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Jet Propulsion

Ideal Turbojet
Ideal Turbofan
Turbojet cont’d
• Optimum Compressor Pressure Ratio

a maximum value is exhibited at a certain


compressor pressure
Turbojet cont’d
• Optimum Compressor Pressure Ratio

(From 1st law)


Turbojet cont’d
• Optimum Compressor Pressure Ratio

substitute
Turbojet cont’d
• Specific thrust and SFC at optimum comp. pressure ratio

– Substitute for the velocity ratio

For ideal optimum turbojet show that as is changed the kinetic energy for unit
mass is constant for a fixed and fixed altitude.
Turbojet cont’d
• The trust per unit mass flow – optimum ideal turbojet

The kinetic energy change per unit mass is constant


Ideal Turbojet with Afterburner

• The thrust of a turbojet can be increased by


the addition of a second combustion
chamber
• The total temperature leaving the
afterburner has a higher limiting value than
the total temperature leaving the main
combustor since there is no turbine to pass
through.
Ideal Turbojet with Afterburner
• Cycle Analysis

The gas velocity at the nozzle exit


Dry: non-afterburning
AB: afterburning

Show using a H-K diagram

Define

Total temperature ratio of the afterburner


Ideal Turbojet with Afterburner
• Cycle Analysis – Exit velocity
Found
previously

Also found
previously

and repeated
Ideal Turbojet with Afterburner
• Cycle Analysis – Fuel flow using energy balance

Chemical energy is converted to the thermal and kinetic energy of the gases
Ideal Turbojet with Afterburner
• Optimum Compressor Pressure Ratio with Afterburner

Find the value of compressor


pressure ratio that
maximizes the specific thrust

Differentiating
Wrt
Ideal Turbojet with Afterburner
• Optimum Compressor Pressure Ratio with Afterburner

substitute

Found previously for ideal turbojet


with AB

pressure ratio giving the maximum specific thrust decreases with the flight Mach number
Homework
• Consider examples 5.2 and 5.3 of the textbook.
• Perform a cycle analysis for both the dry and the AB engines.
• Compare the performance of the engines.