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STAAD Seismic Analysis

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Built-in algorithms will automatically distribute the base shear among appropriate levels and the roof per

the relevant code specifications. The following general format should be used to generate loads in a

particular direction.

General Format

LOAD i

Where:

f1 = factor to be used to multiply the UBC Load (default = 1.0). May be negative.

f2 = multiplying factor for Natural Torsion, arising due to static eccentricity which is the difference

between center of mass and center of rigidity of a rigid floor diaphragm, to be used to multiply the

UBC, IBC, 1893, etc. horizontal torsion load (default = 0.0). Must be a positive value (greater than 1.0)

or exactly 0.0.

f3 = multiplying factor for Accidental Torsion, to be used to multiply the UBC, IBC, 1893, etc.

accidental torsion load (default = 1.0). May be negative (otherwise, the default sign for MY is used

based on the direction of the generated lateral forces).

To include horizontal torsional moment arising due to static eccentricity for a rigid floor diaphragm following

conditions must be satisfied.

b. A positive value (greater than 1.0) for DEC must be provided. Seismic load is applied at center of mass

instead of center of rigidity which incorporates the effect that a value less than or equal to 1.0 will

yield. Placing seismic load at center of mass of a rigid diaphragm automatically includes inherent

torsion in analysis corresponding to static eccentricity (the difference between center of mass and

center of rigidity). Providing DEC parameter as 0.0 for a model having rigid diaphragm to ignore

inherent torsion is not possible.

c. The ACC command must not be present in seismic definition (i.e., in the DEFINE code LOAD

command). If present, the natural torsion factor will be ignored and only the accidental torsion for all

seismic loads will be considered.

The design eccentricity for calculating horizontal torsion is the DEC + ACC values. When ACC is negative, it

becomes DEC - ACC (i.e., the torsion magnitudes are always additive).

Dynamic Eccentricity

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5.32.12.2.1 Generation of Seismic Loads Page 2 of 5

The static eccentricity is generally defined as the distance between the center of mass (CM) and the center

of rigidity (CR) at respective floors levels. Accidental eccentricity generally accounts for factors such as:

the difference between computed and actual values of the mass, stiffness, or strength, and

uneven live mass distribution.

In most country's seismic codes, the provision for design eccentricity edi at ith floor of a building is given by

the following equations:

where

bi = plan dimension of the ith floor normal to the direction of ground

motion

α, β, and = specified constants

δ

If α = 1.0, δ = 1.0, and β = 0.05 parameters to be defined are DEC = 1.0 and ACC = 0.05 in one load

case and DEC = 1.0 and ACC = -0.05 in another load case to include both natural and accidental

torsion.

Only TOR ECC 0.05 or TOR ECC -0.05 can also be defined without specifying DEC 1.0 since it is the

default that is included in the analysis.

a. Design case,

b. Pure translation case,

c. Twisting moment including additional torsional moment plus accidental torsion,

d. Load applied through CM,

e. Twisting moment including additional torsional moment (if any) plus accidental torsion

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5.32.12.2.1 Generation of Seismic Loads Page 3 of 5

The cases (d) and (e) are followed i.e. seismic load is passed through CM instead of CR. Natural torsion is

automatically included in analysis for DEC ≤ 1.0 i.e., no additional inherent torsion is applied. However, if

DEC > 1.0, a twisting moment with modified eccentricity of DEC-1 will act at CM. In this case, a message

occurs in the output.

Example

Define UBC load

Zone 0.2 K 1.0 I 1.5 TS 0.5

Selfweight

Joint Weight

1 to 100 Weight 5.0

101 to 200 Weight 7.5

Load 1 UBC in X-Direction

UBC Load X DEC 1.0 ACC 0.05

Joint Load

5 25 30 FY -17.5

Perform Analysis

Change

Load 2 UBC in X-Direction

UBC Load X DEC 1.0 ACC -0.05

Joint Load

5 25 30 FY -17.5

Perform Analysis

Change

Load 3 UBC in Z-Direction

UBC Load Z DEC 0.0 ACC 0.05

Perform Analysis

Change

Load 4 Dead load

Selfweight

Load Combination 4

1 0.75 2 0.75 3 1.0

In the above example, notice that the first three load cases are UBC load cases. They are specified before

any other load cases.

Notes

a. The UBC load cases should be provided as the first set of load cases. Non-UBC primary load case

specified before a UBC load case is not acceptable. Additional loads such as MEMBER LOADS and

JOINT LOADS may be specified along with the UBC load under the same load case.

Example of Incorrect Usage: The error here is that the UBC cases appear as the 3rd and 4th cases,

when they should be the 1st and 2nd cases.

Load 1

Selfweight Y -1

Load 2

Joint Load

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5.32.12.2.1 Generation of Seismic Loads Page 4 of 5

3 FX 45

Load 3

UBC Load X 1.2

Joint Load

3 FY -4.5

Load 4

UBC Load Z 1.2

Member Load

3 UNI GY -4.5

Perform Analysis

Set NL 10

Load 1

UBC Load X 1.2

Joint Load

3 FY -4.5

Perform Analysis

Change

Load 2

UBC Load Z 1.2

Member Load

3 UNI GY -4.5

Perform Analysis

Change

Load 3

Selfweight Y -1

Load 4

Joint Load

3 FX 45

Perform Analysis

Load List All

b. If the UBC cases are to be factored later in a Repeat Load command; or if the UBC case is to be used

in a tension/compression analysis; or if Re-analysis (two analysis commands without a CHANGE or

new load case in between); then each UBC case should be followed by PERFORM ANALYSIS then

CHANGE commands as shown in the example above. Otherwise the PERFORM ANALYSIS then

CHANGE can be omitted. Using the CHANGE command will require the SET NL command to define the

maximum number of load cases being entered in the analysis. Also LOAD LIST ALL should be entered

after the last PERFORM ANALYSIS command.

Example of Incorrect Usage: The error here is that the CHANGE command is missing before Load Case

2.

Load 1

UBC Load X 1.2

Selfweight Y -1

Joint Load

3 FY -4.5

PDELTA Analysis

Load 2

UBC Load Z 1.2

Selfweight Y -1

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5.32.12.2.1 Generation of Seismic Loads Page 5 of 5

Joint Load

3 FY -4.5

PDELTA Analysis

Load 1

UBC Load X 1.2

Selfweight Y -1

Joint Load

3 FY -4.5

PDELTA Analysis

Change

Load 2

UBC Load Z 1.2

Selfweight Y -1

Joint Load

3 FY -4.5

PDELTA Analysis

Change

d. The REPEAT LOAD specification cannot be used for load cases involving UBC load generation unless

each UBC case is followed by an analysis command then CHANGE.

Example

Load 1

UBC Load X 1.0

PDELTA Analysis

Change

Load 2

Selfweight Y -1

PDELTA Analysis

Change

Load 3

Repeat Load

1 1.4 2 1.2

PDELTA Analysis

e. If UBC load generation is performed for the X and the Z (or Y if Z up) directions, the command for the

X direction must precede the command for the Z (or Y if Z up) direction.

mk:@MSITStore:C:\SProV8i%20SS6\STAAD\Help\Technical_Reference_2007.chm::/ST... 1/28/2018

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