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# The Logical Inference or Reasoning

## What is a Logical Inference or Reasoning?

- The last and ultimate act of mind in the division of logic.
- The highest act of mind.
- Reasoning is also called as Logical Inference which seeks to conform to the standard set by the propositions in
order to establish a frame of logical reference to new ideas.
- Parts of inference:
o PREMISE/S – which is/are the previously known judgment and
o CONCLUSION – which is the new judgment from the premise/s
o

## 2 TYPES OF LOGICAL INFERENCE

1. Immediate Logical Inference
 Synonymous with the word “direct” or which proceeds directly from one proposition to another.
 A re-expression of the very truth that expressed from the original proposition.
 EXAMPLE: No Dalmatians are cats. Therefore, no cats are Dalmatians.
All squares are polygon. Therefore, some polygons are squares.

## 2. Mediate Logical Inference

 Consists in deriving a conclusion from two or more logically interrelated premises.
 It is reasoning that involved the intermediacy of a middle term or second proposition which
warrants the drawing of a new truth.
 EXAMPLE: All true Christians are theists.
Paul is a true Christians.
Therefore, Paul is a theist.

## KINDS OF IMMEDIATE LOGICAL INFERENCE

1. Eductive Inference or the Equipollence
2. Oppositional Inference or the Oppositional Square of the Proposition

Eductive Inference
- A method of rendering the same fundamental truth transposed in a given proposition.
- The judgment expressed that re-expresses the truth given by the original proposition.
o EXAMPLE: “Do unto others what you want others do unto you; therefore, do not do unto them
what you do not want them to do unto you.”

## Eat all you can; therefore, eat as long as you can.

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Four kinds of Eductive Inference
1. CONVERSION
o Transposing or interchanging the subject and the predicate without changing the quality.
o The original subject of conversion which the antecedent becomes CONVERTEND and the new judgment
which is the consequent becomes CONVERSE.
o
o Steps:
 Interchange the subject and the predicate.
 Do not change the quality.
 Do not extend any term.
 EXAMPLE: Some learners of today are educators of tomorrow.
Some educators of tomorrow are learners of today.

Note: The O proposition does not have converse for it is formally and materially invalid.

Types of Conversion:
a. Simple Conversion
 Viable only from Proposition A to Proposition A; from Proposition I to Proposition I; and from
Proposition E to Proposition E.
I to I : Some teachers are considerate people;
therefore, some considerate people are teachers.
E to E : No adult person is an infant; therefore
therefore, no infant is an adult person.
A to A : (If the predicate is the definition of the subject of convertend and if they
are interchangeable)
A triangle is a three-sided figure;
therefore, a three-sided figure is a triangle.

## Mrs. Esma is our Logic teacher;

therefore, our teacher in Logic is Mrs. Esma.

## b. Partial (Accidental) Conversion

 Happens when the original proposition or the antecedent of conversion which is convertend,
transmute from universal to particular.
 Happens when the quantity of the original proposition is change in the converse.
 Such propositions are: from proposition A to proposition I and from proposition E to
proposition O.
universal proposition particular proposition

## A to I : Every dog is an animal; therefore some animals are dogs.

E to O : No tamaraw is a two legged animal;
therefore some two-legged animals are not tamaraws.
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2. OBVERSION
o Happens when only the quality of the original proposition is transmuted without affecting its quantity.
o The antecedent of obversion which is the original proposition is OBVERTEND and the consequent of
obversion which is the new proposition is OBVERSE.
o Steps:
 Retain its subject and its quantity.
 Change the copula/quality.
 Put the contrary or contradictory of the original predicate.
 EXAMPLE: All categorical forms may be obverted in the following manner:
A to E : Every man is mortal; therefore, no man is immortal.
E to A : You are not bad, therefore, you are good.
I to O : Few men are weak; ergo, few men are not strong.
O to I : Not all days are bright; ergo, some days are dark.

3. CONTRAPOSITION
o Transposing the subject and the predicate like in Conversion and put the contradictory term of the
original predicate like in Obversion.
o The antecedent of the contraposition is CONTRAPONEND as the original proposition and the
consequent of the contraposition is CONTRAPOSIT as the new proposition.

Types of Contraposition:
A. Simple Contraposition
o Steps:
 Subject – use the contradictory of the predicate
 Copula – change
 Predicate – Put the original subject
o EXAMPLE:
A to E: Every S is P; therefore no non-P is S.
Every PUP instructor is a professional person. Therefore, no unprofessional person is a
PUP instructor.
E to I: No S is P; therefore, some non-P is S.
No swan is a duck. Therefore, some non-ducks are swans.
O to I: S is not P; therefore, some non-P is S.
Some politicians are not rich people. Therefore, some poor people are politicians.
B. Complete Contraposition
o Steps:
 Subject – use the contradictory of the predicate
 Copula – do not change
 Predicate – Use the contradictory of the subject.

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o EXAMPLE:
A to A: Every S is P; therefore, every non-P is a non-S.
Every PUP instructor is a professional. Therefore, every unprofessional person is a
non-PUP instructor.
E to O: No S is P; therefore, some non-P is not a non-S.
No swan is a duck. Therefore, some non-ducks are not non-swans.
O to O: Some S is not P; therefore, some non-P is not a non-S.
Some politicians are not rich people. Therefore, some poor people are not
non- politicians.

Note: The I proposition does not have a contraposit. To contraposit is to obvert first the I into O and O does not
have a converse.

4. INVERSION
o Re-expressing the original proposition into a new proposition whereby the subject becomes the
o The antecedent of inversion is INVERTEND as the original proposition and the consequent of the
inversion is INVERSE as the new proposition.

Types of Inversion:
A. Simple Inversion
o Steps:
 Subject – use the contradictory of the subject
 Copula – change
 Predicate – Put the original predicate
o EXAMPLE:
A to O: Every S is P; therefore, some non-S is not P.
Every PUP instructor is a professional person. Therefore, some non-PUP instructors are
not professionals.
E to I: No S is P; therefore, some non-S is P.
No swan is a duck. Therefore, some non-swans are ducks.

C. Complete Inversion
o Steps:
 Subject – use the contradictory of the subject
 Copula – do not change
 Predicate – Use the contradictory of the predicate..
o EXAMPLE:
A to I: Every S is P; therefore, every non-S is a non-P.
Every PUP instructor is a professional. Therefore, some non-PUP instructors are
unprofessional
E to O: No S is P; therefore, some non-P is not a non-S.
No swan is a duck. Therefore, some non-ducks are not non-swans.
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