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Skill

A skill is the ability to carry out a task with determined results often within a given amount of time, energy, or both. Skills can often
be divided into domain-general and domain-specific skills. For example, in the domain of work, some general skills would include
time management, teamwork and leadership, self-motivation and others, whereas domain-specific skills would be used only for a
certain job. Skill usually requires certain environmental stimuli and situations to assess the level of skill being shown and used.

People need a broad range of skills to contribute to a modern economy. A joint ASTD and U.S. Department of Labor study showed
that through technology, the workplace is changing, and identified 16 basic skills that employees must have to be able to change with
it.[1][2] Three broad categories of skills are suggested and these are technical, human, and conceptual.[3] The first two can be
.[4]
substituted with hard and soft skills, respectively

Contents
Hard skills
Labor skills
Life skills
People skills
Social skills
Soft skills
Hierarchy of Skills
See also
References
External links

Hard skills
Hard skills, also called technical skills, are any skills relating to a specific task or situation. It involves both understanding and
proficiency in such specific activity that involves methods, processes, procedures, or techniques.[5] These skills are easily
quantifiable unlike soft skills, which are related to one's personality.[6] These are also skills that can be or have been tested and may
[7]
entail some professional, technical, or academic qualification.

Labor skills
Skilled workers have long had historical import (see Division of labor) as electricians, masons, carpenters, blacksmiths, bakers,
brewers, coopers, printers and other occupations that are economically productive. Skilled workers were often politically active
through their craft guilds.[8]

Life skills
An ability and capacity acquired through deliberate, systematic, and sustained effort to smoothly and adaptively carryout complex
activities or job functions involving ideas (cognitive skills), things (technical skills), and/or people (interpersonal skills). See also
competence.
People skills
According to the Portland Business Journal, people skills are described as:[9]

understanding ourselves and moderating our responses


talking effectively and empathizing accurately
building relationships oftrust, respect and productive interactions.
A British definition is "the ability to communicate effectively with people in a friendly way, especially in business."[10] The term is
not listed yet in major US dictionaries.[11]

The term people skills is used to include both psychological skills andsocial skills but is less inclusive thanlife skills.

Social skills
Social skill is any skill facilitating interaction and communication with others. Social rules and relations are created, communicated,
and changed in verbal and nonverbal ways. The process of learning such skills is called
socialization.

Soft skills
Soft skills are a combination of interpersonal people skills, social skills, communication skills, character traits, attitudes, career
[12]
attributes and emotional intelligence quotient (EQ) among others.

Hierarchy of Skills
Skills can be categorized based on the level of expertise and motivation. The highest level of engagement corresponds to the
craftsman. About 2% of people reach the highest level.

See also
Communication skills
Deskilling
DISCO - European Dictionary of Skills and Competences
Dreyfus model of skill acquisition
Game of skill
Online skill-based game
Procedural knowledge Hierarchy of Skills.[13]
Transferable skills analysis

References
1. "Publications and Research Search Results, Employment & raining
T Administration (ETA)" (http://wdr.doleta.gov/res
earch/rlib_doc.cfm?docn=941). wdr.doleta.gov. U.S. Department of Labor. Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/201
80428145153/https://wdr.doleta.gov/research/rlib_doc.cfm?docn=941)from the original on 28 April 2018. Retrieved
28 April 2018.
2. Ryu, Cheong-san (2017). "Educational Significance of Soft Skills and Hard Skills".
The Journal of Korean Practical
Arts Education. 23 (1): 1–17. Relationship between skills and core-competencies in education.
3. Sommerville, Kerry (2007).Hospitality Employee Management and Supervision: Concepts and Practical
Applications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 328.ISBN 9780471745228.
4. Rao, M.S. (2010). Soft Skills - Enhancing Employability: Connecting Campus with Corporate
. New Delhi: I. K.
International Publishing House Pvt Ltd. p. 225.ISBN 9789380578385.
5. DuBrin, Andrew (2008).Essentials of Management. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning. p. 16.
ISBN 9780324353891.
6. Staff (15 May 2010). "Hard Skills" (http://www.investopedia.com/terms/h/hard-skills.asp). Investopedia. Archived (htt
ps://web.archive.org/web/20131205191350/http://www .investopedia.com/terms/h/hard-skills.asp)from the original on
5 December 2013. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
7. Carter, Jenny; O'Grady, Michael; Rosen, Clive (2018).Higher Education Computer Science. Cham: Springer. p. 223.
ISBN 9783319985893.
8. Cowan, Ruth Schwartz (1997).A Social History of American Technology. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 179.
ISBN 0-19-504605-6.
9. Rifkin, H. (18 July 2008)."Invest in people skills to boost bottom line"(https://web.archive.org/web/20080718185643/
http://portland.bizjournals.com/portland/stories/2002/06/03/focus6.html) . Portland Business Journal. Retrieved
2009-10-14.
10. “Macmillan Dictionary” (http://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/british/people-skills)Archived (https://web.arc
hive.org/web/20091105115142/http://www .macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/british/people-skills)5 November 2009
at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on 2009-08-18
11. Dictionary.com definition (http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/people+skills&fromAsk=true&o=100074). Retrieved
on 2009-08-18
12. Robles, Marcel M. (12 August 2016)."Executive Perceptions of the Top 10 Soft Skills Needed in Today's Workplace"
(https://web.archive.org/web/20160812053907/http://bcq.sagepub.com/content/75/4/453.abstract) . Business
Communication Quarterly. 75 (4): 453–465.
13. Igor Kokcharov, Hierarchy of Skills http://www.slideshare.net/igorkokcharov/kokcharov-skillpyramid2015

External links
American Society for Training & Development
Australian National Training Authority
NCVER's Review of generic skills for the new economy
SKILLS EU Research Integrated Project

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