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5.32.12.2.

1 Generation of Seismic Loads Page 1 of 5

5.32.12.2.1 Generation of Seismic Loads


Built-in algorithms will automatically distribute the base shear among appropriate levels and the roof per
the relevant code specifications. The following general format should be used to generate loads in a
particular direction.

General Format
LOAD i

code LOAD { X | Y | Z } (f1) (DEC f2) (ACC f3)

code = { UBC | IBC | 1893 | AIJ | COL | CFE | NTC | RPA }

Where:

i = load case number


f1 = factor to be used to multiply the UBC Load (default = 1.0). May be negative.
f2 = multiplying factor for Natural Torsion, arising due to static eccentricity which is the difference
between center of mass and center of rigidity of a rigid floor diaphragm, to be used to multiply the
UBC, IBC, 1893, etc. horizontal torsion load (default = 0.0). Must be a positive value (greater than 1.0)
or exactly 0.0.
f3 = multiplying factor for Accidental Torsion, to be used to multiply the UBC, IBC, 1893, etc.
accidental torsion load (default = 1.0). May be negative (otherwise, the default sign for MY is used
based on the direction of the generated lateral forces).

Use only horizontal directions.

To include horizontal torsional moment arising due to static eccentricity for a rigid floor diaphragm following
conditions must be satisfied.

a. The floor must be modeled as a rigid diaphragm.


b. A positive value (greater than 1.0) for DEC must be provided. Seismic load is applied at center of mass
instead of center of rigidity which incorporates the effect that a value less than or equal to 1.0 will
yield. Placing seismic load at center of mass of a rigid diaphragm automatically includes inherent
torsion in analysis corresponding to static eccentricity (the difference between center of mass and
center of rigidity). Providing DEC parameter as 0.0 for a model having rigid diaphragm to ignore
inherent torsion is not possible.
c. The ACC command must not be present in seismic definition (i.e., in the DEFINE code LOAD
command). If present, the natural torsion factor will be ignored and only the accidental torsion for all
seismic loads will be considered.

The design eccentricity for calculating horizontal torsion is the DEC + ACC values. When ACC is negative, it
becomes DEC - ACC (i.e., the torsion magnitudes are always additive).

Dynamic Eccentricity

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The static eccentricity is generally defined as the distance between the center of mass (CM) and the center
of rigidity (CR) at respective floors levels. Accidental eccentricity generally accounts for factors such as:

the rotational component of ground motion about the vertical axis,


the difference between computed and actual values of the mass, stiffness, or strength, and
uneven live mass distribution.

In most country's seismic codes, the provision for design eccentricity edi at ith floor of a building is given by
the following equations:

edi = αesi + βbi

edi = δesi – βbi

where

esi = static eccentricity at ith floor


bi = plan dimension of the ith floor normal to the direction of ground
motion
α, β, and = specified constants
δ

If α = 1.0, δ = 1.0, and β = 0.05 parameters to be defined are DEC = 1.0 and ACC = 0.05 in one load
case and DEC = 1.0 and ACC = -0.05 in another load case to include both natural and accidental
torsion.

Only TOR ECC 0.05 or TOR ECC -0.05 can also be defined without specifying DEC 1.0 since it is the
default that is included in the analysis.

a. Design case,
b. Pure translation case,
c. Twisting moment including additional torsional moment plus accidental torsion,
d. Load applied through CM,
e. Twisting moment including additional torsional moment (if any) plus accidental torsion

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The cases (d) and (e) are followed i.e. seismic load is passed through CM instead of CR. Natural torsion is
automatically included in analysis for DEC ≤ 1.0 i.e., no additional inherent torsion is applied. However, if
DEC > 1.0, a twisting moment with modified eccentricity of DEC-1 will act at CM. In this case, a message
occurs in the output.

Example
Define UBC load
Zone 0.2 K 1.0 I 1.5 TS 0.5
Selfweight
Joint Weight
1 to 100 Weight 5.0
101 to 200 Weight 7.5
Load 1 UBC in X-Direction
UBC Load X DEC 1.0 ACC 0.05
Joint Load
5 25 30 FY -17.5
Perform Analysis
Change
Load 2 UBC in X-Direction
UBC Load X DEC 1.0 ACC -0.05
Joint Load
5 25 30 FY -17.5
Perform Analysis
Change
Load 3 UBC in Z-Direction
UBC Load Z DEC 0.0 ACC 0.05
Perform Analysis
Change
Load 4 Dead load
Selfweight
Load Combination 4
1 0.75 2 0.75 3 1.0

In the above example, notice that the first three load cases are UBC load cases. They are specified before
any other load cases.

Notes
a. The UBC load cases should be provided as the first set of load cases. Non-UBC primary load case
specified before a UBC load case is not acceptable. Additional loads such as MEMBER LOADS and
JOINT LOADS may be specified along with the UBC load under the same load case.
Example of Incorrect Usage: The error here is that the UBC cases appear as the 3rd and 4th cases,
when they should be the 1st and 2nd cases.

Load 1
Selfweight Y -1
Load 2
Joint Load

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3 FX 45
Load 3
UBC Load X 1.2
Joint Load
3 FY -4.5
Load 4
UBC Load Z 1.2
Member Load
3 UNI GY -4.5
Perform Analysis

Example of Correct Usage

Set NL 10
Load 1
UBC Load X 1.2
Joint Load
3 FY -4.5
Perform Analysis
Change
Load 2
UBC Load Z 1.2
Member Load
3 UNI GY -4.5
Perform Analysis
Change
Load 3
Selfweight Y -1
Load 4
Joint Load
3 FX 45
Perform Analysis
Load List All

b. If the UBC cases are to be factored later in a Repeat Load command; or if the UBC case is to be used
in a tension/compression analysis; or if Re-analysis (two analysis commands without a CHANGE or
new load case in between); then each UBC case should be followed by PERFORM ANALYSIS then
CHANGE commands as shown in the example above. Otherwise the PERFORM ANALYSIS then
CHANGE can be omitted. Using the CHANGE command will require the SET NL command to define the
maximum number of load cases being entered in the analysis. Also LOAD LIST ALL should be entered
after the last PERFORM ANALYSIS command.
Example of Incorrect Usage: The error here is that the CHANGE command is missing before Load Case
2.

Load 1
UBC Load X 1.2
Selfweight Y -1
Joint Load
3 FY -4.5
PDELTA Analysis
Load 2
UBC Load Z 1.2
Selfweight Y -1

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Joint Load
3 FY -4.5
PDELTA Analysis

Example of Correct Usage

Load 1
UBC Load X 1.2
Selfweight Y -1
Joint Load
3 FY -4.5
PDELTA Analysis
Change
Load 2
UBC Load Z 1.2
Selfweight Y -1
Joint Load
3 FY -4.5
PDELTA Analysis
Change

c. Up to 8 UBC cases may be entered.


d. The REPEAT LOAD specification cannot be used for load cases involving UBC load generation unless
each UBC case is followed by an analysis command then CHANGE.
Example

Load 1
UBC Load X 1.0
PDELTA Analysis
Change
Load 2
Selfweight Y -1
PDELTA Analysis
Change
Load 3
Repeat Load
1 1.4 2 1.2
PDELTA Analysis

e. If UBC load generation is performed for the X and the Z (or Y if Z up) directions, the command for the
X direction must precede the command for the Z (or Y if Z up) direction.

Parent topic: 5.32.12.2 Generation of Seismic Loads

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