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1. A text can come in any form and be any kind of writing. Letters, adverts, user-guides, emails, postcards, notes and
magazine articles are all different types of text. When reading something, it helps to know what type of text it is. It
also helps to know why it has been written. For example:

A) Read and complete with the missing words. More than one word can be used in each space.

1. An advert is written to ____________________ you to buy something.

2. A user-guide is ________________ and is written to ____________________to use something (such as a video

recorder or washing-machine).

3. A formal (business) letter might be written to ___________________ you about school dates.

4. A personal letter might be written by a friend, ______________________ a holiday.


2. New words enter the English language all the time - the exact number is uncertain but there are thousands
appearing every year. Below are some of the ways in which new words come into being. Write the correct name of
each process:

a- Many words in English seem to have a Latin quality to them - this is because some of them have developed from
French vocabulary learnt during the Norman occupancy many years ago. ____________________________

b- The use of prefixes and suffixes is one of the most common ways in which new words are created.

c- The invention of a totally new term is called __________________. The most typical sources are invented trade
names for commercial products that become general terms.

d. __________________ is the joining of two separate words to produce a single word.

e. ___________________ is typically accomplished by combining the initial part of one word and the last part of
another word.

f. When a word of more than one syllable is reduced to a shorter form, the process is called _________________ .

g.________________________ is the process of shortening a long word by cutting off an affix to form a new word.
The new word has a different part of speech from the original word.

h. _______________ refers to the process of changing the class of a word without changing its form.

i. _______________________ is a type of abbreviation, which are new words formed from the initial letters of a set
of words. They are pronounced as new single words.

j. ______________________ is also known as affixation. New words are created by adding affixes to an existing


3- In the English language, words can be considered as the smallest elements that have distinctive meanings. Based
on their use and functions, words are categorized into several types or parts of speech.

Is it correct to say that……..? Read the following statements and say YES/NO. Correct the negative ones.

a. Noun is a part of a speech which refers to words that are used to name persons. _______

b. There are different types of nouns, among them: concrete, proper, collective and mass. ________

c. A pronoun is a part of a speech which functions as a replacement for an adverb. _______

d. This is the most important part of a speech, for without a verb, a sentence would not exist. ________

e. Interjection is a part of a speech which joins words, phrases, or clauses together. ___________



1. For each question, fill the space in the sentence using the base word given in bold at the end. The required word
may be a noun, adverb, adjective or verb and it may be either positive (e.g. helpful) or negative (e.g. unhelpful).
Explain the process.

1. Educational TV programmes like this are very ____________ for young children. (stimulate)

2. Ben insisted on his articles being __________ by editors and left when his boss said that was impossible.( modify)

3. I am looking for a _____________ jeweller who will be able to appraise this watch and tell me how much it's
worth. (repute)

4. Jan Welbech was a reputable physicist until his main two theories were completely ___________ .(proof)

5. The shark's __________ is somewhat unfair as fatal attacks are extremely rare. (notorious)

6. I read a story with the title 'A Strange _________ At Talbot Bridge', which was about a train-riding ghost.(occur)

7. I went on a diet that _________ only fresh and organic food and I could only drink water.(corporate)

8. The comedian joked about a plane crash and some in the audience thought he was being ________ .(respect)

2. Explain the word formation process of the following words. /8

a. aspirin

b. hoover (from the Hoover Suction Sweeper Company which produced the first vacuum cleaner)

c. hardly


e. emoticon

f. babysit

g. macaroon

h. tsunami

i. bro

j. smog. /10