢ Solve the same function but have different physical
embodiment
➢ Examples are lawn-mower blades for different sized (power
rating) lawn mowers or for different levels of mowing

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
Concept Generation Process

❑ Generate as many concepts as


possible – tens of them; the more
the better
❑ Divergence into many concepts
followed by convergence into one
single product
RL-5-1-1-Generating ❑ The technique here is to present
the (i) functional model, (ii) product
concepts-Basic architecture and (iii) product
methods portfolio for each concept as a sub-
problems – so that the finding the
BITS Pilani Dr. Srinivasa Prakash Regalla, PhD solution (that is the concepts that
Pilani|Dubai|Goa|Hyderabad Professor of Mechanical Engineering
perform) is forced activity
2
BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

(i) functional model Basic Methods: Information


Gathering & Brainstorming
• Formal concept generation methods can be classified into
two categories:

– Intuitive methods
• Idea generation from within

– Directed (logical) methods


• Systematic step-by-step approach to searching for a
solution

Function Analysis and


BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
Information Gathering:
conventional aids
➢ Do not re-invent the wheel

➢ Review the existing ideas and synthesize them to


produce a new idea

➢ Knowledge is power supreme – the breadth and novelty


of ideas generated during conceptual design are a
function of the information available to the product
development team

➢ Different sources of information exist: benchmarking,


analogies, WWW etc.
BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Traditional Brainstorming

It is an intuitive method of generating concepts


It is a powerful technique
Piggybacking (use existing work or an existing product as a
basis or support) and leapfrogging each other results in
building-block ideas
Disadvantages are:
– Right idea may not come at right time
– Group conventions may sidetrack original ideas
– Distractions by misdirected focus
– Certain team members may be dominate the discussion
– The team may not be open to new ideas

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
Traditional Brainstorming
Memory (Mind) Map Technique
(contd.)
Guidelines for effective brainstorming: It is an effective technique of recording the information
– Designate a group leader generated/shared by people during brainstorming
– Form the group with 5-15 people, no more no less. Boxes are used for problem statement and circles/ellipses
– Brainstorm for 30-45 minutes are used for solutions/concepts with interconnections
shown by lines/arrows
– Don’t confine the group to only experts in the areas
– Encourage the members to have advance information
so that they can come with a set of ideas
– Avoid hierarchically structured groups – avoid bosses,
supervisors and managers

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Exercise Sample-2:
Understand the
principle correctly More budget

Reverse the Available location


Use Duracell
direction of
batteries to close instead of Philips
circuit More budget
Remember to
reverse and put
in line at Longer Remember to
Use
appropriate Battery Life rechargeable recharge well
times Laser Slide batteries before hand to
the class hour
Pointer
Have a Add a slot for
Put a secretary/ sorting spare Reduce weight
recurring assistant to Use solar batteries
alarm on the remind you charging as
mobile standby Make the overall
Used more energy device more
Add a mechanical efficient LEDs and circuit compact
extended pointer
as standby
Make the overall Reduce weight
device more
BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 compact BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
Idea generators for
Cmap software of IHMC
brainstorming
➢ Cmap software is a result of research conducted at the Idea generators are catalysts coined by the facilitator that
Florida Institute for Human & Machine Cognition (IHMC). help the group avoid troughs or low points in the session
➢ It empowers users to construct, navigate, share and Examples of idea generators are:
criticize knowledge models represented as concept – Be the problem
maps. – Reverse the problem
– Generate a list of analogous tasks and products
– Increase or decrease the scale of the problem
– Relax one or more specifications

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Brain-Ball technique C-sketch/6-3-5 method

In the first stage hypothetical balls are introduced by the Arrange “6” team members around a table
facilitator to be exchanged by the group members with Each member sketches “3” ideas for five or less primary product
different sounds being made functions
After T minutes of work on the concepts, members pass their
In the second stage instead of ball the actual problem is ideas to the person on the right
coined and the members keep repeating the solutions
For the next T minutes, team members modify (without erasing)
and giving new solutions the ideas on the sheet
A new sub-problem is introduced when the responses Passing of idea sheets continues until a member’s original sheet
become repetitive returns and the round ends
The facilitator notes down all the responses in a a memory “5” such rounds are repeated, each round discussing on different
sets of five or six product functions
map
Post processing is done where the ideas are accumulated and
summarized

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Idea generation for intuitive Thank you!


techniques

Any questions?

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
Concept Generation is a Integral Part of the D
Concept Development Phase

RL-5-1-2-Generating ➢ The quality of the underlying concept is critical how far the
concepts: advanced product will satisfy the customers
methods ➢ A good concept, if sometimes poorly implemented in the
subsequent stages, it can be later corrected, even at a cost
BITS Pilani Dr. Srinivasa Prakash Regalla, PhD
➢ A poor concept, however, can rarely be manipulated, no
Pilani|Dubai|Goa|Hyderabad Professor
matter how cleverly done, into a successful product

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Why Conceptual Design Phase W Generating Concepts; Advanced


Needs to be a Directed Search? Methods: Directed Search Methods
➢ Conceptual design is a concise description of how the product will ➢ Also called as Logical Concept Generation Methods
satisfy the customer needs
➢ It is an approximate description of the technology, working
principles and form of the product ➢ Concept generation in a deliberate, step-by-step and
➢ It is usually described as a sketch or rough 3D model and is often comprehensive fashion
accompanied by a brief textual description
➢ Concept generation is relatively inexpensive and can be done ➢ Three approaches:
relatively quickly as compared to other stages
➢ Estimates show that in a particular product development process, 1. Generating idea from physical principles
concept generation stage consumed <5% budget and 15% of 2. Using classifying schemes
development time 3. Implementing TIPS (Theory of Inventive Problem
➢ Hence there is no excuse for doing the concept generation poorly
Solving) or TRIZ
➢ The team should not stumble upon a superior concept late in the
development process

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
(1) Generating Conceptual Designs Example Case: Bostitch Electric
from Physical Principles Power Roofing Nailer (Cordless)
➢ Steps for this method: Drive nails automatically into walls or others.
i. Model the primary function or subsets of function of a
product as a black box or block diagram with material,
energy and signal flows
ii. For this black box, determine the physical principles that
convert the input to output for the product function(s).
iii. Write the general relationships for the physical principles that
relate a measured effect to independent design variables
iv. Vary each of the design variables to generate a concept for
solving the product function(s)
v. Develop the physical realization of the variable changes with
sketches.
vi. Each of the sketches is a possible concept idea

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Case Study Statement: Example: Power Nailer


The president of the Stanley-Bostitch commissioned a product Drive nails automatically into walls or others.
development team to develop a new hand-held nailer for the
roofing market.
Mission of the team: to consider broadly alternative power nailer
concepts, assuming only that the tool would employ conventional
nails as the basic fastening technology.
The team made customer survey and collected their needs,
established target product specifications, they faced the followed
questions:
(1) What existing solution concepts, if any exists, can be adapted for
the application?
(2) What new concepts might satisfy the established needs and
specifications?
(3) What methods can be used to facilitate the concept generation
process?

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
Example-2: (2) Systematic search with
Capacitive system classifying schemes
➢ Classifying schemes are high-level physical principles or
geometry
Output variable=C
➢ By choosing a category a product development team can
Input variables= ε, A and d
focus on generation of concepts in a particular
When d is changed, C changes, technological area
giving microphone
transducer.
When is ε changed,

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Example for product function “store energy” and the classifying


scheme is “energy types”. Headings are ‘mechanical’,
‘hydraulic’, ‘electrical’, and ‘thermal’.

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
Systematic search with
classifying schemes (contd.)
Model the primary functions or subsets of a function of a product as
black boxes (block diagram) with material, energy and signal flows.
For the black boxes, choose the classification scheme that closely relate
to the functions and customer needs
For one of the classification headings, generate solutions to the
functions
Document the results in a matrix, where the rows are functions and the
columns are solutions organized by classification headings
After the ideas are exhausted for a given heading, repeat the process
for next heading
We look at these steps in the following two slides for an equipment/
sports utility called “Batter Up!”, which is meant to provide
recreational base-ball practice sessions for physically challenged
persons

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Black box or block diagram for


Batter Up!

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
(3) Theory of Inventive Problem
Solving (TIPS)
It helps inventive product design.
The procedural steps are as follows:
Partial – Determine the conflict in the design problem
morphologi – Formulate as conflicts in generalized engineering parameters
(Table 10.7). Total 39 are given.
cal matrix – Determine the intersections in the TRIZ relationship matrix given
for Batter in Appendix-C for the numbers of the engineering parameters
– In the TRIZ relationship matrix, rows represent “What should be
Up! improved” and columns represent “What deteriorates due to
problem conflict”
– Read the principles that apply to help solve the problem in Tables
10.8 and 10.9. If difficult to correlate, simply try all 40 design
principles

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Generalized Engineering Parameters for TRIZ relationship matrix (big one!)


Describing Product Metrics given in Appendix-C of the TB
For example, if (14) strength is to be improved, the conflict
is that (26) Quantity of substance increases. For this
TRIZ matrix suggests:
Parameter/ … 26
Parameter

… … …

14 … 29. 10
27

… … …

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Example of application of TIPS -


1
Pipe transport system for metal shots
Conflict: Coating is desired to prevent wearing at inside of
the bend in the pipe-versus-coating is expensive and will
have only short life
Using the TRIZ relationship matrix, we find that (#6) using
the principle of universality solves the problem

22
Parameter/ …
Parameter

… … …


4 6
28
… … …

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
Morphological Analysis
It is a tool that provides a structured search and combination of concepts in
product design. The steps of executing this analysis is as follows:
Consider each product function in the fundamental model and each module of
the product architecture
List the function or module as row of the matrix
In the first column of the matrix, enter the current solution to the function or
module, if the product already exists
Apply concept genration methods (such as TIPS etc.) and record the concepts
in the columns of the matrix for each function
Map the rangen of solutions per each function to a classification scheme, such
as energy domains. Judge if the solutions are too focused or cover a good
breadth.
If the solutions are too focused, carry out further dsessions of intuitive and
directed concept generation
When a good breadth of ideas and technologies are realized in the
morphological matrix, combine the ideas into diverse concept variants that
seek to satisfy the entire product specification

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Example of morphological Thank you!


analysis: fingernail clipper

Any questions?

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
BITS Pilani
Pilani | Dubai | Goa | Hyderabad

MM ZG541

PRODUCT DESIGN
Dr. Srinivasa Prakash Regalla, PhD RL_5.3.1
BITS Pilani
Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department

Basics methods of concept embodiment


Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani
Hyderabad Campus
Pilani | Dubai | Goa | Hyderabad

The learning objectives/outcomes aimed Introduction: Overview and Context of


at are: Engineers in this Stage
• Know what is meant by concept embodiment, • Concept embodiment is the task that is most
also what is not! identified with an engineer in the product
development process
• Choice of components is exercised by engineers:
• Basic Methods of concept embodiment:
– Standard and specified
Refining Geometry and Layout
– Component interfaces
– Materials
• General process of product embodiment
– Geometry (dimensions, shape, and tolerances)
– Surface finish
• Embodiment checklist – Fasteners and connectors
– Manufacturing processes
– Assembly processes

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Introduction: What is the main skill set required in Introduction: Concept Embodiment is an iterative
the engineer and his function? process
• Engineer must clearly understand the function of the product and its ➢ The concept
interfaces with the environment; embodiment effort
• They apply their skills in mathematics and applied science for modeling, follows the concept
testing and refining; overall system modeling generation &
concept selection

➢ Concept
embodiment is an
iterative process
and ends with the
attainment of a
robust design

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Introduction: All of the embodiment design Introduction: Which life cycle issues they
methods address the life cycle issues address?
• Each of various embodiment design methods shown on the left below Modeling methods provide for
representation of the
has applicability to one or more of various stages in the product life cycle performance and potential
failure states of the product

DFMA techniques provide a


systematic approach to
ensure producibility,
DFMA techniques provide a availability and economics of
systematic approach to a product venture.
ensure producibility,
availability and economics of
a product venture.

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Introduction (contd.)

• Framework for embodiment design is a useful tool and enables to


understand intrinsic complexity and non-linearity of the process

• The product’s quality becomes less fuzzy as the product development


process progresses (see the next slide)

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Basic Methods:
Refining Geometry and Layout Basic methods (contd.)
• Two issues drive concept embodiment: • For (1) and (2) types of design scenarios, developing embodiment of
1. Refining a product’s geometry and architecture concept is more complicated due to the number of decisions needed
2. Systems modeling towards detailed design

• Four design scenarios are normally possible:


1. Original design
2. Adaptive design where a significant new technology is introduced
3. Adaptive design where a simple sub-system is modified
4. Parametric (variant) design

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Documentation Methods of Concept Embodiment
• Documentation is needed for all four scenarios – very important: • Two methods (rather stages):
– Detailed drawings – General method
– Exploded views – Advanced method
– Assembly drawings (showing operations and fixturing)
– Tooling design • These methods are normally both applied as primary and secondary
– Manufacturing process plans and parametric choices methods in all concept embodiment activity, respectively, rather than
– Tolerance design and allocation treating them to be mutually exclusive
– Packaging
– Maintenance and warranty information
– User manuals

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General Method of‘Product’Embodiment Iterative Nature of Product Embodiment


• By now, we have one single concept in hand that has been logically chosen from • Embodiment can be highly iterative due to the coupling of parameters
a number of developed solution alternatives in the previous stage of concept among the sub-systems
selection
• Pahl & Beitz presented this iterative process in which layouts are
• In the embodiment design, we provide form to the selected concept prepared for product embodiment that satisfies all the functions
• When a single concept has been selected or a family/platform of products have
been selected (all of which will go together to the market), embodiment design is
easier
• However, if when one single concept could not be short-listed, and two or three
alternatives need further investigation, they need to be developed in parallel until
a decision is made
• The sooner this decision emerges, the more the resources are directed at one
single product – hence, saving in resources

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Auxiliary Functions
• Auxiliary functions arise due to choice of form solutions for the original
function
• For example, a battery pack chosen to satisfy the function “supply
power”, will entail wires, printed circuit boards and metal/plastic conduits
due to the auxiliary function, “route electricity” to be fulfilled

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Basic Method (contd.)


• Next step is to detail the layouts ensuring the compatibility of all
subassembly interfaces
• This calls for use of:
– Standards
– Mathematical models
– Design guidelines
– Experimentation
• The concluding step is the testing of the physical prototype
• Embodiment checklist developed by Pahl & Beitz provides a systematic
approach to apply proven design principles

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Finishing Touches in Embodiment Design Basic Method: contd.
• Robustness • Embodiment checklist includes all the above principles by considering
– Minimization of variability in performance of the product under all expected engineering specifications
environmental and user conditions; provides a basis for understanding the
• These specifications are then arranged in categories
impact of noise on a product’s performance
• For each category a set of basic questions are developed
• Clarity
– All functions should be unambiguously specified in form, parameters,
• These questions should be exhaustively applied to a product as it is
manufacturing, and assembly being embodied
• Simplicity • A mathematical model or physical prototype may be needed to effectively
– Minimization of information content within a product design
answer each of these questions
• Safety
– Minimizes the risks created by the use of a product
– Can be ensured by ensuring that product has the desired strength, reliability,
environmental impact, ergonomics and accident prevention measures

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THANK YOU!

Any questions?

MM ZG541 P R O D U C T D E S I G N !23 BITS-Pilani


BITS Pilani
Pilani | Dubai | Goa | Hyderabad

MM ZG541

PRODUCT DESIGN
Dr. Srinivasa Prakash Regalla, PhD RL_5.3.2
BITS Pilani
Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department

Advanced methods of concept embodiment


Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani
Hyderabad Campus
Pilani | Dubai | Goa | Hyderabad

Thus, Scope is … Advanced Methods: Systems Modeling


• Advanced Methods: Systems Modeling • Systems models are representations of a product that predict the
– High level model product’s performance under varying input conditions
– Balance relationships
– Physical prototype models
– Mechanical embodiment principles
• Alignment of forces
• 3-2-1 alignment
• Deflection reduction and abbey’s principle
• Forces in Members
• Vibration reduction
• Other design heuristics
– FMEA Method: Linking Fault States to Systems Modeling

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Systems Modeling High Level Model
• The earlier used mathematical & geometric models (during concept • A balance relationship is created to document a high-level physical model
development and evaluation stage) can be extended to facilitate design- using control volume method or cause-and-effect diagram
parameter and manufacturing decisions during concept embodiment • Causes: physical principles
• Effects: customer need
• Virtual (VRML) and physical modeling (RP) of a product provide in-depth
insights into its operation and possible improvement

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Balance Relationships Physical Prototype Models


• Convert the balance relationships into a set of mathematical • When mathematical model is too difficult to develop or not justified,
equations physical prototypes can be used as models; for example when handle of
– Basic engineering principles can be used
a jar is to be modified for the customer need of a creative yet comfortable
handle
– For first set of input data for parameters may be obtained product’s layout
drawings or BOM
– When such data are missing, appropriate drawings may be used

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Mechanical Engineering Embodiment Principles Alignment of Forces
• What makes a good mechanical design • To properly design forces in a mechanical assembly, three forces
– Proper sizing of components need to be distinguished, all of which act on a moving part
– Proper design of tolerances – Weight and inertial loads
– Proper design of forces – Frictional force
– Externally applied load
• These three forces need to be balanced if the component is to be
in static equillibrium;
• For a moving part, D’Alembert’s principle provides the dynamic
equillibrium, in which case the resultant of these forces must be
equal to “ma”:
ΣF = (m)(a)

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Contd. 3-2-1 Principle of Location or Alignment


• Kinematic analysis for the innate mechanism of relatively moving sub- Total six degrees of
assemblies along with force analysis at each configuration is to be done freedom in Cartesian
• Find the centroid of applied loads: space; three translations
xi = Σ(Fx,i xi)/ Σ(Fx,i) and three rotations about
x, y and z axes
yi = Σ(Fy,i yi)/ Σ(Fy,i)
zi = Σ(Fz,i zi)/ Σ(Fz,i)

• Find the centroid of frictional forces in similar way • 3 pins: x-tr, y-rot, z-rot
• Weight acts always vertically downward at the mass/geometric centroid
• 2 pins: y-tr, x-rot
• Inertial forces act in the direction opposite to the direction of acceleration
• Adjust the forces such that the centroids of forces co-incide; that ensures • 1 pin: z-tr
the component to be in dynamic equillibrium
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Example applications situations Elastic Averaging
• Circuit boards fitting into a bus chassis • Whenever elastic averaging is relied upon, it is difficult to determine
where the interface is; it is often used for no apparent reason even
• Casting fitting properly around internals though 3-2-1 would provide better results
• Setting the workpiece on milling machine table or drilling machine table • For pressure-tight designs, over-constraining is justified

• Whenever overconstraining is done


(providing more pins than necessary according to 3-2-1 principle),

the designer relies on the elastic averaging. Very rigid parts may not conform
by elastic averaging.

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Deflection Relation and the Abbe Principle Abbe’s Principle


• Limit elastic deformation of components to limits – for example, bearing • Very important
surfaces do not stay aligned when elastically deformed • Account for arm amplifications – Abbe’s principle
• Twist generating out of two unbalanced internal forces must be arrested • Arm amplifications result in one or both of the following:
• Force amplification
• For example, two additional ribs are required underneath the aeroplane
• Deflection amplification
wing to restrain both bending and twisting of earoplane wings

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Ab be ’s Prin c ip le A b b e ’s P r i n c i p le

• According to Abbe’s principle of alignment, the scale of a linear • Abbe Error = (Abbe offset)*(sine of angular misorientation)
measuring system should be collinear with the spatial dimension or • Abbe offset is the distance between the desired point of measurement
displacement to be measured and the reference line of the measuring system.
• If this is not the case, the measurement must be corrected for the • Example: Since graduations are located along the same axis as the
associated Abbe Error. Abbe error is different from Parallax error. measurement, micrometer is free of Abbe error.

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Ab be ’s Prin c ip le Abbe’s error in Height Gauge


• On the other hand, in Vernier-callipers, the graduations are not on the • Abbe Error (E) = (10 in) * sin(10 sec)=(10 in) * (10 sec) * (4.8 µin/in.sec) = 480 µin
same axis as the measurement and hence there is Abbe error.
• The Abbe error of alignment in Vernier callipers can be estimated as:
Abbe Error (E) = A*sin(θ), here A=Abbe offset.

D θ
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Abbe’s error in lathe operations Byran Principle for Straightness Measurement
• Fixed and variable Abbe Offset • Corollary to Abbe Principle in straightness measurement
• Minimize M

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Controllable Errors - Parallax Other mechanical concerns


• The error that occurs when the pointer on a scale is not observed along a line normal to the • Forces in Members
scale
• Vibration Reduction

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FMEA Method
• Very useful
• Likelyhood of occurance – O
• Potential Severity – S
• Expected design control for Detection (D)
THANK YOU!
• Risk priority number
RPN = (S)(O)(D)
RPN=1000 means a certain failure
RPN=1 means highly unlikely
Any questions?

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BITS Pilani
Pilani | Dubai | Goa | Hyderabad

MM ZG541

PRODUCT DESIGN RL_6.2.1
Dr. Srinivasa Prakash Regalla, PhD

BITS Pilani Basic concepts of design for manufacturing and


Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department
Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani
Hyderabad Campus
Pilani | Dubai | Goa | Hyderabad

assembly

Scope Introduction: Overview and Motivation


• Introduction: Overview and Motivation • There are two components
• Basic Method: Design Guidelines
● Design for Assembly – Design for Manufacturing (DFM)
● Design for Piece Part Production
– Design for Assembly (DFA)

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Introduction: Design for Manufacturing Introduction: Design for Assembly


• Design for manufacturing (DFM) • Design for assembly (DFA)
– Makes the design such that it is easier to produce the piece parts; for example, a – Attachment directions and methods are made simpler; for example, making a part
plastic part becomes easier to injection mold by changing its draft angle easy to attach by using snap fits instead of machine screws
– Part forming models (basic rules, analytic formulas, complex FEM simulations) are
used to visualize the issues/bottlenecks that may rise during manufacturing and – Application models that simulate attaching time and attaching complexity and
corrective decisions are incorporated right at the design stage ranging from simple basic rules to tables based on simplified time studies, to full-
time and motion industrial engineering studies, are used

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Advantages of DFM and DFA Case Study to support DFM and DFA
• Applicable during many phases of product development process • Motorola found failure rates reduced (reliability increased) with application of
• Useful in benchmarking analysis, in simplifying new concepts not yet built, in DFM and DFA; because as the production process is simplified, there is less
simplifying fully embodied design opportunity for outright errors
• Reduces part count, reducing in turn cost; if a design is easier to produce and
assemble, it can be done in less time and hence cheaper
• Even in space applications where cost saving is not the criterion, DFM and DFA
enable any design activity that can increase reliability to be applied

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Advantages of DFM and DFA (contd.) Basic Method: Design Guidelines


● DFM and DFA also generally increase the quality; if a part is easier to • The most basic approach is to apply design guidelines
produce, less machine capability is required to achieve the same
tolerances • Each design concept should be examined on each of the design
guidelines, and
● For example, take injection moulding operation:
A part that is easy to injection mold does not require extra tight process • Change the design to make it satisfy the guideline
control on pressure, time and temperature to achieve the dimensional
tolerances

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Design Guidelines: What are they? Design for Assembly
• They are heuristics that generally hold true • A list of design guidelines are available developed by several researchers
• To every heuristic rule there can/may be exceptions and Xerox corporation (given in next slide)
• Design guidelines should be used with an understanding of the design • The guidelines can be divided into various categories:
goals 1. System design guidelines for reduction of assembly
• This ensures the application of the guideline so as to improve the design 2. Guidelines for easy handling
concept on those goals 3. Guidelines for easing the assembly insertion of the parts
4. Guidelines for easing the actual attachment

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1. System Guidelines for reduction of assembly

In the next few slides, illustrative examples of


the first few guidelines of first category,
namely, system guidelines for reduction of
assembly follow >>>>

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Description of Guidelines: First guideline Description of Guidelines: Second guideline

• Reduce the number of parts through assembly


• They reduce the number of parts through modularity; several difficult to manipulate parts are
functional modularity bundled together onto a feature such as a board that is
• Examine each part and ask how the part function easy to manipulate and assemble; for example, computer
can be instead completed by a neighboring part motherboard
• Another idea is to fabricate several parts as one • Assembly modularity can help reduce defects by making
part by using other fabrication processes quality problem identification easier; one can test sub-
assemblies rather than the whole part

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Description of Guidelines: Third guideline Description of Guidelines: Fourth Guideline

• Design a product so that it is assembled


• Design parts so that they are easily oriented
outwardly:
• Parts should have self-locating features so that precise
– this makes assembly possible with no re-
alignment by assembly process is not required
orientations and without having to cram one’s
hands or tools into tight spaces; • Color tick marks or indents make orientation easier; i.e.,
in electrical components, one way pin patterns or pin
– do not design a product that requires parts to be
fastened on the inside of an enclosure; identification labels should be used

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Description of Guidelines: Fifth Guideline 2. Handling Guidelines
• Reduce the variety of parts • All parts must be handled to be assembled
• Using the same commodity items such as fasteners can avoid errors • Handling involves:
• It also increases the economies of scales for the part – Picking up the part from a feed location
– Conveying it to a location for assembly insertion
– Orienting the part for the assembly insertion
• Guidelines are required to simplify the handling of difficult-to-handle parts
such as:
– Springs
– Wires

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Handling Guidelines: First Guideline Handling Guidelines: Second Guideline


• Maximize part symmetry to make orientation unnecessary • Gravity may be used as aid
• If parts cannot be made symmetric, force the asymmetry to be an
obvious asymmetry – simply mark the orienting features

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Handling Guidelines: Third Guideline Handling Guidelines: Fourth Guideline
• Design parts so that they do not tangle or stick together • Distinguish different parts that are shaped similarly through non-
• Change parts that are difficult-to-handle into those that are easy to geometric means
handle • For example, color coding or different thickness shims can ease
• Slippery or messy parts should have handling features designed in identification

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Handling Guidelines: Fifth Guideline Handling Guidelines: Fifth Guideline


• Prevent nesting of parts • Prevent nesting of parts
• Nesting occurs when parts that are stacked on top of one another clamp • Nesting occurs when parts that are stacked on top of one another clamp
to one another to one another
• Examples are vacuum formed plastic coffee lids or cups • Examples are vacuum formed plastic coffee lids or cups
• Certain features can be designed in to prevent nesting • Certain features can be designed in to prevent nesting

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Handling Guidelines: Sixth Guideline 3. Insertion Guidelines
• Provide parts with orienting features • Once the part is handled, the next step normally is to insert it into the
partially assembled product
• Helps identify the asymmetries inherent in the part

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Insertion Guidelines: First Guideline Insertion Guidelines: Second Guideline


• Add chamfers to make parts easier • Provide alignment features on the assembly so that new parts are easily
to insert oriented without measurement; Do this using, say, 3-2-1 principle
• Allowances should be designed • The geometry defining these six points is candidate geometry for tighter
such that variation from part to part tolerance control in comparison to other points
does not prevent assembly • Prevent jamming of parts

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Insertion Guidelines: Third Guideline Insertion Guidelines: Fourth Guideline
• Do not necessitate fighting with gravity when • If parts cannot be assembled from
placing and maintaining parts for fastening top down exclusively, then apply
• Make the first part large and wide to be stable as few insertions as possible
and then assembly smaller parts on top of it • Assemble only from top and have
sequentially
fasteners come in from only one
• A poor design will necessitate holding or side; this eliminates re-orientation
grasping parts from below or from the side
of the product during assembly
while they are being fastened
• Do not make assembly system
constantly re-orient the product;
worst-case is when the
subassembly needs to be turned
over

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4. Joining Guidelines Joining Guidelines: First Guideline


• After inserting the object, the next job is to fasten/join it • Reduce number of fasteners, without reducing the attachment strength
• Fasteners, snap fits, welds or adhesives can be used • This can be done by changing a portion of the fasteners to be of a quick-
insert type

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Joining Guidelines: Second Guideline Joining Guidelines: Third Guideline
• Locate fasteners in places where one has access to the fastener • Deep channels should be sufficiently wide to provide access to fastening
tools; No channel is best but comparatively can be made better
• Provide flats for uniform fastening and fastening ease
• Provide proper spacing between successive fasteners to allow the
fastening tool to have enough space to operate

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Joining Guidelines: Third Guideline Additional DFA Guidelines


• Deep channels should be sufficiently wide to provide access to fastening
tools; No channel is best but comparatively can be made better
• Provide flats for uniform fastening and fastening ease
• Provide proper spacing between successive fasteners to allow the
fastening tool to have enough space to operate

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Additional DFA Guidelines Theoretical Minimum Number of Parts
• KISS (Keep it Simple Stupid)
• Simplify your design by eliminating all unnecessary separate parts
• Another step is to modularize – combine parts into a larger, more
complex part. Questions to identify the possibility are:
– Must the parts move relative to one another?
– Must the parts be electrically isolated?
– Must the parts be thermally isolated?
– Must the parts be of different materials?
– Does combining the parts prevent assembly of other parts?
– Will servicing be adversely affected?
• If the answer to these questions is “no”, then one should find a way to
combine the two parts

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THANK YOU!

Any questions?

MM ZG541 P R O D U C T D E S I G N !43 BITS-Pilani


BITS Pilani
Pilani | Dubai | Goa | Hyderabad

MM ZG541

PRODUCT DESIGN RL_6.2.2
Dr. Srinivasa Prakash Regalla, PhD

BITS Pilani
Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department
Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani
Hyderabad Campus
Advanced methods using manufacturing cost
Pilani | Dubai | Goa | Hyderabad
analysis

Advanced Method: Manufacturing Cost


Scope Analysis
• Advanced Method: Manufacturing Cost Analysis • DFM and DFA needs determination of product delivery major costs
● Cost Driver Modeling compare with competitors
● Manufacturing Cost Analysis • Major cost drains can arise from:
• Critique of Design for Assembly Methods – Material procurement
– Part production
– Assembly
– Finished product delivery

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80% - 20% Rule Cost Driver Modeling
• The 80% - 20% rule: 80% of the cost reduction can occur in the top 20% • Define Unit Manufacturing Cost: it is the total manufacturing expenses
of the relatively high cost drains within a product over a period divided by the number of units produced during that period
• Measures to attach these 20%: • Issues difficult to address and need compromising decisions:
– DFA simplification of a few key systems – What are the boundaries of the “manufacturing system”, do we also include
– DFM redesign of a few expensive components product development costs?
– Adequate bidding on expensive purchased OEM components – How do we charge a product for equipment that is only partially used for this
product?
– How do we charge a product for equipment inherited from past products?

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More Effective Method of Manufacturing Cost


Manufacturing Cost Accounting Breakdown
• Typically used (but confusing) cost model separates manufacturing cost • Based on physical manufacturing process:
into two parts. • Selling price
– Manufacturing cost
• Fixed Costs
• Piece parts: costs of both parts made and bought from suppliers
– Those costs that do not change with volume of production – OEM parts
– Cost of equipment, buildings etc. – Custom parts made in-house
» Material
• Variable Costs » Tooling
– Those costs that change with volume of production » Set up
– Cost of material, electricity etc. » Processing
• Assembly: costs of assembling the parts into the product
• Problem: the fixed/variable cost breakdown is fuzzy - for example, are – Labor
salaries of employees fixed cost or variable cost? – Tooling
• Compromising solution: salaries of permanent employees constitute fixed • Overhead: costs of supporting direct production of parts and assembly
cost; wages of temporary employees (recruited in proportion to the – Distribution cost
volume of production) constitute variable cost – Retail cost

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Cost Modeling Cost Model for Manufactured Part
• Cost driver: it is a configuration or process variable that largely • Part cost = Material cost + tooling cost + production cost
determines the cost of the process; cost model as a performance metric • Material cost per unit = part weight (kg) × scrap × material cost/kg
can be constructed in terms of this cost driver • Tooling cost per unit = Equipment costs/parts per equipment
• In case of OEM: cost estimation is obvious as number of parts multiplied • Processing cost per unit = Labor rate per hour × hours per unit
by per-piece cost (after sufficient bidding)
• In case of manufactured part a better model is needed

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Cost Model for Assembly Overheads


• Manual assembly is done for quantities less than 10,00,000 parts • Manufacturing (or supplied by OEM) and assembly costs are termed as
• Assembly cost per unit = labor rate per hour × hours per unit direct costs
• For mechanized assembly: add the fixed tooling cost • The overhead cost driver is an indirect cost
• Overhead rate for labor overhead: 50 to 300%
• Material overhead: 10 to 20%
• The total labor rate including direct and overheads is termed as full
burdened

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Manufacturing Cost Analysis
• It helps arrive at the costs actually needed to apply earlier mentioned equations
• Three different levels estimation is practiced:
– Level – 1: Estimate – Basic DFM part cost method – an analogy approach using tables
of data of costs from previous experience or current rates
– Level – 2: Analysis
– Level – 3: Cost Accounting
• Boothroyd DFA Analysis: enables estimation of operation times; two parts
• Handling time
• Insertion time
• Boothroyd was first to propose design efficienty (DE) – based on comparing to a
3-second time per part to assembly only the minimally necessary number of parts
DE = (3 × NM) / TM
NM = the theoretical minimum number of unique parts required
TM = the total assembly time

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THANK YOU!

Any questions?

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BITS Pilani
Pilani | Dubai | Goa | Hyderabad

MM ZG541

PRODUCT DESIGN
Dr. Srinivasa Prakash Regalla, PhD RL_6.3.1
BITS Pilani
Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department

Basic DFE methods


Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani
Hyderabad Campus
Pilani | Dubai | Goa | Hyderabad

Scope Basic DFE Methods: Design Guidelines


• Basic DFE methods: Design guidelines • The guidelines were developed by German VDI and others
• Life Cycle Assessment • Simple and effective
● Overview • Every conceptual design must be subject these guidelines and wherever needed
● Basic method: AT & T’s environmentally responsible product assessment the concepts may be modified
● Weighed sum assessment method • During the embodiment and final design stage, these guidelines must be again
● Lifecycle assessment method consulted to ensure compatibility
• Techniques to reduce environmental impact • These guidelines are given the next slides

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Example of “DFE of paper Functions of the paper carrier (bold
carrier” of a kitchen recipe borders). Some of them are primary
organizer/assistant and some are secondary

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Paper carrier:
Old design Vs. Improved design
• Purpose is to reduce the mass of carrier
• Original design is 120 gm
• Mass of improved design is 110 gm (calculated using density of PC/ABS and
volume of the product deduced from solid model enquiry in Pro/Engineer)

OLD DESIGN IMPROVED DESIGN


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Extensions: Preview to Value Analysis for DFE
• The actual benefit of applying DFE guidelines to the customer/environment/
company can be better deduced if we attach cost element to assessment of the
impact
• It is possible to estimate the monetized environmental cost the avoided air
emissions using material intensities provided by the IJM handbook
• Two different cost models are available, namely, (1) Fritche cost model, and (2)
Pace cost model

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THANK YOU!

Any questions?

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BITS Pilani
Pilani | Dubai | Goa | Hyderabad

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PRODUCT DESIGN RL_6.3.1
Dr. Srinivasa Prakash Regalla, PhD

BITS Pilani How product manufacturing can cause


Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department
Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani
Hyderabad Campus
Pilani | Dubai | Goa | Hyderabad

environmental pollution?

Scope Introduction
• Introduction • Design for the Environment (DFE) is a product design approach for
• Why DFE? reducing the impact of products on the environment
● Design for Assembly • Products can have adverse effects on environment in the following ways:
● Design for Piece Part Production – Through use of highly polluting processes and consumption of large raw materials
• Environmental Objectives during manufacturing
● Global issues – Through the consumption of large quantities of energy and long half-lives during
● Regional and local issues disposal
• One must consider the product entire life cycle; many events of creating
pollution and many opportunities of recycling, reuse and reducing
environmental impact

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At XEROX

Raw material saving


through remanufacturing Components reprocessed
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Why DFE? Environmental Objectives


• It is an important activity for product development team • It is essential for designers to understand the several pollution types
• 80% of environmental damage of the product is established after 20% of • By scope, the pollution is two types:
the design activity is complete – Global
• Creating a product that impacts the environment less becomes a market – Regional and local
advantage; for example, Xerox is committed to be a waste-free company • Once the pollution types are understood by the designers, they may
• Governmental agencies are enforcing mandatory environmental impact design the product to be more environmentally friendly by conforming to
standards; for example, cars must conform to specified pollution norms the CERES principles
for exhaust emissions
• Customers are also now demanding it

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CERES principles Types of Global Pollution
• CERES (Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economies) states: • The manifestation of these pollution problems is on global scale
– Protect the biosphere: minimize release of pollutants • Include:
– Sustainable use of resources • Climate change;
– Reduction and disposal of waste • Ozone depletion; and
– Wise use of energy: invest in energy conservation
• Biodiversity loss
– Risk reduction: health risk to employees and community
– Marketing of safe products and services
– Damage compensation for environmental harm
– Disclosure of processes that can cause environmental harm or health hazard
– Environmental directors be recruited
– Annual audit of progress in implementation of pollution-free practices and sharing
the audit results with public

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Climate Change Ozone depletion


• Probable consequences of possible large changes in the Earth’s climate • Ozone layer is a thin layer in the upper atmosphere that blocks most
due to increase in greenhouse gases ultraviolet radiation from reaching the Earth’s surface
• Usage of energy generated by burning of fossil fuels leading to increased • Flourocarbon gases, emanted from factories, may react with ozone and
CO2 levels of atmosphere is the main cause reduce the ozone gas in the layer
• Increased CO2 in atmosphere increases the temperature of global • Reduce the usage of gases
surface, oceans, atmosphere, resulting in drastic climate changes • Develop the products that do not make use of or release these harmful
• From product design point of view, designing products that use less gases
energy will help mitigate this problem

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Biodiversity Loss Regional and Local Pollution Types
• Loss of habitat for different plant and animal species due to expanded • Problems of acid rains: pollution byproducts in one region can cause acid
urbanization rains in another region
• Loss of ecosystems and extinction of species due to exploded • Air pollution and smog
urbanization; loss of ecological balance; testimony: in coral reefs • Water pollution in ground, river, bay, ocean – often caused by herbicides
• Develop products that use less raw material will help mitigate the and pesticides, suburban and urban street water run-off
problem

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Regional & Local: Acid Rain Regional & Local: Air Pollution
• Caused by excessive fossil fuel air emissions for a regional area • Caused by excessive fossil fuel emissions in a region
• The fuel combustion products are released into the air; these cause the • Nitrogen compounds, ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide are well
rain in the surrounding environment to have a lower acidic pH level known harmful emissions
• Causes regional plant and aquatic life to suffer • Develop products that use less energy
• Develop products that use less energy

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Regional & Local: Water Pollution
• Pollution caused by water flow streams and landfills with herbicides and
pesticides
• The use of these must be controlled
THANK YOU!

Any questions?

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BITS Pilani
Pilani | Dubai | Goa | Hyderabad

MM ZG541

PRODUCT DESIGN
Dr. Srinivasa Prakash Regalla, PhD RL_6.3.3
BITS Pilani
Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department

Life cycle assessment methods


Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani
Hyderabad Campus
Pilani | Dubai | Goa | Hyderabad

Scope Life Cycle Assessment


• Life Cycle Assessment • A full life cycle assessment of a product is important for more complete
● Overview analysis of environmental impact
● Basic method: AT & T’s environmentally responsible product assessment
● Weighed sum assessment method
● Lifecycle assessment method
• Techniques to reduce environmental impact

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Life Cycle Assessment:
The SETAC Approach
The Four Steps of SETAC
• SETAC (Society of Toxicology and Chemistry) developed a four-step • Goal definition – defining the objective
process for completing a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) • Inventory – defined the connected storage and movement needs of
• The process allows us to understand the environmental impact of a material
product in all stages of a product life cycle: • Impact assessment – for each step in the system
– Manufacture • Interpretation – identification of areas of high-leverage impact reduction
– Use and comparison against other alternatives
– Disposal

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Goal Definition Basic Method:


• Define overall product function – for example, different types of coffee AT & T ’s E n v i r o n m e n t a l l y R e s p o n s i b l e P r o d u c t A s s e s s m e n t
power makers have same overall function of “making coffee powder” but
may be having different extents of environmental impact • Product life cycle is broken down into five stages:
– Resource extraction
• Define the “functional unit” – all assessment will be measured in terms of – Product manufacture
this unit – for example, for a car it is one mile of travel or one litre of
– Product packaging & Transport
petrol etc.
– Product use
– Refurbishment/recycling/disposal
• For each of five stages, five environmental criteria are ranked
• It results in 25 environmental metrics for the product

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Environmentally Responsible Product Rating Environmentally Responsible Product Rating
(ERPT) (ERPT)

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Coffee Mill

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Weighed Sum Assessment Method


• It is an adaptation of the Euopean innovation named as Eco-indicator-95
• Useful quantitative method for comparison between alternatives
• it provides weightings by mass for materials, treatment processes,
transport processes, energy generation processes and disposal
scenarios
• The weightings themselves are based on contribution to several effects,
such as ozone depletion, smog etc.

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Development of weightings for the Eco-indicator 95

Copper

Eco-indicator – 95 impact weightings


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Weighed Sum Assessment Method (contd.)


• Other life cycle data must be estimated to complete the numerical
analysis:
• How long the product is used - hat is the typical product life span (table in
the next slide)
• How it is delivered to the customer – based on the source, domestic or
international
• How it is disposed:
– Landfill - if the material is fairly bio-degradable and no particular law applies to its
disposal
– As per the law – if the material is very hazardous or if the material is very valuable

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Eco-indicator-95 results
for production of a
coffee brewer

Common product life cycle spans without recycling

Copper

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Eco-indicator-95 results for use & disposal


of a coffee brewer Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Method
• It is a more complete numerical analysis of environmental impact
• Instead of average values for regional impact, actual environmental impact is
inventoried
• LCA result is complete, comprehensive, accurate, an expensive – being currently
used only for special products that have high impact materials, such as
cleansers, chemical film products, and medical products.
• The procedure is as follows:
– Consider the actual production system, operation and disposal system
– Summarize all the emissions that occur from all processes during the life cycle of a product
into a list called “all emissions released”
– List all raw materials used
– List all waste generated
Copper
– For each of these steps, determine the energy and raw material requirements
– Sum up the values for each stage of the product life cycle
Negative sign indicates reclaimability of this metal after melting the waste

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Readymade LCA Tools Available Techniques to Reduce Environmental Impact
• TEAM – by Ecobalance/Ecobilan Inc. • Once the environmental impact has been assessed by any of the
• SimaPro – by Pre Associates foregoing methods, the next step is to redesign the product to reduce this
• LCA Advantage – Batelle Inc. impact
• Ecosys – from Sandia National Laboratories • Basic approaches for redesign to reduce environmental impact:
– Design to minimize material usage
• Boulstead – from Boustead Consulting Ltd.
– Design for disassembly – to facilitate reuse and recycling
• Ecobalance DFE – from Ecobalance Inc. – Design for recycling
– Design for remanufacturing – components once disassembled can be easily
cleaned, inspected and reused
– Design to minimize hazardous materials
– Design for energy efficiency
– Design to regulations and standards

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Design to minimize material usage Contd…


• The most effective methods to alter environmental impact • Eliminate or reuse the packaging in which the product is delivered – e.g.,
• Material reduction can be achieved in three areas: landfill of computer packaging can be reduced by returning the
– In packaging and distribution factors computer’s shipping boxes and internal foam packaging
– In production system factors • Change in the material of production - Chrysler used car body panels of
– In the product itself plastic with colors, eliminating the painting altogether
• Use SOP and force flow analysis to reduce material usage
• Compatibility is a very important aspect – two materials are compatible if
they can recycled together
• Produce two different components together without need for disassembly
with materials that are compatible – compatibility of plastics and glass
are shown in next slide

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Plastic material compatibility Glass compatibility

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THANK YOU!

Any questions?

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Objectives

➢Introduction
➢Motivation
➢What are the factors that determine effective decision
making?
➢Design evaluations
➢Information quality
RL5.2.1: Estimating ➢ Estimating Technical Feasibility
Technical feasibility in ➢Estimation
concept selection ➢Case Study: A/C for an electrical automobile
➢Useful practical tips for estimating
Dr. Srinivasa Prakash Regalla, PhD
BITS Pilani Professor, Mechanical Engineering Dept,
Pilani | Dubai | Goa | Hyderabad
BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Introduction: Another View to the


Introduction: Motivation Criticality of Decision Making Effort
The decision-
making effort
➢ Concept selection is one of the most
is very critical
critical decision-making exercises in a Gathering because it
product development process
➢ “Concepts are not complete
At a very high
level, product
Information determines
how effectively
technologies!” development the gathered
can be information is
➢ Why the above observation is so
considered as transformed
important?
➢ Because, decision making in concept
having these Making and
three basic implemented;
selection can become highly risky!... tasks Decisions also facilitates
➢ …Unless, proper structured decision- the forming of
making methods are used for concept team
selection consensus
➢ Imagine the stakes, for example, in Disseminating
such decision-making by NASA for
deep-space missions!
Information
BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
Factors that determine Factors that determine effective
effective decision making decision making: NIH Syndrome
➢ Not-Invented-Here
Two factors affect the efficiency of decision making:
(NIH) Syndrome
➢ It is a sort of trying to
(1) Ability to overcome the Not-Invented-Here (NIH) re-invent the wheel
Syndrome ➢ It can be a cause of
➢ NIH syndrome is not being willing to consider already existing market failure
ideas that are workable
➢ Product designers
must consider widest
(2) Ability to foresee all ramifications of the decision before possible solution
decision-making options
➢ Live the old proverb goes – no point in looking for cooking tongs ➢ How to alleviate the NIH syndrome? Two alleviators:
after burning the hands 1. Take that external solution as a base for your own development rather than using it as-is,
and
2. Ensure control of the external entity in case of loss of its supply channel, for example by
fully understanding it so much that you can make it in-house any time if needed
BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Factors that determine effective decision


Design Evaluations
making: Foresee all ramifications
➢ For example, if the ➢ What is “Design Evaluation” and when &
team does not fully why it is required?
consider what ➢ Let us take an example commonly
actually the customer encountered by us:
wants in the product, ➢ You went to the supermarket to get a new
it can fail in the detergent soap and there are a half-a-
market dozen varieties? How much effort and
➢ For another example, evaluation the selection of detergent soap
if the product not requires?
analyzed for safety, it ➢ On the other hand, let us say you want to
may have a purchase a new car in this week. How
hazardous failure much effort and evaluation the selection of
mode in usage the car necessitates? Can you purchase a
➢ Many ramifications are difficult to foresee car just with the same ease and minimal
but foreseeing problems is nonetheless evaluation that you needed to select a
detergent soap?
exactly what is required of engineers
BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
Design Evaluation:
Information Quality
Alternatives and Criteria
➢ Information quality may be defined as the level of
Design evaluations are laborious and time-consuming; do structure associated with the evaluation criteria as viewed
not allow infeasible concepts to enter into the evaluation in terms of each decision alternative.
stage ➢ Information quality available for concept selection is low
➢ Because this stage is early in the in new product
development process
The many conceptual designs that all appear to provide ➢ On the other hand, when the design activity is a mere
solution to the design problem are called as solution selection process, for example in the case of design of a
alternatives ball bearing for a given application, the information quality
is high
➢ Ball bearings are selected from manufacturer’s catalogues
The many ramifications that impact the decision making the based on certain trade-off relations among desired load,
selection of the conceptual designs are called as design desired speed and desired reliability for given radial load
selection criteria and axial load and nature of application (application
factor)

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Different types of ball Different types of roller


bearings: bearings
a)Straight roller
b)Tapered roller, thrust
c)Spherical roller, thrust
d)Needle
e)Tapered roller (both radial and thrust)
f)Steep-angle tapered roller

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
Bearing load (F) - Life (L) trade-off at constant (rated, 90%) reliability (R): Rating life

Rating life for different manufacturers:


1/ a
FL =constant • SKF: 106 revolutions
• Timken: 90(10)6 revolutions
a=3 for ball bearings
•The rating life is a term sanctioned by the Anti-friction
a=10/3 for roller bearings
Bearing Manufacturers Association (AFBMA)
Experimentally • “the rating life of a group of nominally identical ball or roller
obtained data
plotted, for 90%
bearings is defined as the number of revolutions (or hours at
reliability a constant speed) that 90% of the group of bearings will
achieve or exceed before the failure criterion develops.”
Rating Life •For Timken company, the criterion is a wear area of 6.5
mm2.

Contd. Contd.

Desired Load=FD

1 1
Rating Load=C10
1/ a 1/ a
F1 L1 a = F2 L2 a C10 (LR nR 60 ) = FD (LD nD 60 )
Catalog rating, kN Desired speed in RPM
Desired Rating
Life=LD Life=L10 Desired life in hours
Rating life in hours
Associating the load F1 with C10, the catalogue rating that you need to look at, and
the life measure in revolutions L1 with the L10, which is the manufacturer specific Rating speed in RPM Desired radial load, kN
quantity, we can write,
1/ a 1/ a
C10 (L10 ) = FD (LD )
Here FD and LD refer to the design quantities for the bearing to be selected.
Inverting the equation, LD nD 60 1/ a
If we want to specify in the life hours, then we can write, rpm (nR & nD) values: Catalogue load rating= C10 = FD ( )
1/ a 1/ a LR nR 60
C10 (LR nR 60 ) = FD (LD nD 60 )
What the different terms in the above equation mean? →
The SKF rates its rolling contact bearings as 106
Example:

revolutions whereas Timken rates as 90*(106)


revolutions. Select a ball bearing for a motorcycle
for a life of 5000 hours to work at a speed of 1800
RPM under a radial load of 3000 N with a
reliability of 90% from the SKF catalogue.

Solution:
1/ a 1/ 3
⎛ L n 60 ⎞ ⎛ 5000(1800 )60 ⎞
C10 = FD ⎜⎜ D D ⎟⎟ = 3000⎜ ⎟ = 24429.76 N ≅ 24.43 kN
⎝ LR nR 60 ⎠ ⎝ 106 ⎠
From the table 11-2, for the above load rating, the nearest ball bearing is 35 mm
bore, 72 mm OD, 17 mm width, 1 mm fillet radius, 41 mm shaft diameter and 65
mm housing shoulder diameter (it has C10 of 25.5 kN).
Bearing load (F) - Life (L) - reliability (R) three-way relationship

(What if more or less than 90% reliability is desired?):
Using the Weibull distribution, along
any constant load line (horizontal line
in the graph on the right):

x − x0 b
R = exp[−( ) ]
θ − x0
R=reliability
x=life measure dimensionless variate, L/
L10
x0=guaranteed, or minimum value of the
variate
θ=characteristic parameter corresponding to the 63.2121 percentile value of the
variate; b= shape parameter that controls the skewness

Failure (not force) x − x0 b


probability = F = 1 − R = 1 − exp[−( ) ]
θ − x0

Contd. Revisit to the previous example:


1 1
FB L = FD L
B
a
D
a
1
1 1 xD a • The SKF rates its rolling contact bearings as 106 revolutions whereas
FB xB = FD xDa a
⇒ FB = FD 1
Timken rates as 90*(106) revolutions. Select a ball bearing for a
motorcycle for a life of 5000 hours to work at a speed of 1800 RPM
Along a constant load line (AB),
xB a under a radial load of 3000 N, now with a reliability of 95% from the
SKF catalogue. The pure radial load is not steady and hence use an
⎡ ⎛ x − x ⎞b ⎤ application factor (AF) of 1.5. Use Weibull distribution and Weibull
RD = exp ⎢− ⎜⎜ B 0
⎟⎟ ⎥ parameters, guaranteed or minimum value of the dimensionless variate
θ − x x as x0=0.02, characteristic parameter minus the minimum guaranteed
⎣⎢ ⎝ 0 ⎠ ⎥ ⎦ value as (θ-x0)=4.439 and the shape parameter as b=1.483.
1/ b
⎛ 1 ⎞
Solving xB , xB = x0 + (θ − x0 )⎜⎜ ln ⎟⎟ Solution: desired value of the dimensionless variate xD=L/L10=(60*LD*nD)/
⎝ RD ⎠ (60*LR*nR) = (60*5000*1800)/(106)=540
1 1/ a
substituting x a ⎡ xD ⎤ This means that the design life is to be 540 times the L10 life. Hence the
D
FB = C10 = FD 1
= FD ⎢ 1/ b ⎥ necessary C10 is
xB a ⎣ x0 + (θ − x0 )(ln (1 / RD )) ⎦ ⎡ 540 ⎤
13

C10 = (1.5)(3000) ⎢ 1 1.483 ⎥


= 43236 N = 43.24 kN
The natural logarithmic function can be series-expanded and simplified to yield ⎣ 0. 02 + 4 . 439(1 − 0. 95 ) ⎦

xD From the table 11-2, for the above load rating, the nearest ball bearing is 55 mm
C10 = FD ( 1/ b
)1/ a , R ≥ 0.90 bore, 100 mm OD, 21 mm width, 1.5 mm fillet radius, 63 mm shaft diameter and
x0 + (θ − x0 )(1 − RD ) 605 mm housing shoulder diameter. The C10 itself is 43.6 kN.
Two different applications having and not having a thrust load:
Accounting for thrust force:
Purpose is to find the equivalent radial
load Fe, that would do the same damage
as that done by the existing radial and
thrust loads together. V is the rotation
factor. V=1 for inner ring rotation, V=1.2
for outer ring rotation.
No thrust load
Fe Fe
= 1 when VF ≤ e
VFr r

Fe F Fe
= X + Y a when VF > e
VFr VFr r

Generalizing for both zones,

Fe = X iVFr + Yi Fa
For horizontal line zone, i=1 and for
Thrust load present inclined line zone, i=2.
Table 11-1 gives the values of Xi and Yi.

THE ITERATIVE SOLUTION METHOD WITH BOTH Fr AND Fa

• Calculate xD.
• Ignore Fa, and for FD=Fr, find the C10 as well as C0 from catalogue for
given reliability. C0 is the bearing’s static load catalog rating. Assign
(C10)old = C10.
• Find Fa/C0.
• Find “e” from Table 11-1 using interpolation for this Fa/C0.
• For this Fa/C0, is Fa/(VFr) greater than “e”?, if Yes note down the X2 and Y2
values. Interpolation may be needed. If No, ignore Fa, solution ends.
• Estimate the equivalent load Fe. Apply V only to Fr. Calculate the desired
load FD=af(Fe). The af ≥ 1 is the load application factor accounting for
unsteady nature of loading.
• Calculate the new (C10)new value. Compare with the earlier (C10)old value.
If (C10)new < (C10)old, then (C10)old is the final desired rating of the bearing
to be selected. The solution ends. If (C10)new > (C10)old we need to go for
another iteration.
• Assign (C10)old = (C10)new . Find the new C0 for the (C10)new .
• Continue the iterations until the (C10)new is less than preceding (C10)old.
Natural Gas
How do we manage with the low information quality Estimating Technical
if the design is not a mere selection activity? Feasibility (1/ )
➢ We have so far seen a case of design where it was ➢ Which of the following is/are technically
merely a selection of a product from the catalogue of infeasible?
finished products
Bio-gas
➢ In case of concept selection in NPD case, there are two Wind energy
saviors to help us overcome the trouble of low information
quality:
(1)Make the decision making in concept selection a step-by-
step systematic process; the logical connection then
minimizes errors
Nuclear
(2)Use effective decision making tools
❑ Caution: Design evaluations are laborious and time-
consuming; do not allow infeasible concepts to enter into
the evaluation stage
BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Estimating Technical Estimating Technical


Feasibility (2/ ) Feasibility (3/ )
● Estimating Technical Feasibility of design alternatives ● The skilled engineer tries to relate the
requires skilled design engineer with abilities to derived units, which are difficult to imagine
estimate and judge, with experience or a practical
● Skilled engineer is required – skill can be, of course, application and thereby perceives its true
developed, not a born quality place
● Estimating skill of an engineer can be judged by his/her ● For example, 2000 Watts is more difficult to
familiarity with dimensional units and different values feel than the difference between 1 cm and 1
along the dimensions m
● The difference between a skilled and unskilled ● In this case, the skilled engineer relates 2000
engineer is due to the difference between perceived Watts to 3 hp, which is the power that a
units and derived units common lawn-mover produces or a
common household pump motor produces
BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
Estimating Technical Feasibility
Estimation
● Four basic steps to estimating:
◦ Imagine – very important
Estimation of
windchill
temperature for
◦ Model – mechanical engineers should be fully
determination of
frostbite familiar with the concept of power flow through a
mechanical system
◦ Compare – compare the competing concepts for
key criteria
◦ Judge – judge the final concept by eliminating
technically infeasible concepts that typically fail to
compete in terms of the criteria such as power, size
and cost values.

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

The Imagine step The Model step


Technical
➢ The idea here is to construct a simple model that Value
➢ Designer forms a mental Specification
relates the capacity or flow of energy, material or Maruti Suzuki
picture of what happens with information through the concept Swift Dzire,
the concept, following the ➢ Two possible scenarios exist: Vehicle Mode, Engine
PETROL, K-
Type
functional model & house of ➢ (1) The designer is sitting in his office in solitude: Series Petrol
quality ➢ In this case take advantage of it and have the engine with VVT
relevant data handbooks in front of you to help Displacement (cc) 1197
➢ Imagines points/nodes along ➢ (2) The designer is in a design meeting: Number of cylinders 4
(i) energy, (ii) material, and ➢ Here he may not expect the luxury of referring to
Number of valves 16
(iii) information flows through several handbooks; comments/decisions are
required rapidly Bore (mm) x Stroke
each alternative concept Alternative-1:
Pneumatic nailer ➢ Hence the designer must possess the skill of (mm)
73 x 71.5
Alternative-2: Combustion
➢ Measures/observes input- powered nailer
relating all design calculation problem to certain Compression ratio 11.0 : 1
output change or a capacity known representative environment; Maximum power
➢ see Maruti Suzuki data beside; if you remember (ps@rpm) 84.3 @ 6000
buildup from point to point
it, you can easily appreciate any other prime
mover Maximum torque
115 @ 4000
(Nm@rpm)
Alternative-3: Flywheel operated
BITS Pilani, nailer Alternative-4: cordless nailer
Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
The Model step (contd.) The Model step (contd.)
● Skilled engineer should have a clear concept of the conservation ● For every dimensional unit such as power, energy, force,
principles of nature: pressure, and acceleration, a skilled engineer will have at
(i) Conservation of mass, least three readily understood reference levels
(ii) Conservation of momentum, and ● For example:
(iii)Conservation of Energy ◦ 10 Watts are consumed by a flashlight bult
● He must be well versed with the following relations (on finger tips): ◦ A human peddling a bicycle experiences 10 Watts of work being
P = (F)(v) done by him
P = (M)(ω) ◦ 100 Watts are consumed by
a household light bulb
P = (V)(I)
◦ A household pump motor produces
F = (p)(A) 3 hp = 746 Watts × 3 = 2238 Watts
➢It provides for successful model building = 2.238 kW

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

The Model step (contd.) The Compare step

➢ In this step, substitute some imagined values of the


parameters in the model and estimate the response
variables

➢ The output response variable values may be compared


with the known data

➢ This helps whether the model is correct done and is


working

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
The Judge step Thank you!
➢ Make judgement of whether the value given by the model
compares with the known value of the parameter

➢ Remember the fact the estimated values are accurate only


within an order of value

➢ Elimination of infeasible concepts may not always be possible


through the order of magnitude analysis

➢ In such cases, do not eliminate haphazardly

➢ Conduct a more thorough analysis by a structured decision


process
BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
BITS Pilani
Pilani | Dubai | Goa | Hyderabad

PRODUCT DESIGN
Dr. Srinivasa Prakash Regalla, PhD
Professor
RL_5.2.2
BITS Pilani
Pilani | Dubai | Goa | Hyderabad
Mechanical Engineering Department
Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani
Hyderabad Campus
The Concept Selection Process and Techniques

Thus, Scope is …
BITS Pilani
Pilani | Dubai | Goa | Hyderabad
Concept Selection Process
– Forming consensus on the criteria
– Forming consensus on the alternatives
– Ranking
– Assessment
– Attacking the Negatives
A Basic Method: Pugh Concept Selection Charts
– Establish the criteria and alternatives
– Select a Datum
– Ranking and Assessment

RL_5.2.2.a: Forming Consensus Before the Actual –



Alternate rank ordering
Attacking the negatives
Selection Process – Iteration and solution
Advanced Discussion: Measurement Theory

!4 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3, UGC Act


Concept Selection Process Concept Selection Process (contd.)
• The concept selection process should be completed in a room with at least 3 • It is a team-based decision making process – team members will have
walls: different opinions on different solutions
• One on which you can write • Two possibilities of outcome:
– Working wall for writing the evaluation interaction – Team members will have agreement on the concept to pursue
– Lack of consensus; further analysis to resolve the issue is needed; then again the concept selection process
• One on which you can attach a paper
should be deliberated; process repeats until consensus is generated
– To keep notes and rejected information
• The selection process is a five-step process:
• One on which you can show the overhead projector
– Forming consensus on criteria
– Definitions of criteria and alternatives to be displayed
– Forming consensus on the alternatives
– Ranking the alternatives
– Attacking the negatives

!5 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3, UGC Act !6 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3, UGC Act

Forming consensus on criteria Forming consensus on the alternatives


Most concept selection decisions are based on three evaluation • Give labels to alternatives
criteria:
– Cost • Draw each alternative in isometric view of at least 8.5”×11” paper
– Development risk, technical difficulty, ability to meet scheduled delivery for visualization; write the definition under the drawing in large
– Performance or customer satisfaction letters

• Paste the drawing sheets on the walls for perusal by members and
consensus building

!7 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3, UGC Act !8 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3, UGC Act
Thank you!
BITS Pilani
Pilani | Dubai | Goa | Hyderabad

Any questions?

RL_5.2.2.b: Pugh’s Concept Selection Charts

!9 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3, UGC Act

Ranking Assessment
• Rank each alternative on each defined criterion • After ranking, find overall evaluations
• A decision matrix should be used • Order from overall worst to overall best based on aggregate sums
• A scale for ranking, such as (-,s, +) may be used; (-) stands for
worse; (s) stands for same and (+) for better
• More advanced scales also exist

!11 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3, UGC Act !12 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3, UGC Act
Attacking the Negatives A Basic Method: Pugh Concept Selection Charts
• Remove the alternatives that rate poorly with all (-) values, out of the matrix • The alternatives and criteria are displayed on the main wall labeled as “Pugh
• Alternatives that rate favorably must be more closely examined; particularly Selection Chart”
those alternatives that have overall high rank but have a few low scores
• This process is called as “attacking the negatives” and is very essential
• Removes negative effects by applying more science and modeling

!13 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3, UGC Act !14 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3, UGC Act

Select a Datum Three different sums


• The team should select one alternative that will be ranked as (s) on every • First is the overall summation score on each
criterion and be called as the datum alternative
Si = ∑ (R ) ij
• Every other concept will be compared with the datum as either same (s) or j criteria

worse (-) or better (+).


• Existing product may be selected as the datum, many times • Second and third are the sums of positives and
negatives, respectively
• While aggregating, each (-) can not neutralize another (+) because the actual
weight depends on the criterion
∑ (R )

∑ (R ) Ni =
+
Pi = ij ij
• For correct aggregation, find three different sums: j criteria j criteria

!15 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3, UGC Act !16 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3, UGC Act
Attacking the Negatives Iteration and Solution
• Reject those alternatives with low Si values • Repeat the evaluation process until the team converges

• Those alternatives having high Si and some Ni may be scrutinized

!17 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3, UGC Act !18 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3, UGC Act

Advanced Decision Making: Measurement Theory Thank you!


• A set of “n” alternatives:
x1 ≤ x2 ≤ … ≤ xn - weak ordering or ordinal ranking
• Is design alternative xi as good as or better than design xj in criterion ϕj
• S = {better, same, worse}
• Pro-con chart: does alternative xi get a Pro or Con in ϕj?
• Other scales: S={--, -,√, +, ++} Any questions?
• Lottery Question: On a scale of zero to ten, what is your belief “f ” that you will not
receive xi
• Ratio Scales: ωj = Δj/Σ(Δj)
Δj =relative amounts of importance

!19 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3, UGC Act !20 BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3, UGC Act
BITS Pilani
Pilani | Dubai | Goa | Hyderabad

MM ZG541

PRODUCT DESIGN
Dr. Srinivasa Prakash Regalla, PhD RL_6.1.1
BITS Pilani
Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department

Basics of product modeling


Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani
Hyderabad Campus
Pilani | Dubai | Goa | Hyderabad

Scope What is the model of a product metric?


• Introduction: Model Selection by Performance Specifications • It is a representation, simplification or estimation of a product’s realization to aid
in making product decisions.
– Model preparation and selection method
• Trial-and-error experimentation can be very expensive and risk the required
– Product application: mode preparation and selection quality needed by customers
• Mathematical Modeling Versus Physical Prototyping • Models may be based on either (i) analytical (applied mathematics and science),
or (ii) physical prototypes

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Introduction Introduction
• Modeling of product metrics separates the engineer from other
professions Model selection by Performance Specifications
• We seek to answer the How, Why, Where, and When of all aspects of • The type of model to be developed should be based on the specifications developed so
product’s performance far in previous stages of product development process
• Creating effective models during product development process is what
“product metrics” concept emphasizes

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Mathematical Modeling Versus Physical


Model Preparation and Selection Method Prototyping
• Four steps constitute the creation of a product model: • Once the model preparation is complete, metrics are then identified for
– Relate the customer needs to the product functions measuring a product’s performance
– Identify the functions that relate most strongly to the customer needs • So the current process of developing a model must satisfy the
– Choose the metrics (engineering specifications) that can used to quantify material, requirements of finding the suitable metrics in the future
energy and signal flow • Thus, one issue while considering the product model is the
– Identify target values for these metrics based on benchmarking results descriptiveness or detail or fidelity

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Contd… Classification of models
• How much effort (to be put in developing the model) is appropriate • With engineering models, at some point, sets of experiments have
given the limited resources? to be carried out.
• The answer lies in the extent of model descriptiveness versus • We have to measure the input and verify the output – some
model construction difficulty: experimental work is inevitable, whether we do it or somebody
– Should we use a lumped mass model or a finite element model? does it for us
– Should we model an idealized steady state condition, or use a transient • Ulrich and Eppinger proposed a classification of prototypes:
model?
• First classification:(i) Analytical, (ii) Physical
– Should we make detailed numerical analyses of all the product operations?
– Should we construct a physical model or a virtual (mathematical) model? • Second classification: (i) focused, (ii) comprehensive

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Analytical versus Physical Focused versus Comprehensive


• Either analytical, or physical or combinations of them may be used • Whether the model has some, most or all of the attributes of final product

Analytical Physical Focused Comprehensive

Simulations Hardware Testing limited performance Full-scale, fully functional


dimensions version of the
Virtual prototyping Material and physical product
property correlation
Just representative enough As representative as
Computer simulations Prototyping of manufacturing to answer the question, and possible
techniques no more
Optimization Experimental setups As cheap as possible As true to real product as
Fully functional mock-ups possible
(alpha and beta prototypes)

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Decision Trade-off Between Analytical and
Physical Models
• In general, it is smart to make detailed engineering models when prototyping is
expensive and when we have reasonable expectations in obtaining an accurate
model.
• Always limit the activity to the available resources in time and money
• The idea is about the predicted model accuracy over the entire development
process
• Making a more detailed engineering model may not always produce better
results; there is a trade-off
• After the project is initiated, we will have a project resource depletion • Completing many experiments may not always produce better results; there is a
constraint, as shown above trade-off
• Infinite time and money are never available, whether a simple or complex
model
• Hence we have to decide, “How detailed should we model?”
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High Prototype expense Low


High Model it Model it Difficult problem Low
THANK YOU!
Model Prototype
Model it Doesn’t matter Prototype it
Accuracy accuracy

Any questions?
Low Difficult problem Prototype it Prototype it High
Low Model expense High
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BITS Pilani
Pilani | Dubai | Goa | Hyderabad

MM ZG541

PRODUCT DESIGN
Dr. Srinivasa Prakash Regalla, PhD RL_6.1.2
BITS Pilani
Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department

Advanced product models


Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani
Hyderabad Campus
Pilani | Dubai | Goa | Hyderabad

Advanced Product Model: What is a product


Scope Model?
• Advanced Topic: What is a product model • Abstractions of real systems can be termed as models
– Informal models • Models range over different types – information description to formal
– Format models analytical representations
• Constructing Product Models: Basic Method • Our goals the second type: reason is that they help better in exploring the
• A basic modeling approach alternative product configurations
• Constructing Product Models: Advanced Method

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Informal Models Examples of informal models
• It is a designer’s interpretation of a description of the customer’s needs, • Automobiles must have the right sound
engineering requirements, manufacturing requirements, and any other • Rechargeable battery operated designs must recharge quickly
product requirement, along with the designer’s interpretation of the • Vehicles must have a comfortable ride
conceived solutions • Food production plants must produce the right taste
• They are not precise; without measure; have the characteristics of
intentions; interpretations; connotative drawings; descriptions are often in
immeasurable concepts such acoustic, visual or aesthetic
• Each desire in the informal model is called as “objective” as per the
terminology of decision theory; some times are also called as “customer
needs” or “effects”
• Concepts are termed as “configurations”, “causes”, or “physical
principles”

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Limitations of Informal Models Formal Models


• Objectives and configurations are immeasurable • A formal model is computable or analytical
• This formalism only presents designer’s intentions, not any other person’s • Elucidation of alternatives is done to enable selection among alternatives
intentions
• Each alternative will have the structure of a set
• Engineering embodiment, which is a team activity, therefore entails the
translation of a design from informal model to a formal model
• A set is a formal concept; a set of objects has the properties that we can:
– Identify whether objects are inside or outside the set
– Distinguish among the individual elements within the set
– A given object can be judged whether it is among the collection of possible
alternatives
– We can determine whether any alternative can function as a solution to the
problem; for example, in the problem of designing a doorstop, we can state with
enough analysis whether an object can function as a doorstop
– When shown two different objects in the set, we can determine whether or not they
are distinct

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Constructing Product Models: Advanced
Constructing Product Models: Basic Method
Method
• The following steps may be used: • Following are the steps:
1. Identify a flow for the informal effect – Identify the effect (customer need/engineering specification)
2. Identify a balance relationship for the flow – Identify the physical mechanisms
3. Identify a boundary for the balance relationship – Target the precision
4. Formulate an equation (or a set of simultaneous equations) for the balance – Construct the boundary and balance relationship
relationship in the system – Apply similitude/dimensional analysis
5. Use the resulting model to explore design configuration options – Embody the model computationally
– Interrogate the model
– Display and use the model

MM ZG541 P R O D U C T D E S I G N !9 BITS-Pilani MM ZG541 P R O D U C T D E S I G N !10 BITS-Pilani

Closing Remarks on Previous Topic:


Advanced Methods of Modeling of Product for its Metrics

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S t ea dy - s t at e t e m p e r a t ur e o f wo k s u rf a c e – t o
Product Modeling Cases: (1) Electric Wok be modeled
• It is necessary to model the heat flow into the bowl
• Thee modes in which heat flows in to the bowl:
– Conduction, qk
– Convection, qh
• Parameters (performance metrics) – Radiation, qr
• Temperature of wok surface – to be modeled • Options for modeling methods
• Temperature of wok surface with time – Lumped mass model (analytical)
– no modeling needed – treated as input data – Finite element model
• Weight – to be modeled
• Volume – no modeling needed – treated as constant input data
• Handle temperature – to be modeled
• Fast heat-up and fast cool-down – to be modeled Axisymmetric model

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THANK YOU!

Any questions?

MM ZG541 P R O D U C T D E S I G N !15 BITS-Pilani


BITS Pilani
Pilani | Dubai | Goa | Hyderabad

MM ZG541

PRODUCT DESIGN
Dr. Srinivasa Prakash Regalla, PhD RL_6.4.1
BITS Pilani
Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department

Basics of prototyping
Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani
Hyderabad Campus
Pilani | Dubai | Goa | Hyderabad

Prototyping Prototyping
• A prototype is a physical instantiation of a product, meant to be used to
help resolve one or more issues during the product development.
• Communicate visual layout and product’s look and feel
• Enables explocation, experimentation, validation, optimization
• They may be visually inspected, tactilely experienced, tested, modeled,
varied or simply observed as a 3-D entity

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What are Physical models/prototypies? Important Questions!
• A physical model is an object or set of objects fabricated from a variety of • Should the product development team build a prototype(s) at a certain
materials to approximate the aspects of how a product concept will time?
perform • What is the purpose of the prototyping efforts?
• What are the possible forms of the prototype?
• What simplifications can be made that are independent of the prototype’s
purpose?
• What types of tests will be applied to the prototypes?
• What is the risk of constructing prototypes or continuing without them?

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Types of prototypes Use of Prototypes


● Six general classes of prototypes are available: • Communication
1. Proof-of-concept models = check feasibility of product • Demonstration
2. Industrial design prototypes = look and feel • Scheduling/milestones
3. DOE experimental prototypes = empirical data of shape and dimensions
• Feasibility
4. Alpha prototype (same material & geometry, different manufacturing) = check
overall layout • Parametric modeling
5. Beta prototype (final part production; special assembly) = first full-scale functional • Architectural interfacing
prototypes
6. Preproduction prototype (pilot production, limited capacity) = final class of physical
models

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Choice of Mock-up Materials and Processes Different suitable materials
• The following criteria are applied while selecting the prototype material: • Wood and wood products
• Cost • Plastics
• Availability • Metals
• Ability to accept changes • Adhesives
• Ease of use and forming capability
• Clay
• Scalability of geometry
• Wax
• Scalable properties
• Foam
• Rubber and elastomers
• Fiberglas
• Cardboard, Paper, cloth

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Prototyping Processes Physical Prototyping


• Epoxy molds
• CNC machining
• Cast metal molds
• Machined aluminium molds
• Injection moulding
• Vacuum forming
• Silicon rubber (RTV) molds
• Electronic breadboarding
• Mechanical breadboarding
• Rapid prototyping/ SFF

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Rapid Prototyping What is Rapid Prototyping?
• The term rapid prototyping (RP) refers to a class of technologies that can • Rapid prototyping is a relatively new technology for producing three-
automatically construct physical models from Computer-Aided Design dimensional physical objects directly from CAD files.
(CAD) data.
• These "three dimensional printers" allow designers to quickly create • Machining of parts involves material removal. Rapid prototyping differs by
tangible prototypes of their designs, rather than just two-dimensional adding material layer by layer until the desired shape is achieved.
pictures.
• Generally the more complex the part the greater the time saving in • One advantage is that excess material is not wasted.
comparison to traditional prototyping

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Rapid Prototyping Rapid Prototyping


• Of course, "rapid" is a relative term. • Rapid prototyping machines process CAD data by slicing the model,
– Most prototypes require from three to seventy-two hours to build, depending on the each layer being typically 0.1-0.25mm.
size and complexity of the object. • The machine then uses this sliced data to construct the model layer by
layer.
– This may seem slow, but it is much faster than the weeks or months required to • Each layer is in turn bonded to the previous, the models therefore having
make a prototype by traditional means such as machining. a stepped appearance on curved surfaces.
• The resolution of these steps depends on the thickness of the
– These dramatic time savings allow manufacturers to bring products to market laminations and orientation.
faster and more cheaply. • Post processing is usually required to improve the surface finish.

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Applications Applications: Design, Marketing
• Rapid Prototyping produces • Communications tool for
– dimensionally accurate and – design reviews
– highly detailed parts – production part vendors
– in durable materials • to examine part details and
– that have many valuable uses • requirements for bidding and
– to reduce product development time and • tool optimization
costs • Marketing tools
– as static or functional demonstration units
– to test market and customer reaction

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Applications: Design, Manufacturing


• Design verification
– And optimization tool
• Concept visualization tools
– to verify design details
THANK YOU!
• Production tool used to
– examine manufacturing methods of
fabricated parts and
– assembly processes and procedures
Any questions?

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BITS Pilani
Pilani | Dubai | Goa | Hyderabad

MM ZG541

PRODUCT DESIGN RL_6.1.1
Fundamentals of modern
Dr. Srinivasa Prakash Regalla, PhD

BITS Pilani
Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department
Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani
Hyderabad Campus

rapid prototyping processes


Pilani | Dubai | Goa | Hyderabad

Prototyping Rapid Prototyping


• The term rapid prototyping (RP) refers to a class of technologies that can
automatically construct physical models from Computer-Aided Design
(CAD) data.
• These "three dimensional printers" allow designers to quickly create
tangible prototypes of their designs, rather than just two-dimensional
pictures.
• Generally the more complex the part the greater the time saving in
comparison to traditional prototyping

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What is Rapid Prototyping? Rapid Prototyping
• Rapid prototyping is a relatively new technology for producing three- • Of course, "rapid" is a relative term.
dimensional physical objects directly from CAD files. – Most prototypes require from three to seventy-two hours to build, depending
on the size and complexity of the object.
• Machining of parts involves material removal. Rapid prototyping differs by
adding material layer by layer until the desired shape is achieved. – This may seem slow, but it is much faster than the weeks or months required
to make a prototype by traditional means such as machining.
• One advantage is that excess material is not wasted.
– These dramatic time savings allow manufacturers to bring products to market
faster and more cheaply.

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Rapid Prototyping Applications


• Rapid prototyping machines process CAD data by slicing the model, • Rapid Prototyping produces
each layer being typically 0.1-0.25mm. – dimensionally accurate and
• The machine then uses this sliced data to construct the model layer by – highly detailed parts
layer. – in durable materials
• Each layer is in turn bonded to the previous, the models therefore having – that have many valuable uses
a stepped appearance on curved surfaces.
– to reduce product development time and
• The resolution of these steps depends on the thickness of the costs
laminations and orientation.
• Post processing is usually required to improve the surface finish.

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Applications: Design, Marketing Applications: Design, Manufacturing
• Communications tool for • Design verification
– design reviews – And optimization tool
– production part vendors • Concept visualization tools
• to examine part details and – to verify design details
• requirements for bidding and
• tool optimization
• Production tool used to
– examine manufacturing methods of
• Marketing tools fabricated parts and
– as static or functional demonstration units – assembly processes and procedures
– to test market and customer reaction

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Rapid Prototyping Process Rapid Prototyping Process


All RP techniques employ the same basic five-step process.

1. Create a CAD model of the design

2. Convert the CAD model to STL format (stereolithography)

3. Slice the STL file into thin cross-sectional layers CAD Rapid Prototyping
machine

4. Construct the model one layer atop another


(+) Process Planning
(−)
+ Easy planning for
5. Clean and finish the model 3D – Accuracy: layer
+ Material variety thickness
+ Fast turn around

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Rapid Prototyping CAD Model Creation:
• Basics:
– Solid model (CAD) is converted to STL format
• CAD Model Creation:
• Facetted representation where surface is approximated by triangles – First, the object to be built is modeled using a Computer-Aided Design (CAD)
• Intersect the STL model with parallel planes to create cross sections software package.
– Create each cross section, adding on top of preceding one
– Solid modelers, such as Pro/ENGINEER, tend to represent 3-D objects more
accurately than wire-frame modelers such as AutoCAD, and will therefore yield
better results.

STL “slicing” 2-D cross – This process is identical for all of the RP build techniques.
CAD (ProE)
operation section

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Conversion to STL Format ‘.STL’ File


• Conversion to STL Format: • An STL file consists of a list of facet data. Each facet is uniquely
– To establish consistency, the STL (stereolithography, the first RP identified by a unit normal (a line perpendicular to the triangle and with a
technique) format has been adopted as the standard of the rapid length of 1.0) and by three vertices (corners). The normal and each
prototyping industry. vertex are specified by three coordinates each, so there is a total of 12
numbers stored for each facet.
– The second step, therefore, is to convert the CAD file into STL format.
This format represents a three-dimensional surface as an assembly of
planar triangles

– STL files use planar elements, they cannot represent curved surfaces
exactly. Increasing the number of triangles improves the approximation

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Sample STL file STL Format
• Excerpt from a typical STL file that define a facet:
• facet normal -4.470293E-02 7.003503E-01 7.123981E-01

outer loop

vertex -2.812284E+00 2.298693E+01 0.000000E+00

vertex -2.812284E+00 2.296699E+01 -1.960784E-02

vertex -3.124760E+00 2.296699E+01 0.000000E+00

endloop

endfacet
• .
• .

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Example: The .STL file for it


y

[0.0,1.0,0.0]

[0.0,0.0,-1.0]
[0.577,0.577,0.577]
[-1.0,0.0,0.0] [1.0,0.0,0.0]
[0.0,0.0,0.0]
x

[0.0,0.0,1.0]
z [0.0,-1.0,0.0]
Unit normal
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The facet record’s structure is: Problems with .STL file
• The facet record has the form: • Because STL files use planar elements
• The normal vector, 3 floating values of 4 bytes each; – they cannot represent curved surfaces exactly
• vertex 1 coordinates, 3 floating values of 4 bytes each; • Increasing the number of triangles
– improves the approximation
• vertex 2 coordinates, 3 floating values of 4 bytes each;
– but at the cost of bigger file size
• vertex 3 coordinates, 3 floating values of 4 bytes each;

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Slice the STL File Slice the STL File


• Pre-processing program • Build orientation is important
prepares the STL file to be built • Properties of rapid prototypes
– adjust the size – vary with the direction
– location and • Prototypes are usually
– orientation of the model – weaker and less accurate: z direction than in the x-y plane.

The effect of changing the chord-


height parameter during STL
generation.

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Slice the STL File Slice the STL File
• Part orientation partially determines • The program may also generate
– the amount of time required to build the model – an auxiliary structure
• Placing the shortest dimension in the z direction – to support the model during the build
– reduces the number of layers • Supports are useful for
– thereby shortening build time
– delicate features such as
• overhangs
• internal cavities, and The Supports of the parts
• thin-walled sections

layout for one printed sheet with 6 layers on it


CAD drawing sliced into cross sections
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Solid Model to Layers



Slice the STL File Slice the STL File

Figure 34.1 Conversion of a solid model of an object into layers (only one layer is shown).

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Slice the STL File Layer by Layer Construction
• Figure 20.2 The computational • Layer by Layer Construction:
steps in producing a – The fourth step is the actual construction of the part.
stereolithography file. (a) Three-
– RP machines build one layer at a time from polymers, paper, or powdered
dimensional description of each
metal.
part. (b) The part is divided into
slices (only one in 10 is shown). (c) – Most machines are fairly autonomous, needing little human intervention.
Support material is planned. (d) A
set of tool directions is determined
to manufacture each slice. Also
shown is the extruder path at
section A-A from (c) for a fused-
deposition-modeling operation.

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Clean and Finish


• Clean and Finish:
– The final step is post-processing. This involves
removing the prototype from the machine and
detaching any supports. THANK YOU!
– Some photosensitive materials need to be fully cured
before use
– Prototypes may also require minor cleaning and
surface treatment.
– Sanding, sealing, and/or painting the model will
improve its appearance and durability. Any questions?

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BITS Pilani
Pilani | Dubai | Goa | Hyderabad

MM ZG541

PRODUCT DESIGN RL_6.1.1
Most popular
Dr. Srinivasa Prakash Regalla, PhD

BITS Pilani
Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department
Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani
Hyderabad Campus

rapid prototyping processes


Pilani | Dubai | Goa | Hyderabad

Prototyping

Fused Deposition Modeling


(FDM)

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Examples of 

Fused Deposition Modeling
Samples from FDM

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Samples from FDM Samples from FDM

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FDM FDM
• Stratasys, Eden Prarie, MN
• Patent 1992
• The second most widely used rapid prototyping technology, after
stereolithography
• 2000th system installed (2002)
• 25% of all RP system in the world

http://www.stratasys.com/
http://rpdrc.ic.polyu.edu.hk/content/fdm/fdm_introduction.htm

• Robotically guided fiber extrusion


(a) Schematic illustration of the fused-
deposition-modeling process.
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Fused Deposition Modeling FDM


• (FDM) is a solid-based rapid prototyping method that extrudes material, • Extruding freeform shapes
layer-by-layer, to build a model. • Deposits a continuous filament of a thermoplastic polymer or wax
through a resistively heated nozzle
• A thread of plastic is fed into an extrusion head, where it is heated into a • Wire feeds into the extrusion head
semi-liquid state and extruded through a very small hole onto the
previous layer of material. • Heated to slightly above its flow point
– solidifies relatively quickly after it exits the nozzle
– possible to form short overhanging features without the need for explicit support
• Support material is also laid down in a similar manner.
• In general, explicit supports are needed.
• These are drawn out as thin wall sections that can easily be removed
upon completion

http://www.padtinc.com/rm/fdm/default.htm
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Fused Deposition Modeling Looking into the FDM Machine

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Materials for FDM Support Material


• Several materials are available • Stratasys FDM systems use WaterWorks and BASS breakaway support
material.
– ABS
• Support material is delivered in canisters or spools depending upon the
• offers good strength system used. See the system spec sheet for specifics.
– investment casting wax • WaterWorks is used with ABS, ABSi, ABSplus, ABS-M30 and PC-ABS.
– More recently polycarbonate and polysulfone materials • BASS breakaway support material is used with PC, PC-ISO and PPSF
• extend the capabilities of the method further in terms of strength and
temperature range
• Support structures are fabricated for overhanging geometries and
are later removed by breaking them away from the object
• A water-soluble support material which can simply be washed
away is also available.
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FDM material Characteristics for FDM
• Office-friendly and quiet
– No toxic fume and chemicals
– no waste
• Fairly fast
– For small parts on the order of a few cubic inches
– or those that have tall, thin form-factors
– Faster than the SLA
• No part clean-up needed
• Materials used are very cost effective, typical parts cost
under US$20
– Lower cost than SL

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Characteristics for FDM FDM 200mc specifications


• The finish of parts improved over the years
– but not quite good as stereolithography
– Accuracy is relatively low and is difficult to build parts with complicated
details
• Poor strength in vertical direction
• Slow for building a mass part
– Very slow for parts with wide cross sections

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Layered Fabrication of Klein Bottle Klein Bottle Skeleton (FDM)

Support material
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Advantages of FDM Process STL Generation


• High strength • To export STL file, select FILE > EXPORT
from the menu bar.
• Cost-effective
• Waterproof
• ABS material
• Multiple material colors

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STL Generation STL Generation
• Select “STL” from the side menu • The system will prompt for 2 control value which are
CORD HEIGHT and ANGLE CONTROL..

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STL Generation STL Generation


• CORD HEIGHT • For example, if the maximum diagonal length of the model is 100mm,
and the small feature under consideration has a radius of 2mm, the
• The maximum difference between true surface and tessellated surface. CORD HEIGHT and ANGLE CONTROL entered are 0.1 and 0.5
respectively.
• The effective CORD HEIGHT applied to that small feature is
• ANGLE CONTROL • (2/(10/100))^0.5*0.1= 0.04472135955
• A decimal value between 0 and 1. If enter 0, the system will use CORD
HEIGHT to tessellate the model regardless the size of the feature on the
solid model. If enter 1, the system will multiply the CORD HEIGHT value
with the difference between the target radius (vaguely correspond to the
radius of the small feature under consideration) and 1/10th of the major
dimension of the model.

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STL Generation STL Generation
• Pro/E will then ask for a coordinate system for the STL file, select • Enter the file name of the STL file in the subsequent prompt, and the STL
DEFAULT to use the WCS or specify a coordinate system in the part file. file will be generated and placed in the current directory

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Stereolithography Apparatus (SLA)


• The .stl (standard triangulation language or stereo-lithography) file of the
proposed component is sliced by software.
• Each slice is then hatched on to the surface of a photosensitive
ultraviolet curable resin with a "swinging" laser.
• Where the focused beam of the laser strikes the surface the resin is
cured.
• Each slice is typically 0.13mm thick (0.0052").
Schematic Diagram of the LOM Process
Schematic Diagram of the • After each layer is cured the partially built model is lowered in to a vat of
Stereolithography Process resin by one layer thickness.
• A recoating blade then lays a thin film of uncured resin over the surface
of the resin.

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Laminated Object Manufacture (LOM)
• Overhanging portions of the model are supported by a lattice that is • LOM was developed by Michael Feygin of
automatically generated and incorporated into each layer by the Helysis. This process laminates thin sheets of
film, the laser in this instance has only to cut the
software. periphery of each layer, unlike SLA that has to
scan the whole area of any one slice.
• The model is built on a support lattice to prevent direct adhesion to the • The build material is fed off a supply roll on one
recoating table, thus allowing the model to be removed relatively easily end of the machine. This material, usually paper,
on completion of the build. is pre-coated on one side with a heat curable
resin, which is used to bond one slice to another.
• On completion of the build the model is carefully removed from the • A heated roller then passes over the work area
platform and washed in a solvent to remove the uncured resin from the bonding the new slice to the part built model. A
surface. finely focused laser then cuts the periphery of
the work area. The laser is focused to cut one
• The model is then placed in a ultraviolet oven to harden any uncured laminate.
resin.
The process has been also
developed and commercialized by
Center for Laser Rapid Forming,
Tsinghua University, China.
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• Excess paper around the model acts as a


support for the model during build. To aid Abbreviation: LOM
removal of the model the excess paper is Material type: Solid (Sheets)
hatched by the laser.
Thermoplastics such as
• The block of paper containing the model is PVC; Paper; Composites
Materials:
then lowered to allow a new layer to be fed (Ferrous metals; Non-
across the work area. ferrous metals; Ceramics)

• The model is then raised and the heated Max part size: 32.00 x 22.00 x 20.00 in.
roller bonds the next layer to the previous Min feature size: 0.008 in.
one. To decrease the build time it is possible Min layer thickness: 0.0020 in.
to build the model in double or triple Tolerance: 0.0040 in.
laminates. This requires the laser power to
be increased. Surface finish: Rough
Build speed: Fast
• This has a disadvantage in that the stepped effect is more clearly defined. Post Form/fit testing, Less
processing of the models consists of the removal of the excess paper from Applications: detailed parts, Rapid
around the model. tooling patterns

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Selective laser sintering
• The SLS process uses powdered materials. This is one of the systems
major advantages, because, in principle, a model could be built in any
fusible powdered material.
• Currently the range of materials includes nylon, glass filled nylon,
polycarbonate, wax, fine polyamide and metals.
• The laser scans each slice fusing the powder, to the previous layer. As
with all of the techniques mentioned so far the model is built on a table
which lowers after completion of each slice.
• A fresh layer of powder of the required thickness is then rolled across the
top of the cylinder and the process is repeated. Excess powder remains
in place around the model to act as a support during the build.
• On completion of the build the excess powder is brushed from the
surface of the model.

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THANK YOU!

Any questions?

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