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Air Cbnditio


Technical-Vocational Consultant


Technical-Vocational Consultant
Associate American societyot
Healine, tngineers
^aembernefrigeririnB Associdlron


Technical-Vocational Consultant
Member,RefriSeration SewiceEnBineersSociety
Heating,Refrigerating, Engineers
Mem-ber,Aii Conditioning of
Contractors America
Member,Aisociationfor CareerandTechnicalEducation



editonscopylghl2000,1996,j 992,i 9BB,j 982,1979,I 97S,1968

Ar ghrsreserved. Noparlofthisworkmayb€reproduc€d,
sloredjor transmitted
tn anyiormor by anyetectronic
n€chanicaimeans nctLdingnformaUon storageand
rorevarsyslems, thepriofwrien permiss
wtlhoLt onoi The
coodhean-Wi tcoxCompany,tic.
'r theUniled of Ameca.
of Congfess
Catatog CardNumber2003052840
10:I -59070-280-8

The lechnologica
changesin the reiiigeralion
andair condition ng industryin aecent
Theaccuracy, reliabiljty,
carty, and feadingevelofth s
bookhavebeenachieved throughthe asssianceof the fottowing individuats:
DanielC. Bracclano,B.S.M.E.tSeniorHVACEngineer, ceneratUoiors
Corporation,Warren, fulichigant
Associatet\,4ember, American
Socielyof Healing,Reirigerating
and Air,Condiionng Engineersi
GloriaM, Bracciano,8.A.,lL4.A.,
Lake Oron, lvlichiganiAssoca1e l\,lember,
Healing,Fefrgeratingand Air-Condilionng Engineersil\,{embef,
andServiceEngineers Sociely.
Albe Buller,AutomotiveService,ceneral lloiors Retailer,Lapeer,
RobenH.Edgeon,B.S.M.E., M.S.lV.E.,
Robe Ottolinl,B.M.E.,M.S.M.E.; Engineefing
Corpofalion, gan
JesseR. Riojas,8.S.,Assoc.CllmateControlTech.i Instructor,
Communiiy Co lege,OaklandTechnical Cenier,IVichigan
Connie Habermehl,AdministratveAssistanl,Assocaled T6chnical
The authorsandp!blishergratetullyacknowl€dg€ th6lollowingcompanies
lor useoi
maierialsfor the cover:TlFlnsirumenls,
Inc.iCa(ier Corpo€tion,ResdeniialProductsi

Libraryof Congr6ssCataroglng
in AJbricationData
on andair condilonng/ by
AndrewO.Aihouse,Car H.Turnqusl, AllredF.

tsBN1 59070,280-8
L R€trig€ration and€liigelatngmachnery.
2 .A r c o n d i l o n i n Lg .T u r n q u sC l ,a r l H a r o d , 1 9 l 0 -
l l . B r a c c i a nAof,r e dF . l l . T t l e .

Modem Refrigeration and Air Conditioning provides a thorouth and authontahve course
on the basic and advanc€d pdnciples of refrigeration and air conditioning.
As the technolo8y in the field has advanced, so has the leading text in the educational 6e1d,
Modern Refrigeration and Air Conditioning. lt contains all the most recent information and
advances that arc nec€ssaryto prepare the teclmician Ior today's world. lt incoryorates the lat€si
technical chanSesand EPA mlinSs, cove$ the newer refrigerants, and prcvides current inJomra-
tion on ihe rccovery reclaiming, and reryclint of refrigerants. It contains basic information on
numercus cedfication exams.
Mod€m Reftigeration and Air Conditionint presents all these pdnciples in a very easily
rnderstood format. To make this book more "user 6iend1y," the t'?e face has been enlarg€d,
and the readability imprcved. Sentencesand paraSraphs have all been reviewed so that comPre-
hension is maximized. Thrs edition retains the sequenceof topics that has proven successful.Some
oI ihe lrlaterial has been corelated into modules to h+ you obtain a better underctanding oI
the subjeci.
A[ dmwinSs have been coded to a standard color scheme to aid in recognition of items.
The safety seciions are highlighted in red, as in the past; ihe ser\,1cefeaturcs arc identified with
blue. Cu:rrent cylinder color coding is given for each reftgerant.
An expanded table of contents is one of many features designed to enhance the leamint
process.Each chapter has an idendJication of key words you will encounter in that chapter Learn-
ing objectives also are provided for each chapter. Test Your Knowledge questions aPPear at the
end of each chapter.
Modem Retngeratron alrd Air Conditioning is writt€n using both U.S. Conventional and
SI Metric uniis. The metric equivalent appears alongside the conventional unit throughout the
texibook. This allo}r's you to use the system with which you are most familiar.
Modem Refrigeration and Air Conditioning is intended for use in rcfrigeration and air
conditioning classesin hith schools, technical schools, and community colleges. lt may also be
used in aduli educatron classesand apprenticeship pro$ams. It Prcvides the foundafion on which
a solid, thorough knowledge of refrigeration and air condiiioning may be based. It also Provides
an excellent basis of inJormation for you in the areas of sefficing and troubleshoofing
Beginnerc and apprentices will find in Modem Refrigeration and Air Conditioning an eY-
cell€nt aid lor starting and pu$uing a pleasant and prcfitable career. ExPerienced se ice tech-
nicians will find it a valuable guide and reference.
Congratulations on selechng the best seilin& most popular book on refrigeration and air
conditioning! Modern Refrigeration and Au Conditioning will Suide you to a successfii carcer
and provide you with a valuable reference in ihe Profession.
Colors are used tlEoughout Modem Refrigeration and Air Conditionine to help show
rerentstdtesand condition!_ofgdsesand Uquid!. OLhercolor. indicaLeele(tric;]. mechanicdl,
spe(rarcomponenis. the touowing tey shows whdt each color represents.

SystemSchematicfor Refrigerationand Heating

"011il-'n$J.i,"J.,0,id Redl
I Dark
Vapor ffi ltign n"al
Liquid I n-t atu"l
Vapor ffi trigl, nt.,"t
Low-PressureWater O-t Creerrl
Low-PressureSteam [,ight c.eerl]
High-Pressure Water and Ammonia (Weak Solution-Hot) Brown-neal
Low-Prcssure Water and Ammonia (Srrong Sotution--4o1d) truquotseJ

E '''**
r"",om ^o, m,,"^,
lt'-ll m

,o",.liif*", ro"!ftf^*tW,r,r,Jilr""'N
[ "ff]^1f.ffii
l'ilffi" W
HighlightSystem I mt*1
Sp€cificComponents tli-" C.eenl
HithliShtSystemffi tntue-crayJ
SpecificComponents |Ligt:rtOruogel
iystem fl tv"to-t
SpecificComponents IDark OrangeJ


MODULE 25 1.31 Enthalpy 52
1.1 Developmentof Refrigeration25 ] 32 Cryogenics 52
1.2 How a MechanicalRefriSerator
Operates 26 1.33 PerfectCas Equation 53
1.3 ColorCodingSystemin ThisText 26 1.34 Dalton'sLaw 54
1.4 Heat 27 1.35 Evaporator 54
1.5 Cold 28 1.36 Vapor Cas 54
1.37 Humidity-RelativeHumidity54
1.38 ElementaryRefrigerator 54
MODULE 28 '1.40
Reviewof Abbreviationsand Symbols 57
1,6 Ternperatufe andTemperaturc Measu€ment28
1.7 Basic Arithmetic30 1.41 Reviewof Safety 57
1.8 Temperature Conversion32 1.42 TestYour Knowledge 58
1.9 Temperature Difference Calculations33
1.10 Dimensions 33
1.11 Pressure 37
1.12 TheThreePhysical States39
1.13 Density41
1.14 Force 41
1.15 Work 42
1.16 Energy42
1.17 Powet 42
1.18 Unitof Heat 43
on Evaporating
1.19 Effectof Pressure
Temperatures 46
1.20 Effectof Pressure
on Freezing Tempetature
of Water 47
L21 RefrigeraiingEffectol lce 47
1.22 AmbientTemperature49
1.23 Heatof Compression49
1.24 Energy Units 50


1.25 Refrigerant
1.26 HeatTransfer50
1.27 BrineandSweetWater 51
1.28 Drylce 51
1.29 Cfitical 52


2.1 Tubing 61
2.2 Cuuingand BendjngTools 64
2.3 Connecting Tubing 66
solde^-do- Brd,,pd-tJbrlg
Fi I rgs bq
ruoeLoupIng5 /5
2.6 Swaging CopperTubing 75
2.7 TubeConstficror76
2.8 PipeFittlngs
and Sizes 76

2.9 HandTools 77


2.10 Instruments
and Cauges 88
2.11 Measuring
Tools 92

2.i 2 Fastening
Devices 9,1
2.13 Refrigeration
Supplies 96
2.14 ServiceValves 98
2.15 Purging 99
2-l6 EvacuatinS99
2.17 Reviewoi Salety 99
2.18 TestYourKnowledge 100


3.1 lce RefrigerationI03 3.12 Cascade Refrigerating Synems 113

3.2 EvaporativeRefrig€ration(DesertBag) 104 3.13 ModulatingRefrigeration Cyce I1.1
3.3 EvaporativeRefrigeration(SnowMaking) 104 3.14 l c eM a k e r 1 1 5
3.1 CompressionSysternUsing Low Side Float 3.15 DrinkingWaterCooler 116
ReirigerantControl 105 3.16 Expendable RefrigerantRefrigeration
System I1 7
3.5 (Open)Refrigefating
External-Drive System 106 3.17 Thernroelectric RefriSeration118
3.6 Compression SystemUslngHigh-Side Floar 3.18 Dry lce Refrigeration118
RefrigeraniContro 107 3.19 Intermittent Absorpiion System 120
3.7 Compression SynemUsingAutomatjcExpansion 3.20 Coniinuous CycleAbsorption Systern I22
Valve {AEV)RefrigeraniControl I 08 3.21 SolidAbsorbent Reffigeralion124
3.8 Compression SystemUsingThermonatically 1.22 Sophisiicated Commercial Systenrs125
ControlledExpansion Vave (TEV) 108 3.21 Hot-CasDefrost 125
3.9 Compression SystemUsingCapillaryTube 3.24 ElectricDelrost 128
RelrigerantControl 109
3.10 MultipleEvaporator 1.25 TestYourKnowledge 129
System 110
3.ll CompoundRefrigerating Systems 111

4.1 Lawsof Refrigeration131
4.2 Compression Cycle 131
4.3 Evaporator134
4.4 Accumulator 134
4.5 SuctionLine 134
4.6 Compressor135
4-7 Oil Separator136
4.8 Condenser137
4.9 LiquidReceiver 139
4 . 1 0 L i q u i dL i n e I 3 9
4..I 'ypFsoJ RefriBeraql Flo\^Conlrol I40
4.'12 Motor Control 145


4.13 Extefnal-DriveCompressors146
4.14 HermeticCompressors147
4.15 Typesof Compressorc 147
4.16 Motors 168
4.17 Seryice
Valves 168
4.18 Mufflers 169
4.19 CompressorCooling 169
4.20 Lubrication170
4.21 CompressorVolumetricEfficiency170
4.22 CompressionRatio 172
4.23 CheckValves 172
4.24 Urloader 172

4.26 O Rings 172

4.27 CrankcaseHeater I73
4.28 Reviewof Satety 173
4.29 TestYour Knowledge 174


5.'l CompfessionSystemRefrigerantConirols 177 5.5 Reviewof Safety 203

5.2 ComparingRefrigerant
Controls 202 5.6 TestYour Knowledge 204
5.3 CheckValve 202
5.4 Valves 202

6.1 CeneratinSElecrricity207 MODULE 234
6.2 Typesof Electricity208 6.6 Eiectronics214
6.3 CircuitFundamentals 210 6.7 Electrical
Power 242
6.4 Electrical
Materials222 6.8 Electrical
Codes 250
6.5 Magnetism224 6.9 CircuitProtection250
6.10 Reviewof Safety 253
6.11 TestYourKnowledge 254



Motor Data 278
7.1 ElectricMotorApplications257 7.15 FanMotors 278
7.2 The MotorStructure257 7.16 Shaded-PoleMoio|s 279
7.3 Typesof ElectricMotors 258 7.17 Electronic
VariableSpeedMotors 280
7.4 Motor Speeds 261
7.5 Sta{ingand RunningWindings 262
7.6 StartingCurrent 263
7.8 HermeticSystemMotors 265 7.18 Seryjcing
ElectricMotors 282
7-9 DirectCurent and UniversalMotors 272 7.19 Pulleys 287
7.10 Motof Horsepowerand Motor 7.20 Belts 288
Lnatactefl9irc5l/J 7.21 Motor T€siingStand 290
7.11 ElectricMotorCrounding 273 7.22 Servicing
and RepairingHermeticMotors 290
7.12 MoIor Prctectior 274 7.23 Revie\r,oiSaiery 292
7.13 MotorTemperaiure277 7.24 TesiYour Know edge 292

S N D C O N T R O L S2 9 5

CONTROLCIRCUITS MODULT 295 8.9 RemoteTemperature SensingElenrents 316
8.1 ElecticalCifcuits-CompleteWiring 8.10 Pressure
MotorContfos 317
Diagram 295 8.11 Motor SafetyContfols 317
8.2 Eiectical Circuits-Laddet Diag]am 297 8.12 Motor SradingRelays 319
8.3 ControlSystems-Fundamentals 297 8.13 AutomaticDefrostControls 324
8 l4 Sen;aLrorrri(Det.onControls l2t
8.15 Hot-CasDefrostControls 327
8.16 lce BankControls 328
Refrigerator 8.17 De-lceControls 329
8.4 and FreezerContros 309
8.1B Hum;dityContfols 330
8.5 lce MakerControls 310
8.19 Timers 330
8.6 ComlortCooiingAir ConditioningControls 314
8.7 CentralAir Conditioning
Conlrols 315 8.20 Reviewol S.rfety 131
8-8 WaterCoolerControls 316 8.21 TestYourKnowledge 131


9.1 R e f r i g e r a n tasn d t h e O z o n e L a y e r 3 3 5 9.12 Refrigerant

Cylinders 355
9.2 Requirementsior Refrigerants 337 9.13 Use of Pfessure-Temperaiure
Tables 357
9.3 Use of Pressure-Temperatur€Curves 337 9.14 HeadPressures (HighSide) 357
9.,1 Cfouping and classificationof Refriseranis 338 9.15 RetrigeratorTemperatures357
9.5 CroupA Retrigerants 338 9.16 Refrigerant
9.6 Croup B Reffigerants351 9.17 358
9.7 Combustible Refrigerants 352 9.1I Amountof RefrigerantRequjredin a System 158
9.8 ExpendableRefrigerants352 9.19 Refriseration
Oil 36'l
9.9 Wateras a Refrigerant 354 9.20 Moisturein Refrigerant361
9.10 FoodFreezanis354 9.21 Revi-.wof Safety 362
9.1I Cryogenic Fluids 354
9.22 TestYour Knowledge 363


10.1 Chlorofuorocarbons (CFCs),

Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs),
and the OzoneLayer 365
10.2 Recovery, Recycling, Reclaiming
of Refrigerants 367
10.3 Refrigerant Recovery Equipment367
10.4 RelrigprdnrR^,\r lirS EqLipme'rl {-/
'10.5 Procedure375
10.6 Retrofit 377
10.7 MobileAir Conditioning378
10.8 Revie$r
of Saiety l/9
10.9 TestYourKnowledge 379


11.1 PreseNing Foodsby RefriSefation 1l .l0 UprightFreezers407

and Freezing 381 11.11 Care of Refri8erator or Freezef 409
and FreezerInsulation 382
11.2 Refrigerator 11.12 lceAccumulation in CabinetInsulation410
11.3 RefrigeratorSingle-Door,ManualDefrost 382 11.13 ButterConditioner410
ll.4 Re-flSer"loFFreeze Mdrudl Defrosl J84 11.14 CabinetHardware 411
11.5 Refrig€rator-Freezer 11.15 CabinetCaskets 412
11.5 Refrigerator-Freezer-Frost-Free 1 1 . 1 6R e p a i r i nFgi n i s h e s4 1 3
11.7 RefrigeratoFFreezer-Frost-Free, 11.17 CabinerThermometers413
Side-by-Side 395 11.18 Revicwof Safety 414
lce Maker 401
11.8 Solid-State 11.19TestYourKnowledge 414
11.9 Chest-TypeFreezers 401

12.1 Instruments, Tools,and Supplies 4j7 12.9 LocatingRefrigerantLeaks 444

12.2 InstallingRefrigemtors
and Freezers 419 12.10 RepairingLeaks 448
1 2 . 3 TroubJeshooting
the Hermetic 12.11 RefrigerantRecoveryand Evacuaiion 449
RefrjgeratoFFreezer421 12.'12Diagnosing Componenr Problems 452
12.4 HermeticServicing 427 12.13 ReplacinSSystem Components459
ExternalSeruicingOperations 427 12.14 Evacuatinga Synemwith a VacuumPump 463
12.6 InternalServiceOperations 433 12.15 Overhauling a HermeticSystem 470
12.7 Cauge(Servjce)Manilold Types
and Construction 434 12.16 Reviewof Satety 470
12.4 HermeticServiceValvesand Adaptors 438 I2.17 TestYourKnowledge 471


COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS MODULE 473 3.8 VendingMachineControls 519

13.1 Construction
of Refrigeration
Components473 3.9 DeirostTimers 520
13.2 Refrigeration
Components473 3.10 Pressure
Valves 524
13.3 PackagedCommercial Systern
Components4 7 5 3.ll CompressorProtectionDevices 529
13.4 Commercial Evaporators496 3.12 ManualValves 536
3.13 Relrigerant
Lines 539
Controls 513
3.15 Reviewof Safety 544
13.6 MotorControls 513
13.7 lce MakerControls 519 3.16 TestYourKnowledge 544

sutlpat a2kknd uDanmt Ltudrh c6El


l4.l C o m m e f c i a lC a b i n e tC o n s t r u c t i o n 5 , 1 7 1,1.12WaterCooler 562

14.2 Supermarkets 548 14.13 Automaticlce Maker 563
I4.1 CroceryCablnet(Reachln Cabinet) 5,18 14.14VendjngMachines 564
I4.4 Wa k-lnCablnet 550 1 4 . 1 5M i l k C o o l e r 5 6 5
14.5 DisplayCas€s 553 1 4 . 1 6B a k e r i e s5 6 5
14.6 FrozenFoodStorage Cabinet 556 l4.l 7 Refrigerant-to-Water Heat RecoverySyslern 566
Case 558
1.1.7 Fast-Freezing 14.18 LaboratoryRefrigerated Incubators 566
14.8 lce CreamCabinet 558 14.19 IndustriaApplications567
1,1.9 SodaFountain 559 l.:1.20Reviewoi Sai.'tv 5{r8
14.10 Dlspensing
Freezers559 1.1.21TestYourKnowledge 569
14.11 ModularRefrigeration
Synems 562


INSTALLING COMMERCIAT SYSTEMS MODULE 571 1 5 . 1 2S e r v i cEe q u i p m e n t5 9 1

I5-l Typesof CommerciaInstalatlons 571 15.13 CeneralServiceInstructlons591
15.2 InstallingCondensing Unils 572 15.14 Servicing Condensing Units 596
15.3 Instaling Evaporators574 15.15 ServiceNotes 625
15.4 InstallingRefrig€ranlPiping 575 15.16 Sunrmary of RefrgeratorMechanism
I5.5 E ectrical
Connections 581 Servicing625
15.6 TeningCodelnstallaiions582 I5.1/ PeriodicInspections625
15.7 Evacuallng Synem 586 I5.18 Locating Trolrbes 625
I 8 L l-e.(r rg \).lar" bpfoe Slnrlr'lt 58t) 15.19 Reiigefation Service Contracting628
'15.9 15.20 Refrigerant Recovering and Recyclng 628
Charging Comnrercial Sysiems586
15.10 Startinga System 588 oi 5.rer,v 629
li.2l R-.\,iew
l;.22 TestYourKnowledge 610
15.11 S€rviclng Unlts 590


HEATLOADSMODULE 633 16.11 BypassCycle 66,1

16.1 HeatLoad 634 16.12 MotorSizes 666
16.2 Thermodynamics of the Relrigeration
Cycle 645 16.13 CondenserCapacities 666
I6.3 Evaporatorand Condensing Unit Capacrtres650 16.14 Servicing:
I6.4 EvaporatorInstalations 65i
16.5 WatercoolingLoads 659
16.6 lce CreamFreezing and StorageLoad 660 LINESAND PIPINcMODULI 670
16.7 System Capacity 661 I6.15 Refrigefani
Ljnesand Piping 670
16.8 Compressor Capacities 662 16.16 Seasonal
16.9 Cascade System 664 16.17 Reviewoi Safety 681
16.10 Two StageCompressor664 16.18 TestYour
Knowedge 683



17.1 TheAbsorptionSystem 685 SYSTEMS MODULE 696
17.2 Typesoi AbsorptionSystems 685 17.10 ResidentiaAbsorptlon Air Conditioners696
17.3 Principleof the SolidAbsorptionSystem 686 17.11 Commercial Absorption Sysiem 702
17.4 EfficiencyofAbsorptionSystems 686 17.12 AbsorptionUnit for Air Conditioning
17.5 Princjpleof the Intermitient
Absorption and Heatlng 702
System 686 17.13 Servicing
Absorption Refrigerators704
I 7.6 Principle
of the ContnuoLrs Absorption
System 687 17.14 Reviewof Saiety 706
I7.7 Installing
an Absorption Refrigerator692 TestYourKnowledge 706
17.8 Poriabe AbsorptlonRefrigerators 695
17.9 AbsorptionRefrigeraiorsfor Mobile Homes 696

Chaptert 8

18.1 TransportationReffigeraiion
709 18.8 HeatPipe 721
I8.2 PortableAir Conditioning/Spot
Cooling 715 18.9 lmmersion(FastFteeze) 722
I8.3 ThermoelectricRefrigeration715 18.10 CryogenicRefrigetation723
18.4 VortexTube 7l 7 18.11 Ozonizedlce andWatet 724
JetCoolingSynems 718 18.12 Sterling
Cycle 724
I8.6 MultistageSystems Cascade
l8-l3 Reviewoi Safely 725
and Compound 719
18.1,1TestYourKnowledge 725
18.7 SnowMakinS 721


19.1 DefinitionofAir ConditioninS727 Air QuaLity 744
19.2 Air-Atmosphere 728 19.9 Conrmercial Air Quality
and Residential
19.3 Physical ol Air 728
Properties Systems 750
19.4 VaporBarriers 736 19.10 ComfortConditions 753
19.5 Air Movement 736 1 9 . 1 1N o i s e 7 5 4
19.5 Climate 740 I9.12 Reviewof Safety 758
HeatInsulation 742 19.13TestYourKnowledge 759


,10.I Cas-FiredCrd\iq HeatingSy>'en 76 | 20.13 CentralAir Conditionerc 775

20.2 Cas-FiredForced-AirHeating 762 20.14 AbsorptionCycle Systems 776
20.3 Cas-Fired HydronicHeating 763 20.15 EvaporativeCondensers779
20.4 Oil-FiredForced-AirHeating 765 20.16 CoolingTowers 780
20.5 Oil-FiredHydronicHeating 766 20.17 SteamJetCooling 781
Heating 767
20.6 EleciricalResistance 20.18 VortexTubeCooling 782
20.7 RadiantHeating 768 20-19 EvaporativeCooling 784
20.8 Air-to-AirHeatPumps 768 20.20 AutomobileAir Conditioning785
20.9 Ccorhermal Hcal PumpSyrens 20.21 Reviewof Sarety 786
20.10 RoomHumidifiers 773 20.22 TestYour Knowledge 787
20..l1 RoomDehumidifiers773
20.12 RoomAir Conditione$ 773


CAS HEATINGSYSTEMS MODULE 789 21.25 Cun-Type Oil BurnerPumps 825

21.1 Typesof Systems789 (TransforneFElectrode)
21.26 Electrical lgnition 826
21.2 Combustion 789 21.27 PtimatyContol 829
2l.3 FuelCases 791 21.28 Oil TankInstallation829
21.4 BasicForcedAir Components292 2l.29 Oil Burnerlnstallation83i
21.5 Cas Burners 794 21.30 Servicing
a FuelOil Burner 833
21.6 Furnace Typesand ConstrLrction
21.7 Cas FurnaceEfficiency296
21-8 Two-stage Furnace 799 21.31 EjectricHeat 834
21.9 Unit Heaters 799
2l.32 Principlesof ElectricHeating 834
21.10 Ventingof Furnacesand Chimneyor Exhalrn 2'1.33Appiications of ElectricHeating 8j4
Cas-.s 799
2 | 14 P-inLolesol I re(t i' R..i.rrn(e Hed-ng 836
21.11 lgnitionSystems80,1
21.35 ElectricRadiantHeat 839
21.12 Pipingand Cas Pressure805
21.36 Installing
HeatingCo;ls 840
2'1.13StartUp CheckSheet 806
21.37 ServicingHeatingCoils 840
21.14 Maintenance807
21.15 Serviceand Instrument
CheckList 807
21.16 HydfonicHeatingSystem 811 21.39 CoalandWood Heating 841
21.17 lnstalling 21.40 SolarHeating 842
21.18 Troubleshootjng 21.41 Cogeneration842
2l.19 SteamHeatingSystems819
21.20 SteamHeatingInstallation820 HUMIDIFICATIONMODULE A42
21.21 Servicinga SteamHeatingSystem 820 21.42 Humidifiers 842
21.43 Typesof Humidifiers 844
OIL FURNACES MODULE 820 21.44 Servicing
and Installing
2 l . 2 2 F u eO i l s 8 2 0 2l.45 Reviewof Saiery 847
2l.23 Oll Fumaces 821 21.46 TestYour Knowledge 848
2l.24 Cun-Type Oil Burne6 822

CY S T E M S8 5 3

22.1 Principies
of AtmosphereCooling 853 22.5 Dehumidjfying
22.2 ComfortCoolingSystems 855
22.3 Self-Contained 22.6 Reviewot Safety 870
ComfortCoolers 855
22.4 RernoteComfortSysiems 869 22.7 TestYourKnowledge 871



23.'l Air Properties andBehavior873 23.7 Air Measurement900
23.2 Air Circulation875 23.8 Air Cleaning 903
23.3 BasicVentilation Requirements
23.4 A,i Duc\s 877 2:1.9 Revie\^,
ol Salety 911
23.5 Special DuctProblems 23.10 TestYourKnowled8e 912
Maintenance 892
2 3 . 6 D u c tS i z i n g8 9 3

L I R C O N D I T I O N I N GA N D H E A TP U M P S 9 1 5

HEAI PUMPSMODUTE 915 24.13 Servicing CentralAir Conditioning

24.1 HeatPumpTheory 915 Sysiems 946
24.2 Typesof HeatPumps 915 Systems
24.14 Air Circulation Humidity
and Relative
24.3 HeatPumpOperation 916 Controj 947
24.4 Heat PumpSystems 920
24.5 HeatPumpsand SolarHeatingSystems929 LARCESYSTIMSMODULE 949
24.6 Heat Plmp Water Heaters 932 24.15 ChilledWaterSystems949
24.7 HeatPumpInstallation933 24.16 Typesof Chillers 949
Heat Pumps 934
24.8 TroubleshootinS
24.17 ChillerCompressors952
24.9 SeruicingHeatPurnps 914
24.18 ComfortCoolingSystems 955
24.19 RooftopUnits 956
CINTRAI-AIR CONDITIONINC SYSTEMS 24.20 Complete Air ConditioninSSystems962
MODUtt 936 24.21 lce-Based Systems 962
24-10 Typesof CentralAir ConditioningSystems 936 24.22 Total EnergySystems 963
24.ii Installing centralAir Condiiioning
Residential 24.23 District Heatingand Cooling Systems 965
Sysiems 942
24.12 lnspecting CentralAir Condidoning
Residential 24.24 Reviewof Safeiy 966
Systems 945 24.25 TestYour Knowledge 966


25.1 TheNatureof SolarEne€Y 969 25.5 SolarEnergyCoolingSystems 978

25.2 Systems971
SolarEnergy 25.6 ConvertingSolarEnergyto Electricity 979
25.3 Storage
SolarEnergy Systems973 25.7 Revicwof Saiely 981
25.4 SupplementaryHeat 976 25.8 TestYouf KnowledSe 981



26.1 Conirols 983 26.13 Controllers1000
26.2 Thermostats984 26.14 PrimaryControls 1002
26.3 Thermostai Operation 985 26.15 SequentialOperatingControls j004
26.4 HeatingThermosiats989 26.16 LimitControis 1004
26.5 CoolingThermostats994 26.17 FanControls 1005
26.6 Combination Thermostats994 26.18 ControlCircuits 1006
26.7 ElectronicThermostats995 26.19 AirflowControls 1017
26.8 TimerThermostats 998 26.20 Distribution
Controls 1018
26.9 MultistageThermostats998
26.10Hydronic Thermostats 999
26.11 Porrable
26.12Thermostat LocationandServicing 999 26.21 Total Ene€y ManagementSystems 1022
26.22 Enegy ManagementSystemTypes
and Functions 1026
26.23 Control SystemDiagnosticsand Repair 1029
26.24 Reviewof Safety 1030
26.25 TestYoufKnowledge 1030


27.1 HeatLoads 1033 27.5 Reviewof Safety 1054

27.2 DesignTemperatures
1047 27.5 TestYour Knowledge 1054
27.3 Insulation
27.4 Energy
2-.5 Con{rLctior dnoDesiSr. '052


28.1 Automotive Air Conditioning

HeatingSystems 1057
28.2 Air Conditioner Operation 1058
28.3 Operating Conditions 1059
28.4 E ectricalSystems1071
28.5 Air Distribution 1071
28.6 Insulation 1073
28.7 Typesof Control Systems 1073
28.8 Truckand BusAir Conditioning 1078
28.9 ServicingAutomobileAir Conditioners1078
28.10 Reviewof Safery 1083
28.11 TestYourKnowledge 1083


29.1 1085
Seruicing 29.5 Reviewof Safety 1102
29.2 1086
TroubleshootingProcedure 29.6 TegtYour Knowledge 1102
29.3 Charts1087
29.4 CustomerRelations1088



30.1 Technician and Associations1105
TYPes 1107
30.2 Certification
30.3 Recovery Procedures1107
30.4 LeakRepairs 1108
30.5 ExamPreparation1108
30.6 TestFormat 1109
30.7 Takingthe Test 1109'1109
30.8 Areasfor Reseatch
30.9 NorthAmericanTechnician Air
ConditioninSExcellenceHVAC Exam 1110
10.10 SeryiceOrganizationsand Industry


30.11 Typesof Questions 1111


31.1 KataThermometer1113 3 1 . 3 7Resistances

of Conductors,Serniconductors,
31.2 Infrared Thermomerertit4 Nonconductors1125
31.3 Weightsand SpecificHeaisof Substances. t4 3 1 . 3 8ColorCodefor Resistors1125
31.4 Ene€y 1114 3 1 . 3 9Resistancein Series
and Parallel
Circuits 1.126
31.5 EnergyEquivalents (U.S.Conventionat)1115 3 1 . 4 0Electrical
Codes 1126
31.6 EnergyEquivalents (StMetric) |j5 3 t .41 RootMeanSquare(rms)Values 1j26
31.7 LinearMeasurement Equivalents 31.42CalvanicActionSeqLrence1127
(U.S.Conventional-Sl Metric) 1115 31.43 Electrolysis1127
31.8 Fractional Inch Equivalents (Decimalsano 31.44Moisture-Holding Properties
of Air 27
M i l l i m e t e r s1) 1 1 5 3 1 . 4 5EvaporationSources 1129
3 1 . 9 A r e aE q u i v a l e n i1s 1 1 5 31.46Desiccants1129
31.'10VolumeEquivalents|16 3 1. 4 7 PsychrometricChartFormula 1129
3l.11 Pressure Equivalents1116 31.48 Boyle'sLaw 1129
3 1 . 1 2V e l o c i tEy q u i v a l e n t|s1 7 31.49Charles's Law 1130
3l .13 LiquidMeasureEquivalent5j j t 7 3 t . 5 0Cas Law 1130
31.14 WeightEquivalents1117 3 1 . 5 1Adiabat;cExpansionand Contraction
3 1 . 1 5F l o wE q u i v a l e n i1s 1 1 7 ofaCas ll31
31.16 HeatEquivaients 17 3l-52 lsothermai Expansion and Contractjon
3 1 . 1 7P L r m p i nRga t i o 1 t 1 7 of a Cas 1131
31.18 Compression Ratio 1118 3 1 . 5 3C a sa n dV a p o r 1 1 3 1
31.19 Temperaiure Conversion Table 1118 31.54 RefriSerant Propenies1t 31
31.20 Seasonal EnergyEfficiency Rating(SEER)1119 3l.55 CharacterGtics of Little-Used Refrigeranrslt31
31.21 Standard Temperature1119 31.56 MetricPressure-Heat Diagrams tj33
3'1.22Standard Pressure1120 3'1.57Moisturein LiquidRefrigerants1133
31.23 Standard Temperature and pressure Sample 1120 31.58 Dryness of Refrigeranrs 1133
31.24 Standard Air 1120 3l .59 Refrigerant Oils 1133
31.25 HeatingValueof Fuels 1120 31.60 Eutectic (Phase-Change) Materials 1133
3l.26 Single-Source Energy 1120 31.61 Cryogenic Temperatures 1136
3l.27 Therrnodynamic Laws 1120 31.62 BrineFreezing Temperatures 1136
31.28 HeatConductivjty1121 3 1 . 6 3T w i s D
t r i l lS i z e s 1 1 3 7
3 1 . 2 9E n t r o p y1 1 2 1 3l.64 PjpingColorCodes 1138
31.30 Theoryof Matter '112'l 31.65 Solders and BrazingMetals 1'138
31.3'l Electron Theory 1121 31.65 FlareNlt Wench Sizes 1138
3 i . 3 2 T h eA t o m 1 1 2 2 31.67 Solvents and Cleaning 1138
31.33 The Electron 1122 31.68 CleanRooms 1139
31.34 Electrical Unitsand Symbols 1123
31.35 Motor SizeCalculation 1124 31.69 Reviewof Safety I I39
31.36 LoweringVoltageSav€sPower l l25

TERMS 1140

, N T IL A T IN G,
In ihe past fifty yeais, the heatinS, ventilating and continued rclease of rcfiigeranis to the atmosPhere will
air conditioning (HVAC) {ield has expedenced massive desiroy the earih's ozone layer This layer, located
technological change. It has gone from the era oI the ice- appro\imaiel) l5 miles dbovP Lhe Sround prolP.Ls
man to thai of the educated and highly tained techni- tie earthfrom the damagingLrlfraviolet raysof lhe sun
cian. SeeFigurcs A and B. Desiruchon of the ozone laver would affect humans,
The most rapid advances have occurred in the last animal, Elants, and sea life.
ten years. Today's iechnician needs more than a small To prevent continuing damage to the ozone layer,
box of tools and a cylinder of r€ftigerant You must now laws have been passed governing the t,?es of refriter-
have a broad background in working with comPuter- ants manuJactured and how thev can be used. New
ized, automated electronic lryAC equiPment. equipment has been developed that requires skill alld
Many of the recent changes in the fryAC {ield are training for pnPer operation.
due io rapid chdntes in lechnologyand a Srowint con- A t€chnician todav must be familiar with the com_
cern Ior the environment. Scientists have wamed ihat ple)' eleclroni. device- u.ed in reln8eraiion "yslem) lt
i, common lo ree fully dutomatedhealrng dnd coolin8
systems in homes, These systems can be sei lor varying
t;mDeratures and humiditv ievels Ior each individual
roo;. CommercralbuiJdmg.as usin8 comPuterized
systems that are even more soPhisiicated.

Figure B. Today's HVAC technician must be able to

F i q u r eA . O n l } a h a l f L e n t u r va q a t h c \ F m d o a a 5 a work with conputercontrolled electronic systemsand
,anit'ar heL're 'n no* neiBhbothood,. dPlitetiag blo.ks use sophisticated diagnostic and chaqing equipment
of ice to keep food cold. (Edward Hulyk Studio) (Ridge Tool Company)

of Refrigeration kets, domestic central air conditioning, water coolers,
beverage coolers, marine refrigeration and air condi-
andAir Conditioning tioning, automotive air conditioning, and tmck retrig-
eralion and air condilioningcy.tem'.See Figurese,
There are few phases of modern living untouched
and D,
by refrigerdfion and dir conditioning. Bucinessopera-
fhe industrial fieH in(ludes large proce,sint dnd
hon), manufacturrng procerie5.stordge. and shipping
air Londitjoning svstem5.pa(king plinti. cold +orage.
are almo-r aluays c;;ied out todd) inder controlled-
and ice dnls. These systems require the attention of a
temperature conditions. Skilled specialists are required
relrigemtion operaiing engineer. See Figure E,
to design, install, and maintain conirotted environ-
menrsrn encloseddrea5tndr rdnge from homesto rpace
satellite-Tl-e u5e ot .ompuierL/edequipmentna- in-
creased the need Ior facilities ihat are totally energy- CareerOpportunities
The refrigeration and air conditioning industry Someof the oppofunities for employmentin retiig-
helps make possible this sysiem of livin8. Air condi- eration and air conditioning includel
tioning has improved business and industrial efficienry,
while adding to human comJort- More and morc racto- lobs at variouslevels:
des and heavy indusides are being air conditioned.The . Seniorskilied. . SupeNisors.
plesent scale of farming is made possible, to a great ex- . Skilled. . Prc{essionalpersonnel.
tent, by the use oI air-conditioned hactot cabs and . Technicians.
refrigerated harvesting equipment. Many fruits and veg-
etables are re{rigeraied immediately upon being har- (partiallist):
vested. The quality of such products is much better for gngineers.
this reason.
. Technicians. Salesengineers.
Cooling and fteezing of meat and meai products
. Test technicians. q,lacn6.c^."
makes possible iheir handling in a much more sanitary
. Salesengineers, Counterpersons,
way than would be possible without mechanical refrig-
. Application Partspersons,
eration. Beverages,desserts, and even staple foods qhihnind
are all at least partially processed by refrigeration enSineers. in;
. Installers. recervrngPer-
. TesteIS.
Designin& manuJacturing, se11in8,installing, and
. Maintenance . Operatingengineels.
maintainint this equipment provides for man, many
technicians. R p Frioari ti^-
jobs that did not exist Iess than a generation ago. Op-
. Se ice persons. Industrial.
portunities for employment in writint specifications for
. Repair specialists. . Sheetmetal experts.
refrigeration and air conditioning equipmeni and sellint
this equipment have natwally grown wiih the indushy. Assistants,
Since refrigemtion is used in so many enterprises, it fol-
lows that anyone who has to wotk in these industies
must be lamiliar with the basic air conditioning and re-
ftigeration processes. All the cafeers in this field are
available to anyone interested, r€gardless of mce, creed,

TheAir Conditioning
The air conditioning and refrigeration industry is
usualy divided into three areas:
. Domestic.
. Com]nercial.
. Industrial.
The domestic field coyets home rcfrigeFtors, fteez-
ers, and window air conditioners.
The commercial field includes all small automatic Figute C. Two service technicians repairing a rooltop
systems.Such systemsare used for stores,supermar- air conditioning unit. (Superior Contract Servtces,tnc.l

EiglJie D, Installation and servicing of home air conditianersis one ot' the many careetsopen to a person
knowledgeand handson trainingin refrigeratianand air conclitioning.(Lennoxlnternational,lnc.)

A salesen4ineerwas requiredto selectand specifythe proper

Fif]rtreE. An air mavement systembeing installecl.
eiuionent. and skilleclworkeis*ere n.idecl to installit. A servicetechnicianwill be neededto periodicallv service
and maintainthe system.(KnaufFiberClassCmbH)

HVACand Refrigeration
lob placement of tuel supply lines, air ducts, pumps, and
Descriptions other parts of a heating system. After connectint the
el€ctrical wiring and controts, rhey check unita for
proper opelation.
As y.ou might expeci, the responsibilities of per_
OiI heating system tech iciafls. Thesetechnicians
5onr working in the herting, vendlafing.dnd air co;di-
keep oil-tueled hearing'ystem. in good !rordng order.
rroningindu-fry wiu v.r) greaLly. So;iI ihe kind or lnerr work vdnes h.'th the sea)on.tr, tdll dnd winrer,
work that is done.
they service and adjust burners. Dudng the summe,
Con-ider dir condrironinS. hearinp. and rernter_
they service the heating unit, replace oi1;nd air fifters,
dlion reLhnicians.for e^ampte.Wor[ng Lmder'the
.uper!tsron- o! enguFerc the) help design. manu- and vacuum vents, ducts, and othet pats of the
acture. >ett. and >ervice equipment. Often, a tecl^ni_
Gas heating systetn techniciaflsor gas appliaftce
cian wiil specialize in one area, such as research and
semice pelsons. Thei duties are similar to tnose or an
oil bumer technician. They deiermine why a bumer will
Those working in manufacturing may design and
not work and adjust or repair it.
ie:t or supe^jse produlhon of Fquipment.They ma\
Coolint and heating systems are som€times in-
arso *orr a5 nanuldcfurer'srepre<ertatives or iield
\ale)person..lr such cases.re"ponsibilitieshould stalled or repaired by other t)?es oI technicians or
tradespeople. For example, ductwork on a large heat-
t'?ically include supptying coniractors and engi-
_ rn8 or air conditioning job may be done by sheet
neering firms with data on installation, naintenance,
metalworkers; electrical work by an electrician; and
operating costs, and performance specifications oI
piping by pipe fitters. This is often the case on large
installations where union memben of the building
Some iechnicians are employed bv contracto$ to
hades are involved.
help design and preparc installaion irstructions. Oth-
ers work in customer relations and may be responsible
for supervising the installation and'marntenance ot
equipment. Educational
AnoLherg-oupemplo)ed by (he irdusrryworL on
insrdlldtionand 'enrce. lhel rrd\el abour rn 5enrce To qualify for employment, the technician should
irucks, servicing units in homes, offices, schools, and hd\e s|Iong communicat'onskill<.d good gra-p ot prac-
other buildings. This group includesl lical marhemdfi.r.and some physicsa"a item;srr1
Air coflditioning and refrigention te.hrlicians. knowledge. A minimum requirement is at teast a one-
These workers install and repair units ranging in size year training pro$am in rcfrigeratior! heatin& and air
from small window air conditioners up to large central conditioning sysiems. The program should include boih
systems. They musi follow bluep nts and specifica- theory and hands-on laboraiory work. Figure F provides
tions to install moto$, compresso$, evaporators, and a graphic representation of employment opportunities in
other components. They cbnnect duc6, rcfrigerant the reftigeration and a conditioning Iields.
lines, and piping, as well as make power hookups. In Specfic emplotment inJomation is available from
event of breakdown, they find the cause and make the nearest branch oI the United StatesEmplo),ment Ser-
repalls. vice and the local State Emplo''rnent Se ice. Locat
F mace iflstallers or heating equiplfientinstallerc. school or public libraries also ofler rcference materials
They read blueprints and specifications and install oit, such as the Dictionary ol Occl.qalionalTltles and the
gas, and electric heating. Installation work includes OccurytionalOutlookHandbook.

5 , 7 , 9 , 1 01,1 , Companiesdevoledlo designng
14,16 ard engneeringthe healng, cool-
D 1 ! OursideSalesEngineer ing,ventialinq,plumbing, and elec-
r cal sysiems Includ€s
tor buildings.
2 . outside salesTech.or Rep. prepararlon oi drawings,spscitica-
lions,esl maleol cosl,supeeision
ACD 3 . InsideSalesFepresentaiive andlinalapproval.
of in€lallation,

GRADE12 . InsideSalesOrderDesk/Count€r


5 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 1 0 , 1 1 c, o m p a ne s l h a i s e l l a n d i n s t aI
CD 6 1 2 , 1 5 , 1 7 , 1 9 , 2 0m e c h a n i c asl y s t e m s .I n c l u d e s
i n s r a l l a r i o na n d f a b r i c a t i o no r
CD 7 syslem componenls,preparatron
ol drawings,eslimalionol cosis,
APPFENIICESHIP C D I . ApplicalionEngineerfech. a n d s u p € r v i s i o no f i n s r a l l a t i o n
according lo sp€ciiications.

VOCATIONAU D 10 t Consulfingr'Des
1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 ,Compani€s thatfepar andmaintain
TECHNICAL CD l1 8 , 1 5 ,1 7 ,1 8 , 1 9 , m e c h a n i c asl y s l e m s . I n c l ! d € s
20,21,24 rspan and mainiainingof sysiem
scHool ACD components, sale and installaiion
o f r e p l a c e m e ncio n p o n o n t sI o r
ABC 13 e c o n o m i ca n d € f i i c i e . t s y s l e m

c 15 . JobForeman
, 2 , 3 ,4 ,5 , 6 , 7 , C o m p a n i e st h a l P u r c h a s er a w
COUIMUNITY ABCD 16 8 , 9 , 1 0 , 1 2 , 1 3 ,mate al or compon€nls and fab -
1 4 , 1 7 , 1 6 , 1 9 , 2 0 cate
, or assemblenlo equipmenl lor
COLLEGE BC 17 . Fi€lds€ftic€& lnstallarion 21,22,23,24,25 sale.Includes salesand marketing,
production,design,and ros€arch
ABC t8 . ShopSeNi@andRepair

B 19 . Joumeyman-Technician MEFCHANDISING Merchandislng end sal€

& SALES companieswhichpromoteand sell
D AB 20 . Apprenllce
Tochnician 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 ,equipmeniand compon€nls which
8,12,25 havebeenmanulaclur€d by olhars.
UNIVERSITY ABCD Includessales promolion,adver
and technical
tis ng, warehouslng,
c . Lab.Technician/rechnologlsl

CD . Research
& Developmonl
GOVERNMENT Govsrnmenr and Utilitl€s
aac 24 & UTILITIES G o v € r n m e n tusl,i l l i e s ,a f d o l h e r
5 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 11
01, , ag6nciesprovidetheir own con-
12, t4,16,19,20, su ling and 56ruicing tunclions,set
22 standards,
i6st equipment, and ap-

Eiguret, Employmentopportunitiesin the refrigerationand air conditioningfield. (AmericanSacietyol HeatinS,

and Air-ConditioningEngineers)

As the technalagyin the heating,rcfriEeratinB,
and air conctitioningliield haschanled, so has the leadinBtextbaok
in the field Modem RefrigeratinS and Air Conditioning.Thisedtion of the highty acctaimedtext contains
the nast tecenl inrc.matianand ad\an.e, in the field, including technicalchanges,technicianceftiiicatioti,EpA
ltinBs,ancttecovery rccycling,and rcclaininB ai rciigerants.(Skye/USA)


Modules: Users of thrs texi who are unfamiliar with SI met-

andFundamentals of Refrigeration . . ....25 cs have no cause for concern. Conventional measure-
andMeasurement. . ., ., . . . .28 ments are caried alongside the mehic. Reference is
Refrigeration andTerms.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50
Systems made to Chapter 31 as problems arise affeciing metric

evaporator refrigerant AND
horsepower sensibleheat FUNDAMENTALS
latentheat MODULE
Learning Obiectives:
Bystudyingthischapter,you will be ableto of Refrigeration
1,1 Development
a Describe the earlydevelopment of refrigeration.
a Discussthe basicphysical,chemical,and en8ineer Modem efrigeration has many applications. The
ingprincipleswhichapplyto refrigeration. first and Fobably still the most importanL is the pres-
<) Explainhow cold preserves food. e ation of food.
a D€finebasicrefrigefation terms. Most foods kept at room temperature spoil rapidlll
a Explain principlesof heattransfet This is due io the mpid gmwth of bacteda. At common
a Compare Fahrenheit,Celsius,Kelv;n,and Rankine refriqeration tempemtures of about 40'F (4"C). bacteria
temperature scales. gro; quiLeslouiy. lood at this temperaturewill keep
a usetemperature conversion formulas to convertfrom much longer. Reirigeralionpre.ervecfood by keePingil
onetemperature scaleto another, cold.
a Determineareaandvolumeof cabinets, Other important uses of rcfuigeration include air
a Explainthe differencebetweenpsia(absolutepres- conditionin8, beverage cooling, alld humidity control.
sure)and psigGaugepressure). Many manufacturing processesalso use rcfriSeration,
a Describethe basicop€rationof a refriSerator. The reftigeration industry became imPortant com-
a Discussthe differencesbetweensensibleheat,spe- mercially during ihe 18th century Early refrigeration
cificheat,andlatentheat.Describetheirapplications. was obtained by use of ice. Ice from lakes and Ponds
a Explainphysicallawswhichapplyto refrigeration. was cut and stor€d in the winter in insulated storerooms
a Demonnrateandexplainthe relationship betweenSl
meiricandU,5.conventional measurement, The use of natural ice required building insulated
a Recognize andusevarioussymbols for Slmetrrcunits containers or iceboxesfor stores,restaurants, alrd homes.
of meagure. These units appeared on a large scale during the 19th
a Makeconversions betweenU.5.conventional andSl century,
metricsystems of measur€ment. Ice was fust made atificially about 1820 as an ex-
a calculatethe enthalpyof waterat a varietyof tem- periment. Not unhl 1834 did artificial ice manuJaciuring
peratures, becomepracLical.JacobPerkins.an American en$neer'
i' Followapprovedsalelyprocedures. invented the machine which led to out modern comprcs-
sion systems. Michael Faraday discovered the princiPies
for the absorption R?e of refrigeration as early as 1824
It was not actually built urtil 1855 by a German engi-

26 Modern Refrlseration
and A r Condhionins

Little artificial ice was produced until shoily alter system. The leftigeflflt control rcIeasesliquid refriger-
1890. DurinS 1890, a warm winter resulted in a shot- arlt when it is needed.Finally,the e?a/o/afol is the area
age of natural ice. This helped start the mechanical ice'
making industry. Removing heat from inside a refrigerator is some-
Mechanical domestic refrigeration first appeared what like removlng water from a leaking canoe. A
about 1910.J.M. Larsen produced a manually operated spongemay be used to soak up the water in the canoe.
household machine in 1913. By 1918 Kelvinator pro- The sponge is held over the side, squeezed, and the wa-
duced the fiIst automatic refrigerator for the Amelical1 ter is releasedoverboard.The operationmaybe repeated
market. They sold 67 machines that year. Now millions as often as necessary.This iransfers the water ffom the
of units are sold each year. canoeinto the lake-
The first of the sealed or "helmetic" automatic re- In a refrigemior, heat instead of water is trans-
fligeration units was inhoduced by Ceneral Electric in ferred. Inside the refaigerating mechanism, heat is
192E.It was named the Monitor Top. absorbed.It is "soaked up" by evaporatinSihe liquid
Begiming with 1920,domesticrefrigerationbecame rcftiterant in the evaporator(cooling unit). This occurs
an imporiani industry. The Electrolux, which was an au- as the refrigerani changes from a liquid to a vapor
tomatic domestic absorption unit, appeared in 1927. (gas),Figure 1-1.
Fastfieezing to preserv'efood for extendeclperiods The refri8erant,which has absorbedheat, has now
was developed about 1923.This marked the beginning tumed into a vapor. It is pumped into the condensing
of the modem frozen foods indushy. Automatic refrig- unit located outside the refrigerated space.The con-
eiation units, for the comfoft cooling part of air condi- denser works the opposite of the evaporator In the
tioning, appeared in 1927. evaporator,the reftigerant enters as a liquid, absorbs
Mechanical refri8eration systems were first con- heai, and flows out the oiher end as a vapor. By the time
nected to heating plants to provide summer cooling it reachesthe end of the evaporator, it is all a vapor. Now
in the laie 1920s. By 1940, practically all domestic this vapor flows into the .ondenser under a high pres-
units werc of the hemetic t},?e. Commercial units sure and high tenperature. The vapor gives up its heat
had also been successfully made and used. Tlese to the surrounding air. As it reachesthe end of the con
units were capable of refuigeratinglarge commercial denser,the refrigerant is no$' cooled. It has be.ome a
food storage systems. They could provide comfoit liquid atain. We say that, in the condenser, the heat is
coolint of large auditoriums. They could also pro- "squeezed out." This cycle repeats u]rtil the desired tem-
duce low temperatures used in many commercial op peratureis reached.
Heat ente$ a refrigerator in many ways. It leaks
In 1935,FrederickMcKinley Jonesproduced an au- throuSh ihe irsulated walls or enterswhen the door is
tomatic refriSerationsystem for long-haul trucks. From opened. Still more heat is introdtced $'hen warm sub-
a small, slow siat in ihe late 1930s,air conditioning of stancesare placed in the refrigerator.
automobileshas also grown rapidly. Heat is not destroyedto make the refrigeratorcold.
Starting in the 1960s, the home air conditioning It is simply removed from the refrigeratedspaceand re-
mdr(ete\pe/erced l'Fnendou-8row.l-.tnerSl wdr ir- leasedoutside.
expensive/ and therefore, simple air conditioning be-
came common in many homes. solar energy and oiher
altemaiive energysourcesbecame addiiional sourcesfor 1.3 ColorCodingSystemin thisText
powerint heating and cooling systems.
Due to a tremendous growth in technology, by 1990 W'hen prcsentinS reftigeration systems illustrations
a area>o' re rgerdflondnd drr conditionng were uv like FiSure 1-1, a common color codint systemwiil be
int microprccessorcontrol sysiems. The purpose oI followed in this iext:
these sysiems is to increase reliability and efficienc)' of
Dark Red High-PressureLiquid I
ihe heaihg a]ld cooling units. By 1990,the automobile '/7
Light Red High-Presste Vapor
air condiiioner became as standard as the automatic
Dark Blue-Lo1\'-PressureLiquid I
Litht Blue-Lo$-Pressure Vapor
The Iollowing paragraphs will provide ihe techni-
cal foundation needed io unde$tand the heat removal
1.2 How a Mechanical operation.This backgroundis important for serviceand
RefrigeratorOperates repair.
Service managers of refrigerating and air condition-
There are four basic parts in a mechanical refrigela- ing companies preler sen'ice and insiallation iechnicians
tion system- I]|.e compressot pr.rmps retuigerant vapor. who are good mechanics.Knowledge of the principles
The .ordensel ieleasesheat from the refrigerani,similar of mathemahcsand physicsas iheseaPPly to refriSera-
to a vehicle's radiator releasingheat from the cooling tion is also important.
of Refrigerat
Chapter1 Fundamenials


Filure 1-1, Elementaty mechanical refrigeratot. ln opetation, liquid rcfrigerant undet high pressure (dark red) flows
fr;n liquid receiver to pressure reducing valve (rcfriSerantcontrol) and into evaporatot Here prcssure is greatly
reduced (dark blue). Liquid refrigerant boils and absorbs heat from evaporator. Now a vapo, refriSerant (light blue)
flows back to compressorand is compressedto hiEh pressute (li7ht rcd). lts temperaturc is greatly increased ln th-'
condenser, heat is transferred to the sutrounding air and the rcftigerant cools, becoming liquid again. lt flows back into
the liquid receiver and the cooling cycle is repeated.

1.4 Heat are made up of tiny atoms, which combine to make mol:
ecules. All the atoms are in a state of rapid motion.
Ifeaf is a form of energy- lt has a rclationship to the As the iemperature of a substance incr€ases,the at-
atom, the smallesi indivisible part of an element. ("Indi- oms move more raPidly. As the temPerature drops, they
visible" means if an atom was broken down into morc slow down. If atl heat is rcmoved from a substance (ab-
piecesit would no longer be that element.) All substances solute zero), all molecular motron stops.
28 Modern Refigerationand Alr Conditioning

The U.S. conventionalunit of heat is the Britisft II food is frozen slowly at or near the freezingpoint
theftnal ulit (Btu). The metric unit of heat is the iorle of water, the ice crystalslomed arc large.Their growih
0). If a substanceis warmed, heat is added; if cooled, breaks down the food tissues. When defrosted, it spoils
heai is removed. rapidly; appearance and taste are ruined.
The amolrnt of heat in a substanceequals dre mass of Fast freezing at very low temperatures,0to 15'F
the sribstancenultiplied by its temperafure. The amount ( 18 to -26"C), forms small crystals which do not
of heat in a substance may greatly affect the naturc ot injure the food tissues- Food frcezers are maintained ai
the substance.Adding heat causesmost substancesto or below 0'F (-18'C). Food placed in frceze$ will
expand. Removingheat causesthem to contmct. fteeze quickly. Keep in mind the difference between
Most substanceschange their physical state with refrigeratint and freezing. The con€ct refiEeratint
the addition or removal of heat. Foi insiance,water ice temperaturc lor fresh food is 35"F (1.fC) to 45'F
is a solid (under atmospheiic pressuie at a temperature (7.3'C). To make ice, a temperature lower than 32'F
below 0"C). lf heat is added to the ice, it will melt and (0'C) is needed.
become water (a liquid). Furthet addition of heat will
cause the water to turn into a vapor (steam). The
compression-type refrigeration cycle makes use oI this
hnn.inlp in +< 6hor:ri^n

1.4.1 Heat Flow N|F.ITEMPERATURE,

Heai always flows ftom a warmer to a cooler sub- tli il,[""SffsuREMENrs
stance.The faster moving atoms give uP some of their
energy to slower moving atoms. Therefore, each fast
atom slows down a little and the siowff one moves a andTemperature
1.6 Temperature
little faster.
Heat causessomesolidsto becomeliquids or tases,
or liquids to becomegases.Cooling will reversethe pio-
cess.The atoms making up the molecules of these sub- Temperature measures the heat intensity or heat
stancesact in a different way to temperatuie. Instead of level of a substance.Temperaturealone does not give
moving fasier or slower,one or more of the atomsin the the amount of heat in a substance.It indicates the
moieculeshift iheir positions. desree of warmth, or how hot or cold the substance or
body is. In the molecular theory of heat, tempemture
indicates the speed of motion of the molecules. It is
impotant not to use the words "heat" and "iempera-
1.5 Cold ture" carelesslv,
Teflperahre rfieas]uresthe speed o{ moiion of ihe
Cold meanslow temperatureor lack of heat. Coid atom. I{eaf is the thermal energy of the aiom muliiplied
is the result of rcmovint heat. A refrigerator produces by the number of atoms (mass)so affected.
"cold" by dmwing heat from ihe inside of the refrigera- For example, a smali copper dish weighing a few
grams, heated ro 1.340'F(727'C) does not contain as
The reftigeratordoesnoi destroythe heai.Ii pumps much heat as 5 kilograms of copper heated io 284'F
heat from the inside of the cabinet to the outside. Heat (140"C).However, its heat level is higher Its intenslty oI
always tmvels from a substance at a higher tempemture
to a substance at a lower tempemturc (second law of Tha U.S.conventionalunit of tempemtureis the de-
thermodynamics see Chapter 31). Heat cannot travel gree Fahrenheit. The SI unit of temperature is the kelvin
spontaneouslyfrcm a cold body to a hot bod]'. (K). The temperature iniervals (space between degrees)
on LheKelvin scaleare rhe sdmeas Celsiu.
1,5.1 Cold Preserves
Food Tempemfure is measuied with a themometer,
Spoiling of food is actually the Browth of bacteria This is usualy through unilom expansion of a liquid
in ii. As the moleculesmove slowlt they have an im- in a sealed tlass tube. There is a bulb at the bottom of
portant effect on the bacieria present in most foods. the tube and a quantity of mercury or alcohol inside.
Slowing movement by cooling ihe moleculesmakes all The glassdoes not expand or contractas much as
organisms more sluggish. Cold, or low tempenture, the liquid during a temperature change. The liquid will
slows down the growih of these bacteda.Foods, thus, dse and fall in the tube as the tempemturechanges.The
do not spoil as fast. If the bacteria can be kept from in- iube is "calibrated" or marked off in degrees using ihe
creasing,the food will be edible longer Often, a small deshed temperafure scale.
chante in temperature (jusi a few degrees) can make a The temperature measurement instrument shown
arg. difference in lhe Srotrih rdteof bacteria. in Figure 1-2A is a thermometer-p)'rometer The term
Most foods contain a considerable "pyromeie/' means high temperature. This mstrumeni
ter. Food, therefore, must be kept slightly above freez- has a digital scale.Ii has the capability of measuring
ing temperatures(32'E,0'C). from -40'F (-40'C) to 1999'F(1100'C).It is used when
of Refilgeration
Chapter1 Fundamentals ?q

Thenrlisio$ may also be used to measure temPera-

tures. A thermisior is a type of thermometer. which is
operatedby electdcalcullent. (SeeChaPter6.)

'1.6.'l ThermometerScales-Fahrenheit
The two most common thermometer scales are the
Fahrenheit and the Celsius scales. Celsius is sometrmes
called ihe Centigade scale. The Celsius scale is named
in honor of Anders Celsius, the Swedish astronomer
who rccommended the new system.
Two temperatures deiermine ihe calibration of a

. The temperature of melting ice.

. The temperatute of boiling water.

(Both must be at a pressureof 1 atmosPhereor at sea

On the Fahrenleit ihermometet the temperature of
metting ice is 32"F The temperature of boiling water is
212'F This Fovides 180 spacesor degreesbetweenthe
fteezing and boiling iemperatures.
On the Celsius thermometer, the temperature of
melting ice is 0'C. The temperature of boilinS water is
100'c. There are 100 spacesor degreeson the scalebe-
tween freezing and boiling. Fot a comPadson of the
Fahrenheitand Celsiusscales,seeFiSur€ 1'3. (Also, see
Chapter 3l.)
The freezing point and boiling point are based
Fi9ure1-2. Sevenl typesol tempeeturemeasuring on freezing and boiling iemperatures of water at stan-
devices are useclin refrigeration wark. A-This digital dard atmosphedc pressure. Effects of pressule on these
thermometetpyrometermeasurestemperaturein either temperaturesis explained in Section 1.19 and Section
Fahtenheitor Celsius.B-Laser sightedthermometer 1.20.
with a temperature readin7 ftnge of 0'F b 6a0'F.
1,6,2 AbsoluteTemperature
and Rankine
accurate readings at various temPeratures are needed. lt Absolute zero is that temperature where molecular
will indicate the temperaturein about 2-10 seconds. motion stops. It is ihe low€st iemperatwe possible. Therc
The thermomeier in Figure 1-28 measures mdi- is no more heai in the subsianceat this point
aied and absorbed energy from a surface. This typ€ of Two absolute temperature scales are used in cryo-
thermometerusesa small laser to Suide the operatorto genics(very low temperaturework). (SeeSeciion 1.32.)
the item being measuled. The laser identides the object These iwo scales are the Rankine (Fallrenheit Absolute)
and a digital readout displays ihe object's temPer- scaleand the Kelvin (CelsiusAbsolute) scale.
ature. The Rankine scale uses the same divisions as the
Somethermometersuse metal to measureiempera- Fahrenheitscale.Zero on this scale(0'R) is located 460
ture.Metal will expandand contractas tempemture ses degrees below 0'F.
and falls. This moves an indicator up and down the The Kelvin scaleuses ihe same divlsions as the Cel-
sca1e. sius scale.However zero on the Kelvin scale(0 K) is 273
Other thermometerc indicaie temperatufe by mea- degreesbelow 0"C.(Physicalscientistsoften omii ihe de-
surcment of a very small electdc voltage generated in a gree symbol r'' hhen writint Kelvin len'per.tures r
thermocouple. They are especially useful in the mea- iherefore. Kel\rn temperrlurer dre often e\p'es>edh th
surement of high temPeratures. just the K, not 'K.)
A radiometer is a thermometer which detects in- These temperature scaies ate not used by the tech-
frared lays prcduced by a substance. This ther- nician in nomal service work. The absoluie iemPerature
mometer is very easy to use, No contact is needed scalesare used by engineers.They use them in d€sign-
wiih the substance whose temPerature is to be mea- lng and manufacturing various parts of heating and air
surcd. conditionin8 sysiems. The absolute temperature scales
30 M o d e r nR e i r i B e r a t i a
o n dA i r C o n d i t i o n l n g

The foilowingparagraphs
assetfor the technician. pro-

-i{l vide you with somebackgroundin the types of math-
ematic opeEtions a tedrnician may be expecied io
perfomr on the job.

+ meansplusor add.
= meansequalto or of the samevalue.

r::lll - meansminus/sublracl/or take away.


x meansmultiply by, or times.

Example:4 x 5:20


20- Slanda.d
_iilt + meansdivide by.

. meansmultiply by, or times.
10 ( ) are parentheses; do the arithmeticinsidethe
parentheses first.
'+ Tempeaiure E x a m p l e( :7 , + 2 = ( 4 )+ 2 : 6
ol Waler
insteadof a
Exanple: (4)(, = 20

( )'? meansthat the numberinsidethe parentheses

IT to be multipliedby itself,or squared.
Ei9we1-3. A comparisan
of Celsius
and Fahrcnheit E x a m p l eG
: )'=4x4=16;
scales. in this example,muliiply togethertwo 4s

are also usedto identify the operationalperformanceof ( )3 meansthat the numberinsidethe parenthesesis
a product.ThesemtinSscanthenbe usedby the techni- to be multipliedby itselfthreetimes,or cubed.
cianto compareonemanufacturer's productswith ihose Examplei (4)'= 4 x 4 x 4 = 64;
of anothermanufacturer in this exarnple,multiply togetherthree 4s
Figure 1-4comparesthe Celsius,Kelvin, Fahrenleii,
and Rankinethermometerscales.
I meansthat the top number,'a." is Io be divided
Problem: b
Whatis thetemperature at whichwaterfreezes and by the bottom number,7'b./'
boils usi11gthe Kelvin scale? Example: lt "a" = 6, al.d "b" :2
Water freezesat 0'C. The Kelvin scaiezero is 273
degreesbelow 0"C. The freezing tempemturc of water
is, therefore,273degreesabovezerokelvin (K), or 273 A (delta)meansa dif{erence
ketvin. The fteezint temperatureis 273K. fxamplei I T = iemperaturedifference,
Solution,BoilingPoint: 0'C to 40'C.
for instance,
Waterboils at 100degeesabove0'C. The boiling
poini of wateron the Kelvinscalewill ber100+ 273= 1.7.1 BasicUnit or Digits
373K. lherefore. lheboilinSpornti. 171I... Mosi calculations include the use of basic uniis.
Basic units are expressed in digits. In the statement,
7 x 8 = 56, 7 and 8 are di8itsj 55 is made up of two dig-
1.7 BasicArithmetic its, 5 and 6. In ihe metric system, multiples of digiis are
on the basis of 10. For example:ihe digit 1, iJ divided
Basicmathematicsplays an important role in a tech- by 10, would be 0.1i each subsequentdivision of 10
nician's day-to-day operaiions. Being able to quickly and would result in 0.01,0.001, and the like. The prcfix
accurately compute basic mathematic formulas is an (name) for these follow. The digit 1, if multipiied by 10
Chapter1 Fundamental,of Refrigeratlon 31

s Fahrenheil Fankine

l-qg olwaier 212lll672

80 ;lf ;
,," ] | [...
1 0 4l l l 5 6 4
s,andad I lt
2Q condlonslemoeralure 68 ll | 528
7.2 ;ffi ",] | f sou-.=.p"',,,""u"su
0 orWale 3 2 l l I 4 9 ?J i o r B e i .o e r a t o r
ll | o F..Po'aro'
'a..1 ''-a
rerped,L eRa,ee f ||"soJre'ne"'*
, o r F , e e z eLr
-44 * l l f* lll

-osoll I zo

- Absoure
- l tz€ro "rrl I f.

Fiqur€ l-4. Ap/!in ( et,ius,lahrenheit,and Ranlinq thPrmomeLet

- ale' dre I omparcd

would be 10; each subsequentmuliiplicaiion by 10 recuired number of zercs. Tle small number above and
would result in 100,1000,10,000,100,000,and ihe like. to ihe gllt of the number 10 is calledthe "exponent."It
Each level of multiplication or division has a namel worksas follows:
For numb€rslarter than one:
1000= 10r means multiply together three 10s
Symbol Prefix Quantity Pronunciation (10x10x10)
M mega = 1,000,000 Iike megaphone 100= 102 means multiply toSether two 10s
k kilo = 1000 killroh (10x 10)
h hecto = 100 heck'-toe 10= 101 or (10)
da deka :10 deck-uh For numberslessthan one, a minus siSn is placed
basicunit : 1
beforethe exponent-This meansthat 1/10 or 0.1 is to
d deci :0.1 dessrih be multiplied together,insteadof 101
centi = 0.01 senltih
c 0.1= 10 'or (0.10)
m milli = 0.001 like mfiiary
0.01= 10-'?or(0.10x 0.10)
micro = 0.000001 mY-crow
/.. 0.001= 10 3 or (0.10x 0.10x 0.10)
'1.7.2 RoundinsNumbers
In manv calculations, it is diJficult to work with
numbers usine manv zeros either ahead of or behind the In fefri8eration calculations, ii is not usually nec-
decimat point. A special number, called a "powers oI essary to use fiactions or decimals of a unii. When the
ien," may be used to express these i},?es of numbers. decimal is less than 5, rcund to the number and ignore
"Power of 10" meansthat the number 10 is muii; the decimal. When ihe decimal is 5 or over, round to the
Dlied bv itself the desired number of times to obtain the next larger number. For instance.35.5becomes36. If a
32 and Air Conditioning
Modern ReJrigeratlo.

problem has been caried two or more decimal places to DegreesRankine

1.8.3 DegreesFahrenheit
and less accuracyis required, it is acceptableto round (Fahrenheit
suchnumbersto a sin8ledecimal.For instance:3.52may
be rounded to 4.
Temperaturein 'R (FA)- 'F + 460
1,8 Temperature
Conversion Convert40'Fto 'R (FA).
It is often necessary to conve a temperafure from 'R (FA)= 40 + 460
one scale to another. Formulas have been developed for "R (Fa) = soo'R (Fa)
this purpose. li is not necessary to memo ze these for-
mulas, on1]rto refer io ihem when needed. 1.8.4 DegreesRankineto DegreesFahrenheit
'C meanstemperaturein degreesCeisius Form!la:
oF means temperature in degrees Fahrenheit Temperaturein 'F : 'R - 450
K means temperature in degrees Kelvin Examplel
"R means temperatue in de8rees Rankine Conveii180"Rto 'F.
To conved ftom one of ihese scales to another, foi-
low the proceduresoutlined in the follofing examples. "'FF = 1 8 0 - 4 6 0
- -280'F
'l.B.l '1.8.5 Degrees
DegreesCelsiusto DegreesFahrenheit to Kelvin
Formula: Formula:
/r8o \
' in'F { Temperafure'C
I 12 K="C+273
\.UU /
Convert-10'C to K.
lo 'C\ solution:
in'F = I;
Temperature I+32 K=-10+273
\ J /
Convet 75"Cto Fahrenheit. 1.8.6 Kelvinto Degrees
Solution: Formula:
' F - {/ o; x 7 5\ J + 3 2 Temperaturein"c=K-273
\r ,/ Example:
" F = ( 1 . 8 x 7 5+)3 2 Convert400K io "C.
"F = 16lF Solution:
"c : 400 273
1.8.2 Degrees to DeSrees
lnn 1.8.7 DegreesRankineto Kelvin
jn "C
TenPerarure ,T".p"rut*" "t ,Zl Formula:
rgO t
' 9

5 Example:
in rc : :9
("F- 32)
Convert180'Rto K.
Example: solution:
Conve 212"Fto "C. K:;x180
K = 1 0 1K
'C=!x(212 32)
9 .1.8.8 Kelvinto DegreesRankine
"C=.56x180 "R : 15 y
"c : 100'c
Chapi€rI oi Reirigeration
Fundamentals 33

Example: (Length)
1.10.1 LineatMeasurement
Converi263K to "R. Linear measurement considers oniy one dimension.
Solulionl Finding ihe lengh of a piece of copper tubing is an ex-
ample of linear measurement.
'R = 473"R U.S. Conventional Units
Decimals and Fractionsof an lncn

1.9 TemperatureDifference Measur€ment How to Expressth€ Measurement

0.001in. one-thousandth of an inch
Calculations 0.01in. one-hundredtll of an inch
0.1in. one-tenth of an inch
Calculationswhich require converting Fahrenheit 1/ 64 in. one sixty-fourth of an inch
temperature difference to Celsius temperature difference 1/32 in. one thirty-second of an inch
and Celsius temperature dilference to Fahrenheit tem- 1/ 16in one-sixteenth of an inch
peraturedifferencemay be computed as follows: 1/8 tn. one-eighth of an inch
Formula: 1/ 4 i^. one-fourth of an inch
qa '\ in. one-half of an inch
ronhaDh,ra,lif{pron.a /2
= - ( l- temoerafured:Iference)
9 ' Sometimesihe symbol (") indicates inches;for ex-
ample,6". Occasionallythe symbol (') indicatesfeet.The
to Celsius:
Example-Fahrenheit Iollowing ls an exalnple:6'.
When the outside temperature is 10"F and the in-
side temperature is 75"4 the temperature difference is Units of Conventional Linear Measurement
65'F What is the temperatuie difference in 12inches=1foot
Solution: 3feet=1yard
.C temperaruiedifference: :5 x 65 = 36.C 5280 feet = 1 statute mile
' 9 6080 leei = 1 nautical mile
Formula: Metric Units and U.S. Conventional Unit Equivalen{s
oE !--n6r:h1rc.litroron.p
1 miliimeter (mm) : 0.039in.
I = 1 centimeter(cm) = 0.394in.
= : (t temperafurediFferencel 10mm
5 10cm = 1 decimeter(dm) : 3.937in.
10dm = 1 meter (m) = 100 cm :
Example--{elsius to Fahrenheit:
When ihe outside temperatureis 10'C and ihe in- 39.37 in. : 3.28ft.
side iemperature is 26"C, the tenPerature difference is 1000m = I kilometer (km) = 3280.8ft.
2.54cn : 1 in.
16'C. What is the temperaturedifferencein Fahrenleit?
9 SomeIirear metdc units useful to a seFice techni-
"F iemperaturcdiflerence: ; X 16 = 28.8or 29'F cianareshownin Figure 1-5.In measudngvery tiny Par-
ticles,the micron(ir) unit hasbeenmostused.Themi-
Throughout this text, temperaiures are given in cron is one-thousandthof a millimeter (mm).
both Fahrcnheit and Celsius. Most of ihe Fahrenheii
temperature values are rounded to whole numbers. The 1.10.2 AreaMeasurement
equivalent Celsius temperature is shown rounded to the
nearest possible whole ntmber. Where ihe Celsius tem- The measurementof areainvolves the measurement
peratureendsin 0.5ormore, the next higher temperatwe of two-dimensionalspace.The areaof an objectis found
is used.if the Celsiustempemturcendsin a 0.,1orless,the by multiplyinS its length by its width.
next lower Celsiustemperaturcis chosen.For example, Fotmulai
40"F is equivalentto 4.4"C.This number is rounded off Area (A) = LenSth (L) x Widft (W)
to 4'C. Another example is 0'F Caded to one decimal
place,it equals 17.8'C.This is rounded to 18'C. Example:
The width oI a tabletop is 2' and the length of the
table is 4'. Determineihe areaof the iabletoP.
1.10 Dimensions
Dimensions, as used in this text are measurements Area (A) = Length (L) x Width (W)
which are necessary in determining lengths, arcas, and A=2'x4'
volumes. The following paragraphsdiscussthesemea- A = 8 sq. ft. The areaof the tabletop is
8 sq. ft
34 ModemRefrgedtionandAtr Conditioning

Sl [,lst c

i ,
1/4 k-1 Inch----+l
lnch | |
kJ l+ 1/2+l I
I I lrnch| |


Figu.e 1-5, Comparisonof U.S.conventionalandSl mettic units of linear measurcment.

Somespecialfonnulas must be used when finding

the area of certain objects.For example,the area of a
cilcle is Iound by using the fonnula A = ?#. The slm-
bol, r, is always 3.1416,and r is the radius of a circle.It
is equalto one-halfthe diameter.Therefore,this Iormula
may alsobe exprcssedas:
Folmula:Area of a Circle
. n t r
squareinches(sq. in.)

144sq. in. = 1 squarcfoot

9 sq.ft. = 1 squareyad (sq.yd.)

Theseunits are shown in Figure 1-6A. The areaof

a circle is shown in Figure 1-68.
Metric Units
1 squarecmtimeter (cm2or sq. cm)
= 0.155squarcinch -
1 squarcdeometer (dm' or sq. dm)
= 10cm X 10cm = 100cm2= 15.5sq.in.
squaremeter(m2or sq.rrl) = 1550sq.in.
= 10dm X 10dm = 100squaredecimeters(dml)
= 10.76sq.ft.
Theseunits ar€ 6hown in Figure 1-7.Refff back to
Fitue 1-6 for the areaof a circle.

1.I0.3 VolumeMeasurement Fiqwe1-6. Cal(ulatin|gtandadarcasusin| U.S.

The measurementof vohime involves the measure- c;sfomary units.A- Arcaof rectan+leb calculatedby
ment of three-dimensionalspace(ctrbic).The volume of multiptyingwidthbt length.Remember, t44 sq. in.
an objectis determinedby mdtiplying the width by tlte equal 1 sq. ft. and 9 sq. ft. equal I sq. yd. B-Atea of a
length by the height.An examPleis finding the volume circle is calculatedusing the formula nf. Valueof cr is
of a cube (width x lengtl x heiSht,or W x L x H). 3.1416.tf diameter(D)of chcleis 2.4 in.,the radius(r),
Som€specialformulas must be used when findint whichis halfthedianetet is 1.2in.: l: I x r:
the volume oI certainobjects.To detemine the volume 1.2 . 1.2- 1.44.Arcaofcircteis3.I416 1.44- 4.52in'z
ChapteI l 5i R c i q " a t . n
F u n J i m e n t do

17213cu. in. : I cu. tt.

27 cu. ft. = I cu. yd.
1 cu. ft. = 7.48gal.
Theseunits are shown in Figure 1-8A. The volume
oi a cylinder is sho$'n in Figure 1-88.

Sl Metric Units
1 liter (L) = 1000cubic centimeters(cmr)
= 1.05quarts (clt.)
= 61 cu. in. = 0.035cu. fi.

l 0 n ,. u b i , . e . l t i m e-e c n r
oecmeter (dmr)
1 cubic neier (n-') = 1.3 cu. vd.
Theseare shot.n in Figure 1'9A. The volume of a
c]'linder is shoh'n in Figure 1-98.

100 1.10.4 AngularMeasurement

Circlesand arcs of a circle are measriredin d?37ees
A completecircle has 360".SeeFigure 1-10.A degreeis
further divided into minutes. Sixty (60) minutes equal
EiButet-7, C.llculatiansaf staDdad ateasusit14Sl
netric units.Areaoi a rectangleis calculatedby Minuies are further divided into seconds.Sixty (60)
nuhipl'/ing \ridth by lenBtll.Arcaof circle is calculated secondsequal one minute. Theseare ihe sarnenames-
with sane iatmula as in FiBurc1 68. minuies and seconds-that are used in measu ng time.
In angular measurement,thev have a differentrneaning.
of a cylinder for exanpie, multiply the areaof one end The angle doesnot depend on the size of the circle.
(n':) bv the length (L) of ihe c]'linder It does not depend on the length of ihe cliarnetei or
U.S.ConventionalUnits radius.A pali of a circleis calledan a/. lt is formed by
cubic inches(in.r or cu. in.) two lines going out from the center of the circle.The),
cubic feet (ft3 or cu. ft.) cui acrossthe circumference.For a givan central angle,
cubic yards (yd.r or cu. yd.) the larger the circle, the longer the arc. The arc of ihe


l-,',-J ,t+

fiqure 1-8. Ca/cuhiio,tof standardvolLtnesusing l).s. custamaryunits A valume ls calculatedbv nultiplyin+

\ridth by lengthby height.B Volune ai cylinder is detenninedby nultiplt'ing the arcaai the end b)i the length.
(Cvlinclerdintensiansate usua//yexpressed;n inchesand decimalsai an inch )
36 Modern Refrigerat
oi and Air Cofd iioning

T' i+ A
Filure 1-9. Calculatianaf standardvolumesusini Sl metic units.A Volumeis calcLtlated by nultiplyinB vtidth by
lenlth by height.B volun)eof cylindet is calculatedby nultiplying the areaaf the end by the length.

circle .hich ircludes a 90'de$ee centralangleis callecl

1.10.5 Weightand Mass

The amount o{ a substarlceis comnonl}r relatedto
how much it $'eighs.Food and metals,for example,are
sold on the basis of their r{'eitht. Cravitational rbrce
exerted on an object by the earth is exPresseclas its
This lorce of graviiv will acceleratean objectif the
objectis releasedand falls. The sarneobjectwill acceler-
ate ai a different rate dependinguporl its distancefrom
the earth. To expressthe fact thai ii is the samequantity
of maierial, even if the force of gravity is different, this
qrianiity is de{ined as iis ,1!rss.
U.s. ConvenlionalUnits
The U.S.conveniionalunits of 'ejghi are the granl,
ounce/ pound, and ton. This $'eight is often €xPressed
as the iorce an objeciexertson a scale.
Ii an objectweighs one pound, then at ihe earth's
Figure1-10. Atlgularmeasurenent.A completectrcle surface-$.here the gravitationaiIorce will accelerateit
corsisti oi J60 degrees.ane-hali oi a circle equals 18A" at 32.2ft./sec.'?-it is said to have a massoI one pound.
aud ane quarterof a circle eqLtals90'. Arc "4" is a 9A' Under these conditions,lb.i representsthe l'eight and
1b.,"repfesentsthe rnassof the objeci.
ChaptefI Fufdanrentrlsoi ReirSeration

Sl MetricUnits A solid $.eighi of 1 pound r{'iih a bottorn surface

units, the nass is rnea-
In SI metricmeasurement areaof I inch square ould exert a pressureof 1 Pound
sured in kilograns (kg). A kilogram mass is equivalent (lb.) per squarelnch (1 psi) upon a flat suriace.
to 2.2 Ib.,,,.In SI units, the unit of forceis calledthe ne\ - I it+.d in n coriai-, " nn'nrair.-nn ,n.rod.rngprp--
ton (N). A newton equalsthe force exertedon an object sure on the sides and botiom as the liquid depth in-
having a massof 1 kiloglam, lvherethe gravitationalac- creases. The pressureof gasin the contain€rwill depend
celeraiioi is 1 m/sec.'. A l-kilogram rnassat ihe earth's on the quantity of the gas and the temperature.
surfacewill exert a force of 9.8 newtons.This is because
in SI rnei c units the gravitational accelerationis 9.8 1.11.1 Pascal's
To honor the scientistPascal,the SI metdc svstem
nr/sec.':.A 1'pound masswill have amass of ;f or0.as5 usesthe term "pasca1"as a unit of pressure.A pdscdl is
a newion per squaremeier (N/]n').
kilo$ams. However, it will exe a torce of = or 4.455 A rerufor is th€ metric unit of force.Orle newton is
ne$,tonson a .eighint scale. equal to the mass of 1 kilogram Lreingacceleratedat a
rate oI 1 neter per secondper second.
P.rsc!l|'sLdrD statesthat prcssureapplied upon a
1.11 Pressure conlined fluid is iransmitted equaly in all directions.It
is the basis of operation of most h)rdraulic and pneu-
P'ess'fe is the force per unit area.It is expressedin
pounds per squarehch (psi).It is also expressedin pas- Figure 1-12illustratesPascal'sLa\^rlt sho\,{sa fluid-
cals (Pa) or kilopas.als (kPa)in the meiric systen. filled cylinder A piston having a crosss€ctionalareaof
The no lal pressureof ihe aimosphereat sealevel 645mm'(one squareinch) is fitted into a small q'lirder
is 1,1.7pounds per squareinch (psi) or 101.3kPa.In tech- r o n n e , . e dt J t h e l a r g e - . v ' d , I A f o r . eo i 8 q p : r g o -
mcal practice,ihis is usually rounded to 15 psi or 100 100 psia (690kPa) is applied io the Plston in the small
kPa. c. r.roFr. fhe p"e:-u-egauger.l.^s .\e pre-.u-ebe.ng
Operationof a reftigeratingsystemdependsmainly transmittedequallv in all directions.
on pressuredifferencesin the system.Substances alwalrs One psia equals 6894.8pascals(Pa). This can be
prish on the surfacessupporting or containing ihem. A rounded io 6.9 kPa.One psig equals15.7psia.Then 15.7
block of ice (a solid) exertsa pressureon iis support. lf psia is convertedto the metric unii as 108kPa-
the support 'ere renoved, the block $,oriid fall to an- The refrigeration technicianmust deal r\'ith Pr€s-
other supporting lel,eI. suresboth aboveand below aimosphericPressure.Met'
A liquid exertsa pressureon the sidesand bottom ric gaugesare calibratedso that zero on the tau8e means
of its container.A gas exertsa pressureon all surfaces ihai there is no pressureat all. This meansnot even at-
of its coniainer Figure 1'11 illustrates these tyPes ol mosphedcpressureis present.No n€Sativepressuresare
used. A pressure of 5 kPa, ihen, is the same as 0.75




A-Bock oi ce B waler C-VapororGas

Figure1-11. Threestatesoi a substanice, suchas water A s()lid sfate.A rrassol ice exertsdou'nwardiorce only.
E Liquirl state.Water exe!7spressure an containerboth vetticallva n d h . t . / a n t d l t ) . I C " - F o u ' - t a ' e . V t D o r a t 8 \ :.
rubbet balloan exeftsptessureunii()rnly in all dieclions.
3B Mod€nr ReirlEeration
nnd A r Conditioning

A reading of 0 psi on the gauge is equal io the at-

Gaugen ospheric pressure,which is abott 14.7 psia. (Fifteen
pounds per square inch is often used for working out
uau0e problems). The absolute pressure scale registers zero
ro n- at a pressure which cannot be further reduced. A
perfect vacuum ls 0 pounds per square inch absolute
(0 psia).
Pressure mav also be indicated in other ways:
1. hrchesof mercrry (in. Hg). 2. Feetor inchesof lvaier
column. Thesegaugesmaybe calibratedeither aboveat-
mosphedcpressureor absoluiepressure.This is depen-
dent upon the construction.A mercury gauge is ofien

\ -
of 100 b.

used for measuringbelow atmosphericpressure.
The barometerin Figure 1-13 is a mercury gauge.
With a vacuum at the closedtop of the tube, the atmo
spheric pressurewill support a m€rcury column 29.92"
hith dl .ea leve under -idirddrd(ord i:o1>.
A unit of measurewhich hasbeen used for reading
high vacuums (prcssurecloseto an absolutevacuum) is
the fol/, One torr equals a pressure of 1 mm of mercury
(mrn Hg,0'C). It is named after the man who invented
the mercury barometer,The unit torr may be expressed
in fractionsof an atmosphere.One torr = 1/760 of an at-
5i6 Gauge mosphere.A pressure of one iorr is almost a perfect

In soh'ing most pressure and volume problems, it

is recessaryto use absolutepressures(psia).Absolute
Figure1-'f2. lllustrationof Pascal'sLaw Pressureot p F-"urei- tduge D'<,5ureplu. "tmo-pheri.ore--ure.
1A0 psia(690 kPa)is pressin| a1ainstpiston havinq head
areaai 1 sq. in. All gaugeshave samercading.Eoftonl
gauge,calibrateclin kilopascals,reads69A kPa
t00 p.i" . FiBurcl-17 r a tele'pn'e vlti, h r'r,ma,iza
data aboLnprcssurescales.

pounds per square inch absolute (psia). Expressedin

inchesof mercury vacuum, it would be abolri the same
as 28-5inchesoI Ht vacuum.
In ihe U.S. conveniionalunits, pressuresabo\.eat-
mosphericpressurcare measuredin pounds Per square
inch (psi). Pressuresbelow atmosphericare measuredin
inchesof mercury (in. Hg) column. SeeSection1.11.2.
Some older instruments are calibrated in atmo-
spheres,bars,and toII. Aba/is equal to one atmosphere;
a millibar (mb) is equal to 0.001bar An atmosphercis
approximatel)r14.7 pounds per square inch absolute
(psia).Gaugescalibratedin ahnospheresare marked 1,
2, 3, 4, and up. The numbers repieseni the number of
atmospheres.Arbitradly, the atmosphe c gaugeshave
been calibraiedin atmospheresof 15 pounds per square
inch absolute(psia).One torr is 1/760 of an atmosphere.
Figure1-13. Mercury barometerused tat neasuring
1.11.2 Pressures-Atmospheric/ Gaute, atmospheric pressure.lt consistsof Slasstube closedat
and Absolute ane end and open at ather end. Fill tube with mercuty.
Atmosphedcpressures in PoundsPer
areexpressed Then,sealingapen end, inveft it in containerof mercury.
unit of area or in inches of liquid colunm height. The when sealis rcmaved,mercurywill drap to level
mosi popular gaugesarc those that register in pounds carresponding with atmaspheric pressure. Class tube
persquareinch aboveatmosPhericpressure(PsigorPsi). shaulclbe abaut 31 in. (86 cm) long.
C h a p t e Ir F u n d z m e n t aol fsR e f r r g e roant 39

Calculaie absolute pressure r rhen the prcssuie
30 l5
tauge readingis 21 psi (Psialv/aysindicaiesSaugepres- (2e.e2) 760 33.40
sure, and psia indicatesabsolutepressure).
29 14.5
Sohtion: 2a 711 3?.2
Absoluie pressureequalsgaugepressureplus atmo- 27 13.5
sPhencPressule. 26 660 13 29.9
psi+15:psia 24 610 12 27.6
21 + 15 : 36 psia 23 1r.5
22 559 11 25.3
Air pressure or a vacuum can be measured wiih a 21 10.5
column of water. To equal 29.92' Hg, ii would be aboui 20 508 10 23.0
34' high. The height is greaterbecausewater is so rnuch 19 9.5
lighter ihan mercury 18 457 I 20.7
The service technician must ofien test both pres- 17 8.5
408 a
sures and vacuums in the same system. Therefore, Prcs- l5 7.5
sure gauges arc made which will measure both. They are 356 16_l
called compound gauges.ComPound Saugeshave two 13 6.5
or more Pressure scales.(lne measures pressures below 12 305 6 13.8
atmosphedc presswe. The other measurespressures 5.5
10 254 5 11_5
above atmospheric prcssure. Figure 1'14 illusiiates such
a gauge. 203 9.2
It is ofien necessaryto conveit inches of mercury 3.5
into pounds per squareinch absolute(Psia)-You can also 6 152 3 6.9
conve/t pounds per square inch absolute into inches of 5 2,5
mercury. Formulas are available for making an accurate 102 2 4.6
conversion. Roughly 2" Hg equals 1 psia. The chat 3 1.5
2 51 1 2.3
shora'n in Figure 1-15 makes converthlg easy.
I 0.5
waier columnsare usua y de-iBned for medsurirtg 0 0
0 0
)mdll pressJrerdbo\e or below dtmosPheric Pressure.
Tl€y can be used for pressurcs in air ducts, gas lines,
Figure1-15. Chartconveftsinchesof nercury (in Hg)
and the tike. A water column 2.3' hiSh (or about 28")
into poundspet squareinch absolute(psia).
equals 1 psi.
These pressure measuring devices arc called ma-
nometers.They are calibraiedin inchesof 'aier.olumn- Sl Metric Units
Figure 1-16shows types of water manomete$. Figure 1-17usesSl units. Compareihe scales.In SI
In somehigh-pressurerefrigeratingmachines,Pres- units, atmospheric pressures are exPressedin kPa (kilo-
sure gauges are calibrated in atmospheres.One at- pa:cal,,.\orm"l dmospl'ericpressure t l0l. I kPa.for
mosphere is aboui 15 pounds per square inch (Psi). pracricalpurpo-es.gauge-.rre often(alibr.tFda, rnoI la
Two atmospheresequal30 psi. Tltee atmosPheres equal
for atmosphedc pressurc,
45 psi. Pressureslower than atmosPheric are called Partial
vacuuris, Zero on fhe absoiute prcssurc scaleis at a pres-
sure which cannot be further ieduced. Thus, a perfect
vacuum is 0 Pa (pascals).The Pascal,rather than the ki-
iopascal.is used for measuringhiSh vacuums(pressures
closeto an absolutevacuum).
Figue 1-18 illustrates a pressure gauge used in ie-
ftigerahon work. It is calibrated in kilop,s.als raiher
^.***o- | o<+ ao than in psi.

1.12 TheThreePhysical
Subsiancesexisi in three states,dependinSon their
temperature, pressure. and heat content For examPle,
Fi8ure1-14. Compoundgaugemeasuresboth pressurc water at atmosPhericPressureis a solid at tempem-
obote armo'phe,t tn p5iand pre''ule belo tures below 32'F (0"C). It is a liquid from 32"F (0t) to
atmosphericusin! units of in. HB vacuum.Zera on this 212'F (100"C).At 212"F(100'C)and above it is a vapoi
scaleis atmosphericpressure, (gas).
40 Modern Reifigeraton and Air Cond tioning

AirDuct ^)asetere

I in the Drcl

Figure1-16. Iypes of water ntanomete$.A-This manometeris use(lto measurelo\\' pressurein air ductsand Eas
lines.Pressureis indicatedin inchesaf \/ater. lt is measuredby diffetencein level bet\\,eensurlaceai water in tt|a
branchesof tube. B For easierrcacling,the end open to atmosphereis often placed ata law angle.Red d)te in water
maKesEauqeseaster@ read,

105 90 725
90 75 621
75 60
E 3 60 45
ad 30 311
30 15 247

: .r - l0 5 10 25.4 69
5 10 20 50.8 35
9; I 0 -15 29.92 760 0

Figure1-17. Tablecomparesvatiauspressurescales.

A solld is any physical substancelvhich keeps its
shapeeven \^,hennot contained.It consistsof billions of
molecules,all exactly the same size, mass,and shape.
These stay in the same relative position to each odrer.
Yei, they are in a condition of rapid motion or vibratioi.
The rate of vibration will dependupon the temperature.
The loh'er the temperaiure, the slo 'er the molecules
5 0 ^ vibrate. The higher the temperature, the faster the
The moleculesare strontly attractedto each other.
ConsiderableIorce is necessaryto separatethem. A solid
gaugecalibratedin kilapascals.
figure 1n 8. Prcssure must always be supportedbi, an up$,ard fofce or it will
Prcssuresiam 0 to 10Aare partialvacuuns fall. SeeFigure 1-11A.
Atmospheticpressureis set at 1A0 kPa.

Wateris sho('n in its three statesin Figure 1-11.In A ir'qrid is anlr ph)'sica1substance$'hiclt 1\'i11
this example, ihe ph,vsicalsiate is controlled both by take on the shapeof its container(FiSure1-118).Horr-
temperaiureand pressure.The temperaturesjust given ever its oleculesstrondli aiiract each oiher.
applv on1)rrvhen atmosphericpressureis at 14.7pounds Think of the moleculesas s .imming among iheir
per squareinch (psi) or 101.3kilopascals(kPa). fellow molecules$'ithoui ever leaving ihen1.The higher
ChapterI of Refrigeratlon
Fundamentals 41

the temperature,the fasterthe moleculesswim. Wamer Equivalents

moleculeswill moveupwardstoward the top of the con- 1 lb. /ft.3= 16kg/ mr
tainer.This is becausethey take up more spaceby their 1 kg ,rm3= 0.0625lb./ft.3
Iapid movement.Theybecomelighter (lessdense)than
coldermolecules. '1.13,2 Specific
Specific gaoiA Gp, gr) is the mtio of the mass of a
1.12,3 Cases cefiain volume of a liquid or a solid as compared to the
A gas is any physical substancewhich must be mass of an equal volume of water Specific giavity is
enclosedin a sealedcontainerto preventits escapeinto sometimes called relative density.
the atmosphere. Water is given a specific gravity of one. Objects
The molecules.having Iittle or no attraction for which float on waier have a specific gavity of less tharl
eachother,travel (fly) in a straight lne. Theybounceoff one. Objecis which sinl in water have a specfic Sravity
eachother,ofl moleculesof other substances,or off the greater than one.
containerwalls. They ha\.elittle or no attractionfor any Mixtures of salt and water (l'rine) have a specific
other substance.The prcssurcsshown in the gas-filled gravity greaier than one. A calcium chloride brine
balloon in Figure 1-11Cillusirate how tasesbehave. adjusted to freeze at 0"F C18"C)will have a speciJic
Almost any substancecan be made to exist as gravity of 1.18.SeeChapter3l for a table oI bdne densi-
a solid,a liquid, or a tas. Any molecrllecanbe made ties and freezing t€mpemiurcs.
io vibrate, swirn, or fly. Ii depends on two ihingsi T}le relatiae densit! of tases is defined as ihe ratio
temperatureand pressure.To undersiand ihG chante of the mass of a certain volume of a gas as compared to
of state, one must study temPerature and Pressure the mass of an equal volume o{ hydrogen. The readings
relationships. arc taken at 68'F and 29.92"Hg pressure.

1.l 3 Density 1.14 Force

Dersify is a substance's mass per unit of volurne. Force applied to a body at rest causesit to move.
Some substances are heavier than otherc. Comparative The 1mit of force is the pound force (lb.). In SI metric
weights oI gases,liquids. and solids may be shown by units, it is the newton (N). Ihe pound force is that force
either density or specific gravity (see Section 1.13.2). which, applied to a one?ound mass, will result in an
Density is expressedas pounds per cubic foot (1b./ft.3) accelerationoI32.173ft /sec.'z
or kilogams per cubic meter (kg /m3). At ihe surface of the earth, where the acceleration oI
€]lavlq \s 32.'173lt. / sec.':,a 1-lb. mass weiths 1-lb. force
1.13.1 Specific (it exerts 1-1b.force on the sudace upon which it rests).
ft the object oI 1{b. mass were on the moon whete the
l\&en comparing densities ol gases,it is common to
gravity is about 1/6 that on earth. the weight would be
express the densities in specific volumes. Specific ool-
'lme is the volume of one pound of a gas at standard con-
ditions. Exampl€:
Siandardconditionsare 68"Fat 29.92in. of mercury Determinethe force on the head of a Piston
column pressure. The volume of 1 lb. of dry clean air ai 10squareinches(sq.in.) in areaand under a pressureof
standard atmosphedc condihons is 13.454 cu. ft. By 25psi.
comparison, 1 1b. of hydrogen occupies 178.9 cu. ft. Formula:
One pound oI the refrigerant, ammonia (R-717), occu-
pies 21 cu. ft. Carbon dioxide (R-744) only occupies in which:
8.15cu. ft.
In SI terms, specific volume is the volume of one A = areaof thepistonhead(10sq.in.)
kilogram oI a gas at standard condiiions. Standard con- P = pressure(25psi)
diiions a1e20'C at 101.3kPa pressure.The volume of Solution:
1 kg of dry, clean ai ai siandald ahrosphedc conditions
,s 0.840m . By companson.I 18 of \ydroSenoccupie' F=10x25
11.17 m3. One kilogam of the rcftigerant afiunorua F = 250pouJlds(1b.)
(R-717)occupies1.311m3.Carbon dioxide (R-744)only
occupies0.509m3. '1.14.1 Sl MetricUnits
If L kg of gas occupies a greater space than ai! the
gas is called a lighi gas. If it occupies less sPacethan air, ln SI rnits, the newion is that force which, when
it is classified as a heavy gas. The specific volume is applied to a body having a massof one kilo$am, gives
I ia arl acceleration of one meterPer secondper second.
a;11sity Forcemay alsobe calledaccrmulatedPressure.
Modem Reirigeration
and Air Condltioning

One newton equals one kilogram times one meter Example:

divided bv secondssoLared:I <B I m. sec.ror 1 .g Thepropeller on a boatpushesthe boatthrough the
n -ec.z= | \. ( ftris unit or fo-ceis sirrularlo the pound water wiih a Iorce of 200 newtons. If ihe boat travels
force in the U.S. conventionalsystem.) 10 km, how much work is done?
Example: Solution:
Determine the force on the head of a piston 645 10km = 10,000 m
mm2 in arca and under a pressureof 0.172Mpa. Work:ForceXDstance
in whichl W : 2 x 1 0N 6 m=2MJ

A = area oI the piston head (645 mm'?) 1.16 Energy

P = pressure(0.172MPa)
Solution: EnelgA is the capacity or ability to do work. The
F:AXP electric motor supplies the eneryy io drive the rcfuitera-
F=645x0.172 tor compressor. There arc ihree kinds of energy:
F : 111newtons(N) . Potential efiew is stoted energy. Examples are
A pascalis the unit of pressure.The newton is the waier behind a dam, electdcal energy in a battery
total force,which equalsthe unit pressuretimesthe ar€a. and weight which ca]1{a[ or drop.
Equivalenis: . Kifletic enerw is er,ergy doing work. Examples are
water flowing over a dam, a batt€ry lithting a bulb,
1N : 0.225lb. force and a falling weight.
1 lb. force= 4.45N , Heat energy (see Seeton 1.4).
The work formula is expressedas W : F x D, or
n e w t o n st i m e sm e t e r s( N m ) . 1 J = 1 N x 1 m = 1
1.15 Work Nm.
Work (W) is lorce (F) multiplied by the distance(D) Equivalents
through which it travels. 1ft.-Ib.force= 1.356I:1.356N m
1 J = 1 N m = 0 . 7 3f7t . - I b
1.15.'l U,S,Conventional
Theunit of work is calledthe foot-pound.Onefoof- 1.17 Power
po ftil i,s fl\e amount oI work done in lifting a 1 lb.
weight a vertical distanceof 1 ft. Work is sometimesex- Po?oel is the time rate of doing work.
pressed in inch-pounds. At such times, ihe diEtarlce
though which the force actsis measuredin inches. Units
1.17.1 U.S.Conventional
Example: The unit of mechanicalpower rs tb,ehorseporter.
Calculatethe work when lifting a weight of 2000 One horsepower(hp) is the equivalent of 33,000foot-
1b.a vertical distanceof 10 ft. pounds (ft.Jb.) oI work per ninuie. If a 2000-1b.rveight
Formula: is lifted 10ft. in two minutes,the Power requiredwould
Work=ForcexDistance be:
Solution: Horsepows=
W = F x D (F = 2000lb.j D = 10ft.) weight in pound. . dislancein f€ei
W : 20,000
fooi?ounds(ft.lb.) time in minutes x 33.000
or, expressedin inch units,
-_ 2000x 10 : 20,000: 0.3hP
w:2000x10x12 Ho$epower:
t-I0O-.- 66!00:
W = 240,000inch-pounds(in.-Ib.)
1.17.2 Sl Metric Units
1.15.2 Sl MetricUnits in watts A ?uaf,fis
ln SI units,poweris exPtessed
The unit oI work is called the joule 0) in SI metric ihe force of one newton moving throuSh a distance of
units. The iorle is the amouJli of work done by a lorce one meter in one second.
of one newton moving its point of apPlication a distance The common unit of mechanical power is th€ kilo-
wati (kW). A kilowatt is equal to 1000 watts The
formula for pon'er is force tlmes disiance divided by heatloadsare in'o1ved,the unii therm,which equals
time. It is expressedin watts (W). I W = 1 joule per sec 100,000 Btu,ls oftenused.
ond = 1 l/sec. (SeeSections1.15dd 1.16.) Example:
Example: Calculatethe amount of heat rcquied to raise the
What is the power required to lift a mass of 100 iemperaturcof 62.4lb. (1cu.ft.) of waterfrom 40"Fio 80"F.
kilograms at the rate of 10 metersper second? Solution:
Solution: Btu = wt. in lb. x temperaturechante il1 'I
Forcex Distance newtons). meters Btu= 62.4lb.x (80 40)
Time seconds Btu=52.4x40
Force = 100kg x ForceDueto Cravitv Biu = 2496Btu
(9.8m/sr tuomSection1.14) If a substance is cooled,heatis removed
Force = 100kCx 9.8m/sl Examole:
Equivalentlkgm/sr=1J detefmine the amor.mtof heat removed to cool
lorce = 980ktm/sr = 980J 50]b. of waierfrom 80'Fto 35'F
Distance= 10meiers Solution!
Btu = wt. in Ib. x temPeraturechangein oF
- 980T^ 10meters Btu = s0 lb. x (80- 35)
EquivalenllJm/s=1W Btu = 2250Bir.r
Power = 9800W or 9.8kW Sl Metric Units
Equivalents In SI metdc,theunii oI heatis thejoule0) Aio'l,
thP=746W is a very smallunit of heat.For refrigeration work, the
1W=0.0013hp kiloioule(kD,1000joules,is used The amountof h€ai
requiredto raisethetemperature of 1 kg of water1"Cis
equalto 4.1E7kl. (SeeFigure 1-198.)Conversely, the
1.18 Unit of Heat amountof heatrcmovedto lower the tempemtureof
1 kg of water1'C is alsoeqrialto 4.187kJ.
The unit of heat is the Briiish theirnal unit (Btu) The mass in kilograms multiPlied by the deSrees
The Bf, is the amount of heat lequired to raise the tem- CelsiustemperaturedifferencemultiPliedbf' 1.187kJ
pelature of one pound of water one degreeFahrenheit equalstheamountof heataddedoi subha.ted
(SeeFigure 1-19A.)
l4ahethera substancesuch as water is cooled or Example:
heated,ihe heat calculaiion is made in the same $'ay Find the amount of heat required io raisethe tem-
The temperatufe difference multiplied by the number of peratureof 1 kg (aPproximately 1 liter) of water from
pounds water gives the numbir of Btu. 144rerelarge 4"Cto 27'C.

1 Br! added + ' azr..r

) ) "oa*

-l / Blrier

Fisufe1-19. E\penmentin heattnl..A-Raising temperatureof ane paund af water from 63"F ta 61"f requiresane
I tB7 kl of heatta n6e the tempentureof 1 kg of waterlran 17"Cto 18"C.
nlnqh rhernatuin oi hear.B ft r.i1.es
Nate:An accurate of
clefinition the calarieuses1.1810,not 4 187
Modern Reirlgeration
and A r Cond tioning

Solutionr joulesof work equal100joulesof heai,or 100newton-

kJ = 4.187x massin kilogramsx temperature
change in 'C
kl=4.187x1x(27-4) 1.18.2 Sensible
kJ=4.187x1x23 Heat which causesa change in temperature in a
kJ= 96.301
kl substanceis caled sersible heat. When a substanceis
Conversely,if a substanceis cooled, near rs re, heated (heai added) and the tempeiature rises as ihe
moved- heat is added,the increasein heat is calledsensibleheat.
Likewise, heai mav be removed from a substance(heat
subtracted).If ihe temperaturefa1ls,the heat removed
Deiermine the amouni of heat removed to cool
is, agair! sensibleheat.
19 kg of water from 27"Cto 1'C.
kl = 4.187x mass in kiloSramsx temperature 1.18.3 SpecificHeatCapacity
chante in 'C The specific heat capacity of a substanceis the
kl = 1.187t 19 /. (27 1) amount of heatadded or releasedto changeihe tempera-
kI=4.187x19x26 turc of one pound of the substance1' Fahrenheit.
kl = 2068.378= 2068kl The sensibleheai requned to causea temperature
Another metric unit, the calorie, is ihe amount of changein substancesvaries with the kind and amount
heat required to raise the temperatureoI one gram of of substance. DiJ{erent substances require different
water one degree Celsius. However, the calorie is amounts of heat per unit massto causechangesof tem-
such a small unii ihat it is no longer used in refrig- perature. The specific heat capacity of common sub-
errlior rorl . \4osl ca culdrioir.in ergineering.cien.e stancesis shown in Figure 1-20.
are made 11sin8the kilocalo e which equals 1000calo- The amount of heat necessaryto causea desired
ries. changeof temperaiureis calculatedusing the followirg
formula (provided thereis no chan8eof stateof the sub-
Ixamplel stance):
Find the amount of heat required to ra]se the tem-
peratureof 150 grams of water from 10"Cto 90'C.
Solutionl where:
adlorie- md.- in g-am- .emperarure
Q : Heat added or removed (representsBtu)
in 'C M = Mass pounds
Calorie = 150grams x (90 10) sp. ht. = SpeciJicheat measuredin Btu/lb.'F
C a l oe = 1 5 0 x 8 0 AT = Tempemture in "F
Calorie-l2,000.alorie. 2I o(dlorie,
Iquivalents Determinethe amount of Btu that musi be removed
1 kJ= 239cal= 0.948Btu to cool 40 lb. of 20% salt brine from 60'F to 20'F.
1 cal= 0.004
kl = 0.00,1
l Btu = 1.055kJ = 252 cal = 0.252kilocalories

1.'l8.1 FirstLawof Thermodynamics Blu/b-lF hJ/kEK

o,327 1,369
The Eirst Lazuof Theflnodynamicsstatesthat "l1ear 1.O 4.187
and mechanical energyaremutuallyconvetible." 0.504 2_110
0.129 0.540
U,S.Conventional Units 0.0333 0.139
In Section1.4,ihe Btu is definedastheunit of heat. 0.615 2.575
ln Section1.15,the unii oI \.ork is delinedas the ft.lb. coppef 0.095 0.398
Sulphur 0.177 4.741
Sincework is convertibleto heat,the conversion factor 0-1a7 0.743
from Btu to ft. lbs.is used: Graphil€ 0_200 0.&37
Bdck 0.200 0.437
1 Btu = 778fi. ]bs. 0,576 2.412
F-7r7 (Llqlidammonia ar4o^'F) 1.1 4.606
Example: R-7,14(Carbondioxideat 40
'F) 0.€ 2_512
Change10Btu to ft.-lbs. R-502 0.255 1,068
SaltB ne20% 0.85 3,559
Solutionl a-l2 0,213 0,892
10Btu = 10x 778= 7780ft. lbs. F-22 o.2a 1.089
The abovevalles mav b€ usedfor computalionswhichinvolveno
Sl Metric Units 'chang€ol siaie.' ll a changeoi stale is involved,ihs specilicheal
Similari)',in Sl units, heatand mechanical energy lor eachsraleot lhe subsiancemustbe us€d.
arc mutuallyconvertible. In Section1.4,ihe jouleis de-
finedastheunit of heat.In Section1.15,theunit of $'ork Figure1-20. Tableof specificheatcapacityvaluesior
is also ihe joule, or newton-meter. For example,100
of Relrl

Q=MxsP ht xaT Heat which brinSs about a chalxgeof staie with no
Q = 401b.x 0.85sp.ht. x (60'F- 20'F) change in tempemture is called ldtenf (hidden) ft€at
Q=40x0.85x40 A11pure substances are able to change their state.
Q = 1360Btu Solids become liquids, liquids become gas. These
Sl Metric Units changesof state occur at the same temperature and Pres-
ln SI metric uruts, the specificheat capacity of a sure combinations for any given substance. It takes the
substanceis the amount of heat that must be added or addition of h€at or the removal of heat io produce these
releasedto changethe temperatureof one kilo8rarn of
the substanceone degreekelvin (K). The speciJicheat in Figure 1-21, note ihat considerable heat
capacityunii is expressed asjoulesper kilogramkelvin (144 Btu/Ib., 335 kllkg) was added betueen Points B
0/kg'K). and C. Even so, the tempemture did not change. This
Formula: heat was requiredto changethe ice to water.This heatis
Heat addedor removed= Masssubstance x Specific called"lateni heat of melting" or "lateni heat offusion,"
heai substancex Changein tempemiure which means the same thing.
Q=MxsP.ht.xAT Likewise, between points D and E,970 Btn/lb.
(2257 kt /kg) were added and the iemPerature did not
in kilojoules(kJ) change. This heat was requiied to change the water to
Q = Heataddedor removedmeasured steam. This heat is called "latent heat of vaporization "
M = Massmeasured in kiloglams(kg)
When cooling the steam to water, ihe latent heat
sp.ht.= Specficheai measuredin joulesPer kilogram removedis calledthe "latent heat oI condensation."
There are two iatent heats for each substance,solid
AT = Tempemture,measuredin kelvin (K)
to liquid (meltinS and freezing) and liquid to Saseous
Example: (vapodzint and condensing). Figure 1-22 shows the
Find the amount of heat (in kD that must be latent heat for water and several common refrigerants.
removedto coo115 kg of20%salibrinetuom16'Cto 7"C. The laient heat of tusion oI ice is 144 Btu/lb
solutionl (335kl/kg). The latent heat of vaPodzationfor waier (ai
Q = M x s P . h ix a T 212.F,100.C)= 970Btu/lb. (22s7kl/kg).
Q = 15kg x 3.559sp.ht. capacityx (15"C 7"C) The addition of heat to a solid increases ihe vibra-
Q=15x3559x9 tion oI ihe molecules. This continues until they seParate
Q = 480.5kJ at the chanee-of-statepoini. ln the liquid form, the mole-
SpecificHeat CapacityEquivalents cules are oily weakly ittracted io other molecules. Thus,
1cal/e'C=4.187|/eK they are free to move around. At the transition from a
1 Btu/]b.."r =4.187 kllkt.K (kilojoule
per solid to a liquid, some mol€cules ale attached in a solid
kilo8ram kelvin) form. Others are v/eakly atiracted in a liquid form.
1 kllkg K = 0.2388 Biu/ Ib. "F When all the soiid attachments are broken, further

280 150
200 100 E
'., 160 E
.:p 50
3 a o
e 4 0 c 3 2 t s - B c
A -40 B -50 L! h
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 500 o 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3o0o
Blu h (H€aloonlenl

.l-21. A-Iemperatute-heatdiagramfat 1 Ib. of watet at atmospheric pressure,heatedfrcm -10'F through
-10'F to 32'F (72" tenpetatute change)
c;nplete vapotizatian.Fron A-8, 36.3itu were addedta heatice lron
(Btu = 1 lb.><A.5A1x72 = 36.288).Frcn B C, 114 Btu werc added ta meh the ice.The tempeftturedid not chanSe
frcm B to c. Fromc D, 180Btu were added to heatthe wateft'rcm 32.Fta 212'F. Fron D-8, 97A BU werc added to
I iloBrdn ol
,iooiir" rot"r. r'ot-'hot lemp-tutLtl did not changPhan D ta E B tPmp'taturc'hpaldt"gan ;o on'
'!on -t0'( h'ouBh 'ampletP \apottzatian ltam 4 ta B l0A ll ot
rlafer dr dtmo)pnPi^ PrcssutP \ 1A01\P4/hPated
heat areaddei to ,nc,easerce tempetaturefrcm -50"C b A"C Thi is 2 kl/kg'C t 50"C = 1A0 kl/k' Frcn B-C' 335 kJ
are addedta melt the icewithout changingits temperatute.Framc-D, 420 kJ were added to heat the watet ta its
bailins oanL tq.2 kl/ks "C ^ t1A"C a20'kD. Frcn D E,2260 klwere added ta conrcrtthe water ta steam without
chanitnets tenpetatire. Mor€ heat r.c,earesthe tempetatureaf steamas shown in datted line
46 Modem Reirigeration
and Air Cond tioninE

or lllelting
Blu/lb. kJ/kg
Btuilb. kJ/kS
,y 970.4at212.F 2257ar 100'c
565.0al5'F 1314at -150C
R-502 68.96at 5"F :' 160at 15"C
chloide) 178.5at5"F 4 1 5 a t- 1 5 " C
- 1 5 9 a r- 1 5 q C
R-22 93-2at 5"F 2 1 7 a |- 1 5 ' C

FiSute1-22. Tableaf latent heatof vaparizationof watet an.Jsome cammon rcftigerants.Latentheatai fusionis anly
given for watet,as rcfriqerantsda not freezeat tempenturescommonlyhandledby rehigerationsetvice engineers.

heatingcausesthe noleculesin liquid folm to move Every substancehas a different latent heat value.
This is becauseeachsubstancehas a differeni molecular
It requiresasmuchenergyto changethe molecular structure. Latent heat iemperaturcsfor $,ater and the
atiachmentof a blockof lce as it doesto raisethe tem- more common refiigerantsare shown in Figure 1-22,See
peratureofthe sameamountof liquidftom32'Fio 176'F Chapter9 for more information concemint refrigerants.
In SI metric, it requiresas much heat to change1 kg of In a modem refrigeraior, freezer, or air condiiioner,
ice to 1 kg of water as it doesto misethe tempenture liquid refrigerantis piped under pressureto the evapo-
of that sameamouniof waterfrorn OoCto 80'C. raior. In the evaporator,the pressureis geatly reduced.
A11of the basicoperationsof the compression re- The rcftigerant boils (vaporizes),absorbing heat from
frigerationcycle are based upon theseiwo heats- the evaporator.This produces a 1ow temperatrre ancl
coolsthe evaporator.
Equivalenls: The compressorpumps this vaporized reftiterant
l kl/kg = 0.4299Bt]u/lb. out of the evaporator It compresses(squeezes)the re-
I Btui/Ib.= 2.326kl/kg frigerant into the condenser.Herc the heat that was ab'
I kJ/kg = 0.2388kcal/kt sorbedin the evaporatoris "squeezedout." It is released
1 kcal/kg : 4.187kllkg to the surrounding atmosphere.Having lost this heat of
1 kJ/kg = 0.2388cal/g vaporization,the refrigerantbecomesa liquid again.The
1 cal/8 = 4.187kJ/kg cycle is then rcpeated.

1.18.5 Application
of LatentHeat
In reftigeration work, ihe physics of laieni heat is
1.19 Effectof Pressure
especiallvimportant. Applications of this pdnciple give EvaporatingTemperatures
the cold or fteezing tempeiaturedesifed.
As ice melts, its tempennrre remains constant, The evaporating Ooilind iemperaiure for any liq-
Nevertheless,it absorbsa considerableamount oI heat uid ls controlled by the pressureplaced upon it. Water
in changing ftom ice to water. To melt 1 lb. of ice, 144 at atmosphedcpressure(15 psia or 100 kPa) normaly
Btu are required. (To melt 1 ton of ice. 288,000Btu are boils at 212"F(100"C).If the pressurels increasedto 45
required.) To melt one kt of ice, 335 kJ of heat are psia (311kPa),the boiling tempemtureis raisedio 271'F
requifed- (133"C).If the pressureis lowered to 3 psia (20kPa), the
When a substancepassesfrom a liqurd to a va' boiling temperaturewi]l be lol\'ered to 142"F(62f), as
por its ability io absorb heat is very high. Tl'ris prin- shown in Figure 1-23.
ciple is usetul in the operation of the mechanical Mechani.al and absorytionrefrigeratorsuse the ef-
refrigerator. fect of reduced pressureto lower ihe boiling tempera-
The temperatureat which a substancechangesits ture. (SeeChapter 3.) Consider the reftigerant, R-12.It
siaie dependson the pressure.The higher ihe prcssure, boils under aimosphericpressure(15 psia or 100kPa) at
the higher ihe temperatureneeded to bring about the -20"F ( 29'C). If the pressuieis lowered to 9 psia (62
chante. The oppositeis also true. lf the pressureis low- kPa),the boilinS iemperatue is 42'F ( 41'C).A refriS-
ered, the iemperatureat { 'hich ihe changeof state will erator can ihen cool to -42'F (-41'C), if the pressure
take place is also lowered. This pdnciple is shown in on the evaporaior is lowered to 9 psia (52 kPa). How-
Figure 1-23. ever, iJ ihe evaporatorwere to oPeraieat atmosPheric
A liquid under lon' pressurewill boil ai a lower pressure, ihe lowest temperature possible wiih R-12
temperature.If the vapor resultinS from ihis boiling is would be -20'F (-29'C). Figure 1-24 shoh-sthe effect
then compressed,it will condenseback into a liquid at of pressurechangeon the boiling iemperatureof tltee
a higher temperature. substancesused in refiigention work.
s ol Relrigeration
Chnpt€r1 Fundarn€nta 47

121 250
1 1 0 230
Poinlat > - -99 -21
88 190

66 1

43 11
32 90
27 80
21 7a
16 60
10 50
1 3 4
Point-r' !

AbsolulePressuren KiloPascals

rigure1-23. Temperature-pressure pressure,

curvefor water.At atmospheric waterbailsat 212"F(l,CC). At pointA,
wi'thvacuunof 2i HEea kpa),waterbailsat 142"F(62'C).lncreasing pressure
aboveatmospheric raises
is 271"F
af 15 psia(311kPa),boilin! temperature
At B, whichis at a pressure (133'C)

on Freezing
1.20 Effectof Pressure Evaoo.alino in "C al:
Temperature of Water
89 100 122
The temperatureat which water freezesis affected R-12 -?9
by the pressureon the su ace of the water. Incleasing -38
the pressurelowers the freezing iemperature Decreas-
ing the pressureraisesthe fteezing temPeratureFigure of p,ressure
Figure1-24. E_ffect is shown on evaporating
1-25shows this relaiionshiP. aI thtee suDsance'.
Thls relaiionship Soesthe oPpositeway from the
g e n e r ",l! l e B r \ e ni ' ( F c t r o nl l 8 4 T h r s i . b e . r J ' e h d '
:"r erpand, hhen jl freF.,e,.Mo5r -ub-Idn(ese\paid The speciJicheat oI ice is 0.50Btu/lb ) The latent heai of
tusion of ice is 144Btu/lb.
when they me1t,and obey the rule in Section1 18 4. For
them, the higher the pressure,the higher the melting Formula:
Sensibleheat (Btu) = Mass x sP ht. x AT
Latent heat (Btu) : Mass of ice x Latent heat of fusion
folil .han8e= Se15'ble heal - ldtenl hea
Effectof lce
1.2'l Refrigerating Example:
Aow many Btu will be absorbedin changing25 lb.
Ice is stillimportant to ihe refriteration industry.As of ice at 5'F to water at 40'F?
siated before, ice changesto water at 32"F (0"C) and Solution (in steps):
aimosphericPressure.Heai absorytion to produce this 1. Raisethe temperatureof ice from 5'F io 32'F:
chanseis 144Bhr/lb. (335kl/kg)
ihe specific heat equaiion for changing ice to Btu : 1\,t oI ice x sp. ht. capaciiy ol
water is: Heat = wt. of ice x sP hi. caPacit]'ol ice x ice X temperaturechange
tempenture change. Heat will be in Btu The weight Btu= 25x 0.50x (32 5)
(Wt.) will be in pounds. Specificheat (SP.ht.) will be B t : J: 2 5 / A 5 A t 2 7
given in Btu/Ib. (The sPecificheat of water is 1 Btu/lb. Biu = 337.5Btu
48 Modern Refrigeratioiand Air Conditioning

kPa b./sq.n. aims

13981 2Q28 140

12161 1764 120

10134 1470 100

8107 1176



'c -1 -4.9 -0.8 -0,7 -0.6 -0.5 -{.4 -0.3 -0.2 -01 "c
0 0.1 4 . 2
3018 30.36 30.54 30.72 30.90 31.08 31.28 31.46 31.64 31.82 32 32.1A 32.36

Figure1-25. Chartshowseffectof pressureon freezingtemperatureol water.

2. To melt the ice ai 32"F: 2. To find heatneededto melt ice at 0"C:

Btu = wt. of ice x latent h€at of fusion of ice kJ = massof ice x latent heat of fusion of ice
Btu=25x144 kJ=93x335
Btu = 3500Btu kI = 31 155.0kJ
3. To warm the water from 32'F to 40"F: 3. Tofind heatneeded to raisewatertemperature
Btu = wt. of waterX sp.ht. capacityoI waterX 0'C io 4"C:
kJ = massof waterx sp.ht. capacityoI waterx
Biu=25x1x(40-32) temperature chante
Btu=25X1x8 kJ=93x4.19x(4 0)
Biu = 200Btu kt = 93 x 4.19x 4 = 1558.7kJ
4. Total heat required to change25 lb. of ice at 5"F to 4. Totalheatrequiredto change93kg of ice ai -20'C
waterat 40'I: to waterat ,l"C
Btu : 337.5+ 3500+ 200= 4137.5Btu kl = 3924.6kl + 31 15s.0kJ + 1558.7kJ
kl : 36 638.3kI
Sl Metric Units
Tn SI met c, .he specificheat capac;$ o ce - Equivalents
2.11kJlkg K. Its heatabsorptionabi1irywhen chang- 1 kJlkt. K = 0.239Btu/lb.'F
ing from a temperaturebelow0t to 0'C, is 2.11kJlkg 1 Btu/lb.'F= 4.187kjlk8.K
per degrce change.The latent heat of tusion (melting)
of ice = 335 kjlkg. Tle specific heat ot water: 1.21,1 lce and Salt Mixtures
4.19kllkg K. Refrigeratint by ice alone will not provide tem-
peraiuresbelow 32"F (0"C). Therefore,to tet the
Example: lower iemperaiues rcquired in someinsiances,ice and
How many kJ will be absorbedin changing93 kg salt mixfures are used.Thesemixfures,ice and sali (so-
oI ice at -20"C to waterat 4t? dium chiorideor NaCl),and ice and calciumchloride
(CaC12), lower the meltinStemperaiureof ice.An ice and
Solution(in three steps)l
1. Tofind heatneededto bringicefrom 20"Cto 0'C: sait mixiure may be made which will melt ai 0"F
( 18.c).
kl = massof ice x sp. ht. capacityoI ice x A solution of water and salt freezesat a lower tem-
tempemturechange peraturebecausemore energy must be removed from
kI=93x2.11x24 the solution beforeice will start to folm. This phenom-
kJ = 3924.5kJ enonis called "freezingpoint depression."
1,21.2 Tonof Refrigeration sl Metric Unils
The SI metric system has no unit which caJl be
The coolmg capaciiy of older rcftigerahon rmits is
compared with dre "ton of refrigeration."
often jndicated ln "tons ol rctuilenti,on" Aton of rcfriq-
e/aflon represenis the heat energy absorbed when a ton 1 ton = approximately 907 kg
(2000lb.) of ice melts during one 24-hour day. The ice is latent heat = 335kl/kg
assumedtobe a solid at32'F (0"C)initial)' andbecomes energy absorbed = Iaient heat x weiSht
water at 32"F (0'C). The energy absorbedby the ice is the energyabsorbed= 335k] /kgx 947kB
latent heat of ice times the total weight. enerty absorbed= 303845kJ
Todat refrigeration uruis are often rated in Btu/hr.
The meliint of this ice in one day has a cooling or
instead of tons. The Btu equivalent of one ton of refrig-
refrigeration capacity o{ 303 845 kJ.
eration is easy to calculate. Multipl)' the weight of one
To convert th€ Gting to kilowatts:
ton of ice (2000tb.) by the latent h€at of tusion (melting)
of ice (14"1Btu/lb.). Ther! divide by 24 hours to obtain 1kW = 1 kJlsec.
Btu/hI. I ton relrigerationcdpa(ity - l0l845 (24t 1600sec)
I ton retriSerddoncapdcin = J0384q 85 400 sec
One ton of refriteration effect= 2000x 144/24
1 ton refrigeratroncaPacity= 3 52 kT/sec
One ion of refrigerationeffect= 288,000Btu/24 hours
1 ton refigeration capacity = 3.52 kW
One ton of reftigeration effect = 12,000Btu/lr-
A refrigerator which Produces an equivalent cool-
A 12,000Btu/hr. cooling caPacity is equivalent to one
ing rate of ihis ice melting will be rated as a 1+on
ton of refrigeration.
A refrigerating or air conditioninS mechanism
capable of absorbing heat can be rated in tons per Equivalents
24 hours by its heat-absorbing ability (HA) in Btu 1 kW = 3415Btu/hr.
divided by 288,000. 1 Btu/hr = 0.29W
1 "ton" = 12,000
T = tons of refrigelation effect
HA = heat-absorbinSability
HA =
tons of refri8eration ef{ect 1.22 AmbientTemperature
= 12,000
1 ion of refrigeration Btu/hr' Afl1biefit tefipetutute i5 the temperatuie of the air
Example: surrounding a motor, a control mechanism, or any oiher
The heat-absorbingability oI a reftigerator unit is der.ice.For ixample, a motor oPeratedat full Power may
Btu per 24hou|s l lhat is its ton miing?
1,440,000 be guaranteednot to 8et hotter than 72"F (40"C)above
the ambient temperature. Then, if the room temPerature
Solution: (ambient temper;turc) is 86"F (30"C), the temPerature of
- 1,440,000 1140.000 *le motor co;ld get as hrgh as 158'F (70"C)when work-
ing' at fu]l power.
T = 5 tons of refrigeration effect Ambient temperature is not usually constant. It
Example: may change day by day and hour by hour, dependlng
What wi[ be the "ton" rating of a refti$rating on usage of the sPace, sunshine, and many other
mechanism capable of absorbing 1,728,000Btu in
2,l hours?
-' = 1,728,000 1.23 Heatof ComPression
As a gai's con'pressed. itr iemPerafure rites See
T = 6 tonsof refrigerationeffect h {erer8)) added to lhe
Fisure1-1.This ic due to l\e orl
Example: gui Uy tlte comprcssor. The energy added is ofien
What is the Btu heat absorbing caPacity of a 1/2-ton termed "heat of compression "
refrigerating system? The tempemture oI ihe vaPodzed (gas) refrigerant
Solution: returninq to compressor from the evaPorator will
= 144,000
1/2 x 288,000 Btu Perday,or 5000Btu probablv-be at, o..lighlly below l'1eroomtemPerabure
per hour ihlr rrrn" uupot. leaving the conpre'.or and eI]terhg
the condenset will be at a much higher temperature
Most room air conditionersare rated on theil heai- _efrigeranl in a
lhe conpression of \dPorized
absorbingability in Btu Per hour. A l-ton machineis tobe a nearlyadi-
reciqeralor,ompre..orii considered
doati'cprocess.AdiabaHc,ompression ls a Processir
288,000= 12,000 which i gas is comPressed without losing heai to the
Btuper hour
24 surroundings. The refriSerant Passes through th€
50 ModernRelrigeratlon
andAir Conditioning

compressorvery quickly.Therefore,it only losesa small

amount of its heat of compressiontherc. REFRICERATION
The corpres,ed vapor in ihe condenseris no( AND TERMS
much warmer ihan ihe temperatu-reof the surrounding
air Heat of compressionwill be rapidly transferred
ihrough the condenserwal1sto the surounding ai or 1.25 Refrigerant
condenser coolint water.(SeeSeconal Law of Thermo-
d)'namics,Chapter31.) ln refrigerating systems, fluids which absorb heat
inside the cabinet and releaseit outside are called /el g-

In the evaporator,under a reduced pressure,the

1.24 EnergyUnits fluid changes ftom a liquid to a vapor, thus absorbint
heat. In vapor form, lhe fluid is taken into the compres-
In rcfrigeration work, three conrmon, related forms sor. There tlle temperature and prcssure are increased.
of energy must b€ considercd: mechanical, electrical, and This allows the heat that was absorbedin the evapora-
heat energy. The siudy o{ refrigeGtion deals mainly with ior to be released (squeezed out) in the condenser. Ihe
heat energy. However, a refrigerator must make use of rcft*erani is ihen returned to a liquid fom for another
electdcal and mechanicalenergy to move heat energy cycle.
Fr^m nnp nl,.a t. :hn+hcr The refrigerants most commonly used and their
In a compression refriteratint unit, electrical en- -echnicalchdra.Leristics are e\plained in Chapter q.
ergy flows into an electric motor There this electdcal en-
ergy is iumed into mechanical energy. The mechanical
energy is used to tum a compressor. The compressor, in
tum, compressesthe vapor to a high pressure and hith 1,26 Heat Transfer
tempemture. This process transforms mechanical energy
mio heat energy. Heat may be transfered or moved from one body
Various uniis are used for measudng mechanical, to anotherby one of three methods:Iadiation, conduc-
heat, and electrical energy. Energy conve$ion units arc tion, or convection, Some systems of heat hansfer use a
expressedas follows: combination of these three methods.

Mechanical to heat t hp:2545 Biu/hr 1.26.1 Radiation

778Jr.-Ib.:1Btu Radiation is ihe transfer of heat by heat rays.
Mechanical to elect cal t hp = 745 watts (W) The earth receives heat from the sun by radiation.
Electdcal to m€chanicat 746watts = t hp Litht rays ftom the sun tuIn into heat as they st le
Electdcal to heat 1 watt (1 joule/sec.)= 3.412 opaque or translucent matedals. These materials will
Btu/hr absorb some or all oI the rays. (Opaque means light
1 kilowatt(kW): 3412 cannot shine through. Translucent means light can go
Btu/hr through but one cannot see through. See Chapter
Heat to mechanical 1 Bt!/hr : 0.000393hp
Heat to electdcal 1 Btu/hr = 0.293watts Air is heated very little as light rays pass throuSh
it. Likewise, a glass pane absorbs littie heat as rays pass
through it.
These conversion units are used in calculating loads Sunlight geneiates more heat when striking dark-
and determining the capacity of equipment required for colorcd objects than when striking litht-colored or pol-
specificrefrigerationapplications. ishedsurfaces.This is becauselight-coloredand polished
objecis reflect the rays. Rellected rays are not absorbed
Sl Metric Units and changed inio heat. Routh, dark-colored sudaces will
In SI metric, the unii lor measu ng energy in all get hoiter than lighi-colored or polished surfaces, so
three of these forms is the joule. The kjlowatt hour they wiil radiate more heat.
is widely used, however, as a measure of electric en- Any heaied su ace losesheat io cooler sunound-
e$v ing spaceor surfacesthrough radiation.
Lik€wise, a cold surface will abso$ radiated heat.
Equivalents Some space heating systems us€ ndiant heating sources
Ll = a.n76rt.-Ib. Iocated in the ceilings, walls, or floors.
1 It.lb. : 1.3558
1W = 0.7376ft.-Ib./sec. '1.26.2
1It.lb./sec.= 1.3558W Conduction
1 kW = 1.34hp : 3412Btu/h Cotldltctiolr is the llow oI heat between pats oI a
t hp : 0.746kW substanceby molecular vibrations. The flow can also be
Chapter1 of RefriSeratlo.

from one substanceto another substancein direct con- 1,27 Brineand SweetWater
A piece of iron with one end in a fire will soon Some refrigeration and air conditioning apPii-
become warm from end to end. This is an example of cations reqrdre thai water be kept from freezing ai
ihe transfer of heat by conduction. The heat travels tempeFtures considerably below the normal freez-
through the iron, using the metal as the conducting ing temperature oI 32"F (0'C). Other aPPlications
medium. require that water at atmospheric Pressure be
Substancesdiffer in their ability io conduct heat. In kept ftom boiling at tempelatures above 212"F
general, substanceswhich are good conductors of elec- (100'c).
tricity are also good conductors of heat (Wiedmann- Sait, sodium chto de NaCI), or calcium chlodde
hank Law). (CaClr),added to water, raisesthe temPeratureat which
Substances which conductheatpooily are calledin_ the waier will boil. It also lowels ihe iemPeraiure at
sulato$. Suchsubstancesare used to insulaterefrigera- which it will freeze. See Chapter 31 for tables of brine
tors and homes.Any structure that is to be maintained solutions with a freezing point and specific gavity for
at a temperature diJference from its surroundings may
use insulatom. Some reftigerating and air conditioninS insialla-
tionsuse tap water without adding any salt or oiher sub
siance lhir js reterredlo a-,'.seet water.
'1.26.3 Convection
Cor?re.fio, is the movement of heat from one place
to another bv way of fluid or air. For examPle,heated
afu moves ftom a furnace into the rooms of a house lt 1.28 Dry lce
releases its heat to the rooms. Then cooled air returns
ihrough cold air ducts to receive another supply of Solid carbon dioxide (COr) is sometimesused for
refriseration. Solid CO, is a wlite crystalline (like crys-
The samemethod may be used to cool a sPace.Un-
tab);ubsiance. It is fomed when Iiquid carbondioide
wanted heai is collected and discharged outside the is atlowedto escapeinto a snow chamber(heat-insulated
The heat for vapodzing the liquid is dral'n from
ihe interior of the chamber A very low temperaiure
1.25.4 Controlof HeatFlow (-108'F, -78"C) is Iormed. As a result, quantitiesof the
The t'lo$' of heat by radiation,conductioD and con- ca$on dioxide solidify
vection can be controlled.The transler of heat by each This solid is pressedinto various shaPesand sizes
can be incieasedor cut back accordingto need. and sold for reftigeration purPoses li is given such
Use of matedalsthat are good radiatorsof heai im- names as dry ice, zero ice, and so forth, lt remains at a
proves tnnsfer of heat by radiation. A colo! known to temperahrreof 108"F( 78'C) while in a solid stat€at
Le a good radiator can also be used. Radiationmay also atmosphe c pressure.
oe improved by the tlpe of recei\irg surfacesused.Ma- Diry ice does not melt into a tiquid lt goes di-
teridl; or .olor' thdi are Eood absorbersrPoor refle(ior-) rectlv from the solid to the vapor state This is
o{ radiated heat should be used. Radiation may be re- calte'd "subiimation." Dry ice has some desinble char-
duced by revercingthis aPplicaiion acieristics.It does not wet the surfacesthai ii touches.
'5 a pre5endlive The -oh
Dark mate als or colorsabsorband radiaie readily Ihe vdDor ql!en o-f
Light-coloredor shiny maierialshave the oPPositeProP- Lerrperaiure majilained peimiF handlinS froz-
erties. en loods withoui using a heavily insulaied con-
Conduciion may be imProved by Providing large tainer
conductingsurfaces.Good conductingmaierials,suchas The latent heat of sublimation is 248 Bt!/\b (577
copper, aluminum, and iron also imProve conduction. kl ^s,. The heatdbsorbed b) the vaPorin p.s8in8hor
Cork, foam plastics,mineral wool, and many oiher simi- r O8-'l-| 78'Cr io lz'f ,0'C, is appro\imately 27 Bfu /lb
lar matedalsare poor conductorsof heat. Poor conduc- (ol kj, kp,'.Thi(, addeo io the latenl heatof rublimatio l
tors of heat arc commor.ly rcfened to as heat insulatorc makes i total heat-absorbingcap.cri) of 275 Bru/lb
(insulaiion). (640kllle).
Convection may be improved by increasing the Dry iie hasa greaterhea!dbsorbinS cdPabilitylhdn
flow of the conveying medium. Forced-air circulation does water ice. It is generaly mole exPensive than
hedting>ystems arean e'.ampleA blower'peedsup air-
flon. ( onr ersely,conr ection' an be slowed by rerarding
ihe circulation of air.
Heat iransfer is also contrclled (affected) by the Equivalents
remperaturedifferencerT D ) The Sreaterlhe tempera- 1 kI /kg = 0 4299Bt.u/lb.
turtdiJference,the greaiertle heat llow i Btu/lb. = 2.326kl./kg
Modern RetrigeEtionand Air Conditlonlng

Neverplacedry ice in a sealedcontainer!At ordi- 5l Metric Units

narytemperatures, the dry ice will sublime(turn into a In SI, the zeroenthalpiesfor water,refrigerants,and
vapor).The resultintpressuremay causethe container air are also takenat a convenienttemperaturc(reference
to explode. tempemtureor T,) and pressure:
Avoidtouchingdry ice. tt will instantlyfreezethe
skin. . Forwater,0 enthalpyis at 0"Cand 100kPa.
. For refrigerants, 40"Cand 100kPa.
. For air,25'Cand 100kPa.
'1.29 Critical
Temperature The enihalpy is measuredin joules 0) or kilojoules
The ffitical tenperat re of a substance is the high- Formula:
est tempemture at which the substancemay be liquefied, H=Mxsp.ht.XAT
regafdless of the pressure applied upon it. Chapter 31 Example:
lir|5 c-rical lemperdturc) for common reingeranrs,
Whatis the fotalenthalpyof 5 kg of waterai 80'C?
The condensing temperature for a refrigerant must
be kept below iis critical temp€rature. Oiherwlse, rne rc Solutionl
ftigerator vrill not operaie. Carbon dioxide (R-744)has a Enthalpy at 0"C = 0
c tical temperatureof 87.8'F (31'C). This refrigemnt is Specificheatof water (sp.ht.) = 4.19kJ,/kg K
not used in air-cooledcompressionsysiems.This is be- Heatneededto raisetemperature of 1 kg oI water
cause the condensing temperature would usually be from 0'C to 80"C:80- 0 : 80'C
,h^wc rLi< rpmnorrr ra H=MXsp.ht.xAT
H : 5 x 4 . 1 9x ( 8 0 0 )
H = 1676kJ (totalenthalpyat 80'C)
1.30 CriticalPressure
Figure 1-218showsthe rclationship of enthalpy io
The citical pressure oI a substanceis the minimum temperature.
pressure necessary to liquetr a 8as that is at iis critical
tempemture. Less prcssurc wil not liquefy it. 1.31.1 Specific
Specificeflthalpy is enthalpy per urlit mass. It is
measuredin Btu per pound o/kg). Tablesof the en-
1.31 Enthalpy thalpy of subsiancesand pressure-enihalpydiagrams,
such as Figure 1-21,use speciJicenthalpy
Eflthalpyis the measurcof the heai contentof a Formula:
substance.The amountof enthalpyis determinedby h:H/M
both the temperature and ihe pressure of the sub- (Specificenthalpy= Enthalpyabso$ed/Mass)
Enthalpy is ali the heatin one pound of a substance Example:
calculaiedfrcm an acceptedreferencetemperature,32'F If 100lb.of a substanceabsorbs2000Btu oI energy
This referencetemperafurecan be used for water and when heaiedfrom the rcferencestateof 0 Btu/Ib., what
water vapor calculations. For rcfuigerantcalculations, is the specificenthalpy?
the acceptedreferencetemperatureis 40"F.SeeFigure Solution:
1-21A.. Specificenthalpy = enthalpy absorbed- mass
Formula: h: E = zos,,.,ltlr.
H=Mxsp.ht.xAT M 100lbs-
(Enthalpy= Massof substancex Specificheatof
substancex Changein tempemture)
1.32 Cryogenics
\ /hat is th€ enthalpy of 1 Ib. of water ai 212'F,as-
Cryogefli.s rcfers to creatin8 and using tempera-
suming0 enthalpyat 32"F?
tures in ihe ranSeof 115K down to 0 K (-251'F dora'n
Solulion: to 460'F,or -157"C down to -273'C).
Thespecificheai of wateris sp.ht. = 1 Btu/lb./'F The term cryogenics has increased in common us-
Heatto raisetempeEtureoI 1 lb. of waterfrom 32'F age. This is due to frequent use of liquid helium, nitro-
to 212'F:212- 32 = 180'F gen, and liquid hydfogen in refrigeration. The term is
H=MXsP.ht.XAT also applied to the low-temperature liquefaction of gases
H=1x1x180 and their handling and storage. It includes insulation of
H = 180Btu (totalenthalpyat 212"F) containers. instrumentation, and techniques used in
such work.
ChapterI Fundameniakof Refrigelation

Figure 1-25 shows boiling (evaporadng) tempera- Example:

fures at aimospheric pr€ssure of some common cryo- what will be the volume of 2 ]b. of carbondioxide
genic fluids. [t also indicaies the cryogenic ftnge of at 240"Fwhen the piessureis 185Psi?
temperatures. These temperatures are in Kelvin (K).
P = (185+ 15)= 200psia: 200x 144= 28.800Ib.
per sq. ft. absoluie
M =21b.
R = 38.82ft.-Ib./lb.'R*
FLUID "C S€le)
T = (240+ 460): 700'R
,. MRT
212 672 100 373
22 438 30 243 _. : x38.82X700
419 230 " ,8foo
109 351 -75 195 ' --
EthyLene 325 t80 V : 1.89cr. ft.
ol ihe
-250 210 -157 116
258 202 *Thernit "ft.lb." is usedinsteado{ Btu Btu ls not
Oxygen 163 183 90 wil'1feet,pounds.
compatible dnd'R iu)l ascdldrenol
192 81 with N m : Joule,kg, and'K
-320 140 -196 compatible
49 -246 27
423 37 253 20
452 I 270 1.33.1 Sl MetricUnits
460 0 0 The equation in SI may be exPressed:PV = MRT.

Figure1-26. Boiling temperaturesot some cammon P : Pressure in pascals (Pa)

ptn7etanlgand -ome alhet fluidsdt almotphe'i( V = Container volume in cubic meters (m3)
prcssure.Note differencebetweenbailing pojnts al some M = \4ac<of lie gas in l\e . onlainer in
commanly useclrefri4erantsand boiling points oi fluids kiloSrams (kg)
tn the cryoqentcranqe. R = Gas consiant whicl has a value depending
on the 8as properties. Figure 1_27Sives
1.33 PerfectGasEquation values of R for some substances used in
rcftigeration work
If a quantity of gas is enclosed in a tiSht container, T = Absolute temPerature, kelvin (K) which is:
the relationship between pressure, temPerature, and vol- (273+ T'C)
ume may be expressed by the formula: PV : MRT
= The equation shows that if the container of gas is
P Pressure in pounds per square foot absolute
= heated so that ihe tempemture incleases, thm the Ples-
V Volume in cubic feet
: sure will also rise. Cooling a container will reduce both
M Mass of gas in pounds
= the temperatur€ and the Pressure.
R Gas constant (R will differ for different
gases).(Figure 1-27gives the value of R for Example:
some common substances) Ii 0.2kg of air ai a Prcssureof 1.00kPa is contained
T : Absolute temperature in "R in a volume of 50 m', what G ihe tempeGture?

Mate al GasConslant (R) SpeclflcHeal Solution:

J/ks.K _l!l!!- kJ/t(g.K Solving Ior T (absolute temperature):

2A8.68 53.34 1 00 0_71

666.98 123,24 2.13 1,46 MR
210.10 38.82 0.92 0.71 P = 1.00k?a = 1000newtons/m'?
125.08 23,11 2.01 1.84
Oxygen 262.76 44.55 0.92 067 R = 288.68llkg. K (from Figure 1-27)
224,87 41.55 1.S8 1,67
450.45 83.23 2.03 1.55 M=0.2k9
1000. 50
Figwe 1-27, Tablelistsgasvalues(constants)
fot some 0.2^ 288.68
substancesusedin reiigeration watk T :866 K
a. d A i f C o n d i t i o n . E

The temperaturein Celsiusis then: cooledby b ne or any fluid which does not evaporate
in the coil may properly be called cooling .oils.
T'C=TK 273
T "C:866 273
T 'C : 593'C
1.36 Vapor-Gas
Note: Thetemperatureusedin the perfectgasequa-
tion mustalwaysbe in Kelvin. The word uapor in this text indicates reftigerant
Example: which has become heated, usually in the evaporatot and
If the air in the containeris heateduntil the tem- has changedto a vapor or gaseousstate.In some trade
p€raturc reaches1000"C,find the new pressure: and serr,/icelitefature, refrigerant in ihis state is called a
gas. TIle corect technical t€rm is vapor.
T:1000+273-1273K 1.36.1 Saturated
- MRT The terri sahoated oapol identifies a condition of
balance on an enclosedquantity of a vaporized fluid.
_ 0.2x288.68x1273 The balanceis such that some condensate(liquid) wiil
50 be produced ij there is even the slithtesi lowedng of the
P : 1 4 7 0P a : 1 . 4 7k P a temperaturc or increase rn Pressure,
There is usually some of the substance present in
liquid fom when the vapor is saturated.In a satumted
conditron, all of the substance has been vapodzed that
1,34 Dalton'sLaw can be vapo zed under the exisiing conditions of pres-
sure and iemperaiure.
Daltoft's Law ol partlal pressuresis the foundaiion
oI the principle oI operation oI one of ihe absorption
type refrigeGting systems.The iaw statesi Humidity
1.37 Humidity-Relative
. The total pressureof a con{inedmixture of gasesis
the sum of the pressures of each of the tases in the The word h nidity, as used in connection with re-
frigeration. ai conditioning, and weather information,
. The total pressure of the air in a compressed ail cyl- rcfeis to water vapor or moisiure in the air
inder is the su]n of ihe oxygen, nitroSen, and the Air absorbs moisture. The amount depends on the
carbondioxide gases,and the water vapor pressurc, temperature of the air. The higher the tempemture oI the
air, the more moisture it will absorb.
The law further explains that each gas behaves as Relatioe hunidity rs the amount of moisture car-
if it occupiesthe spacealone. To illustrate. the absorp- ed in a sample of ait compared to the total amount
tion rcftigerator uses two tases. ammonia and hydro- which it can absorb at the stated pressure and tempera-
gen. The ammonia, at room temperaiure, is absorbed by ture. Relative humidity is covered in Chapter 19.
the water in the closed system. A rclaiive humidity of 5070indicatesthat the air has
Heating this solution drives out the ammonia. (The 5070as much moisture as ii will hold at that pariicular
hydroSenb nor db-orbedby the hdter and remainsas a temperaiureand pressure.SeeChapter 31 for tablesof
8a-.1Due to ihe pressurex is under. the dmmonia con- moisture-holding ability for air at va ous temperatures,
densesinto a Iiquid in the conden5erThe prer(ure i< with volume and heat data.
unifom throughout the system. Total pressure in the
system is the sum of ihe vapor prcssure of the ammonia
plus the hydrogen pressure. When the prcssure o{ the
ammonia vapor is below ihe pressure conesponding to
1,38 Elementary
lhe vapor pre..ure for ammonia alone, the ammonia
In FiAUE 1-24 a refrigerant cylinder, A, is shom
continuesio evaporate.It tries to rcacha vapor pressure
with the valve closed. The pressure inside is 72 psig
coresponding to the tempenture in the absorber (87 psia,603kPa) and the temperatureis 72'F (22'C).AI
conditions inside the cylinder are balanced. The nuln-
ber of molecules leaving the vapor state by diving back
1.35 Evaporator into the liquid, and the liquid molecules flying out of
the liquid into the vapor state are equal.
In this iext, the word e?,apolato', is used to indicate In cylinder B, ihe valve has been opened slightly.
a part oI the rcftigerator mechanism. This is where ihe Some of the vapor is escaping. The results are twofold:
liquid refrigerant boils or evaporates and absorbs heai. 1. The prcssurc over ihe liqldd refrigerant in the ryl-
In some trade literature,the term "cooling coil" is used inder is reduced to 48 psit (53 psia). This causes
to indicate the part in which such cooling takes place. change. There is now more liquid chanSing to a va-
The correcttechnicaltem, however,is evaporator,Coils por than there is vapor changing back into a liquid.
ChapterI Fundimental!oi Reirg€ration 55


a \

r + t

Fieuret-28. Coottnse e.t ot tltitere ptessuresape.?tinEon sunaceof liquid rcfiiEerantR 12 A Cvlindetal
rc;tEetant rith \rA e c/osed RetrBennti' in stateai equilibrium.B,Cylinder ai reiigerant with valvesliqhtlyapened
anclreiigerantvapor beginningto leavecyllnder.c-cylinder of rcltigerant\lith valveopen wideL Larle amaLntot
reiigerant vapot is llawing fran cylinder.

2. With more liquid tumjng into a vaPor than vaPor liquid can be rcduced since evaPoraiion $'ill be in
reiuming to a liquid, heat is absorbed.The liquid
refrigerant and c,vlirlder\,vill be cooled The tem- Il the vapor moleculescanbe remoYedfast enough,
peraiure of the refrigerant and c-"-linderis no$' | ' e \ d p o rp e - r u r e n ' a ) b e u { e r o r B h. o Lr e . r l p re 8-
50"F (10'C).Someheat frorn ihe surrounding area, erani boiling temperaturesin the r€fti€ieraiing range
which is at 72"F (22"C), wiil nol{' flo*' nlto the c,v1 (low temperature). Vapor molecules are usuallv re-
inder and the refriterant. moved with a compressoror bv using chemicalswhich
In c_vlinderC, the r,alr.ehas beenopenedmore than abso$ ihe molecules.
in B. Refrigerant\,apor no\,vflows out more rapidl,v This The operatlon of the mechanicalrefrigeratorrelies
f. rLhe oser- .he fre'-ur cn t-e trquid -err'gerar' on the heat absol?tion propertlr of a fluid passint from
which evaporateseven fastei. the liquid to the vapor staie.Figure 1'29 disPlavsan el-
The increasein the l'ate of evaporationlowers ihe emeniry refrigelator.A cvlinder oi refrigerantis placed
iemperature of the refrigerant and the ctrlinder Nor{' in a box. Its vapor is vented to ihe outside.The compo-
hea[ r.i]1 flo$. even morc rapidly from the 72"F (22'C) nents inside the box act as a heat absorber.This is the
af into the rold cvlinder. samemeihod that is rised in mechanicalrefriSeraiiof, as
In cylinder A, there is a siate of equilibdum (ba]- explained in Section 1.39. Thus, the ljqldd can boil
ance),r,ith all temPerahlresand Pressul€sin balance. onty at or above its evaPorationtemperature The liq-
In cylinder B, thereis a slight imbalancedue to the uid will remajn ai this temperaiure unhl is has com-
rapor escaphg through ihe valve. If lhis condition were pletelv
' evaporaied.
io continue for a considerabletime, a condiiion of bal- Additibnal heai would only cause more rapid
ance w-ould agah exist. In ihis ne$' condiiion, its bal- e\.por.r.o I cr r'lF liqJid IiSure l-2c - d ierPntf ^n
ance lvould not be staiic as in A. lnsiead, it r\'ould be a figure l-28.In Figurel-2q,1'erP rSF..rrr e\ip. dle' tr
balancebetween the rate of heat flow inio the cylinder, r
l h ee \ c p . r n . o r o i ' l h e ( \ l i 1 d . , l r e . u - e i h"e'ooo-
rhc e\dporJion o rerrteran. nd the f '. of 'efriqer- rator remains constani,at 1'1.7psia
rr' rapor"r. o .l-ecrlird' rarte lr l.i' corlditron.r Sincethe liquid is at this low temperature,there is
bahnc;, the reftigerant is cooling ihe cylinder alrd its d t r J n .e . o f I e . r o i l f r . r l h e - L r r ( . J r d m S o b i e T
. rl'- ' '
surrcunomgs, heat incrcasesthe e\.aPoration.The heat itself is ca ied
q . r o rg ' - l - F \ d l \ e i ' o p e r . r nt da o " ' ' a r . ' a p , a$,ayas the vapor passesoff. Thus, the elaPofating gets
the iemperature will stav lo$'. Morc moleculesare es- the heat energt;for doing this irom ihe objectssurrotnd
caping f;om the liquid into the vapor' Only a few vaPor ing it. Tha! sameheai is removed aiih the vaPor to the
moleculesare diving back into the liquid outside of the box.
This r.apor bombardmentis calleclvapor Pressure This type of refrigeraiing svstem works nicel]'.
lf pressu€ can be reduced, the temPei.nrre of ihe However, the Environmental ProtectionAct laws pro_
Modern Reirgerationand A r Conditloning

1.39 Mechanical
In a mechanical refrigerator, the lapodzcd refriSer-
ant js not discarded. Instead, it is captured, compressed,
and cooledto a liquid stateagain.This is done so that it
can be rcrised,as sho\a.nin Figure 1-30.
To follo$. the refdgerant cycle, betin with the re-
fdgerant in the rcceiver fte reftigerant is R 134a.
The refrigelant in the receiveris under a pressurc
co espondin8 to the room temperatureof 72'F (22'C).
For R-134a,this pressurewill be approximately73 psig
(606 kFa) when the lllit is idle. Ihe pressurewill be
higher when ihe unii is runllint.
At the refrigerantconirol, this pressur€is reduced
to provide low-pressure,low-iemperature evaporation
in the evapolator (cooling coil). Since the box or jnside
lFmperaRe i- to be held .l l5'F ll co( , rl e pre*ure in
the evaporatormust be held at or belo\ ' 30.1psig (311
The purpos€ of the refrigerant control is to allow
ref{igerant to flow tuom the liquid receiver (high slde)
into the evaporator(low side).Itmust malntain the pres-
sure difference betra'eenthe hith-pressde side (high
side) and the low-pressureside (low side).
ln the evaporatot the liqdd refrigerantis no 'r.ln-
Fiture 1-29. Canponentsaf an elenentaryretrigerator.
der a much reduced pressure.It will evaporateor boil
very rapidll This, in turn, cools the evaporator The
h b . l-F relej.- oi . Fr r rF r8eran.5to r\e ,:. r( l-dp- compressorcreatesa low pressureby dra\^'ing(sucl.jng)
ter 9). The expendableretuigerantusually rsed jn an ex- the vapor ftom the evaporaior.Then it compressesthe
pendable refrigerant reftigeration system is liquid \.apor back into the high side.
nitrogen. Somemobile units (trucks)use this method.

72.F\22"C) 35'F (r.5'C)


F;gure1-30. Camponentsof an elementarymechanicalreii?eztot

s oJ RefriSeration
Chapter'l Fundamenta

From the compressor, the warm (see heat of com-

pressio& Section1.23),high-pressurevapodzed refrig- cm2 = centimetersquared
erant flows into the condenser. The temperature of the .m' = centimeter cubed
vapor entering the condenserwill be several degrees dm = decimeter
wamer than the room temperature. This difference dm2 = decimetersquared
causesa very rapid tmnsfer of the heai from ihe con- dm3 = decimeter cubed
denser to the surrounding air. m = meter
The vapor, as it flows through the condenset cools m- = meter squateo
and losesits heat of vaporization.It returns to the liq-
uid state (condensed).As a liquid, it flows from the con- L : liter
denserback irto the liquid r€.€iver. I : gram
This rcftigeraiion cycle is repeaied over and over cal : calo e
until the desired temperaturc is reached.A thermostat kg = kilogram
then opensihe electricalcircuit to the ddving motor.The J = joule
comPressorstoPs, kJ = kilojoule
The tempemture oI ihe evaporatordeterminesthe
pressure at which the rcfriSerani is evaporated.The pu : pascal
amormt of heat removed dependson the amount (mass) k"a : kilopascal
of rcftigerant vapodzed.
kW = klowatt
MW = megawatt
1.40 Reviewof Abbreviations
1.40,3 MiscellaneousAbbreviations
P = pressure
The following is a review of the vadous abbrevia- hrorh:hou$
tions and symbols studied so far in this chapter. This rc- sec. : seconds
view includesboth the U.S. conventionalunits and the T. : reference iemperature
SI met c units. A : difference
'1.40.1 U.S.Conventional Ce = specificheat (sp. ht.)
Units h = enthalpy per unit mass
H = iotal enthalpy
Btu : British themal unit = heat energy
Btu/h = Bdtish themal llnits per hour D : diameter
'F = degrces Fairenleit : radius of circle
FA = degrees Fahrenheit absolute
"R = degreesRankine= degreesabsoluteF : 3.1416(a constantused in determining
lb. : pound the area of a circle)
p5 - poundspe' sq|"areinch - lb per.9 in.
psia = pounds per square inch = gas consranr
absoluie= psi + atmosphericpressure = infinity
in. =inches:i="
ft. =footorfeet=f ='
sq. in. = squareinch = in2
sc. ft. = squareloot = Itz
cu. rn, = cuolc mcn: rn
cu. ft. = cubic foot = {t3 1.41 Reviewof Safety
It.-lb. : foot-pound
ton = ion of reftigeraiion effect The term "saI€tr" as appliedto any refrigerationor
lb./cft. = pounds per cubic foot air conditioningactivity, may have thr€e different appli-
in. Hg = inches of mercury vacuum = "Hg cations.lt may apply to:
hp : horsepower 1. Safetyof the opetator when refriteration and air
conditioningequipm€ntis properly handled,there is
g1 = grarn relativ€lylittle dangerto the operator.
Always pull on a wrench (insteadof pushing),
1.40.2 Sl MetricUnits to prevent possibleslippageof the wrench. Slippage
could causeroundedcornerson nuts and bolts and
'C = degreesCelsius possibleinjury to hands.
K = kelvin Always use leg muscleswhen lifting obi€cts,
mm = millimeter neverthe back muscles.A hoist is recommendedfor
Modern Refrigeration
and Air Condilioning

lifting anythingweighing over 35 lb. (16 kg), Make 3. A mechanicalrefiigeratorremovesheat fiom its
certain ther€ is no oil or wat€r on the floor. conrenEDy-.
Alwayswear safetygoggleswhen working wilh A. evaporating the liquid refrigerant in the
refrigerants. evaPorator
Most refrigeratingm€chanismsare electrically B. changingthe refrigerantin the evaporator into
driven and controlled. When \aorking on el€ctrical a liquid
circuits, mak€ sure the circuit is disconnectedfrom C. allowing the refrigerant to €vapoiateinto the
the power source.This can usuallybe accomplished a1I
by opening the switch at the power panel. Nev€r D. A11of the above.
work on "hot" electrical circuits. Heat is absorbedor soakedup by evaporatinga lit
2, Safetyof the equipmert.Many parh of refrig€ration uid refrigerant in the -.
and air conditioning equipmenl are quite fragile.
Partsmay be ruined by overtighteningnutsand bolts, B, condenser
not tighteningthem in the correctorder,or usingthe C. evaporator
wrong size wrench. Make certain that all connec- D. All of the above.
tions are tightened be{ore operatinga compressor.
5. What color designates a l1i8h-pressure iiquid?
Eeforeoperatint open compressors, be surethat the
A. Dark red.
flywheel and pulley are alignedand thai guardsare
B. Light red.
in place.
C. Dark blue.
3. Safetyof the contenfs,Sa{etyof the contentsof the
D. Light blue.
refrigeratedspacedependsentirely on the accuracy
and care giventhe installationand adiustmentof the 6. Whai color designatesa low pressureliquid?
variousparts of the system. A. Dark red.
Tableslistingproper operatingt€mperaturesfor B. Light red.
various types of refrigerated space are found C. Dark blue.
throughout this text. Thes€op€ratinStemp€ratures D. Lighi blue.
must be observedif the unit is to provide safe con- 7. Heat flows in what direction?
ditions Ior rh€ refrig€raredor air conditionedspace. A. Cold to warm.
It is advisableto observeth€sethree points during B. Warm to cold.
the service work explained in the chaptersfollowing. C. Liquid to gas.
Eachchapter has a "Reviewot safely." Theses€rveas a D. AII of the above.
reminder of potential hazards which may b€ pr€sent Tempenturc is an indicaiion of the degree of
when working with the equipm€ntand supplies.
There is no erception to the rule that "The saie way
is rhe right way."
C. Both A and B.
D. None of the above.
1.42 TestYourKnowledge 9. Most substances change their physical state by

Pleasedo not w te in this text, Placeyour answe$ on a A. b€coming invisible

seParatesheetof paPer. B. the addition or removal of heai
C. becomingmolecules
D. the addition of heat only
HISTORY AND f UNDAMENTATS 10. Cold or low temperatures
OF REFRIGERATION MODULE A. cause the molecules to mov€ more quickly
1- Nomlal refriterator temperatureis approximaiely B. slow bacteriagrowth
_'F. C. causeincreasedbacieda giowth
A. 30 D. causefood to becomespoiled
B. 35
c. 40 AND
2. What was used in the 18ih ceniury to obiain
reftiteiation? 11. How many ceniimetersarc equal to one inch?
A. 25.4cm.
B. CoId water. B. 0.254cm.
C. lce. C. 2.54cm.
D. Salt and water solution. D. 1.5 cm.
ChaplerI F!ndam€ntas ol RefriSeralion 59

of a comPressor
12. What is the pision displacement REFRTCERATION SYSTEMS ANDTERMS
with 2" boreand 3" strokes? 21. Whatis dry ice?
A. 9.42inr. A. A liquid form of ice.
B. 12.00in3. B. Solidcarbondioxide.
c. 14.14 tu3. C. Sulturdioxide.
D. 37.70in3. D. A vapor.
13. How many 90" arcs fit in a complete ciicle? 22. Civen t$'o objectsof the same size one chrome-
A. 8. plaied and one painted black-which one rvill ab-
B. 1. sorb more radiant heat?
c. 2.5. A. Chrome-paintedobject.
D. 6. B. Black-paintedobject.
1 4 . Whatdetermines at whicha refris-
theiemperature C. Both absorb equally.
erantwill vaporize? D. Neither absorb.
23. Which of the {ollow g ill$trates the PinciPle of
B. Temperature.
C. Volume. A. \,4o\emeniof hFdtb) fluid o air.
D. Enthalpy. B. Heai waves ftom the sun.
pressurein pounds
15. Expressstandardatmospheric C. Heai iraveling ihrough a solid objectfrom end
to end-
A. 116tbs./tr'.. D. Radiationftom the sun
B. 2t17lbs./lC. 24. WilI glassor copperconduct heat the mosi raPidly?
C. 2593]bs./ftz. A. Glass.
D. u,590lbs./fP. B. Both conduct heat at an equal rate.
1 6 . A substance hasa temperaturc of 20"c.Whatis the C. Neither arc conducto$ of heat.
temperature in "F? D. Copper
A. 52'F. 25. Should reftigerants be oPerated at temPeratufes
B. 68'F. above or below their cdtical temPeraturc?
c. 64'F.
D. Noneof the above. B. Below.
17. A sribstancehas a temperatureof 78'F lvhat is the C. Neiiher aboveor below-They shouldbe at their
temperature in 'C? critical temPerature.
A. 32'C. D. Either above or below.
B. 5'C. 26. The desircd temperaturein a domesticcabinei is
c. 46'C.
D.26'C. A. 15
18. rn 5r unrF.thejoLrl< r>d unit of - 8 . 0
A. iemperature c. 50
B. heat D. 35
C. rvork 27. The desired temperatulein a domesticcabinetis
D. Bothheatand work. "c.
19. How muchheatwilt be rcquiredto change5 lbs.of A. 35
ice at 32"Finto waterat 82'F? B. 2.5
A. 19,tBtu. c. 1.5
B. 720Btu. D. None of ihe above.
C. 970Btu. 28. Reftigerani fltdds are -
D. 1925Biu. A. fluids thai absorbheat inside a cabinel
20. - hasthe largestspecificheatcaPacity B. fluids that releaseheat outside of a cabinet
C. flrdds that absorbheat outside of a cabinet
B . Iron D. Both A and B.
c. Class 29. Heat may be tnnsferred fro one body to another
D, Bdck
A. radiation
B. corduction

D. All of ihe above.

30. Liquid can boil only - temPeraiure.
A. at its evaPoration
B. below its evaPoration
C, at or aboveits evaPoratlon
D. at or belo\^'its freezing
60 and Air Conditioning
Modern Refrigeration

A technicianbrazinq linesan a campressorat a manutacturinE

plant. Nate the safetyequipmentbeing worn. (BryantAir
Condi tioni na/Heating)

Modules; T U B I N GA N D F I T T I N G S
Tubing 6',r
R e f r i g e r aTtoi oo nl s ..... -...... -. -.77 MODULE
InstfumentsandOauges ............88
S u p p l ai ensdU s e. . . . . . ..........94 2.1 Tubing
KeyTerms: Most tubing used in refrigeration and air condihon-
ACRtubing ing is made oI copper. However, some aluminum, steel,
annealeo one-wayservicevalve stainless steel, and plastic tubing is also used
Drazrng refrigerantoil Instructions in this chaPier will deal mainly with
double{hickness swaging copper fubing. Atl fubing u<ed in.ir condilioning and
two-way gervicevalve 'worf
I are re#eera tion i' cariruliy proces.ed(obe -ur; ihal
it is ilean and dry inside. The ends must be kept sealed
LearningObiectives; until it is used.
By studyingthischaptef,you will be ableto:
a Listand discussthe varioustypesof tubingusedin 2.1.1 CopperTubing
a Cut and fit tubing usingapprovedmethods. Most copper tubing used in air conditioning and re_
a Demonstrate solderingand brazingtechniques. frigemtion work is know^ as Ait ConilitiortiflSafid Re'
a Repaifcracksand eaksin evaporators. ftigention (ACR) tubi,lg. The tubing is intended for air
) Selectthe propertoolsfor servicing and maintaining conditioning and refrigemtion. It has been Processedto
domesticrefrigerators. sive
- the desired chamcteristics.
a Explainhow to usevarioushandtoo s. ACRtubing is usuallychargedwith gaseousnitrogen
a Discussthe proceduresfor threadingsteelpipe. This keepsthe tubing clean and dry until it is used. Ni-
a ldentifythfead types. trogen should be fed through the tubing during brazing
it ldentifydifferenttypesof threadedfasteners. and solderingop€rations.Take care; it is dangerousto
a Demonstratestandardproceduresfor basicmechani- use.SeeChapler 12.
cal serviceand repairoperations. t he nitrogen u iJJelim''1dlelhe danger o[ o\iddlion
a Explainhow to maintainand calibrate gauges. inside t}le fube. All iubing end. -hould be plugged im-
I Comparecleaningmethodsand useof so vents. medratelyafter cutiint a lenglh from t]le piece.
a Explainthe useof vacuumand compoundgauges. CopperrubinSi' availablein soft and hard type5
a Define varioustypesof servicevalves. Both are available in two wa[ thicknesses-K and L
'a Discussthe importanceof oil in reftiSetatingsystems. TVpeI is a hedw hali. T)'rreL i' d nedium ihicl wdll.
a Definepu€ing and explainhow it is done. M6st eCR tuUingcurrentli-bein8u.ed rsihe IyPe I Soft
a Discussthe evacuationof a system. copper tubing is supplied in 25', 50', alld 100' rolls.
a Follow approvedsafetyprocedures. Another type of copper tubint used in heating and
plumbirg i- called 'nominal size.' This qPe of coPDer
iubire iiusea on waier line-, drains and m otherap-
plicat-ions. It is never used with rcfrigerants.
soft Copper Tubing
Soft copper tubing is used in domestic work and in
some commercial relrigeration and aii conditioning
work- It is afiftealeil(heatedalld then allowed to cool).
This makes it flexible and easy to bend and l'lare. (Afals

62 M o d e r n R e i . s e r n r i o na n d A r C . r . t t i o r i n 3

lS an e argementai ihe end of a pieceof flexible tubing

bv $'hich the tubing is connecie.tto a fitting or anorner
plece of tubing.) Being easily beni, ihis tubing must be OD
supported by .lamps or brackets.Soft coppeitubing is
n1osiolten used in conneciionl\'iih flared fiitings (S;ci_
0.375 3/8 0.035
ety of Autonotive Engineers(SAE)standards);nd soft
L 0.375 3/8 0.030
,ulde-Fdfir..rg-. \J cooper t, birt r. .uJ :n 2q
rn - Jrd 01, rrt \, 5 ze\ ntr,\t . ,
o llmor I u,.d , r_ 3/8 0500 1/2
3/16'.,1/1" 5/16" 3/8.,7/16",1/2',9/16"', 5/8', and 0.049
L 0.500 1t2 0.035
3/,1" outside diameter (OD). WaII thicknessis usua v
-p.,.fred: ' ,. .u-Jrcth- or )r ll" h. t-igure2-1r- a I bt:
1/2 0.625 5/A
ot common copper tubc diametcr and thicknesses.
0.625 a/A 0040

5/8 0 750 3t4 0.049

L 0.750 314 0.042

.030 0.875 7/8

3/8 032 o.aTs 1ta 0.045
5/8 .035 1.125 11/6 0.065
L '1.125 1 1t8 0.050
314 .035
Figure2-2. Nomnrafsizecopper tubinil.
11/a .050 Iype K heavr,\\,all is availablein had altd sofl tenper.
1 3/8 .055 TypeL ntedlun nall is availablein harc!anr| soft
tentpct, Iype K is used wherc corrasion cotiditions are
Figute2-1. Cappertube sizesLtsedin refrigeation severe.TypeL is Ls€d wherc conditionsmay be
\\,ark.Both sofi' and hard-dr:wn sizt'sare the sanreas cansiderednam)al.OLttsidccliametersir.esindicateclby
the measurcmcnts Iistetlin the tal)le.OLnsi(ledianeter dimensianare 1/8" 1.125")largerthan no|linal tize.
size tor thistubltig is the actualoutsi(ledtaneter af tube.

wall ihicknessesof this tubing. The wal thickness

Soft copp€r tubing malr be worked io give ii cer (type) is hdicated by use of a leiier after the nominal
tain propcrties.It can be hardenedby repeatedbendhg
or hamnering. This is called ?,o/k irdl.te,1ir8.Ii can be
Copper tubing used for such applicationsis ofien
soltenedby annealing,as €xplainedearlier
referfed to by its nominal size.If vou mcasureihe OD,
Tubing nust be installed so that ihere is no srrain
on it h'hen the job is completed.Horizontal loops mav )rou will noticethat dre OD is l/8" larger than ihai listed
under nominal size.
b , r . e o . o . . p \ , f r a i o r f r o r r . r \ . . " l l i i , g r . r e . o p p.e
When purchasingfitthBs for ihis tubing, ii is nn,
makint it crack or break.
portant that the fitthg size is ihe sarneas the size tub,
Hard"Drawn Copper TubinB ing purchased.You shor d order all ihe tlrbing, valves,
Hard drar{'n copper tubing is useciin comrnercial and fittings by nominal size or ordef all bv OD, io avoid
refriteration and air cmdiiionint applications. Being probl€ms.
hard and siiff, it needsiew clamps or supports,paiiicu
larl]. in larger diameters.
Hard tubingshoulclnot bc bent.Usestraithtleigrhs 2.1.2 SteelTubing
and fitiings to form necessaiytubint counections. Someihin-rvall sieel tubinS is used in refrigeration
Hard drawn refrigcration tubing joints should be and air conditioningr\rork.Thesesizesarepra.tically ihe
brazed.Soft so].tershould be used only on h'ater hres. same as for copper iubing. Connectionsmay bc made
Hard-dnwn tubing is supplied in 20' lengihs.It is a\.ail on steel tubing bl, ushg either narcd joints or brazed
able h the samediametersand ihicknessesas soft cop, lonrts.
Per tuDng. Copper or brass tubing nusi Doi be used .ith re
frigerant R 717 (anmonia). Use steel hrb g insiead.
Nominal-Size CopperTubing There is a chanceof chemical reaction (corrosion)be
Nomnral-size copper tubing is a tvpe used on tl\leen amnoma ano copPer.
$'ater lines, drains, and in other appL.ations.\ominal- T$'o types oa steeltubing are in comrnon use. One
size copper tubirg is ne\.er used r{ith refrigerants.ft iype has a clouble lap braz€.l consiruciion ushg SAE
is available in both soft and hard-dra{'n grades. 1008mild stcel.The other is butt u'clded, using the sane
The table, Figure 2-2, shows comnlonllr used sizesand type stcel.
C h a p r e2 R e f r L g e rodnt T o o< a n d M a t e ra l s 63

2.1.3 Stainless Burst
Stainlesssteeltubing comesin the typical refrigera- Diameler
tion tube sizes.The most common sizesare lisied in the
119' .020 500
table,Figure 2-3.Stainiesssteelis strong and very resis- 'tD
3/16 .030 500
tant to corrosion.It may be easily connectedto fittings _040 400 1"
b), narc fitiirlgs or brazing. 5^6" .062 600 1l/8
Stainlesssieel tubing No. 304 is commonly used. 3/8' .062 350
This is a low-carbon ircn alloy containing 18% chro- 1t2' ,062 250 2112
mium and 8% nickel. It is often used in food process-
ing, ice creammanufactute,milk handlinS systems,and Figrjrc 2-4. Plastic tubing specifications. Note that ihefe
ihe 1ike.Type 304 siainlesssteelis not magnetic. drc [out dtlere\ ih;rrnp.se. used r,r r6i, ':,/p ront- ol
plastic tubing.(lmperialEastman,lnperial Division)

2.1.4 Metric TubeSizes

Metdc-sized tubing is (sed in some refritemtion
and air condiiioning systems.The standard sizesare 6,
8, 10, 12,14, and 15 millimeters (mm) OD.

2.1.5 Plastic
Polyethyleneis one ofthe most commonsubstances
used in ihe manufactureof plastictubing. Sizesand sug
- for its use are shown in Figure 2-4.
The usual safe temperaturerange for polyeihylene
tubing is from -100 to +175'F (-73 to 79"C).Therefore, hoseusedin refriqeration
FiEfie2-5, Thermoplastic
never use this tubin8 in instalations where fluid tem-
peraturegoesbeyond theselimits.
In general,polyethylene tubing is not used in the
rcfrigeratlngcyclemechanisms.It is used for cold water FlexibleHoseFittings
lines, r,{ater-cooledcondensets,and the like. Polyvinyl Thereare va ous types oI flexiblehose fitiings
chlodde (PVC)pipe is used mainly ill high pressureap- listedin Figure2-6.
available.Seethe descriPtions
plicationsat low temperaiuresfor water and tas.
Special{iitints are availablefor comectint polyeth-
g tEt-o-Binq r,--}l
ylene tubing to refrigeration and air conditioning mecha-

2.1.6 tlexibleTubing(Hose)
ln manv refrigerationand air condiiioning applica-
tions, the liquid lines and suction lines must be flexible,
Figure 2-5.This is particularly true in rnany commercial
H#l rhlst
r-?n-:a tlljll
E c
gilo Fiie

and industrial refrigeraiion and air condiiioning appli Figure2-6. Assortednylon fittingssuitablefor use with
refriEeranthose.A-Caupling, straightmale15" flarc,
Air conditioning equipment on motor vehiclesre threadedrcusable.B-Coupling, straightmale pusll-an
quires flexible tubing. This 9?e of hose is made from a barb-type rcusable, with O+inB seal. C Coupling,
vadety oI specialmaterials.Such matedals do not a8e straightmale45" flarepetmanent(crimped-onand not
and remain flexible.Thesenaterials do not allow fluid reusable).D Cauplins,9A' nale push-onbarb type
to leak through the hosewall. TheJ'are easyto aitachto rcusable,with A ring seal.E-CouplinS, straiEhtmale

3/8 'lt2 5/8 314

.254 .375 .500 ,625 _754 1 . 0 0 0 1.250

6.35 9,52 1 5 . 8 7 1 9 . 0 5 25.40 31_75 31 io 20 gag6.)

'- B rmnglrarn
W re Gage

steeltubin| sizesareSivenin lractionsanddecimalsoi an inch,and in millimeters

Figure2-3. Stair/ess
64 ModernReirieefat
on andAir Condirioning

. .Flexiblehosefittings areusually madeof brass.Ny_

lon fittings aresometimes_used.
Syniheticrubber O-dn;s
arepuLon \omeof rheseFiting- ro pro\ide a bellerse;I.
The dttachmentend of thesefitRngs(onlorfb lo trre
standardSAE fittings specifications.

2.2 Cuttingand BendingTools

Thereare numerou"tlpes of cutringand bendirg
lools usedon copperand p a:trctubing.SeeFigure2-7i
lhesetool. a'1dtieir uie, dre describedin tle iollow_
ing paragraphs.

Figute2-A. A tube cutter. Nateattachedreamerwhich

is usedto removebuffs from insideof tube aftercufting.
Croavesin the rallersallow cutterto be usedta remove
flarc ftum tube with little tubing waste.(Uniweld

Fi9ule 2-7. An assortmentof cutting, bendinB, and Fi8ure2-9. 4 rninF/ubingLuner i- Ltsedtn tompd\t
flaring tools. A Lever-type tube bender. B-Tube cutter. areas. (Uniweld Products, Inc.)
C-Flarin7 taols. D Tube expander. E Propane torch.
F Inner/outer reamer. C-Spin7-type tube bender.
(Ridge Tool Conpany) It is important that no ftlitlgs or chips of an! kind enter
tle frrlng. lvhen cuitinS tubing with a hacksaw do not
allow the chips to fall into the sectionthat is to be used.
2.2.1 CuttingTubing Figure 2-10 illustEtes a sawing fl\ture.
To cut iubin& use either a hacksaw or a tube cut- lf soft tubing is used. pinch the end of the iube on
ier. The tube cutter is Lrsually used on smaller, annealed the unused side oI the cui. This eliminates the danger
(soft) copper tubing. The hacksaw is preferred for cut- o{ chips entering ihe tubinS. It also seals the tubing
ting laiger, hard copper tubing. If a saw is used, a wave against moisturc and protects it until used. In hard cop-
set blade of 32 teeth per inch wiil do the best job. (See per tubing installation, cap or plug the ends o{ the un-
Section2.9.12.)The tubing should be straght arld cut
squarely (90') to eliminate an off-center flarc. The cuttet To prcvide a full-r 'aIl thickness at ihe end of the
usually leaves some sharp burrs on ihe cut ends. Buirs tubin& many service technicians fiie the end of the tub-
must be removed by reaming (scraping wiih a pointed ing usint a smooth or medium cui mill file. (SeeSection
tool). Mosi tube cuttershave a reamer. 2.9.11.)Again, do not allow any filings or oth€r materi-
il< r^ fill nlr^ nrc h.hind
Figure 2-8 illustrates a wheel-9?e cutter For con
fined areas, ihe technician can use a mini-tubing cutter/
Figure 2-9. lts operation is similar to the standard iube Tubing
2.2.2 Bending
cutier. This type of cutter is available for cutting copper It iakes pmciice io become good at bendinS tubing.
tubing from 1,/8'to 1 1/8". Special bending tools are not needed Ior smaller sizes
Chaprer2 Too s and Materlals
Relrig€railon 65

Figur€2-12. Thrcespringbendersusedfor 1/4' through

3/4' tubine. Iube bending spring may be littecl either
Figure2-10, Sawin9fixtureto ensuresquareand ouEide ar insidecopper tube while bendingtube.
Bendingspringreducesdangerof flatteninBtube while it
accuratecuts when usinga hacksawta cut tubing. This
is being bent. (Uniweld Ptoducts,Inc.)
methad is recommended for cuttinE hard-drawn copper
and steeltubing.(lnpetial Eastnan,lmpetial Division)

Use the sping bender exiernally in the middle of long

used in domestic appliances.However a much neater
lengths of tubin8.
and more saiisfactoryjob is possiblewith such iools.
Bendingspringstend to bind on the tubing after the
Tubing should be bent so that it doesnot placeany
bend. They may be easily removed by twistirlg the
strain on the fittings after it is instailed. Be very careful
spdng. This changesihe spdng diameterslightly so ihe
when bending the tubing to keep it rcund. Do not al-
grip on the tubing is released.
row lhe tubin8to LinL.flatlen or bucllc. The nlnlmum
If a bend is to be made near the flarc and an exter-
mdius for a tubin8 bend is between5 and 10 times the
nal spdng is to be used, bend the tubing beforc making
diameter of the tubing as shown in Figure 2-11,
the flare.An internal sprinS canbe used elther beforeol
Tubes shouid be bent quite slowly and carcfully. It
after the fla ng oPeration.
is al 'ays wise to use as larte a radius as possible.This
Oiher tools are availablefor bending operations.A
reducesthe amouni of flaiteninS-lt is also easierto bend
gear-tlpe bending tool is shown in Figure 2--13-
a large radius. Do not try to make the completebend in
one operation; rather bend the tubing gradually. There
is lessdangerthat the sudden stresswi]l brcak or buck]e
the tubing.
An inexpensive tool called a bending spdng is
shown in Figure 2'12. It may be easily carded in a tool
kit. Theseare availablein a variety of sizes.They can be
used both inside and outside the tubing. Bending
springscanbe used internally for makingbendsnear the
end of the tubing.
An internal bending spring for 1/2" OD tubing may
be usedasan extemalbendingspringfor l/4'OD tubing.

Figure2-13. Tubebendetwhichwill ptoduceaccurate

b6nds.lt will reducedanEerof flattenitlg
ar buckling
Fiture 2-11. Mininun satbbendin7radiusfot bending tubewhileit is beingbent.(lmpetialEastman, lmperial
tubinB. Division)
66 M o d e r nR e { r i s e r a t i a
o n dA i r C o n d U o n t n g

_. A triple-size tube bender is shown in Figure 2-14. 2.3 Connecting

Thistlpe of benderis usedfor 1/4",5/16',,ana3/8,,OD
tubing. The calibFted markings allow the technicianto
make accurateleft-hand, dght-hand, and olfset bends. Tubing walls are too thin for threading. Therefore,
figure 2-15.hov\- 5omeo-jchcebenocor fubing. olhe. n erhod.or ioinmgrubingto tubingand fLbirg.o
littrnB. nust be r,.ed. fhe rhreecommor merl-odsale.

. Flared connections.
. Solderedconnections.
. Brazedconnections.

2.3.1 FlaredConnections
When cormeciing tubing to fittings, it is corrmon
pnctice to flare d1eend of the iube. Fittings designed to
g p the tube are then used. Special rooG are u;ed for
making flares.
Figure 2-16illustrateshow a tubing flare is used to
fo1m a ]eakproof jonli between a tube and fitting. Ir also
shows some tlares *-hich were inconectly made. A cor-
rectly formed flare is squeezed tightly betyeen ihe flare
nut and the coupling.A vapor-tight seal res! ts.
Someflaresare made from a single thicknessof the
tube. Other flares are made with a double thickness of
metal in the flare surface. These do ble l'Iarcs are
Figure2-'f4. Triplesizelever-type
tubebenderAsshown, stronger and usually catse few problems if proper\'
taolisnaking90"offsetbend. (lJniweldProducts,
Most flares are made at a 45' angle to the tube.
Flareson steel iubing, howei'er, are usuatly made at a
37' antle. This is becausesieel iubing is harder to flare
than copper tubing.
90. |.--8i"'l+| -- Single-ThicknessFlare
l l
A --.---- ::ri i To make a flare of the correci size using a flaring
block, do the following:
1. Carefully prepare ihe end of the tube for Ilaring.
The end musi be siraight and squarewith ihe tube.
The burr ftom th€ cutting operation must be re-
moved by reaming. Figure 2-17 shows the steps
necessary to prepare a tube for flaring.
2. Use a 10" smooth mill file to squarethe end of ihe
t+12n.+l tube. Use great care that no filings enter the iubinS.
Next usea buning reamertoremove fl1eslight burr
remaining after the cut-off opeiation.
3 . A flaring tool which malr be used to make a single
thickness Iiare is sho 'n in Figur€ 2-18A. A flaring
tool suited for flaring either ftactional size or milli-
rreier -ile tubirB rs -ho!\n Lnfigure 2-188.
4. ?lace the flafe nut on the tubint wiih the open end
toward the end of the tubing. Inseri ihe tube in the
flaring tool so ihai it extendsabove the surfaceof
the block as sho .n in Figure 2'19A. Tlis allows
enough metal io form a full flare. Tighten the clamp
180' so the fube cannot move.
5. If the iube exiends above the block more thar' the
amount shown, the flare will be too larte in diam
eter and the flare nut will not fit over ii. II the tube
Figure2-f5. Sane practicebendson tubing.A-90' does noi extend above the block, the nare ra'ill be
bend on 1/1" tLtbin'. B-9A'bend on 1/2" tubing. too small. It may be squeezedout of the fitting as
C-36A' bend ot1 1/4' tubins. D 18o" bend on I/2' the flare nui is tightened.Figure 2-198 shows ap-
tuD|18. narr:n.a ^{.^mntprp.l fl rrp
Chapref2 ReirBer.rtionToolsand Matefi. s


Figure2-17. End of tube must be carefull,/Preparcd

back it off one quarter turn. Repeai the forward

movement and backhg off until ihc flare is

Sometechniciansmake ihe flare using on€ contnru-

ous moiion of the flaring tool. That is, ihev clo not use a
back-and-forihmotion. Ii is believed b-v some ihat ihe
c . n . l d r t i u r n . n go l l h r r o o l .\ ' ' l l o u l h . . \ I r | . rr r g .m a v
work harden the tubing. It r{'oul.] then be more likely to
Other technicianslike to use a flare which is noi
completelyf ormed-about seven-eiShihs complete.They
depend or the tightening of the flare nut on ihe flare to
Do not tighten the spinnint tool k)o much. This
would thin the wall of the tubingat the flare and \'veaken
Always placethe flare nut on the iube in the proper
positionbeforethe flare is ade.It cannot,in mosi cases,
be instaltedon the tube after ii has been flarecl.
Double-thicknessflares aie forned 'ith sPecial
tools. Figure 2-20 illustrates a cross section through a
simple btock and-pl1nchtype of tool llsed io rnake a
double flare. The correct shape of the double flare is
Figure2-15. FlarediittinBs.
shown in the final oPeration, Figure 2-20D Some
flaring tools have double flare adaPiors, Figure 2-21.
To forn the flare, first put a drop of reirigerant oil Thesemake it possibleto form eiiher single or double
on ihe flaring tool sPhner where it u,i]] contact
the tubing. Tighten the spi ler atainst the iube Ei91arc 2-22 sho .s the stePs ior mak g a double
end one+au turn and back it olf one-quafter flare using the tool shown in Figl e 2-21 Double
I r ' n . q J \ d n . , . l l , r ( e - ! L d r l e r' -t . h n a n J i t r j n ihickness flares are recommendedonly for larger s]ze
58 Modern Relrigeration
and Air Condit on ng

Figure2-18. FlarinStools A-Popular style usedfor makinEsingle-thickness flareson rcirigerationtLtbinB.Ftating

block is split, naking it easvto insertthe ctanp tubinBin place fat ttainE. Note15' chaniir in bbck, *iicn g;uis tne
flarc its carrect shape.luDi\'reldProducts,tnc.)B-Ftaring tool havinEa; actjustabte tube-hotctinEr''echanbn ;hich
pemits llariug tubing 3/16" ta 5/8" OD ancl5 nm to 16 nm OD. tReedManLiactLtrins Co.)

tubin8, 5/ 16"and over.Suchflaresare not easilvformed

on smaller Lubing.The double fiare makes a stronger
joint than a single llare.
If a hrbe splits i'hile being flarecl,ii mav be due b
l h e . d eo r r e i u b r n SO. l d r r - b i r rbge , o n ' eb- ; i . ,e . r r t e r
pedod of use and cannot be flared saiisfactorirv
To remedy this brittle condition, anneal(soften)thc
tubing by heating io a dr 1,cherry red or blue color arld
Figure2-19. fubing to be ilared should extendslightly allowing it to cool slolvly. Rough handlnrg (such as
llrtin; b|o.I,ro dtlaA-tu utt. m-taltu o a a pounding) or bending the iubing tends to work harden
"bu\e ii. Hard drarvn tubing cannot be bent or flared unless
salisfactar)iflare.Amount to allot",,is abaut one thitd the
heilht af the ilarc.A Prcpetposition of tube in flariDg annealed.
toal before ilaring. B Canpleted ilare.

figure 2-20. Sinple block antl punch tool for forning dauble flaresan copper tubing.A TLbeis clanped in boclyaf
flating block. B Fenalepunch bends end of tube inward. C-Male punch is insettedin partLlllyilarcd tube. D Male
punch lolds end oi ube do\lnward to forn double thicknessand expand flareinto linal form.
Chapter1 Fundanrentals

Fi9ue2-21. flatingtaol.Theadaptorc canbe usedta

crearca vatietyof flarcs.lRitchieEn9ineering

Figure2-23. Someof the marc common ilare type

fittingsusedin rcf gerationand al conclitioning\\/atk.
A flared tee fitting,maleflare\ nale flarc.B ared
unian caupling,male flarc x nale flare.C Flatedhaff
unian caupling,male flarcx nale pipe. D-Flarcd 90'
elbow, male flarex nale ilarc.E-Flare nut. (l\'4uellel
RefrigeratianPrcductsCa.,Divisianof l\'lueller

Tubng Bar brass, aluminum, and polyethylene materials. Plashc

lLrDrngi- no. ared "(e ooper Rdrhe-.d cono'e-'ion-
Eigwe2-22. CoftectprocedLxefot faming a double -'-rr8 . u.ed.a''ho.r i- liSure 2-2c
flate usinga tool like the ane shor/n in Figute2-21. rype

2.3.3 Metric-Size
2.3.2 Flared
TubeFittings Metric'size iubing, as described in Section 2.1.-1,
To attach a fitting to soft copper tubinS, a f'lared- requires metdc-sizefittings. These are very similar io
t\.pe conneciionis generallvused. There are many dif- U.S.conventional-sizefittings and are used in the same
ferent fitting designson the market. The acceptedsian- wa)r. The techlician must be careful noi to mix U.S
dard for reftigeration is a forged fitting. Some of ihese conventional-size fiiiings with metric sizefitiings.
have National Pipe (NP) threads.Somehave Societyof
Automotive Engineers (SAE) Naiional Fine (NF) or Brazed
2.4 Soldered TubingFittings
threads.SeeFigure 2-23.
The fittints are usually made of drop forged brass. Most iube and fitting connections are made by either
They are accuratelymachined to form the ihreads, ihe soldering or brazing. Soldercd joints are used lor *'ater
heragonal shapesfor wrench aitachment,and the 45' pipes and drains. Brazed joints are used for refrigerant
Ilare for fitting aSainst the hlbing flare. These ihreaded pipes and tubing. The terms "soft soldering" and "braz-
fitiings must be carefull,vhandled to prevent damageto ing" are olten misused. The difference bet$'een solderint
ajld brazing is the 10 'er tempemture at $'hich solder
AII fittint sizes are based on the tubing size. lor flows. If the temperature required to melt the ailoy used
example,a 1/4" flare nut attachesl /4" tubing to a naied to jojn coppertubing is belol\' 840"F(450'C),it is consid
fitting e\.enthough ithas 7/16" NF internal threadsand ered soldering. lf the temperature required to flol^' the
r,tsesa 3/4" wrench to turn it. aloy is aboYe840"F (450'C), it is referred to as b/d:it8.
Figure 2-24is a table of conmonflared fitting sizes. SeeFigure 2-26.
Cataloglistings of tube fittings usually provide a code Solderedjoints usea capillaryactionto dra\'!'molten
number io indicate the size. The code number 3 indi- solder into ihe area betH'eenthe fitting and the tube The
catesthat the fitting fits 3/16" tubing. Code number 4 selectionof a solderisbaseduPon two factorc:oPerathg
indicatesthat it 6is 1/4" (4/16).Codenumber 8 fits 1/2" pressure and iemperaiure of the line. A iin-antirnonv sol
iubing (8,/16). der i. ialFfor mode'rlePre'-Jre(.nd en-Perd-
Someiubing fittings have piPe threadson one end h r F s l i n - F l t ." t 1 o 0| ( 1 8 2C 7 a - d i ' l u d a t l l + F
Pipe threadstaper 1/16" in diameter for evelv inch in (213'C).For higher pressuresor gtater joint strergth, a
lentih. 95/5 ijn-antimony solder is used.This mixlure contains
Wiih more plastictubingbeing used,specialfittings 95% tin and 5% antimon],.A 95/5 solder melts at 150'F
for plastic are no$' available.Thesefiitings are made of (232'C)and is fu[,\' liquid at 46r'F (241"C).
70 r\4odernRelfige'aron aid Air Condjton ng

SizesAre Basedon the outsideDiamerer6ttheTubtno
5/16 3la T/16 1/2 5/8
N u l F o € e d .. . . . . . . . .
Unon(Threads samesize) .
HaliUnion(1/8Pipe) . . .
HaliUnlon(1/4Pip€ . ). . . . X
HallUnion(3/8P pe). . . . .
H a l l U n i o n ( 1 / 2 P p e. ) . . .
E l b o w . . . .. . . . .. X x
E r b o w ( o i e 1 / 8 P i p e. ).. . .
E b o w ( O n e 1 / 4 P i p e. ).. . .
Elbow ( O n e3 / 8P p e ) . . . .
E l b o w ( O n e 1 / 2 P i p.e.) .. .
Tee(Threads samesize). . .
T e e ( o n e 1 / 8 P i p e .) .. . . .
T e e ( O n e 3 / 8 P l p e.) . . . .
T e e ( O n e 1 / 2 P i p e.) . . . .
C r o s s . .. . . . .
F l a r e d T l bSee a l i nP
gu g . . X
Flar€dTrbeS€alinsCap. . . X X
FlaredTubeCopperSealCap X X
Union(Fedlclng). . . . . . . 5t16-1t4 3/8-1/4 112-1/4 112-3tS
Elbow(Feducing). . . . 5 t 1 6 1 t 4 3ta-114 112-114 1P"3tA 58-1/2
T e e ( R e d u c n s. .) . . . . 5/16-114 3/A-114 112'1/4 1/2-3lA 5B-1/2

Figure2'24. Sameaf the nate popular ilareclcappertube fittingsuse(!in refri]eratianand ait onditioning. The
rcdLtcinBtittingsarc usedfat connectingtubiry of ditierentsizes.

pc'r joint dependsmore upon proper clearancebeilleen

the hrbc and the socketof the fitting.

2.4.1 Soldering
Soldeing is a processof applying molien (melted)
/'* neial to metals that are heatcdbui are not molte . li is
an adhesionprocess.(In adhesionprocesses, one part is
*ty -j bonded to or is siuck kr anotherbv a third mateiial.)The
molten solder floh's into the por;s of the surfaceoi the
metatsbenlg joined.As the solder solidifies(hardens),a
good bond is obtained.
fiture 2-25. ,4 .orrpresslo, type fitting used \rith A good srveatjoint beghs with first cleaning the
p.1\-'1 ,lqt.F tubi.b t dtrtnl. .\ a .oi
Ial\ath)tat.F paris io be joined, followed by fluxing ancl assembiing
substanceand vert,little tighteninBis needed.\/yhile them. The asse blv is then heated.As soor as the joint
Drosfllllllrlts are ma./e rrith flatsfor wrenchtiehtening, rcachesthe flowhg temperatureof the solcier,solder is
tnostpal\jtethylen-a insltllationsrcquire lhtle mare than added to the joini and floi 's inio it. After the solder
"lingu tightness."(lnperial Eastntan,lmpd ial Divisian) coo1s,it rvill seal and conneciihe surfaces.The siep by
step procedure for makins a sweat jonlt is shown nl
Brazing producesa sh.ongerbond than soldering. Eig]!le 2-27.
Brazingfiller metalscan join similar and dissimilar met When assembling srvaged {shaped) tube to tube
als at brazht temperature.Brazingfi11erneials melt at joints,or when connectinStubing to a fitting, thororghly
temperaturcsin the range of 1000'Fto 1500'F(538'C to clean the nating parts. Next, apply flux io the ouiside
816'C).Somefiller metals uscd for brazing copper tub- of the tube. (Fld is a substancethat does noi actuallv
ing are of tr.o categodes:alloys containinll 30% to 60% cleanthe metal.Rathet it keepsthe metal cleanoncesoil
silver. Others are copper allo,vslvhlch contain some has been removed.)Insert ihe tube into the litting 1/16"
phosphorus.T|ese tlvo classesvar.l in nelting, flo$/ing, to 1/8". Rotateone ofthe piecesto spreadthe llux evenlv
and fluxing characteristics.Sfrong jonrts can be made over both the internal and extenal suface. SeeFigure
\{ith either classof iiller n€tal. Str€ngihof a brazedcop, 2-28. Usnlg this roiation t€ch1ique.rvill climinat€ any
Chapter2 ReirgerationTooisand Mat€rias 7'l

1 / 8- 1 1 1 6

u1 i \

No BuiLdup

Fiture 2-26, A bazing filler netal jainin| a copper Figur€2-28. Brazingor solcleringflux r,ay be a source
tube and a coppertee fitting.(LucasMilhaupt, |nc., A oi cotasion in a systen.Apply flux ta joints as abovesa
Handy & Harman Campany) that it will nat get into system.

Srep 1, Culllbe lo lerqlh and removebuuwilh lile orscrapeL step 2, cleanoulsideof tubewilhcean abrasivepaperof

-r4t .-,,--
Slep3. Cleaninsideol littingwitha cleanwnebrush,
or atasiv€ Srep4, Applyiluxthorolghlyto oLtsldeof tube-assembe
paperorclolhDonol useemerycoth.

Step5, Applyheatwilhlorch. Whensodermellslpon conlacl

with hearedflt ng, the propef temperalur,A for soldering -dp
has been reached FenrovelLameand leed soder lo lhe S t e p6 . a r g e ' c z e d| . 1 9 <^ r rI m a l e .w h ' €r o d " i ^ 9
lo nt at one or iwo poinlslnt a r ng oi solderappearsat . o o r e a hs J r d c et a r s i o "o rd . o o i s t b L e s o l d ee \ e _ ] ,n

Fiswe 2-27. Recamntende(t prccedurcsto follow when solcleringtubing.lMueller ReltiSeration

step-bJ/-step Praducts
C;.. Djvision ai Muellef |nc.)
72 Modem Reiri8eration
and Atr Cond tioning

possibiliiy of flux enterint the system. When ihis is

done,.applythe necessaryheai for solderingor btazing.
Avoid srrll8rrg.reetLubirBr-hap,rg b1 hammei_
ing,. lt is 'rdrder'lp() du.t:le' r.ravira.I or -ptit
Sometimesthe prccesstube of "nd a hermitic motor com-
pressor is nade oI steel. Many tecllniciansclean the
tubing before cutting it. Tlis helps to ke€p dirt out of
the system,
Sometimesa smal tube is soldereddirectly into a
laiger tube. One tubing shorld exrendinto the oiher the
same distarce as the diamererof the larter tubing. For
example,iJ a 1/4' tube is placed into 5/G,, tubing; ihey
should overlap 5/16".
Figure 2-29illustratessomecommon fittings, which
may be either soideredor brazedto tubing.A 6rassand Figure2-30. Poftableacetylene-airtorch. t)nit shown
coppef paris may be easiiy soldered.To sotder: hastwo differenttypesof flame tips far sotderingand
1. The sudacesio be solderedmust be very clean. bQzing. (Uniweld Products, lnc.)
2. A good cleanflux musi be used.
3. A good sourceof cleanheat must be on hand. A portable air-acetylenetorch is shoM in Figure
4. The pa s behg solderedmust be firmry suppor.eo 2-30.The air-aceiylenemixture provides maximum iem-
during the soldering operation. perature of 2700'F(1462'C).Therefore,this iype of sys-
S.rrfa.p- be rg ,oldereonusl be rrFeot gred.e.dirr. tem is used mainly in rcsidentialand small commercial
and oxides. Flux does not clean the metal. Ii keeps the systems-These types of systemsare not under heavy
m€tal clean once soil has been removed. Before solder- movement as large, conmercial systemsmight be.
ing, thorouthly clean the su acesto be sotdered.Sur- Figure 2-31 illllstrates a flame,free aliemative to
facescan be cleanedby filing, scraping,sanding. or by torches,the electdc solderinggun. It is lightweight and
using steelwool and wire brushes. can sweatjoints on copper tube up to 3".The electricsol-
Apply flux thorouthly to outside of tube. nux for dering gun operateson a standard115V 15Aoutlet and
this tvpe of work shorld have no conosive properties. can reachtemperaturesthat will melt all solder,includ-
Acid flux should notbe used.It tendsto corrcdefittings, ing the 9515 lead-freetl?es.
makint them unsighily and difficult io work on larer For good soldering,the metal being joined musi be
Solder in usually used in wire fom. Hard-to-reach hot enough to melt the solder This is the onlv wav the
surfacescanbe easilysupplied h'ith solderjusi by bend- solder will to into the pores of the metal. When the
ing the wire to the neededshape. meial is hoi enough, touch the solder to the metal. Do
A tin-antimonv alloy is usually satisfactoryfor soft not overheat.Keep testing the metal wiih the solder
soldering. Solders containing as much as 957dtin are wire- Heat the metal only until the solder flows.
now being recommendedfor solderedjoints subjecred While soldering,ii helps to "wipe" the surfacesaf-
to verv low tempentures. Do not solder with 100% ier putting some solder on. Use a clean cloth, a brush,
tin. Purc tin may slowly disintegate when exposedto or the solderwire itself.This actionwill removeany dirt
cold. and will help coat the su ace.

Eigurc2-29. Connon fiftin]s which nay be either

solderedar brazedta tubing.A-CouplinE with rolle.J fiture 2-31. An electricaolderingBun that sweats
stap,s\teat \ sweat.B Tee,sweatX srleat X sweal jaints on cappertube up to 3". lt hastwo power settin1s,
C 90' elbow, sweafx sweaaD Adaptor, allowing control oi the heatbeing applied to the joint.
sweatx. malepipe thread(npt). INIBCO lnL.) (RidseToal Canpany)
Took and Materals
Refrigeration 73

II the parts are at the correcttemPeratureand have

been cleanedand fluxed, the solder $.ill flow over the
surface quickly. Remember not to heat the solder direcily
with the torch.
Never use oxygenwhen testingfor leaks.Any oil in
contact with oxygen under pressurewill form an explo-
sive mixture.

2.4.2 Brazing
Brazing is one of ihe best methodsof making leak-
proof coturections.Thesejoints are very sirong and will
siand up under the most extreme temPerature condl-

Oxyacet),lene brazing eqdpment is used to achieve

maimum strength and a leakproof joint. A small, por-
iable system is shown in Figure 2-32. "Oxyacetvlene"
meansthe addition ofpure oxygen to buming acetylene.
The combined mixture producesa maximum iemPera_
ture of 6000'F(3316'C).This a11owsa minimal amouni
of heat to be transfered down ihe copPer tubing 'hen
brazin8 in a compressor,line dder, filiet eic. The
technicianis able to braze rePlacementitems in place
without damaging them through heat trarlsfer. See
Figure 2-33. Fi8ure2-33. Oxyacetylenebrazing in a drier' (Uniweld
Conect useof oxyacetylenerequiresmeteringof the
flow of oxygen and acetylene. The oxygen tank and the
acetylenetank have pressure regulators and a set of
gauges.One Saugere#siers tank Pressure;ihe other dis-
- the pressure at the torch.
Ac€ttlene is a highly flammable gas, especially
when mixed with oxygen. Therefore, sa{ety glass€s
should always be worn when brazing. N€v€r point the
torch (lit or unlit) toward an op€n flame or sourc€ of
sparks.Light the torch only with a sparker-do not use
The acetylene valve adjusis the flame size Slowl,v
tum the oxygen vah'e to obtain tyPe of flalne required
A "neutral flame" is most efficieni in brazinS lt has a
blue cone with a bit of reddish PurPIeat the tip
Brazingcanbe done easilyif the correctProcedures

1. Degreasepafts and clean the joints ihoroughly

2. Fii the joints closelyand suPpoft all parts.
3- Apply the clean flux rccommended for the brazing
alloy. Follorv the manufacturer'sinstruchons.
4. Heat evenly to reconmended temperature KeeP
the torch moving constantly in a "Iigurc-8" motion
5. Apply brazing alloy io the heatedparis Donotheat
\n'Flt/the bra/ing dllov !\ il\ .he lorch
5. Cool the joht.
7. Clean the joint thoroughly,using warm water and
a bir'lsh.Be sure all llux has been removed.
An oxyacetylenetorch is an excellentheai sourcefor
b'd/ing.However.you mLri ra\ e train:nBLnrF -dfeure.
Be:ure to u.e flashbarl'arreslor.al bolh lhe a(el)-
lene and oxygenregulators.
There are various bmzing alloys on ihe markei.
Most have a 35% ro 45'k silver content This matedal
Figure2-32. Portableoxyacetyleneoutfit with tanks muallv starts meltins ai 1120'F (604"C)and flows at
and ditferenttypesof tips. (Uniweld Praducts,lnc.) U45"F(618'C).Conta& a local welding suPP\' houseor
M o d e r nR e r rg e f a t i o n
a n dA r C o n d i t i o n i n g

air conditioning ar1dreftigeration wholesalerfor braz,

ing supplies-
Caution: Carefully check the specifications of
the brazingalloy used.If it containsani amount of cad-
'nium (Cd),be surethat the work spaceis \r'ell ventilated.
Do not breathe any of the fumes. Keep fumes away
from your eyesand skin. Cadmiumr,umeiare very por-

The parts to be brazed must be carefully cleaned

and fitted accurately.Diri must be removedfrom anv ex,
t e r r . - u r f a r e L. . e a f r - e g r a o . o t - t d i n t e - - . t e eslu .
l"r. lFaringthpe\tenor.l nrerr.rl-L,rdce- . I be, ednecl
with siainlesssteel r,l'irebrushesor stainlesssteel wool
rolled on a rod.
The parts must have contacting surfacesof suffi-
cient area,suchas a ilrbe sliding into a fitiing (noi a ddve
fit), Figure 2-34. The contacting surfacesneeo nor oe FiSure2-35. A line being bnzed to compressor.
verv large (threetimes ttre smaliestsection). Law prcssure carbon dioxide ar nitrolen is pur7e(l
If the paris are dented or are out of round, these throughthe line lnto the camptessordu|ing brazingta
fdulr- mL..lbe,orrecledbe or< or.r,,r8. tL r. rmpurrdrl preventfie or explasion.(Uniwel.l Products,tnc.)
( o . u p l r c r ld l l t l e p a r l 5 . e c u r p y. ^ r h e y\ v i l l n o t n r o \ F
gas such as carbon dioxide or nitrog€n will etiminate
Make sure ihai no flux enters the svstem durillg this hazard.
brazing, as it cannotbe easilyremoved.Avoid overftux-- ( dulion:.Nereru.e d refrigeranr, o\rgen. or I om-
ing blr applying the flux to the surfacethat is to slide presseo arr !vnenDraztng.
into the part, Figure 2'28. The excessflux will then stay Heating ofthejoint mustbe done carefully.The flux
on the outside. behavior is a good indication of the iemperatureof the
All air must be removed from th€ tubing being joint as the heating progresses.
brd/ed. Thi. ,dn be bc\t done br pursinSlhe lubine 1. Keepthe joint coveredwith the flame all during the
$ith eilher carbon dioride or nitrogen,a. (ho\an in opeiation to prevent air geitint to it.
Figure2-35.Any oil insideth€ tubingor part may be 2. The moisture (warer)will boil off. Ai 212.F(i00.C),
vaporizedby the heat of the torch. Oil vapor mixed ihe flux will turn nilkv in colox
with air will explode if ignited. Using a nonflammabte 3. Next, it will bribble at about 600"F(315'C).

n mlrc
n n
,-ztL)w,",? --,4=U
\ @ z { f-------]
t----- -..-.)

ior Fac6Feedng Wnel

FiSure2-34. Suqgestions fat naking joints ta be brazed.Actual thicknessaf brazinBis e\agBeratedto sho$/is
application.(LucasMilhaupt, lnc., A Hantly & Harnan Conpany)
Chapter2 Took and Mateials

4. At 800'F (427t), the flux lies on the snface and has

a miiky appearance.
5. Following this, it will ium irto a clear liquid at
about 1100'F(593"C).This point is just short of the
brazing temPerature.
The alloy itself begins to melt at 1120'F (604"C) and
flows at 1145'F (618"C). A torch tip several sizes laiger
than the one used lor soldedng should be used. Be sure
to heat both pieces which are to have the alloy adhered
to them.
The proper bmzint temperat$e will be indicated
by the color oI the secondary flame. The flame will stat
to show a green shade as the bmzing temPerature is
reached. For siiver brazin& a clear llux and/or a gleen
flame show the proper temperature.
When heating a copper-to-steel joint, heat th€ coP-
per fust. It iakes more heat because it ca ies it away
faster. Put some flux on ihe brazing rod to helP ii flow

When cuttint capillary tubin& notch all around it

Figure2-36. Bnzing coppet tubing connecrion.sec
with a triangular frle. Break the tubing by bending back
text for suggestionson flame mavemenL (Kramer Trenton
and {olth (small bends). The tubing ID will then
Co., BrazingBook)
remain fulI size. A tube cutter would reduce inside

When brazing a capillary tube, do not let bmzing

mate al run to the end of the iube. It might Partially 2.5 TubeCouplings
close the hole 0D) of the capillary Leaving the end
of the tube uncleaned will help prevent this from TubecouDlinesmav be usedto ioin .lLudnum rube)
''-"'ir'"i Lo ,opper Lubes.it;. t"qntres a processdifferenl lhan
otrring, the torch is never held in one <Pot. ioiniri; copper Locopper.ihere are a varreq of methods
It should be moved around the entire area to be bmzed a"aiiJle ior joining tluminum to copper'Theseinclude
Many technicians prefer to move the toKh in a threaded mecharucal 6ttings, l'lared and comPressionfit-
-fieure-8' molion. Ldrger torch tip sizes are recom-
ring<, and epo\y r$in and adhesrvekirs ligure 2-37
m;ded lor brazinS.This allows a 'oft flameand a large ,hdws a thre;ded mechdnicalfilLing.Figue 2-385hows
quaniity of heat $'ithout excess Pressurc or "blow" A an adlesive kit being applied. It uses a tube couPling
slight feaiher on the inner cone o{ the flame is good. See that shrints when heated vriih a ProPane torch lt Iorms
Figure 2-36. its copper-aluminum joint in about twenty seconds o{
Cleaning the Brazed Joint
ThorouShly wash with water and scmb the outside
of the completed bnzed joint. This is always necessary.
Flux left on the metals will tend to corode drem or may
'The slop d leak whicl' w;ll only shoh uP ldter' CopperTubing
2.5 Swaging
jJirt may be rooled our.U1 oi slowly. Cooling
with water is allowable- The same water may be used Two pieces of soft coPper tubing of the same diam-
to wash the joint. eter can be joined together without {ittings. One Piece is
Visual inspection will quickly rcveal any Places swaged (e latged to rcceive another piece o{ iubing of
wherc ihe alloy did noi adherc' It is best to watch for the sarne diameter), as shown in Figure 2-39.
poor adhesronrdarl cup -haped .reas) Then, any cor- shdging ol coppertubmt is ofter dore Tt'< more
iecrion- can be made durrng rhe brd-/mgoPerationim- conv€nienl lo.older one ioint ihan io rnake fwo flared
mediately while the parts are still hot connections. The lenglh of the overlaP of the two


tigwe 2-37, fhreadednechanicalfiftin' Notethehex nut, taperedsealrinB,and O'in, (WatscoComponents,lnc )
76 Modern Reirlgeraiionand Air Cond tioning

Figure2-38. Copperand atuminumtubing bein! joined

with adhesivekit and heatirom tarch.


Figure2-39. T\/o piecesof soft coppertubing

assembledand rcady fot solderin7or brazin| to make
joint. Nate that pieceswere of sane diametetbeioreone

pieces of tubing js impoltani. As a ru1e,ihe lengrh of

overlap should equal ihe outside diamerer (OD) of the
Two types of swaging tools aie commonly used
the punch-iwe and the le\.er type. In both cases,differ-
eni iool sizes are a\.ailablefor the manv sizes of cop- s m t
per tubing. The prnch type swa8nrg tool has an an;il Figure2-40. A-Conbination flarinEand swagin! toot.
block with several holes. See Figure 2-40. The copper B-Punch-type swagingtaol. (Uniweld Praducts,tnc.)
tubing is inseded into the correcthole size in the anvil
block. The tube is clamped in place.Then, a punch is
hammered into ihe end of the tubing ihe desired this tool, the joint can be easilysolderedor brazed wiih-
out leaks,while keeping fhx out of the system-
A combinaiion flaring and swagint iool is shown
in Figure 2-40.Tlis iype of tool can be used as a flarint
tool using Block A or B. The block used will depend 2.8 PipeFittingsandSizes
uDonrhedi.i.1"rerof ihe rubinB.to u,e it a, a.wdgirg
tool swaging adapto$ (C) are used. Turning the livei Air conditioning and retuigeration installations
expandsthe hrbe to ihe prcper size. make r,{ide use oI pipe Iittings and pipe threads (Na,
tional Pipe Threadsor NP). Taperpipe threadsare spe-
cially formed V-threadsmade on a conical spiral. This
2.7 Iube Constrictor taper causesthe threadsto sealas the fitting is tighiened.
Pipe threads taper 1/16" in diameier for every inch of
Often, t\a'o tubes which fit together rather loosely length.Untaperedthreadscan be made leakproofby use
musi be solderedor brazed together.Good practicede- of a gasketor an Amedcan SiandardsAssociation(ASA)
mands ihat the tubes be sized as closeas .003"to each machined shoulder.
other.Figure 2-41shows a specialtool used to constrict Besidesbeing tapered (or in a conical spiral), pipe
ihe outer tube until it fiis the OD of the bner tube. With ihreads are different from the Naiional Fine (NF) series
Toolsand Materials
Chapter2 Reirigeration 77

fipe filL;ng-arc,upplied w:l\ rhe tlueadsdl'eddy

cut. lhe no-r ]ommor fitringsare rhe coupling reduc-
inp,coupling,uniorr.nipPle.o0'elbo$, r.ducingelbor'
+=xelborn ind streei pil. The 5freei eU s u'udily d orl'
fitting ith a male duead on one end and a female
thread on the other end. A male{hieaded pipe should
be tumed into the female fitting for a distance of five
threadsfor a good seal.
The threads are made self-seahrgby the Pressing
iogether o{ the sharp V-threads as they are assembled
Vadous commercial compounds are available to helP
seal these threads.When brushed on piPe threadsbe-
fore assembly, the comPound will make a strong, leak-
proof joint.

Figure2-41. Canbination tube cutterand canstrictor.
olifferentwheelsare usedfor cuttinp.and constriction.
Note in the diagramthat the outertube hasbeen
, onrti'ted belarc-otderinE.Ritchielne'nechnE
2.9 Hand Tools
Conpany, |nc.)
The reftigeration and air condiiioning seffice iech-
nician performswork chiefly with hand tools To be suc-
and the National Coarse(NC) series.NF and NC sizes cessful,the technicianmust pick good tools, take good
aie base.l on outside diameter' PiPe thr€ad sizes are care of them, and be skilled in their use. Most service
basedon flow diameter,or roughly the diameier of the failurcs can be tnced to poor hand tool skills.
hole in the pipe (inside diameteror 1D). The refriterating mechanism, in comParison to an
Figure 242 illustraiesa male thread on a 1/2" PiPe- automobile engine, is relativelv light lt can easily be
The exiernal tlueads are cui with a piPe die The die is damagedbvabuse.Greatcareisnecessaryto avoid dam-
turned blr a standad die stock, ratchet die siock, or aging'the i r... Figure 2-44 clloll. dn a:rorfneit of
power-driven die stock. bl,i. hand toolsneededby lhe -errice .ecnni.iarr' The
Figure 2-43 shows ihe piPe thread tap lt is used following paragraphs provide usetul suSSestions for the
with a tap r,trench to cut female, or intemal, tfueads selection, care, and use of hand tools,
Specialth;ead-cuttinscompound should be used when
citting pipe ihreads. The iaps and dies must be kept
clean and sharp. 2.9.'l Wrenches
-requiresand air condiiioning installation
Most reftigeration
and servicing the use of various q?es of
wrenches.Many fastene$ and parts arc coPperor brass,
and thercfore, are mther soft Never use Pliers on Parts
desisnedto be handled with wrenches.
A seNice technicianneedsseveraltypes and sizes
oI wrenches.wrenches should be made of good alloy
sieel,and should be proPerly heat treated.They should
be accuratelymachinedand ground to fii the nut or boli
head. The wrench must fit the nut or bolt head accu_
ratelv and it must fii as much of the hexaton as pos
sible. For thesereasons,the wrench tyPes afe listed in
tigure2"42, A nale threadon a 1/2"pipe.
the order Prefeffed.
1. Socketwrenches.
2. Box R'renches.
3. Open end wrenches.
4. Adiustabl€wrenches
Use ('renches properly so thai they fit comPletel)'
''Ltilburt:t,tn- on the nui or bolt. Socketsshouldbe insertedall the way
- - - - -
on the nut or bolt head. A loose or worn wrench may
ligure 2-43. P'pe up. \ote taperol threads slip and spoil the cornerson nuts. ProPerse icing then
lTRw CreenfieldTap& Die Div ) beiomes impossiblewithout replacingthe part.
78 ModernRefriSerarion
andAir Condirjoning

.E = p :e ._. S
ss s r
ri $:$
=;?: T +
Ftir,FI$iI g=-
7. g & :1f IT

'a isi;;;;;3;i
i I t +] e Er l . 5 ;
il *!is{;!.(ira
;f 5

Chapter2 ReirseraiionToolsandMat€rias 79

Ahvayspull on a wrench ratherthan pushon it. Oth-

eru'ise,suddenlooseningof the nut or bolt may causea
serioushand injury. Fi8ure2-52 sho\t'sth€ proper direc-
tion to pLrllon an adjustablewrench.
Avoid pounding on a wrench to obtain greaiertum-
in8 lorce or torque.Avoid using a lentth of pipe or an-
other .renchfor more turning force or torque.
A tiSht bolt or nui mav be loosenedsafel)'by soak-
ing ihe threadswith a penetratingoi1.Heating the nut
or bolt may also help. SomeseNiceiechnicianstaP a nut
orbolt lightly with a hammer Any of thesemethodscatl Nul
be used io loosencorroded threads.
Socket wrenches
If the nut or boit heaclhas enough room around ii,
the six- or h\'elve-pointsockeiis the best wren.h to Lrse
Thesesocketsare usuaily made of chromium vanadium
stee1.Thev are iurned by handlesthat have a 1/4", 3/8",
or 1/2" slluare drive. The handles come in a variety of
designs,as shown in Figure 2-45.
A variaiioi of the socketwrench is the nur onver.
Anut ddver is a small direct-drivesocketlvrench-It has Figure2-46. Bor end socketwrenchesas they appear
a plastic handle ihat can be used with assorteddrive fitlineover hex mtts.I)pper wrench is a 6 point box encl
Lower is a 12-pointbox end.
Socketsare now available$/hich will hold the nut
or cap screw secureiy.This is desiSnedto Prevent the The 12-pointwrench is easierto use if the handle must
nut or scre$'fuom falling oui during aliSnmeit and ini- be operited in a small or restricied space The 6-Point
tial ihreading. This leaiure is very useful, since a socklt is best for rvorn hex nuts or bolts
dropped nut or screw can causeProblems Metdc-size nuts and bolts reqtire metric-size
Bor end and socket wrenches are more usable if wr€nches.Figule 2-47showsa set ofmetric 6-Poilttsock-
they aie double broached(12-point) Figure 2'46 illus- ets commonl-vused i{hen working with netdc-size nuts
tratesboth the 6-point and the l2-Poini box erld wrench and bolts.The size marked on the sockeicorrespondsto


l - i 8 u r e2 - 4 5 . Lpi ar 'o (er nreo' tr' ' h)'ldtF
80 M o d e mR e i rg e r a t i o a
n n dA t r C o n d i t i o n i n g

iarger than the bolt size. For example,on a 5/g,'bolt, a

7/6" wrench size is needed,(5/B + 1/4 = 7/B).
_The'i,,F or thF wrenchopeningra\ro5cthe tlatr, i5
martpd on the *rencl-.Bo\ t!\.enche.ha\tng both fldt
and 15' handlesare necessaryfor a completetool kit.
Flare Nul Wenches
A flare nut wrench used with SAE fittings is shown
Eigute2-47. A setof metric size sockets.Nore rhat t e in FiguIe2-50.ltqopenbt aUor. lhF wren.hio .tip ovFr
.t/e ma,\ed or' ea, h ,ot Let , ot tp,pond, ,a the lrretubing ro ed(h ,l^efldrenut. { bo\ tr.rcnLncannot
d;a|rp.er do this. An open end wrench coutd be used,but ttreflare
tt nill;metd- nn 'he baL at , apst rev Btd(k rinB,
.ot nut wrench grips the nut better
!ndicatemetric sackets.(Snap-onToatsCarr

the diameter of ihe cap screw or bolt. It is not ihe dis

tance across the flats as ii is with ftactional_inch

8ox Wrenches
OIten, a box h'rench can be used in a tithr space
\^'herea socketwrenchcannotgo. Box wrencheaare usu_
all\ l2.pointdnd p'o\ rdea oor\e.tutnondamaSi,rS
on the nut or bolt, Figur€ 2-48.
Box wrenches n1ay be either siraighi, offset, or Figure2-50. Flarenut wrench used when tumin| SAE
double offset. Most box wrenches are aouble-en{ted. flare nuts. (Durolndestro, Duro Metal praducts Co.)
Both ends may be of the samesize with one end offset,
or thev mav be of the samepattem and different sizes. Other types of flare nut rvrenches have been de-
The table in Figure 2-49 shows what size wrench vised. Figure 2-51 shows a strong, easy-io-operaie,
will fit the most commonbolts and nuts. Below 1/2,'botr opening-typeflare nut wrench.
size,the wrench size is 3/16" larger than the bolt size.A Forgedflare nut sizesare an SAE standardused in
1/4" bolt usesa 7/ 16"$'rcnch size(1/16 + 3/16 :7 /16). automotive/ marine/ and reftiffration service. SeeChap-
At 1/2" bolt size and larger,the wrench size is 1/4,' ter 31 for a table of flare nut wrench sizes-

or Inslalarioron FlareNut

Figure2-48, An alloy steelbox wrench with 12-point

or double hex ends.Enclsarc oliset(doubleoffset)ta Figure2-5'f. Specialtype ol flarenut wrench opensto
ptovide gripping or swinginBclearanceabove passover tubing and closes on flare nut to give positive
mechanism.Sacket\,!rcnchesaresafest box wrenches contacL(lmpetialEastman,lmperialDivision)
arc next saiest.Bax wtenchesare lesslikely to slip than
apen end wrcnches.lDutolndestro,Dura Metal Open End Wrenches
Prcducts Co.) Open end wrenches .an slide on ihe nut or bolt
head from the side. Thev are (sed in close spaceson
unions and other places l\,here ihe socket wrench and
Size box wrench cannotbe used.
Nom'nal Headand ArLopen end wrench should not be used for refrig-
Eolt Nut Width
Slze Across Ftats eration work if iis jaws are spread or have burs. Open
end wrenclles used in servicing work should have a
thick jaw. Thin wrench jaws have a tendency to bite inro
----?16'Lalger soft brassand copper paris.
Popular sizesfor open end wrenchesare:
. The 7/16" aooss flats, often neededIor l/4" scre .s
----1l4'Laqer and bolts.
. T\e 1/2" across flats for 5/16" NC al1d NF cap
screws,commonlyused on compressorsand expan-

Figure 2-49. Table of wrench openin1s fot standard . The 5/8" acrcssflats Ior 1/,l" flare nuts
balt heaclsand nuts. . The 15/16" acrossflais for the 1/2" flare nuts.
a t o n T o o l !a n d M a t e ra l s
C h a p t e2r P e t r i 8 e B1

. The 1" acrossflats rvhich fit the 1/2" flare nuts A A chain r,Tench,Figuie 2-54 is anothertyPe of ad-
typical open end wrench,No. 4, is shown in the as- iustable pipe wrench. The chain wrencl, can be used on
sortmeni making uP Figure 2-44. iqrare, round, or irregular shaPes,and alsoused in con-
fined areas.
Another popular wrench used in refrigeraiionwork
is the combinationopen end and box socket.Both ends
are the same size. This 'rench is illustraied in Figure
2-44 No. 5.
Adjustable Wrenches
Often, odd size nuts and bolts are found in refrig-
eration work. Tlerefore, wrenches with adjustable
jaws, Figure 2-52 are necessaryin the tool kit. Adjust-
able h rencnesTu-t oe ePr '1 Sood rePair lr rl'F
rTrench does not fit tightl, it n1ay sliP and result in a
ruined wrench, bruised hand, and a ruined nut or bolt
The forceson the jaws of the wrench should be in
the dght direction,Figure 2-52.This will $ve solid suP- Figure2-54. A li1ht lluty chain \rrench far t).P in .lose
port agairst both ihe nut and the body of the wren.h. quarters.(ReedManuiacturinECo )

Hex Key Wrenches

Hex key wrenches are constructedof alloy steel
with a hexagonal(six-poini) tiP- A comDrontYpe of hex
kev is the fold-up tool \^'ith many keJr sizes in one
hanale, figure 2-55A. Individual L-keys and T'handl€
ne\ tet-. Figure 2-558,are frequFrll) u.ed ro long-
re".h .perdiion:.>u.rr ar sel - reh ' o|. pullPv'
A n o c r e -r y p en - * r e n t h - r r l r r . o t h e \ e \ i r e l c h
is the Torxo, which is star-like in aPpeamnce,Figure
2-55C.This a11ows bettermeial-to-metalcontact lt is less
tizure 2-52, A papular type of adjustablevtren.h likely to damage the sockeior itsell
Handle shouldbe pulled as shawn by directianaf arrow
on handle. Note that wrench is adiusted ta fit nut tightly
Ihe red anot|s sho\\/the pressureal the wrench agatnst
the cornersol the nut. Turningwrench in the dircction
shown tendsta pressmovableja\r againstwrench body
thus tighteningthe grip. (ReedMaDufactLrinE Ca.)

Pipe Wrenches
The pipe ra.renchis desiSnedto grip PiPes,studs,
and othei cvlindrical (round) su aces.The greater the
iorque on ihe wrench handle,the tighter ihe wrcnchwill
e"ri tl"e obiec..trpe w en l-esJroLrldnot be Lr,edon
iu. or bolr l'e"d. ll'e tlpi.d piPe !tren.h rs pictured
in Fisure 2-44 No. 41.
An jnternal-typepipe wrench, Figure 2-53,ma)' be
used for installh8 piPe, nipPles,or dttings

Figure2-53. lnternal-typepipe wrench.lt Eripsthe pipe

fram the inside.(Snap-onlaols Cotp ) lEklindToalCa.)
Figure2-55. Keywrenches.
a2 ModernReirigerarion
andAtr Condirioning

ServiceValveWrenches in five sizes:3/1,6',7/32',1/4',, S/16,', and 3/8,'. Ihese

se"vicevalve.ternsu-uall, h.ve a squareend -ocler. u.uall\ haveerghtpo .lr- to nmp .) the I u.F
m i l l e d o rl h e\ d l v e - h " L A - p p c ' a <
t e r v i r vc " l v ew r e L h M o - l \ . v e r e n ! h d v e , n r e r r apl r . t i n t S t a n dn r t - .
rr .1eedFd, io fu-n them, Figr.rre2-56, ll-i: too u"uail) ^
rpF(rajjo(ret\ mu>rbe r.ed or ihe.e \dl\p.. 'l i. be5r
has a raichet and a fi\ed end to use.o(let, (ith ball oearinggr,Dper>.
When tr..^jng-val\e). lhe fi\ed end onty.hould Therei. l*.
, ,.hanceoi loiing tools w\e worling in dif i(ult po5r-
be usd. C/r.kttrgr. t\e JiShropeninBrequrredfo (ar -e tions. Figure 2-58illustratesa set of ihesespeciatrools.
rne v. ve needteor pjurger to te.v( its cpdt,but allow Al-o included,rre)oclerctor pacling gldncjti.tirg,.
or y a very slow flow of reftigerant.
fhe ii\ed end o, rhe wreri.h proride. good contro, Torque Wrenches
. All materials are elastic (witt stretch, compress, and
ot ,he .li8h opering drd r to.ing or a vatri. Fo- raprd
op+rrn8and. .lo)int oI \dl!e. ,he ratcherend mal bF tr^'isi).Even cast iron and hardened sreelsuaed in the
\or.tructiol of con pres.or5are plil.ti. up ro n porn..
Some sen'ice valve wrenches have a reversibte Wl^enhthtFningbol,.. ruis. and orhe.an.chment-on
ratchet.The operatorcan reversethe direct,on or lurn compressorpa s and assemblies,it is important to
rng without removing this wrench from the srem. A re_ E sd-uretl'F ."nol I ot hShfne:..Or re-qi"e *drpjgc
versible ratchet wrench is shown in Figure 2,52. This or otherpdn dcmagend) o.cur To n-ea.urerl.edmounL
-compressor of tightness,a torque wrench is used, Figure 2-59.
wrench is often used to open or closea ac
cessvalve. It may also be used to tighten or loosen a Torque wrenches are usually wrenci handles only
nui or bolt by changingthe reversibltrarchet. They are made to be used with socketsof different size;.
The handle is equipped wirh a dial or pointer which
measuresthe foot pounds or inch-poundsof torque.
. T h e l o r q u ei - , o u r d b \ r n d r i p ' ) i n S r h F t L n B , 6 o f f h e
h.rndle{in 'eet)b) LhepJl ,rn pound"rapptieJ .o the
handlertool-pL'und.,I t long wre,r.h hancl.epu ed
by a spring scale reading 50 pounds will produce a

Fi8ure2-56, Refri7erationservicevalve wrench. Fixed

end it fot "cracking' valves.Ratchetenctis tor rapn
valve stemaperatian.Leftend has 1/4,,squared ve for
use with valve stemand packin! gland nut sockets.
Other openjngsare 3/16', th", and 5/16,,square.Ihe
6-point socket fits 3/8" nuts. (Durolndestro, Duro Metal

Figure2-58. Specialservicevalve socketset.

A PackingEland socketsand valve stem sockets.
B Varietyof 6-point and 12-pointsacke]d.C-Handles
and extenders.D Ratchetwrench. E-Adaptarc.
Figurc2-57. Reversibleratchetwrench.Square
apeningswith 1/4" and 3/16" at one end, and 3/8,,ancl
5/16" at the other end. (Uniweld Products,lnc.l

ServiceValve Wrench Adaptors

Many manuJacturersuse valve stems other than the
1/4" squarc. Some valve stems are made so that the
milled end is inside the valve body.This requiresa tood
socketwrench to turn it.
To accommodatethese valves, adaptors are avail- Figure2-59. Torquewrenchusedto measure the
ablein various sizes.The male or drive paft oI the socket amauntof tightness
of nutsandscrews.Thiswrcnchis
is usually I /4" square.Therearea few which use a larger madeto be usedwithstandard (Reed
drive 19132"). The socketwhich fits the valve siem comes ManufacturinECa.)
Chapter2 Refriseration 83

torque of 50 foot-pounds. (Technically, foolpounds is 2.9.4 Pliers

the wrong ierm. The corect term should be Pounds-feet Pliers are universal tools. Pliers are made of alloy
The foot-pound is a unit of work. However, PoPular us- steel. usually with manganese, although some are
age has made the telm fooFpound acceptabie for the chrome-vanadium steel. Top quality pliers are usually
measurement ol torque.) drop forged. Many different q?es are available Use
To calculate inch-pounds, multiply the length oI only pliers with insulated handles when working on
the handle (in inches) by the pull on ihe handle (in electricalpats.
The manufactureEof equipment (automobiles,air- . Gas prierc are slip joini combination ptiels, which
plane..refrige'arir8equipmeni.eic.)are able ro deter- are handy Ior geneml use. However, th€y should
mine lhe proper torque thdt shouldbe aPpliedto the not be used on nuts, bolis, or fittings. They could
fasteners on their various mechanisms,The rccom- slip and injure the surface.SeeFigure 2-44 No. 20.
mended torque Ior the many pats of refrigeGhng . Cutting pliers are mostly used when working on re-
mechanisms are specified in manufacture$' service frigerator wiring. One type, called ihe lineman's Pli
ers, is a powertul cuiting and SriPpint tool. Another
To use a torque wrench, the oPerator fits lhe Proper it?e, called the diagonal Pliers, is used to cut in
size of socket onto ihe wfench The socket is then aP- closequa ers. Refer to Figure 2-44,No. 9.
plied to the nut, and the handie of the wrench is Pulled . Nut pliers are used to good advantage on some
until the indicator shows that the required torque has iobs. The jaws always stay Paraliel.Some have an
been applied. At that torque, the nut is at the tightness adjustablecam action that locks the jaws on the
rccomm€nded bY the manufactwer nut or bolt. In geneml, it is not good Pmctice to
use nui p1ie6 on bolts or nuts However, on a
job such as holding a boli head while turning the
2.9,2 Hammers nut with a wrench, the us€ of nut pliers is permis-
A hammer is a necessiiy in the refriSeration shoP sible.
The 12- or 16-ounceball p€en hammer is a usetul tool . Slim-nose Dliers, needle-nose pliers, and duckbill
SeeFigure 2-44,No. 47.A carPenter'sclaw hammermay pliers are Aequently used in hird-to-reach places
also be needed for mounting piPe suPPorts and fasten- SeeFigure 2-44 No. 10.
ing sheet metal to wood. Ii is imPodant that the ham- . Round-nose plierc are used to shaPewire into looPs
mir head be firmly fastened to the handle The handle and to bend sheetmetal €dges.
musi also be in good condition
Gftsp the handle about two-thirds of the way back 2,9.5 Screwdrivers
ftom fhe head. For light, accurate blows, hold the
hammer with the index finter on the toP of the handle A complete <el of .(rewdriver. i. very necessary
and use wdst action. For heavy blows, hold the ham_ bolh lor injauafion and for shop $orh lhe len81hof a
mer with fingers arormd the handle and use elbow screwddver is measured from the blade tiP to the
handle. Handles are not measurcd The recommended
averagesizesare 2 1/2", 4', 6", and 8".
The types of screwdrivers arc named Iol the
2.9.3 Mallets rhape of the end of the blade or blt >ee FiSure 2'60
In seffice work, a mallet is often needed to ddve Moit oooular i< the -traight blade. slot blade, or
parls into place or to separdtethem w:thout injury lo regulai s'cre-driter. The .crewdriver bit should iit
it eir surfaies.For 'uch ;orl,, I l/2-lb ro2-lb mallet thi screw slot snugly. The blade should be wide
is desirable,made of rawhide, mbber, wood, Plastic,or enough to fitl the screw sloi end-to-end Also see
Iead. A mallet is shown in Figure 2-44, No. 48. Fiture 2'44, No, 13.

srandardTypesof Scr€wdriverBlls
and ScrelvOPoningg

W @@ @ @ ww
ww @ @
Kevston€Cabinel PhllPs FrearsonClulchHead All€n
Br Bil Bil Bit Bil Bil
Sloiled Phillips Fr€a|son ClulchHead
Scr6w U Becess V Becess Fecess
ww B stol

and cabinetbis and thePhillipsbit arcnost

Figure2-60. severaltypesof sdewdrivers.
B4 Moden ReriiSerar
on and Air Condtioning

The Phillipsscrewdriverhasa up which fits a re ficaiionsystemsfor sizesincludefractionalnumbers,

cesseclcrossin theheadol thescrewphiltipsscrewdriv wholenumbe$,and letters.
ers are availablein the 3', sizeIor No. 4 and smaller
the 4" sizefor No. 5 to No. 9 screws;the 5" size _ ,_-Fnctionalsizescomein setsusuallybeginningwitl.l
I lo,andgoingup tL,| 2 in..ep-o t o.i . I rrgeitrac_
for No. 10 to No. 16 screws;an.:lthe 8,'sizefor No. t8 tioLr. 5izesare also .rva able
and larger \urnb"red .Ft- begin11i n \o. I and r-npLtt.rough
Stubby (shoit) screildril,ers are availablefor rvork \o.8a' r.228-.nt {s . -he figtrerrtrprLrn_be-,
' .n_ _n,r , r
i n g i n . r n . . p , r . F -\ o n e ! ( r F w o r i \ p r . I n d v b e F qp.p e c i dr'1. N4ostcornr^nl! u.ed .ize. are \n
r \ : , l - . rc l J t h t l . o r d . . r e \ \ . r " r , i t . _ a r t r n s . h e ;d. p , , l .hc rlrrouStr
No. 60.
q u . ( \ . , r e \ , d rv e r -h r ( n r o . g t r d n d t e _ r i r r r t y b o n d c d Letter size twisi drills are targer rhan t/4', in diam
to ihe blade.PtasirchandLes are popular eier and vary from .234"for the ,,A,, size to .4t3,,Ior the
.An_offsetscreb'clriveris leiesiary in refrigemtion "2" dtlll.
work. Thereare many placeswhere it jlone can be used_ Note that the mmbered twist drilis cover a rante
Never use a hammer to pound on a screwclriver.If of sizes-approxinaieiy .013"through 1/4,,.Letter siz;s
a screwdriveris neededfor heavy service,use one r,{ith mnge irom approximaiely1/4,,ro nearly 1/2". Thesetwo
a solid steel handie. i h F r d ' - . e t . r - e o r r e nJ - e J . . I n p J r i - r n n J t r n .
l^ole-tor ir.ioe d-rFid- Thev prori"e a grcarerr.nge
2,9.6 Vises of sizes than the fracrional-inifr twist arills. por a taU'ie
of various ddll diameters,seeChapier 31.
Sturdy machinist'svisesare necessaryin the shop.
They are pariicularly conve ent for hotding parts whiie _ Speedof ddlling depends upon the type of mate_
dal being ddlled and rhe diarnereroI ihe hine. In gen
drilling, filing, or assembling.
eral, the snlaller the trdst drill, the faster ii shoula be
One vise should be large enough to hold most com_
pressorbodies. A specialpipe vise, which has a hack_ ,,1ips.,,
.d" bldde -lot ," u.e ul fur d ldrge,.r\ (e -hop. rhr. _. Most tr^'istdrils have il\'o cuttint edtes or
Tl^e.eedge. r.r-i be -harp rnd eq,,dtrn'e rgth The\
b l . d c . , l odLl l o h . d . .u r r t L. u r r i n Bu f o i p r r ga n d t J b j n 8 .
nJ. Jl,o hdvF.leardnce ard rr.eangte, 5ppI ;ggrs2-6i.
A r t r , r \ .u - F . o l t i d h , r . , d eo f . \ e e r c o p p e o r r atu
.h'hich T(/ist drills have flutes rvhich remove chips from
minurn when clamping a part must not be the hole. Most fluies are spiraled at an anille wlich au,
marred. These are available as inserts $.hich fit over
tomaiically provides a rake angle for the cutting edges.
regular vise ja('s.
Always be sure the driil is cutting whetl itls being
used. If the cutting edges are jusr rubbing aganlst the
2.9.7 TwistDrills stock, they will quicklv heat np. Overhearingwill de
Tr{'istdrills are frequently used for installationand stroy the hardnessof the driil-
repair work. Drill designs are availabte for working To ensure that the ddll forms the correci size ho1e,
metal, wood, plastic, and masonry.T$,ist ddls may be boih cutting lips must be exactly the same tentth and
iurned by drill presses,portable elecidc dri11s,or hand

Most commonly,iwist dri11shave straight shanks. ,..- |

(t _r/\
20 135.
This meansthat ihe sectiontripped by a three-jawchuck
is straight and perfectly cylindrical in shape.SeeFigure
2-61.Split-joint iwist .lril1sare often used with porAble
electdc drills becausethev penetratemanv metals eas Clnng
r1v. \ \-../-\/
The shank of a twist drill canies a siamped identi
iication Siving the kind and size ol the dril1.Twisr drjils
lnav be made from high carbonsteel,or from alloy steel
(HSS)for high'speeduse.
Ddlls are sized bv bit diameter Thoseintended for
working metal come in ihree differeni set slzes.Identi-


rigure 2-62. Cote.tly graund t\rist drill point for steel

Cleatanceangle shav,n,8" 12', ;s usedior nild steel
and castiron fot drills in 1/2" nnge. As diametercare
reducecl,clearanceanglesir.rease-A 1/16"dianeter
Figure2-61. Straight shanktwistclrillfor useon metat. twist drill shouldhave a clearanceangleoi about 20'.
lclevelandTwistDrill Co.) lcleveland TwistDtill Ca.)
Chapter2 ReirgeratiorToolsand Materias B5

angle.SeeFigure 2-63.If one liP is longer,rhe hole be- wa1 \-o:gh .he Dipce. B.hon'inB.dP\d e rr'Pdl^ ur
ing d lled 1\'i1lbe oversize.lf one lip hasa smallerangle, tutl threadSio ihe bottom of a blild hole.
it will do all the crtting arld soon groh' du11. The shank of the tap is ground to a square at the
Always wear safetyglassesto protect eyesfrom fly- end. A tap $'rench is used to turn it. Powel tools may
ing chipswhenusingeithera drill pressor portabledrill. also be used for driving. Howevet a specialtap driving
Electric drills should be grounded f{)r safety.The accessoiYmust also be used.
metal frame of the drill should be €lectricallyconnected Since iapping is basically a cutting operation, ihe
to a good ground(water pipe or a groundrod). Most elec- generalrules for cutting metals apP1y.Most taps have
tric drillsarc equipped with athree-prong groundedplug. four cutting edgesfor eachihread. Theseedgesmust be
lf the circuit to which the driU is connectedis not prc- kept sharp. They rnust have a Sround cutting face and
!ided \'r'ith a three-pronggroundedsocket, a grounded cuttint clearance.
adaptorshouldbc used.Somehanddrillshavethe elec- Alwa]'s risea specialthread-ctliiinglubricant when
lric motor insulatcd from the case, and do not nced doing any k d of threadnlg.The singleexcepiionis gra!'
grounding. Croundingis coveredfurtherin Chapter6. cast iron. It coniainsenough SraPhiteto Provide neces-
sary lubdcation. Thread cutting lubricant, iJ applied
generously,also servesas a coolant.
{ Tap-Drill Sizes
It is very important that the hole to be tapPed is
fimt drilled to the correct size. If the hole is oversize,
threadswill noi be full size.If the hole is undersize,the
tap must renove ioo much metal and will Probably
break. SeeFigure 2-65.
The tap drill should be slightly larger than ihe root
diameter of the ihr€ads for which the hole is beint
Figure2-63. An illustrationof what happenswhen a &illed. Threadswhich are 75%of ful size are generally
dill is incorrcctlj,sharpened.1-Lips ate equal itl considered satisfactor,v.Al1\ays refer to tap ddll size
lengthsbut at diiiercnt angles.2 Lipsarc at equal tablesfor the coriectsizedri]]. For mosi refrigerationand
auglesbut are af diffetentlenEths.3-Lips are at
dilierent anglet and at differentlen9tlls.

2.9.8 Taps
Man,v assembliesof m€ta1Paris are fastened\t'ith
machine scr€ws or taP screws threaded into tapPed
holes.A fttr is used for making tlueads inside a hoie
Taps are accuratelymade hom hard alloy steel Clear
ance pockets are provided for chips. The thleads are
maclewiih a very snall clearanceangle.
Thereare taps for every sizeor diameterthread and
also for each kind of thread National Fine (NF), Na-
tional Coarse (NC), A erican Siandard TaPef PiPe
Thread (ASA), or metric.TaPsare of ihree tl?es-taper,
p] g, and bottominS.Most common is ihe pltg tap. See
Figure 2-64.
Tapertaps are use.t lor starting a cut Thev are also
used for tapping thin piecesin I'hich the taPPedhole
goesall the way throuth. Plug taPsare rised to do most
oi the cutting h blind holes (holesnot gohg all of the

Fiqure2-55. Hole size is impallant when tapptnE

thTeadsin netat.A Tapdtill caffect size,correctthrcad
(lepth.B Tapdtill toa large,threadsnot full depth
Figwe 2-61, Setoi tapsfot cuftitlt 1/2" Na threads C-Tap drill toa snall, tap likely ta brcak
Modern Reirgerationand A r CondirioninS

air,.o'rditionng r\orl lhe rdp-drr.ttable.IiSure 2_66,


2.9.9 Dies
Dies cut external threads on round stock. The
rh-e"d- m,lch tho>ecrt by the tap. Sin.ed tap i. ,ron_
adju-.able.d?..an u-ud ! be adiu-rFdto perm.,\dre_
'ul mal.hing of the
thread..Tap-ano diec ma) dl.o be
u<p. ro c ednLfredd.tfd. dreroroded or dam"Bed.D;F.
are held and turned by a diestock.A diestockis showIl
in Figure 2-67.

TapDrill Trp orttl

4/36 No.43 14-20 No.9 Figute2-67. Adjustahle(liestockhasthreescrews.Two
N o ,1 o ol the screwshold the die and apply contacting
No.45 pressure.The third screwexpanclsthe die at the splh.
3t32 1+24 No.6 (TRWGreenfieldTap& Die Div.)
4-44 1t4-20 No.5 As with taps, ihere are dies for eachtype oI thread
No.42 No.6 and size. Dies must be made of tool steelbecausethey
5-40 No.37 13164 are alsocuttiig tools.They,too,mustbe carefull)'shaped
No.39 N o .a Specialprecautionsshould be taken to srart ttuead-
5-44 No-36 1t4-28 7132 ing very straight-Cuides are availablefor ihis purpose.
No.37 T h e . m a l lg u i d er . l o c a r e idr . i d e , l - Fr t , r e d d r nogi e
No.38 5/16n8 17164 Rolrnd stock must also be accuratelysized. Stock
6,92 No,33 G only a few thousandthsof an inch oversizemighr break
No.34 the die.
5t64-24 J First adjust the die to full open position to make
No.36 I the initial cut. Then adjust the die to cur deeper until
6-40 No.32 9A-16 o the threads match ihe tapped thread. Always advance
No.33 5/16 the die (or tap) one-quarierto one-hau turn, back off
B-32 No.29 38-24 by reversing tlle direction of tlle diesrock, and then
8-36 No.28 o repeat.
No,29 7116-14 3la
10-24 No.24 U
No.25 7116-20 25164
2,9,10 ColdChisels
and Punches
No.26 Acold chiselis usedon variousjobs.As an example,
10-32 No.19 1t2-13 27t64 one mav find coraodedfastenerson e\.aporators. A chisel
No.20 1t2-20 29tU is neededb remove the nut or screw.
No.2l 9t16-12 31164 A 3/4" flat cold chisel is a popular size.Be sure to
Na.22 9/16-18 33/64 keep the head (hammeringend) oI the chisel Iree from
12-24 N o .1 5 5/8r 1 17t32 "mushrooming." Flying pieces from a mushroomed
5/8-16 37t64 head may causeinjudes. Always wear gogglesor head
N o .1 7 3/4-10 21t32 shieldwh€n workingwith a chisel.Seetigure2-44,No.
12-28 3/16 3t4-16 1 6 17.
N o -1 3 Punchesare available in various lengths ard are
No.14 usually made of carefully heat-treated chrome-alloy
No.15 stee1.The cutting edge or point is hard, while the head
is tough and shaiterproof. Always grind away any
mushroom head that fom1s.A lairly hea\,f/ 6" punch $'i11
Figure2-66. Tapdrill sizesrecommendedfor common be the most saiisfaciory Figure 2-68 illustrates the
tappingoperatians.Nate that fot ceftainsizes,the tap shapesof various punches.
dt;lt nd) bp a tr& trcnal tn, h \:/p d tumbpr .i2e ot a Four comrnon twes of punches are the center
letter-size drill bit. A-Outside diameter. B-Number of punch,drilt punch,pin punch,and prick punch.SeeFig-
ure 2-44,Nos. Z 8, 18, and 19.
Chaprer2 Took and Materials
Refrigeration B7

single cut is used for finishing surfacesand double cut

for fast metal removal,
Filescomein different lengths:4", 6",8", 10",12",and
so on. The size of the teeth varies from dead smooth,
smooth, secondcut, bastard, to coarse.The longer the
file of a given iype, the coarser the teeth. Thus, a second
cui 12" file has coarserteeth than a secondcut 5" file.
Many file shapes are available. They include rect-
angular, hau round, round, trianSular, square, wedge
shape,and so on. Se€Figure 244, No8. 35 and 36.
One oddity in file shapes is that there are thr€e
tvpes of rectangularcross-section files mill, hand, and
fiai. The mill fil-e has only single-cui teeth. It is uniform
in thicknessbut tapersslightly in width. Tle hand and
Figure2-58, Punchesmost usedin refriSetationand air flai 61eshave double-cut ieeth. The edgesare Parallel but
canditianingwork. the thickness varies slightly. The hand file has one edge
that hasno teeth,calleda safeedge.The flat61ehasteeth
on all four surfaces.
, The .entet punch has a 50' to 90" point. It is used Use file brushes and file cards to clean file teeth
for center punching the location of a hole to be which quickly become 6I€d wiih metal. If clo88int ma-
ddlled. Aheavyblow on the punch makesa dePres- tedal is not removed, the files become useless.Do not
sion in which the drill may be sta ed Center use a file card for any oiher Puryose than file cleaning.
punchesmay alsobe usedto make aiignmentmarks The bdstles may become clotted with dirt
on reftig€raiion parts beforc dismantling.
. Adiftp nch is nsed io ddve out keys and to line 2.9.12 Hacksaws
up holesin mating surfaces.The punch tapersfrom
its flai poi11tto the stock diameter. Hacksawsare used for cuttin8 tubing and for other
, lhe pin punth:r u-ed for dliving reldinerpin- in work requiring metal cuttinS. Figve 2'7o illusiiates a
popular saw l^'ith a rigid frame and a 12"blade. Blades
or out. The blunt end is called the bill Pin Punches
are measuredin overall lengih, by diameter of ihe ire available with different numberc of teeth Per inch.
stock, and by diameier of the bi[. Bill diameters are Bladeswith 1,1ieethper inch are used for soft metal and
availablefrom 3/32" to 5/16". wide cuts, 18 teeth per inch for medium soft meials;24
. 't}.e
pfick Wnch has a long, sharP Poini and is used teeth per inch for g€neEl vr'ork; and 32 teeth per inch
only for layout work- Be carefulnot to damagethis for ihin metal, iubing, or hard metal A thinner and/or
sharp point. harder metal will require a blade wiih more teeth per
A hacksawblade should not be stroked fasier than
2.9,11 Files 60 strokesper minute. Mosiblades are made of high car-
Varioussizesand typesof files areneededfol clean- bon steel,and their cutting edges(points)are very sharp
ing metal sudacesand shaping metal parts. They are and very small. Too rapid use will causethesePoints to
clrssified accordingto tooth size, shape,and ihe num- overheat and lose their temPer'
ber of directions the teeih are cut on the file Lifting the blade slightly on the back stroke will
Filesare either singleor doublecut, Figure 2'69.The help keep the cutting edSessharp. If the blade is not

FiSure2-69. Hand fitesnay be eithersinSlecut (uppel or doubte-cut(lower). Filesshouldalwayshave handlesto

avoid han(liniuries.(CoaperTaols,Ni.holson)
88 ModernRetriseral
on andAir Condtrionins

or con.tensmg unit. An ice and water baih may be used

to determine a thermometer's a.cumcy. When in itis so-
lution, the themometer should checkwithin 1.F of 32.F
(within 1'C of 0"C).
Many )ize. and LVpe.of lhermometer:have been
dereiopedfor the te.hnicidn. u,e.Cia,5^lemrherD.om-
etels usually read from -30"F to 120.F (_3S"Cto 49.C)
rn two cletree increments. The tube may contain either
Figure2-70. Hacksawwith a rigicjframeto hold the mercury or a red liquid. The mercury-filled thermom_
blade in proper tension.(AmeticanSaw and MfB. eter is faster but more difficult to read. Some nermom-
Company) eters ha.,.ea special ma8niJying front buitr into the
Tli: enlarge.the liquid line ror ea-ierreading.
There are numerous other ihermometers that are
popular and easy to use. The dial-stem thermometer
shown in Figure 2-72 may be operated either by a bi-
metal strip or by a bellows chargedwith a volatile (va-
porizes readily) fluid. Its temperature mnge vaies, but
it is usually from -40'F to 160'F( 40.C ro 70'O in ha,o
deSree increments- Never expose any t'?e of thermom-
eter to temperaturesbeyond the limits of the scale.
Doing so may ruin the instrument.
Figwe 2-7 1. Bimetalhacksawblacle.The type of btade, Although analog themometers are still used, the
its length, and nunber af teeth per inch are indicated on digiial thermometer has a greater temperature range and
the blade. (AmericanSaw and MfE. Ca.) accuracy. A battery-powered digital thermometer is
shown in Figure 2-73.The temperature range for this in
lifted, chips may rcll between the wotk and the cutting strument is from 58'F to 500'F ( 50'C to 260'C).
edge oI the btade,dulling the teeth. Another type of digital thermometer used for hea!
Most hacksawblades have teeth that are hardened ing and air conditioninS service ls shown in Figure 2-74.
while the back of the blade is soft and flexible. Figure This type of ihermometer includes a digiial psychrcm-
2'71 illustraies a bimetal blade \^,'ith a shattet rcsistant eter to measurc relative humidit)r.
spdng steel backing. Such a desi8n allows for fasref, The thermocouple and fte thermistor are two types
smoothercutiin8. This blade is both shock and heat re- of electrical thermometerc. The fundamentals of these
sisiani and is virtually unbreakable. are describedin Chapter 6. Additional inJormationrc
Specialhacksaw frames are available for working garding thermomeiers and thetu applications may be
in small holes.There is also a stub hacksavrblade and found in Chapter 19.
an adaptor drive to Iit electricddlls. Figure 2-75illustratesa hand-helddigitai thermom-
eter used for troubleshooting systems where the knowl-
edge o{ the specific temperature of the evaporator or
condenserls necessary.
2 . 1 0 Instruments
The technicianuses instrumentsand gaugesto de-
termine conditions (pressureand temperatu(e)inside
ihe operating mechanism. The most common instru-
ments are thermometers,pressufegautes, and vacuun
gauges. Later chapte$ will cover special instruments
such as rccording thermometers,hygromeiers,amme-
ters, voltmeters,ohmmeters,and others.
Instrumentsmust be caretully handled and kept in
good condition if they are to remain accurate. If accu- Dial
racv is doubtful, the instrument should be sent to a re-
pair company for testint and calibmtion.
Figure2-72. Dial stemthermometeris calib2teclin
2 degteeincrementsfton -4CF to 16CF ( 4CC to
2,10.1 Thermometers 7CC). This is the tenperature range most used by
The thermometer displays the iemperature of the techniciansin refrigeztion and ai canditianingwork.
evaporator,retuigeratorcabinei,liquid line, suctionline, (SealedUnit PartsCo., Inc.)
Chapter2 Toolsand Materials
R€friSeration 89

Fig:ure2-75. A hand held themometer indicatingthe

digital thermometer
Figwe 2-73. A battery-powered c6ndensing temperature. Repro(lucecl \r ith pern ission of
with a rangeof 58"Fto 50a"F( sCC to 26ac). Fluke Corparation)
(Taylar Precisian Prcducts)

Eigwe2-76. Maximumand minimum thermometer' A-

H;nd ind icating highest temperatute reached. B-Hand
indicatingpresenttempenture.C Hand rcgisteringlow'
esttemperature reached.(WekslerInstruments Corp)

Eigurc 2-74, Temperaturcsranging from 4'F to

142"F( 20'C b sa"O can be measuredwith this type ouantitv ol liquid reirigerant on il. Tle colllmi will
of electronicthemometerpsychrcmeteLHumidity may trink into the'buib;anJ. *hen it re el.pdndslhe bredl
be measutedlrom 1a% b 90%. The memoty feature should have disappeared.
allows the technicianta storetemperatures and humidity Caution: lI the mercury is frozen into a solid, the
levels for future reference- (Mannix Testingand thermometerwill break.
Another way to reconnectthe column is to heat the
thermometer as in Figure 2'77. Heat the thermometer
very, very slowly.Do not allow fluid to reachtop end ot
stem. lf overheated, thermometer will burst. Wear
Figure 2-75 shows a maximum ancl minimum ther-
mome6r. This type is usetul when attached to a system
which is unattendedIor a few cycles. Cauges
Occasionally, lluid in the liquid column of the glass-
2.10.2 Pressure
siem themometer may separate, To make the column Pressuregaugesare usedby the technicianto helP
whole again. try cooling the bulb by spmying a small determinewhat is haPPeninginside ihe system.Gauges
90 ModernRefrisenrion
andAir Conditioning

lions at the higher rcadings of lhe posihve pres<ure

Most popular gauges have a 2 1/2,, dial and are con-

nected into the refrigerating system with a 1/8,, male
pipe thread. Some gauges, howevet have a 1/8,' female
pipe thrcad. Continual insra ation and removat quickly
weais the threads- It is advisable to use a 1/8t pipi
nipple on any heavily used gauge.
Three types of_presslte gauges are used in reftit-
€Iahon service work high-pressure, vacuum, and com-
pound gauge.
Maxim um pressureat which a gaugeshouJdbe ron-
tinuously usedshould be no Breaterthan 75ooot the flrll-
Cauge Manifolds
A gauge maniJold includes both a high-side gauge
Figure2-77. Usingheat to connecta break in the and a low-side (vacuum) gauge. It allows the senice
liquid colunn of a glass-stem thermometet.Be carcful. technician to check operating pressures, add or recover
Wear goggles.Avoid pufting match below bulb. Keep refrigerant, add oil, and perfom other necessaryopera-
t'lame movin7 to avoid hot spots. (White Rodgers tions.
Division, EmerconElectric Co.) The gauge maniJold illustrated in Figure 2-79 is
color coded. ManuJacturers often coior code the extedor
oI the gauge-low-side blue and high-side rcd. Lovr'-side
use a Bourdon tube as the operating element. The Bor- hoses are color coded blue, and the high-side hoses are
doa tube is a flattened metal tube (usually copper alloy) red.
sealed at one end, curved and soldered to the gauge fit-
ting at the other end. Figure 2-78 shows the typical con-
shuction oI a pressure gauge.
A ptessurc rise in a Bourdon tube makes it
stiaighten. This mov€ment will pull on the linl, which
will turn the gear sector counterclockwise. The pointer
shaft will then ir]rn clockwise to move the needle.
Some futes have a retarder to permit accurate
readings in the usual opemting range. The rcrarder
uses an exha sFing at prcssures above normal. These
gauges are easily recognized by the change in gradua-

FiEUte 2-79. A testinqmanifoldfor R-l31a.The

4 compound(suction)Eauge(shownin blue) is mounted
I on the left. lts hoseleadsto the equipmentsuction
servicevalve.Thehiqh-pressure (discharge)
Figure2-78. Internalconstructionof pressuregauge. (shownin rcd) is mountedon the right. lE hoseleadsto
Redoutline at Lop indicates how pressure in Bourdon the dischargesevice valveor liquid line.
tube causesit to stfti7hten and operategauge. (TlFlnstruments. lnc.)
Chapter2 on Took and Mateaals
R€frigerat 91

High-Pressure pressule. Thehigh'sidegaugereadsuP througha maxi-
The high-pressuretauge has a single continuous murrr of 999psi.
scale,usually marked off to read ftom 0 to 500psi. The
scaleusuallv has eiihei 2'1b. or 5-1b. incrementsand Gauges
usually is connectedinto the high-pressureside oI the Th€ vaoum gauge measur€s lowerlhan-
'efrigerafinSnechanism Figure2-80Asho*. d mani- atmosphere pressure. It will have one of four calibra-
fold gaugeset ihat can be used with all types of refrig- tions-inches of mercury (in- Hg), pounds per square
erants, including substitutesand blends. The gauges inch absolute (psia), millimetem of mercury (mm Hg),
showpressureonly Thetechnicianiooksai the pressure- or torrs or microns for very high vacuum. The micron is
temperaturechart on the back of the gaugemanifold to explained in Chapter 12.
r€ad the conespondingtemperaturelor ihe speciJicre- A mercury barometer, Figur€ 1-13, measures
friserant. vacuum in the normal mnges of rcfrigeration work. For
- measurement of very high vacuums/ a sPecial insEu-
Figure 2-808 shows a manifold with two battery-
operatedgaugesand a liquid crystal display (LCD).The meni, called the Mcleod 8a ge, Fig.r]e 2-81, rs \s[ally
low-sidegaugeindicaieseithera vacuumor pressure used. Such instruments ar€ calibrated in millimete$ o{
readingftom 0 to 29.9inchesof mercuryof 0 to 99.9Psi mercury (tor). SeeSection1.11.1for the definition of a
torr. The vacuum calibration on the compound gauge
(in. of Hg) is most used in refriSeraiion work for mea-
suing pressures below atmosPhe c.
For very L,rgh vacuums, th€ thermocouPle gauge
(shown in Chaptff 12) should be used.Ii is accuratebe-
tween 1 and 1000 microns. A mercury manometel is ac-
curate for 1000 microns and above.

Figur€2-80. High-pressure Eauges.A-Manifald Eauge

setuseclfor all existing and far new
substitutes SPXCorporation) Figure2-8'f. A veryhiShvacuungaugeusinBthe
B Iwa-waydi7ikl manifoldgaugesetwith LCD. frcm | 5a bff (150
icLeod principle.lt canmeasure
Modern Reirlgerarion
and A r Condirioning

Cauges liquid, which tends to prevent rapid fluctuationsin ihe
The compound gauge,Figule 2-82,measuresboth
pressureand vacuum. It is usually calibratedfrom 0 to Gaugesthat areusedin refrigeration work mustbe
30" Hg and from 0 psi to 240 psi. accurate.When it is time for a peiodic recalibraiionof
Some compound gauges have scales caiibrated gauges/rnstmmentsare availableto do this accurately.
according to the evaporating temperahrre of va ous Any shoDthat uie5a ldrSenumberot 8au8e.or ;
common refrigemnts. With these extra scales, it is un_ remotely situaied should have one. Such ins-truments
necessaryto refer to pressufe-tempemturetables and usuallyuse"deadweights"Ior calibrations aboveatmo-
cuves in order to check for conect prcssure+empemture ipherirpre$ure.dnd .r menurycotu"nnfor pre.-ure,
beroh atmo5phen\ or varuum. Cduees _hoLld be
_ A 30" Hg, 0 psi-240 psi gauge shoutd be used checked over their full operating range or scate.
Bhen .onnecting lo
" refrigeratingmFchani-m in When checking gauge accurary, remember ihat cali-
hhich the high prei\!rre mav ba,l-uo ihrough .he bmting equipment is made to show a ,,0,,readingat sea
(ompre5,oror balanle through the refrieerarfconrol level. A gauge calihated on equipmenrso adjustedwill
while tl.e compr4ior is.topoed. \Fver u-secompound not be accurateat either aboveor below sealeve1,
gauges continuously on the high pressure side of rhe Figure2-83.hoq, !han8ein drmo.phericpre,sure
system. with altitude.Any gaugeon which a "0" readingmeans
atmosphericpressuremust be adjustedfor etevationof
use. This includes pressure, vacuum, and compound
gauges. To make the adjustment, disconnecr the gauge
so that it is open to the air. Ther! set the needle at b.
The pressure recorded by th€ gauge will tllen be accu-
rate enough for the iechnician to use. Any gauge that
shows absolutepressure(psia, etc.) should not be ad-
jusied for elevation.
A compound gauge is accurateto about 1 psi or 2,'
Hg. A mercury manometer is accurate to 1 mn1 of mer
cury (1000microns).
There are many dial scales in use; some cornmon
ones arc shown in Figure 2-84.You must be caretut when
reading a pressuregauge to use the correctscalespac-
ings and values.
Figure 2-85 shows a va ety of gaute manifolds. To
speed insiallation of gauges,a quick coupler system may

400011. 1 2 . 9p s
5000fl. 12.2psi
Figure2-82. CompoundgauBewith scaleaf 0 psi to
210 psi. Note the scaleis shotlenedbetween10A psi pressure
Figure2-83. Atmospheric changewith
and 240 psi. fhis is accomplishedby useof retardel
sprinS.A 1/8" npt connection.B Calibratrcn
adjustment. (TlF Instruments,lnc.)
2.11 Measuring
Measuiing tools used by techniciansinclude rules,
2.10.3 CareandCalibration
of cauges tapes, and micrometerc. Even though rules and tapes can
Rapidly chanting fluctuating pressurcs quickly de- assureaccuracyup to 1/32" increments,micrometerccan
stroy gaute accuracl A sudden releaseoI high pressure provide more accuEte readin$.
(300 psi) into a Sauge also may damage it. Sometimes
it is necessary to connect a gaug€ inio a mpidly 2.'11.1 Rulesand Tapes
nuctuating pressrre condition. If so, it should be at A 9" or 12" stainlesssteelrule is frequently needed
tached through a connector having a very tiny bore. wh€n overhauling or installing units. The rule should be
This will help lo dampen (choke) the pressure fluctua- graduated in incemenfs of 1/32". Numerals and
tions entedng ihe gauge. Some gauges arc fi]]ed with graduationsshould be clearly visible. Installationwork-
Chapter2 RefrgerationToolsand Mnterials 93

gauBesare shown at the top. CompaundSauqesarc shown
Fiture 2-84. Samecommon pressureEauEedials. Pressure

is calibrafedin inchesand decimalsof an inch. The met-

ric micrometer is calibrated in millimete$ and decimals
of a millimeter.

Figure 2-86illustraies a l-inch micrometer caliPer'
When rcading it, be careful to observe ihe micrometer
catibmtionrange.Note ihai a l-inch micrometer,Figurc
2-86,has a range of 0 io 1". A 2-inch micrometer has a
range of 1" to 2", and so on. If a 3'inch micrcmeter
is used, 2" musi be added to the micrometer rcadin8
This is becausewhen the gap is set to 2", the reading
is 0.
A micrometer is noi a hea\,y-duty tool, so do not
tighten ii like a vise. Simply clos€the 8ap on the piece
being measured until the sliShtest rcsistance is fe1t.The&
read the dimension.
The Iollowing points may help ihe beginner learn
to read the micrometer:
1. The divisions on the sleeveare tenths of an inch
2. The Iour divisions between the tenihs markers
Figure2"85. Vatiaustypesaf gauEemanifolds. arc 1/40" or.025 (twenty {ive ihousandths of an
3. The thimble (right end of the micrometer) caries
e$ wilt find a 6' flexible sieel tape usetul when laying the spindle.It is threadedinto the nicrometer body
out a job. on a 40 thread-per-inchscrew. One turn of the
thimble moves the spindle twenty-five thousandths
2.11.2 Micrometers of a inch (.025").
Often, the technicianmust checksizesand make ac- 4. There are 25 graduations on the thimble Turning
curate measurementsto a few thousandthsof an inch ihe thimble one graduationmoves ihe spindle 001
or hundredths of a millimeter.The common micrometer (1/1000)of an inch
is commonly used for this purPose. 5. The micrometer.Figure 2-86,reads 200 inch The
Micromeiersare availablein both U S conventional inserts (potions of a micromeier) read as noted in
and SI metric units- The U.S. conventionalmicrometer the caphon.
94 M o d e n rR e t rB e r a t i oann d A i r C o f d ( r o n t n B

The metric microrneteris calibnted in miiiinleiers

and decnnah of a nillineter.
i t The'reare trvo caiibrationson tire steeve(seeFigure
2-87).The lower calibration (A scale)is in millime-
ters.The upper calibration(B scate)is one-hatf(0.5)
of a mi imeter The lines of B are halfway between

The thimbl€ (C scale)is calibratedjn hundredrhsof

a millimeter. There ar€ 50 graduaiions on ihe
The thread pitch on the rnetric micrometerspjndlc
is 2 threads per millimetar. This means that the
spindle moves a one-half (0.s) nilh)reter for each

There are 50 divisions on the rhimble. Snlce rne

.310 thimble moves a .5 mm in one tur& one division
on the thnnble {1/50)moves the spindle t/2 of 1/S0
of a mi]]nneter.This equais 1/100 (0.01)of a nilli-

When readirg this type of rnetric nicromeier rr rs

noi necessaryto observethe njcrometer calibration
range. TIle lowcr calibration orr the slec\.e starts
wiih a millineter readingcorrespondint to the gap
I betweenihe an\.il and thc spin.tle.As an example,
r l , e0 r r n . o 2 q m , r r r , F L- t d r . \ v , r 0 J r t h c . t L \, p
the 25 nm to 50 mm range starts rvith 25 on the
{ sleeve,and ihe 50 mm to 75 mm range starrs.lvrth
the number 50 or the sleel'e.
figure 2-86. ReadinE.llni.rcmater calipeLCan \)oLt
tell why the rcadingin the photogtaphis .20A?Nate
clrawiDgs A, B, and C to seeho1, readingsarc nade.
Ansv,ersate in thausandthsai an inch. SUPPLIES
Metric Micrometers
Figure 2-87shows a metric miciomeier The calibra- 2.12 Fastening
tion range is 0 to 25 miliimeters. Tyentv-five milhne-
tels are almost one inch (1 jnch = 25.4mrn). Manv items are made in one piece ioday that tvere
The follol^,ingpohts lnay help the begjrner tearn (, r-ider<drmpo..ihle .o rdb i(.rL .r .\ort . 1rL ..go
to read the metric scale: However, some mechanisms must siill be nade of

Thimbe and Seeve Assembly


A= m m - g r a d u a l o4n : m m
B = 0 . 5 m m - S r a d u a l o0n. 5: m m
C = 0 01 nrnigraduaton:0 27 nrn'l

Figurc2-47. A o 25 mn ni.ronteter. The rcadiry as shown in the lnsertis 1.77 n1.|, (S,I lndusties, |nc.)
Tool, and Maler als
Chapler2 Refrigeranon 95

severalpiecesand then assembied.IJ there is hotion in srandardM€tal

tl_eme.hanism->uch as a piston in a c) tinder the dp-
paratusmust be made of two or more pieces. ffin@)* i @ m ,
Various technlques have been developed to fasten
pieces together. In metal work, soldering, brazing, E T g E
helding. Lrimping.rjvets.bolls. machinescrews.pins. e*r -*.
spdng fastenen, and force fits have been used with
The type of assemblydevice used dependsfirst on
the kind and condition of the metal, and secondly on how Sla ldenritication
ftequendy the pieces must be dismantled. If the parts are
to be put together permanently, dveting, weldin& sol-
dering, and brazing are popular assemblymethods.
If the parts must be dismantled for frequent repair s s ' f tr H ffffi45

or se ice, assembly devices must be used that can be

easily removed without injuring the parts. Nuts and
bolts, cap screws,machine screws,and set screwsare
W wffi#W
then used. Figu* 2-88 shows an assortmentof fasten-
ing devices. In the metric system, the diameter oI fas-
d& ffi
iening sizesis specifiedin millimeters.

2.12.1 MachineScrews,
and CapScrews
Bolts, w
Many small Parts are assembledusing specially Sh€€t Metal screws
threaded devices called machifle scre|us.l|'{.achil].escrews
are made of steel, stainless steel brass, Monel metal, or
other materials. They are available in a variety oI head
shapes.Various methods are used to tum thesescrews.
See Figures 2-55,2-6a, and 2-88. Some less commonly
used screw heads are shown in Figure 2-89.
??TTY ]}F F

Machile screws come in vadous diameters. Eight

are in the numbered sizes, while three are in the
ftactional-inchsizes.Each size may have either fine or
coarse threads; the larger the numbet the larger d1edi-
ameter. A table of machine screw sizes and threads is
given in Figure 2-90.
In general,bolts and cap scrcws are used in sizes

1/4" and larger The length oI threadson a bolt is usu- Wood Screw Styles
ally two times the bolt diameter. Most bolts are provided a b w g

it'* f** H**

wiih nuts.
The threading on a cap screw is usually longer
than the threadingon a bolt. Threadssometimesextend
up to the head of the cap sctew Cap screws are sff!:i:tfv,":,ry,1i"
threaded into a part oI ihe mechanism and do not m
requlre a nut,
Metric scrcws can have four thread i},?es, known
as coarse/ average, fine, and extra fine thieads. The
popular diametersand ihread pitch sizesarc shown in
Figtre 2-91,
Diameters of metric bolts, nuts, and screws, as well
as the thread pitches, are in millimeiers. For example:
10 mm diameter with a 1.50 mln pitch. The wrench size
is the sam€ as the size given for the diameier of the bolt.
A 10 mm wrench liis a 10 mm bolt.

2,12.2 Caskets
lTYrss c 4 o € H a l D q

Most mating su acesar€ somewhat rough. To make Figure2-88. Fasteners must be carefullyusedancl
a leakproof joint, gas&efs are often used between sur- diven with prcper taols. (Klein Tools, lnc.)
faces.Gaskets,being soIt, sealjoints beiween assembled
96 M o d c r nR e i r g e f a t i oann dA r C o i d i t i o r i n S

not be thicker than the od$nal gaskets.The surfacesoI

parts that coniact ihe gasket musi be free oI bur$,
bruises,and forei$ matt€r.

SquareCo!nlersurk Feed PrinceHead

H e a d( S c r u l o x ) ( S i m t a r t oP h i i p s ) 2.13 Refrigeration
Figure2-B9. Lesscommonlyusctlscrewheads. Spaceprevents giving specificationsfor all refrig
eration supplies. Ho$'ever, a fe - baslc items will be
named and sonrenrfornaiion givcn about their specifi
caiions,handlin€i,and use.
2.13.1 Abrasives
2 0€6 56 Surfacesmay be cleaned,smoothed,or rnade to ac-
3 099 56 curaiesizewith abrasives.Abrasivcsare sand like gr d-
112 48 ing pariiclesoften attachedto paper or cloth by glue or
5 125
6 138 32 40
Sanclpaper\^'asthe onlv abrasi\.efor manv vears.
164 32 36
10 190
Ii is still excellentfor r\roo.tfinishing or where a drv sur
24 32
12 216 24
faceis r,{anted.Todav,eme{', allmlnum oxide, and sili
254 20 28 con carbideare also commonly usecl.
5/16 3125 18 24 Each abrasive has sev€ral grades or variations ir
3ta 375 16 24
. Emery cloth: 0000(finest),000 (extrafine), 00 (\ery
Figure2-90. Comnonnachines.rcw sizes. fine), 0 (fine), 1/2 (medium fine), and 1 (rnedium).
. Silicon carbide: 500 (finest), 360 (lery fine), 320
(fine), 220 (medium fine), and 160 (nedirun).
. Aluminum oxid€s:320 (exira fhe),240 (fine), 150
(mediumfitle),and 100(medium).
3 0.60 3
0.70 Theseabrasivescolne in 9" x 11"she€tsor in rolls
a.T5 usually 1" $.ide.
5 0.80 5 Sheeiabrasives,whether paper or cloih, shot ct be
5 0.90 5
6 1.00 6 backed by a block of wood, metal, fclt, or nbber. Sp€
T 1.00 7 cial sanding blocks may also be used. Alwavs use clean
I 1.00 8
I 1.25 I
9 1.00 I
I '1.25 9 2.13.2 Brushes
10 '1.25
A clearlsteelu'ire brush is an excellcnttool io pre-
11 pare copper nnd steel surfacesfor welding or brazing.
'12 125 Thesebrushescan be bought nr a variety of shapesand
12 1.50 sizes.Thcv should have fhe steel rvire bristlcs, rvhich
are ihickly set.The han.:lleshould be comfortable.Sp€
cial c)'hlddcal brushes are tood for cleaning outsidc
Figure2-91. Tableo{ meli. screw infonnatian. and inside surfacesof tublng and fittings. Figure 2-92
sho$'sa cvlindricallv shapedwire brush. Thev are avail
paris. They ke€p the relriFrani irom leaking out, pre-
vent oil leakate, and keep air out of the svstem.They
are useclbetween the valve plate an.l the comprcssor
bodr', betteen the service valve and the conpressor
bodt', and beiwccn thc !'al\.c platc and thc compressor
head. Gaskeisar€ also used ot1thc crankcaseand at the
crankshaftseal ot1opcn or crternal ddvc uniis.
Metal is the most corrmon gasketnlaierial. Lead is
populat b€iig soft and noncorrosive.Aluminunl has
also been used. Conposiiion gaskctsmadc of plastic-
nnprcgnateclpaper are also popular. Figure2-92. Wire lnLtshus-.dfat .leaning inside
Casketsmust not rcstrict the opcnitlgs.Thcy musi , t . . , . . o , , . , , . . . t b, e t t , - . o l d e , ; n , , b - , i t h .- . .
not lose theb compressiLlilit\r BrushMtg. Ca., ln..)
Chapter2 Too15and MateriaLs
Refrig€ratlon 97

2.'13.3 CleaningSolvents mechanisms. Several diflerent reftigelants are care-

full,v desoibed in Chapter 9 along with safe handiing
Any refrigeration mechanismmust be thoroughly methods.
cleaned before and after repail. Many methods have Refdgerantsmustbe kepi d,'yand cl.r?r'Remember,
beenused.Somedo not do a thorough job; somearedan-
all exposedsu acesabsorbmoisture iJ left in d1eopen.
If a compressoris torn down, ovelhauled, and reas-
Anv meihod must remove oil, grease,and sludge.
sembled,it musi 6lst be completelydried before it can
In refrigeraiion and air conditioning, ihe cleaning
be charged r .ith refriterant. SeeChapter 12 for detailed
method must removemoisture,or at least it should not
add moisture. It rnust not damage the parts ror harm
Reftigerants arc stored and handled by the seNice
the user. There are several cleaning methodsl
iechnicianin portable refriSeranicylinders.Refrigerants
. SteamCleaning.If the pafis are exposedio hot wa- are identiJiedby a cylhder color code.SeeChapter9 for
ter or steam,the greasewill usually becomefluid a table of color codesfor common refrigerants.
and float off ihe sulface.Steanrand hoi water may cylinders for different refrigerantsmust not be in-
burn the [ser if they are caielesslyused. terchanged.Re{rig€rantsshould alwaysbe stored in the
cylinder specified(color code).
. CausticSolution Cl€aning.An alkalinecleanerdis- Never fill re{rigerantcylindersover 80% of capac-
soh'edin hot water will remote greaseand oil. This ity. With a temp€rature increas€,hydrostatic pressure
solutionmustbe carefullyused or the user may suf- may burst the overfilled cytind€r.
fer burns or eye injury. Do not v€nt refrigerantdirectly into th€ atmosphere.
. Oleum or Mineral Spirits. This PetroleumProduct
is popular for cleaning.It has a flash point of aP- Oil
2.13.5 Refrigerant
proxjmately140"F(60'C).Kerosenehasa flashPoini
lI ll'F me.haocdl refr:gerar'rB\)-iem movinB
of 130'F(54'C).It cleansrvell and leavesa smudge
parts must be lubricated with oil for IonS life and effi-
free sudace.However, it presentsa fire hazard and
iient performance. There are a vadety of refrigerant oils,
should always be used in small amounts.It should oi1s,alkyl ben
including mineratoits,pol]rol ester-based
be containedin self-ciosingtanks.The areashould
zene, and polyatkylene glycol (PAG). The rype of oil
be exhaust-ventilaied (have a hood and an
used musi match the tyPe of refrigerant used The ne$'
azeohopic mixiures and refrigerant 134a use polyol
. Atcohol. Alcohol is also a Sood cleaning fluid. ester-basedoils. The traditional reftigeranis require mm-
However, ii is both flammable and toxic. SPecial elal oil. Never mix diffeient tyPes of oil *'ithin a sys-
precautionsmust be taken:excellentventilation,no
open flames,use in small amounts- Use oils thai have a low pollt point ftelr].peiature at
. which the oil beginsio flow). This will avoid wax sePa-
Vapor degreasing.This is a system [sing a clean-
rahon ai the lowesi temperature in the system Wax
ing fluid containedin a tank. The fluid is warmed,
could clog the refrigerant control orifice
filing the upper pali of the tank wiih vapors of the
Due to the low temPeratures at which ihey
cleaner.Any parts susPendedin this cleaning va-
operate,food freezer and frozen food units need oils
por are quickl)' and thoroughly cleaned Such a tank
with exiralow poui points and a very lo\,l' rvax con-
must be speciallyvented.
tent. The oil cannot have any hydrocarbons of the
. Patentedcleaningfluids. when theseare used,one iype thai may collecton the comPressolvalves or other
should readand carefullyfollow the manufacturer's palis.
The \-iscosiiyof the oil must be accuratelydeter
mined for the tempemttue rantes to ra'hich the refriSer-
Carbontetrachlorid€shouldnever be usedin cl€an- ating system may be exposed. SeeCluPter 9 for further
ing refrigerationor air conditioning mechanisms lt is information. When possible,follow the manufactureis
toxic, and can be absorbedthrough th€ respiratorysys- recommendations.SeeChaPter31.
tem or the skin. Refrigerantoil must be kept in sealedcontainers.It
Never use gasolinefor cleaning.lt has a low flash must be translered in chemicallycleanedcontainersand
point. Casolineiumes are heavyand may travel far to ig- lines, and it must not be exPosedio air where ii will
niiion sourcescausingan explosionor flash fire. Do not absorb moisture. When recharging a system with refrig-
usea propaneor LPcylinderto cl€anparts.Th€liquidor erant, al 'avs add new oil. SpecialPressurePumPsma)'
gaswill quickly evaporat€and may burn or explode. be used to pump oil into the iow side of a q'stem To
Refer io Chapter 31 for more information on retrofit a systemandchangeoils, seeChaPierl0 for step_
cleanrnt. by-step
' procedurcs.
Rifiigeration oil comes in one- or five-gallon cans
2.13.4 Refrigerants and in barrels. It is advisabie to purchaseit in small
The refdgeraiion seffice technicianis required to sealedcontainers,holding only enough for each sePa-
handle refriterants and chargethem into refrigerating rate se ice opemtion.Unused oil allo 'ed to lemain in
9B Modern RefriseGtionand Air Conditioning

the coniainer of oil tianslerred fuom one conramer to an- (of the same b?e of refrigeration tubing material
other may pick up some moisture, and perhaps even Lsed in tl_es)5lem) is ro be u5ed a.9holrn h
-lhe Figure 2-94. Epoxy compounds should be used im-
poltt point of any o11is the temperature at which n_ediarFl)dflermi\hg .irre themicalhdrdenbgor
it starts to flow The piice of refuigeration oil varies with sethng starts immediately.
the 8rdde.A lo* poL'point oil r: mo-ee\pensi\e.
Domestic machines with reftigerant temperatures
as 1ow as 0'F to 5'I (-18'C to 15'C) need oil with a
pour point of 20'F (-29"C). For food fre
friterant tempemturesas low as -50"F (-46"c), a pour
point of 60oF(-51'C) is desirable.Always seal aJl oit
container after drawing oil from it.

2.13.6 EpoxyResin
Epoxy resin may be used to repair cracksand leaks
in evapofatorsand joints. Such resinshave good adhe- ',.\--**
sion (sticking) qualities when used with steel, copper,
wood, and many plastics. Epoxy adhesives are available
fron many manufacturers or refrigeration suppty
The most desirabletype of epoxy resin is the two cloih
part system. This consists of an epoxy resin and a hard-
enei. in two jars or fubes, Figure2-93. Evaporator
repairkit usedfor repaiinE
These two, paste-lik€ substances will harden at leaL, ta dlumtntm e\apordtots. , appplto-alum;aum
ioom temperature when mixed together The one-part joints, and all other netals. (Sealed Unit Pafts Co., lnc.)
adhesive must be heated in order io harden it.
When repairing tubing, first determine ihe size of
the leak. Small leaks or holes up to 1/16" in diameter
canoften be successtullysealedby placing the mixed ep-
oxy over the leak and allowing it to cure. The same prc-
cedure is reconmended for small tubing cracks. For
Iarter holes, a patch of the same i),?e of tubing maierial

The shelf life of most epoxy resins is about six

nonths. Epoxy compounds should be purchasecl trom a
refrigeration wholesaler becausesome epoxies available
elsewhere are not compatible with refrigerants R 12 and
Care must b€ taken \/hen using epoxy compounds
becausethey contain chemicalswhich may irritate the FiSure2-94. Epoxycompoundis usedto join thepatch
skin. tong contact with the skin should be avoided. In pat1.A-Completedpatch.
matetialto thedamaged
caseof contact,remov€the epoxyand cleanthe skin with
rubbing alcohol. Then wash thoroughly with soap and
2.14 Service
The procedure for using epoxy compolrnd is as
follows: Sen'ice technicians must be familiar with manual
1. Obtain a two-part epoay kiL Figure 2-93. valves in reftigerating systems. These valves enable
2. Clean the sudace or surfacesto be bonded. Use them to seal off pafts of the system while instaliing
clean, coarse sandpaper, or scrub the surface with gauges, recharging, or discharSing the system.
clean steelwool. Severalkinds of manual or hand valves are used.
3. Clean the surface wiih a suitable recommended sol- Such valves may have handwheels on their stems, but
vent such as methyl ethyl ketone, toluene, ac€ton€, most are made so that a valve wrench is need€d to tul:n
or a similar industrial solvent. Obey all solvent them. Valve stems are made of steel or brass. Th€ body
of the valve is usually made of drcp forged brass. Pack-
4. Mix together equal parts of resin and hardener on ing is instaliedaround the valve stem.A packint adjust-
a clean su acesuch as a piece of cardboard.Keep ing nut keeps the joint ftom leaking.
mixinS uniil the mixture has a uniform color One-way and two-way service valves are com-
5. Apply the epoxy mixture to the surface if ii has only monly used, ofie-way seft)ice ?,ah,eshave only one
a small hole. Apply to mating surfacesiJ a patch opening which can be either opened or closed. The lzro-
Chapter2 Too s and Materias
RefriS€ratlon 99

u)dVsemi.e aaloe has two oPenings.One may be open 2.16 Evacuating

$tile ih€ other is closed,or both may be oPen.
The two-rvay valve usually closesor shuts off ihe A reftigerating system must contain onlv the re-
refrigerant flo$, in the system when the stem is tumecl frigerant in either liquid or vapor state along with dry
a t[e way in (c]ockwise).lt shuis off the charging,dis- oil. All other vapors, gases,and fluids must be re-
charging, or gauge opening when the valve stem is
turned all the $,ay out (counterclockwise).When the Thesesubstancescan be removed best by connect
valve stem is turned part way, both of the oPeningsal- ing the systemto a vacuum pump, Figure 2-96,and al-
low the fluid (refrigerant)io flow through, Figure 2-95. lowing the pump to run continuouslv for some time
The tubin8 or pipe is fastenedto a valve by flare while a deep vacuum is dra$,n on the system.Thereare
connectionor by brazinS. The valve may also be at- numeroustypes of vacuum punPs, dePend g upon the
tached to the refriSeratint mechanism either by PiPe applicaiion. Residentialunits 'iU uiilize a smaller sys-
threadsor by bolted flanges. rem than thoseused for commercialunits.
It is good practiceio open a valve by first "crack- It is sometimesnecessarvto warm the Partsto 120'F
ing" it (open g it 1/16 or 1/8 turn). This Prevenis a (19'C) while under a high vacuum in order to rcmove
shock pressurerush which may damage mechanisms, ,rll Lrh drled noi-rLrre.HFil -he p"rt. t 5ir8 $ rrm dir
gauges,flush oil in abnormalamounts,or injure the t€ch- heat lamps, or warm water. Never us€a torchl
Be sure the valve siem is cleanbefoie tuming it in
(clock!\'ise).A scafied or diriv vah'e stem will ruin the
valve packint. SeeChapter 15.

2 Figur€2-96. Heavy clutypoftabte vacuumpump. Note

offsetrotary vanesusedas a meansof campressionUnit
FiSure2-95. Twa typical servicevalvedesigns No T is is capableof producin7a vacuumoi 20 nicrons, and is
a ,h o-{:r , dh e. \-OpennP lo ' anlpret'or' usablein air canclitioningand reftiSerationsystemsusinq
B-Open'na to lhe plttFpttat lin'. C -SPttiP openine
CFC, HCFC, ot HFC reftigerants, in coniunctian with
No. 2 is a one way valve.D Opening to the liquid minetalail, polyal esteroil, PAC oil, or alkylbenzeneoil
line. E-Openin! to the liquid rcceiver.yalve No. I has
as lubricants.(Robinait SPXCorpantion)
an open valve stem.Valve No. 2 hasa cap over the

2.17 Reviewof Safety

2.15 Purging Beforeworking with tools. review the safetysteps.
l. lubing'hould be benl in a. ldrgea radiu. a' po*
P /B.rrgrefersto the processof rcmoving unwanted sible,
dir. rapor- dirl. or moi'Lrtrefrom a srsl'm rrd irlc \e 2. "Mushroom/'headsshouldbe ground off from chis'
aLmo.pnere.lJ-qrns " ,y5lem *itlr CfC or HCI-C els and punch€s.Fragmentsmay fly off when struck
re -rgeran.5r- nor a"o*"a urder LPA reBUdhon' with the hammer,causingseriousiniury.
Refrigerantsremoved mlrsi be recoveied. ChaPter 10 3. Fil€sshoutdneverbe us€dwithout handles.The tang
prcvides additional information regarding aPpropriate may injur€the hands.
iechniquesfor refrigerani recovern a. Wear goggleswhen drilling. Chips may fly.
100 Mod€rnReirigeration
andAjr Condirioning

5. Em€rycloth should not b€ used to clean tubing ro a. W}y do some technicians file the ends of copper
prepar€for soldering.tt may leav€ an oily dep;sil tubing?
Also/the hard grit could causeconsiderabledamage A. To removeburrs,
if allowed to enter the refrigeratingmechanism, " B. To restorc full wall thickness.
6. when pressuretesling {or leaks in tubing circuits, C. Both A and B.
use low or m€dium pressurecarbon dioxide or ni- D. Only steeltubing should be filed.
trog€n. Nev€r useoxygen.Caution:seeChapter12. How can dn inlernal berding sprinq be remo\ed
7. carbon tetrachlorideshouldnot be usedfor any puF from a flared rube after maki"g i Ueiaz
poseas it is toxic and can be absorbedthrougtrthe A. Bend the rube betoremdking lhe fldre.
skin. B. Crease the spring belore inseltion.
8. Brazing materials som€rimes contain cadmium. C. Twist the spring.
Fumesfrom heatedcadmiumare poisonous.Be sure D. Only an internal spring shouid be used.
that the work spac€is wellventilated.tfpossibte,use 6. Before soldering metal, are both cleaning and flux-
brazingalloys which do nol contain cadmium. rng necessary!
9. It h recommendedthat refrigerantcylinders never A. No. Only fluxing is necessary
be filled abore 80". of lheir (dpd(il). tf o\erfilled, B. No. If the metal is c1ean,it does not need flux.
hldro\latk pre\lurema) cdusethem to bur\t. C. Yes.Fitst cleanthe suface and then add flux.
10. Wrenchesused on refriteration line fittings should D. Yes, exceptfor aluminum. It can be soldered
always fit snugly.Poorly fitted wrencheswill ruin without flux.
nuts and bolt heads.Also, the wrench may stip and 7. Solderedmetal must be - when soldednt.
causean injury to the t€chnician. A. about 1150'F
11. Always "crack" servicevalv€s and cylinder valves B. hot enough to anneaiihe metal
beforeopening.This giv€squick control of th€ flow C. hot enouShto make the solder tui1y liquid
of gasesif there is any danger. D. hoi enough to ddve the water out of the flux
12. Mohture is alwaysa hazardto r€frigeratingmecha- 8. Why must a joint be cleanedafter brazing'
nisms.Keepev€rythingconnect€dwith a refrigerat- A. It only needscleaningbeforebrazing.
ing mechanismthoroughlydry. B. It only needscleaningiJ acid f'lux is used.
13. Never purge refrigerantdirectly to the atmosphere. C. To remove flu\ which may corrode tubint.
14. Epoxy bonding materials may irritat€ the skin or D. To remove excessbrazing alloy.
many membranesof the user. 9. What indicaies ihat the correct bEzing temperarure
has been reached?
A. The metal suiface turns green.
B. A green color appea$ in the flame.
C. Thebrazingalloy meltswhenheld in the flame.
2.18 TestYourKnowledge D. The flu-r bubbles.
10. When mating a steelpipe with a male NP ihread to
Pleasedo not w-ritein this text-Placeyour answerson a a fitting that has an NF intemal thread, what pre-
separatesheetof paper cautionsare necessary?
A. Use pipe compomd, and inset for a ctisiance
of five threads.
TUBINCAND FITTINCS MODULE B. Make surethe sizesare equal i.e.:3/4" NP and
1. A - fitting is the best type of fiiting for use 3il4',NF.
with polyethylene tubing. C. Both A and B.
A. push on-9pe barb D. Do not mate NP to NF.
B. flare
C. compressiontl?e
D. solar t'?e bmss RTFRICERATION
2. When cuiting copper tubing with a hacksaw,whai 11. A(n) - wrench should be used on a valve
precautionsmust be taken?
A. Cui squarelyat 90' and femove all sharpburrs- A. AIIen wrench
B. Do not let chips or filings get into the tubing. B. miniature pipe
C. Close off ends of unused part of the tubing. C. servicevalve
D. All of the above. D. Tofio key
1. Whal 5 the OD ol I 4' refriterdLron tubingl 12. When should you push and pull on a wrench?
A. 0.250" A. Push to loosen,pu[ to tighten.
B. 0.280', B. Pull to loosen, push to tighten.
c. 0.310' C- Always push.
D. 0.375', D. Always pLrll.
on Toolsand Materials
Refrigerat 101

13. \\rhai tool should be used on a sloited hexa8on head 22. A compound gauge is used to -.
bolt? A. show ihe highest and lowest temperatures
A. Stmight scre 'drive( reached
B. Nut plie$. B. showpressurc+emperaturerelationshiPs
C. Hex key wrench. C. measurepressure(psig) and vacuum (in. Hg)
D. Twelve-pointsocket. D. give ac.uraie readingsin the usual range and
14. Which tool would be easiestto use when operating approximatereadingsover a wider range
in a sma11 or restdctedspace? 23. Which of the following is the most common tool to
A. Six-point socketwrench. us€ for deiermining pressure and temperature?
B. Twelve-pointbox end siench. A. Thermometer.
C. Metric wrenches only. B. Pressuregauge.
D. Nut driver. C. Vacuum gauge.
15. \ rhich of the following would l7of descdbe a box D. None of the above.
wrench? 24. The thermometer is frequently used to detelmine
A. Straight. the iemperature in a(n) -.
B. Offset. A. evaporator and condensing llnit
C. Double offset. B. relrigeraior
D. open ended. C. liquid line or suciion line
16. tr\trich oI the following is nol a popular size for oPen D. All of the above.
The vacuum gauge measuresPressuresthat are
A. 7/16". lower than atmospherlcpressure.Which of the fol
B. 1/2". lowing is nol a common calibration?
c.3/16'. A. Inchesof mercury (in. Hg).
D. 5/8'. B. Poundsper squareinch (psi).
17. Hou ru\n torqJe !.ill be ProdLcedi d 2' lorg C. Poundsper squareinch absoluie(PSia).
wrench handie is pulled by a sPring scale reading D. Pounds per squarefoot (Psf).
40lbs.? 26. A tauge manilold includes a -
A. 80 ft.lbs. A. centergauge
B. 80 in.]bs. B. high-side gauge
C. 950 ft.lbs. C. 1ow-sidegauge
D. 950 in.lbs. D. high- and low-side Sauge
18. A double cut file is a file -. 27. Acompound gaugeshows a changein ahnosPheric
A. with teeth on both sides pressure wifh altitude. At sea level the Sauge
B. that has no safe edge should be set for -.
C- that cuts on both the fol.\^rardand back strokes A . 0
D. with ieeth cut in two directions B. 14.7
19. fi?hich of the followint is nof a coinrnon type ot c. 13.7
punch? D. 12.9
A. Drift prlnch. 28. \4ic'ometersare u-ed to n_ea5ure -
B. Pin pr.lnch. A. hundredths of an inch
C. Pick punch. B. ihousandths of an inch or hundredths of a mil-
D. Mushroom punch. limeter
20. A tight nut or bolt may be loosened safely by C. ten-thousandths of an inch or hundredths of a
soaklng the threads with penetrating oil D. Arly of the above
B. heating ii 29. Calibrating equipment used to check the accuracy
C , tapping it lightly with a hammer of a gar.rgeis made to show a - readlnS at
B. 14.7
c. 10.5
21. What is ihe most commonway to checka thermom 30. A gauge ihat has a 0 readinS must be reset to
eter for accuracy? when r,rsedat high elevations.
A. Spray on R-134atit should read 26'C. A . 0
B. Pui in ice and salt mixi it should rcad 21'C. B. 74.7
C. Put in ice and watei mix, it should r€ad within c. 10
1"C of 0'C. D. Noneof the above.
D. lut in nou.h r -noLrldre"d l-C
102 Modern RefriSeration
and Air Condrtioning

SUPPTIES AND USEMODUTE 36. Purging is a term which describes_

31. lvhy must refrigerantoil be practically wax free? -leikage
A. of ref'ger-i ;;;" ,...rp;"*
A. To prevent foamins. u. removrntunwantedair, \apors.di_rtor mots_
B. \4"r canclog the r;irigerantconhoiorifice. flrrc llom a system
(. wa\ cancausecoppertubineto corrode. C. removing excessdirr from rhe atmosDhere
D. All of 8reabove. D. adding refriger.nt to a system
32. \Ahati: a veD importantprecaLrtjon onemllst td(e 37. \,Vhichone of the following should llot be u.ed as a
when 611ingrefrigeranrcilmders? cleaning solvent?
A. Obey rcfrigerant color code. A. Oleum of min€ral spi ts.
B. Never fiII cylindersover 80%of capacib.. B. Alcohol.
C. BothA aJldB. C. Steam.
D. Nevet rcusereftiqerant cvlinders. D. CarbontetraclLlodde.
33. lvhai could causea oine-way'sewicevalve to leak 38. I lhat t',?e of lubdcant does R-134ause?
at the valve stem? A. Mineral oil.
A. A dirty valvestem. B. Polyol ester-based.
B. A loosepackinsadjusrinsnur. C. Both A ard B.
C. Vahewis'crackedrtooir.rchberoreopentg. D. N€ither A nor B.
D. EitherA or B. 39. kr a two-way service valve -.
34. I 4len a systemis left connectedto a vacuumpump A. onry one opening can be opened
Ior a time to clean it, this procedureis refered 6 B. only one opening call be closed
C. both openings caJl be opened.
A. evacuatint D. None of the above.
B. flushing 40. I4hi€h oI the folowing is used io rcpair a 1/8,,hole
C. purging in a copper evapomtor tube?
D. vapor degreasing A. Sandpaper ard cleaning solvent.
35. Never fill refrigerantcylindersover_% of ca- B. Epoxy rcsin and hardener.
Pac1ry C. ?afch made by cutting in halI a scrap oI the
A. 80 same t?e of reftigeEtion tubing used in the
B. 90 system.
c. 50 D. All of the above.
D. 100
KeyTerms: 3.1 lce Refrigeration
cascaderefrigerarjng humidity
herrnetic For years, ice (frozen water) was the only rcftiger-
chemicalrefrigeration srgnrSrass ating meansavailable.It is siill used in many refrigerat-
thermoelectric ing applications. The typicai ice refdgerator, Figure 3-1.
dryice refrigeration is an insulaied cabinet equipped with a tray or tank at
e refrigerant the top for holding blocks or piecesof ice (aqua).
system Shelves for food are located below the ice compart-
ment. Cold air (greenstriped arows) flows downward
you will be ableto:
By studyinsihis chapter,
a Explainthe opefationoi a simple ice refrigerator.
a Explainho$, evaporationprovidesa cooling effect.
a Namethe basicmechanical reirigerationsystems.
a Explainvariousapplicationsfor mechanical refrigera-
tion systems.
a Describethe operationof variousmechanicalfefrig-

a Comparecompressionand absorptiontype systems.

a Discussrefrigeration
systemsusing icemakersand --4 /ta>
. - 4 E e - - . - . -
a Explainhowa system usinganexpendable-type
of re
i N
a Discuss andcompare domesticandcommercial re

Explainthe operationof thermoelectricrefrigeration.
e Comparethe differencesbetweenhot-gasand elec-
: 4 ilti
tric defroslsyslems. s:5 ll:'"
i i::t
' X - -l.cr
ii: ;18.
i l.'{r-
( :' : ir r i| .4l i '
I, ir-
Figure3-l. BasicdesEnandoperationof an ice

104 Modern Refrigerarion
and A r Condirioning

ftom the ice compartment. It cools the food on the r Plug

shelves below The air becomes warmer and dses ftom
lre borton of rhe.abineLtred stripeddrroh.r. Il trdvelj
up the:ide. and back of the cabinei.Rowing over rhe
ice, ii cools and again flo\^/s down over the sielves.
Tcerelrigeration has the adrdntage ot mdintaining
the inrerrorof the cabinetat d farrly high rrrrridity tmoi,:
fure level). Jood sfored in lhic rlpe oif relrigeratordoec
not dry out mpidltr
Until the development oI rhe mechanical r€frigera_
ror.narur"l ice refriSprationwas quite h idely used.iince
then. arflfi.ial lce ha: been manuJ.cruredior rerrigera_
tion. Temperaturesinside an ice refrigerator are con-
trolled byairlow Theair flows overtheiceand through
rl-F_cabinet. *ril u,ually range berwein
40'F and 50'F 14.4'Cand t()'C).
When it is necessaryto use ice for cooling tempem-
tures belorv 32'F (0'C), ice and salt mixtures may be :
used..Temperaturesdown ro 0'F (-18.C) may be ob-
tained with ice and salt mixtures.SeeChapter 31 for a
table of ice and salt mixtures. Figure3-2, Thedesertba! is an exampleof coaling by
evapo rative refrigeratian.

3,2 Evaporative
Refrigeration Much of the heai which causesthis evaporation
(DesertBag) comes from the bag and its !^.aier This hear removat
cools the d nking water inside the canvas.The water
When a fluid evapomtes,hear is absorbed.Evapo- temperature is now several degrees below rhe rempera
ration of water is an eaample.This is why humans and ture of ihe sunounding air.
animals perspire. Evaporation of moisture from the skin
su ace helps to keep a pe$on cool.
{nother e\dmpleof the e\ dporaLj\e principlers Lhe 3,3 Evaporative
tleseft bog used {o leep drjnkng water cool. i hi, bag.
Figure 3-2, made of a tightly woven fabdc, is 61ted with
drinking water Since ihe bag is not watetproof, some
'ater seepsihrough. Thus,the outsidesu aceof the bag Another colnnlon application of water evapomtion
rcmains moist. Desert conditions are usMlty both hoi refrigeration is the meihod of making artificial snow
and dry Moisture on ihe surface of ihe bag evapomt€s for ski slopes. A snow machine, Figure 3,3, consisrs
rapidly. of a water nozzle inio which a high-pressurejet of air

1 5 0p s i


100psi W
tigure 3-3. A waterkompressed
ai nozzle is usedfor makingartificial snow.
ChapterI BasicRelfigefaton Systenrs 105

is inseried. Water (dark green) flor.s irom the nozzle.

The air (green stripe) under high pressure causesthe
water to brcak up into tinv droplets. The droplets are
similar to a fog. The surrounding air ternperatutemust
be near freezint or belo\a.freezingfor sno\a'to form. The
.lroplets of water will tend to evaporateand rapidlv
cool. At this point, tinv drops of ice are fomed.
Using this meihod, artificial sno\a can be made
r,hen the iemperaiure of the surounding air tempera-
iure is 32'F (0"C) or lorver. In lorv trurni"dity,art#ictal
snow can be made ufien the temperatureis as high as
3,1'F(1'C).This is possiblebecauseof rhe rapid evapora-
tion and cvaporativecoolingcausedby the lor",.humidity.
AroLa e Jrnpe.levrnord \e,ooli.q.,rnFVap-
orative cor'rdenserEvapoiative concler.rsers are olten
used in connectlo with air condltioners.SeeChaprer 13.
The evapofationoi waier helps cool ih€ condenser.

3.4 Compression
T11eloru-sidefloat rcfrigerc t co trol systen was
oiten used in early refrigeraiint mechanisns.Ii is also
known as a /oo,led syste',r.
Figure 3-4 is a schematicdiagam oi this svsiem.
l i q L r i or e f r i c e - d n rl ^ \ ' l r . r r L l r el i q u i d r e c L i \ e r
through the liquid line. It continuesto florv up to the
1o$.side float needle.Thc evnporaiorin this svsterncon
- r - t -o l . i r ' _ F dl . ' r r , e \a p . " do r ' | 1 e i d r l , o n . d i r .n
float and needlccontrcl. Thes€maintain a constantl€vel
of liquid reirigerani under a lo\a'side pressure.
This refrigerant,sinceit is a liquid on the low side,
is at a lo$' temperature.The cold liquid rcftigerant {'i11
absorbmuch heat in both thc on and the off cvcles.
\"pol|,,rd refrite-drl 'no\e. lhrouBl. \e -u,rion
(\'apor) line to the compressor.Thereit i! compressedto
a high pressureand dischargedinto the condenserIt is
coole.l b], ihe condenser,reiurns to a hquid and flolvs
inio the liquid receiver.The operationcontinuesuntil ihe
ctesiredlo .temperature is reached.
The pressureon the lorv side in a flooded system
such as this will vary 'ith the temperature.The higher
the t€mperature,th€ higher the lovr'side pressure.
The sysie shown in Figure 3-4useea pressuremo-
tor.onirol. A springloaded pressure-sersiiivedevice is Motoru Lqud
Compressor Re.erver
locatedon the suction line or on the evaporaior.Ii acti-
vaies a motor coltrd slvitch. As ihe moior drives the
compressor,the pressureand ienperaiur€ in the evapo-
rator will be reduced.At a given pressuresetting, the
notor compressor'!vi11stop.
When the pressurein the evaporatorrisesto a level
correspondingto a presei retuigeraniiemperaiure,ihe rigure 3-4. Co,rpreirton stsl€nl usinEla$,-sidefloat
cvclc will repeat.The motor compressoi1\dll then start
The cabriet ternperaturc may be controlled bv This refrigerating cycle is useful \'!l'Lena consiant
the ternperature control swiich. ln ihis cas€, the temperature is dcsired. lt is often used otl drinking
temperature-sensitive element ma]' be ,rlamped to the fountains ard other installations requiring a constant
fins on the evaporaior.
106 M o . l € r nR e r g
r e r a t i o n n dA r C o n d i t i o n i n g

The pressuresdo notbalanceon the offcycle.There_

fore, it is nec€ssarvto use a motor r4rich will start r'ln 3.5 External-Drive(Open)
d c r I l o . , d .q r c h - n . e n r e . . irr e . r r d t l . L r r - S e Refrigerating
rei|gerc I ! .drge.Thl, . opcru.e.he-er. liquid -errig
erant.in both.fie lictuid receiverand in the evaporatoi Ii thpr\ t, m al-rlrire sUs!c,r.rl-, .orpre.- * i. L:r _
AIl flooded svstemsare quite efficient.Coli, liquid allv belt-driven from an electricmoior. The speedoI ihe
r r. r r q en n t \ \ a l - t h r L \ d p o r d t o.rJ r compressoris usualv considerably1essthari the speed
., llert lre.rlIr,] 51p. he,< -\-tpm- "rre .e- Fr,.\rJinge\_
ea.r lo -er\.\e. oi the motor. A small pr ley is used on the motor +aft.
The floai needle and searnust be kepi in gooo cond1, A larger pulley (flywheel) is used on the compressor
iion to avoid possibleflooding of the jo . srcie. s h " r . v h r . e a r l \ r e l i g c r a .. g . r . t e r n . w e r r t i i e ! t r -
SureJ-5lllustratcs ajr opcn system.



figure 3-5. Compreriionrystemu5hg exter].il-drivelapen).om/essor. A erankshaftsealis requireLlat he place

\\here crankshaftextendsthtuuEh.nnkcase of the can)pressor.
Chapter3 BJsicRetriger.ton Systems

The liquid refrigerant (dark red), und€r high pres

s re, flor{,sthrough the ih€rmostaticexpansionvalve. It
thenentersthe evaporatorh'hereii is under lo\ . pressrre.
It boils, vapodzes,and absorbsheat in ihe evaporaior.
lvhen the comprcssoris running, the vapodzed ie-
ftigerant (lighi blue) is drawn ihrough the suctioi line
and hto the compressorThe refrigerantis compresseLl
io a high pressure(1ight red) before beinB discharged

]n the condenser,the (vaporized refrigerano

gives up its latcni heat of vapoiization. It ls cooled,and
r€tums to a liquid (dark red). Fron here,the cvcleis re
A ihermostatic bulb moior contfol is sho\,{n.Thc
startingmechanismon €xtemal-drive(open)svstemmo
tors is usuallv buili into the motor.
An external-drivesvsien requiresa crankshaftscal
on the conpressor.The motor anclthe compressordrive
are at atmosphericpressure.Thc pressure inside the
crankcasewill vary depending on the reirigerant used
and iha temperaiure.Sometimesit may bc considerably
aboveahnosphedcpressure,at other tines, ii may be be-
l \'. Refrigerantvapor cannotbe allolved io Ilow ort or
air to ilor{'into the crankcase.Eitherr,,.ouldquicklv ruir1
the operahon.

3.6 CompressionSystemUsing Lne ,-____-__.:::::::::-

tloat Refrigerant
The hiEihside float systemis a flooded system.The
eyaporatoris always fi11ed .ith liquid refrigerant.
Figure 3-6 is a schematicdiagrarn of a hiSh side
float refrigerantcontrol sysiem.As the compressorruns,
refrigerantfrom the cond€nserflo$,s into the high side

When enough liquid refrigera t has eniered the

hiSh si.le float mechanism,it raisesthe float ball- The re-
frigerant will then begin to flow through the conirol io
the e!,aporator The evaporatoris under lorv pressure.
Therefore,the iubing connectingthe high side float and
the e\.aporatorshould be insulaied.A capillary tubc re-
friterant line is ftequentl"vused.
lf a different size line is used, it should have a
weight valve at the evaporator.This preventsthe reftig-
erantftom €vaporatingin the connectintline. Figure 3-6 systentusing hi{h .i.1efloat
tigure 3-6. C'oDrpresrion
shorvsa weight valve n the connecihg line.
Refrigerantent€ring the e\.aporatoris under low
pressure(dark blue). It h'ill rapidllr evaPorate(boil) al1d
absorbheai frcm the evaporator. Either a temperaiure or a pressuremotor control
The vapor (light blue) then florvs thiough the suc- maybe used on this refrigerationc),cle.Figur€ 3-6 shoh's
iion 1lne to the compressor.There it is conpressed a temperaturemotor control located h the refrigerated
(squeezed)to the high side pressure(1ightred). In the
condcnser,the heat absorbedin the evaporator is re This systcn is most useclnr commercialapplica
noved. The retuigcranijs reiurned b the liquid siate tionswherehigh opeiathg efficienq' is desired.Itis easy
(dark red). It llo('s into ihe hiEih-sidemechanism .here to service.Ho('evet thc anount of reftigerant charge.t
ihe cycle is repeated. inio ihe systemmust be very accuraiel)rmeasured.
108 Mocrefn
R e i r i S € roanr a n dA i r C o n d i to n n g

3,7 CompressionSystemUsing
h . u p F r ,. . . r u f d n , u t . n . , r . c r . f d r . i . l ^ \ d t \ e
A r v r e l g e r , . . t. o r t r J l r c l : g p r n r g L r . . . n , , r T . !
-,f.h.r in fiture 3-7. Ine.o,nlre..,-
mor.- dro /or_
r e . . F _/ \ . r L r e n '.l p r r i t j a r , . . 1t l , Fb n - , o . h e . . b i n e t .
Liquid refriterant (dark red) flows from the tiquid re
ceiver ihrough the liquid ]ine. It flol\'s through the fitrer
to the auiomatic e\pansion vahe.
Relfigerant can flol{i througtr an AFV onty if the
e\'aporatorpressureis reduced by the compressorrun_
r' q \- llre . q u, , r J t . r g ( . d r n. t. i . -
ll e ,uo e \ J r . - i ^ .\ d l \r . t r r - - p - . r . a r. 'n . o
h . f . , i o r L"). rr ^l i .b 1 . . , ,H e
"l r-'opu\q. o
c. du. tJ od pre*u-"
the refrigerant boils iapidty and absorbsheat.-Thisva_
porized refrigerant (light blue) moves back rc !11ecom
pressorihrough the suciion line.
_ In the compressor,the refrigerantis compressedto
th€ high-sidepressureas vapor (tighi red). Wtrite florn,
ng through the condenser,it is cooled.The refrigerant
gives up th€ heai ihat it absorbedin the evdporarorano
returns to a liquid (dark red). It then flo{,s into ihe liq_
uici receiverreadv to repeai the cycle.
The nlotor control ihermal elemeni is ctamped ro
the end of the elaporator. This is tocatedat the begin
ning oI the suction line. Aft€r the evapotatoris coolecl
to jts proper ternperature,the control bulb pressure
causesthe ,notor control to tlrn off ihe current to the
drivhg motor. The compressoris stopped.
The operating characterisiicsoa ihis svstem are
qnite satisfactor.,:The r€frigerantoil is circulaied ,ith-
out troubl€. Th. tenperature control hniis can atso be
kept qriite clos€.
This i,vpe of refrigeration cvcle is used r,{jdety in
- r ' d l l, o n - * e c a l . . p f ' . . 1 ii,. - r n . eL . r p - F - ,r r F -J .
-^ b.,l r.eon \eoff,\. (.rl.r rro^ ..mpre.\,,
slart h hile underload.
A fault)' needleor seai in the etpansion vah,e (,'itl
allorv refrig€rantto leak in the off cycle.Liquid refriger-
ant mav flow inio ihe suction line. lvhen the compres
' starts,this rLill be indicatedby irosthg-of ihe suction
r".5 rc .' p-oblFrr . , , i d e r r i l F ' .t e r
tering the compressorthrough ihe suctior line. This mav
cansethe compressorto knock severel)..
Motor Receiver

3.8 Compression
Figurc3-7. Camprcssionsystemusingautomatic
expansianvalve (AEV)reiigetant cantrcl.
A schematic.liagranl oi a thernrostaticallycon
irolled expansion valve ITEV) retiigeraiion cycle is
shown in Figure 3-8. This systemis used on large com- The liquid refrigerant(dark red) florvs from the liq
mercial refrigeratorsas .ell as on nan\, air condition uid receiverthrough the liquid line. It llows to the iilter
ing applications. drier and to the themostatic expansionlahe.
C h a p t € ' l B a s i cR e i r i g e r o
anl Systems 109

must be hither than the evapotator refdgerant tem,

perature before the valve w'ill open. The amount of
opening will be governed by the temperature of the
evaporatoxIf the evaporaioris quite r{arn'\,ihe neeclle
will open quite rvide. This a11owsa rapid flort of liquid
(dark blue) into the evaporaior.In this mannet cooling
is speededup. As the temperature of ihe evaporaior
drops, the TEV needlevalve r'ill decreasethe reftiger,

l.u!Dre\!ure r\rpor/cdr refrigerdnt'lig i btue

lronl ihe evaporatormoves back into the conpressor.
There ii is compressedback to the high-side pressure
(light red). As it f-iowsthrough the condenser,ihe refrig-
erani givesup the heat absorbedin the evaporaior.Now
cooled, the reftigerani is condensedto a liquid (dark
-Fd) To$ - b".l ro re ..ourdnre vF'. I re rernEer
ating cycleis then repeated.
When the evaporatorreachesthe desirecltempera-
ttue, the rnoior contrcI ,illturn off current to ihe motor
and stop ihe compressor.When this happens,the TEV
needle vah/e !vi1l close.No more refrigerant !{i11flo$.
through it until the compressoragain lo$.ers the pres-
sure in the evaporator
Pressuresdo not balanceon the off cycle.Therefor€,
it is necessaryto provide a motor compressor\'!'hich\,vill
start undef load.
The TEV conirol remains closeduniess the evapo-
raior is under redricedpressureand the temperatureis
abo\-enonnal. A leaking valve will usuall)' be indicated
by a frosted or slveatingsuction line.

3.9 Compression SystemUsing

The capillary t be sltste-, shorvn in Figure 3-9, is
one of the most popular compression-t)'pe sysiems.This
si/stem is commonly used in household refrigerators,
fteezers,air conditioners,dehumidifiers,and small com-
mercial applications.
Liquid refrigerant (dark red) florvs from rhe .on-
denserup throuSh the liquid line. lt ihen flows ihrough
ihe filter (b'hich mav also be a drier). From ihe filier,
iefrigerant flows through ihe capillar), tube rcftiger'
,rt .o-rro ro thF e\.por.to-. Tl-e lr.IuiC rearger-
Compressor F e . ev e r ant, entering ihe capillary tube at the filter end, is
. r n I ' i 8 h p r e - . u r el d I ' d . r l i - i - r l ' \ . d h
pressure side. The pressure in the evaporator is

The capillary tube is ctesignedso that it rnaintains

a pressuredilferencervhile the compressoris operating.
The compressormaintains a los' pressurein the el'apo-
Figure3-8. Conpress;orsysienrusing thenlostatically raior The refrigerantboils, rapid\' absorbinilheat. The
con olled expansianvalve ITEV). vapodzed refrigerant (light blue) moves ihrough the
suction line back to ihe conpressor Here it is com
The operation of the thermostaiicelpansion valve pressedto a high pressureand dischargedrnb the con-
is controlleclblr ha'o condifions.Theseare the tempera- denser(light red). The i'apoiized refrigerantis cooled in
ture oi the TEV control bulb and the piessure in the the condenserand returns to a liquid (dark red). It again
e1'aporator.The temperaturc of the TEV control bulb flora.sirto the liquid line.
l0 M o d e f r R e r g e r a t i o n n dA . C o i d i t i o n i i s

motor ..ntrol mechanism.It tums off power to the nro_

to-. I te rei gerrr:nnc\.le -tuD..lt \,ril . r .r -!opper
LJ'rillhe,l-errul Jf. Tl , rle. rdt b, t-
pressure\,!'r11 ctosethe motor control contactsto again
operdia_ 5c . o-1orP-.^r. Thi. r pe or , v. r .- .tlrii. -)h,
arron lur mo.t re - !( rdr,rg .ppli.a..un,.
I n t h eo l l . v c l e .t h e c n p i l l " r I L r o e. ^ h \ l h r p r - .
sures tLrbalanc€behr.eenthe high and lo1r,sides.It is
not usualty n€cessart rhen, to uae a moioNith a high
starting torque.

3.10 MultipleEvaporator
_Somecommerciatrefrigerating svsteDrshave one
conclensnt unit connectedto h{o or rnore evaporarors,
Figur€ 3-10.Muliiple (ha'oor more) evaporarorretuig-
eration systemsare commonly used in commerclatre
trrgemiion applications.
Liquid refrlgerant(dark red) flo$.srhfough the ther,
mostatic erpansion valves to the evaporators. The
evaporatorcmay have identical or differeni el,aporator

lf ihe €vaporator temperaturesare identical, the

systen usesonlv a lo$',siL]efloat or the TEV to control
the refrigerant. If h{o or more €\,aporating iempera-
iures are desired (a frozen foods temperature and a
h . , t e Lr ' o o g [ o ' e . , m p e , . n d e ' r (j.r u . l
o e u - e d t o \ . e p . , n eo t t h e e \ d p o r . , u r - ; r i
" oh..
lor.side pressure. Look at the lchematrc slown rn
Figure 3-10. A t('o-temperature vah,e in rne suctron
line (upper-left)keepsthe lolt. side pressureieftigerani
liquid (dark blu€) ancl vapor (light btue) in evaporator
B at a higher pressure ihan at evaporabr A. The
evaporaioriemperatureis govemed bv the evaporaiing
pressure.The lor{'er the pressure,the lower ihe tem-

A checkvalve is locatedin ihe suction line coning

from the colder evaporator,A. It pre!,entsthe $.arme;
h r g L e rp e . - u r e' o h ' - i d e\ . p o | l i g . r L b u e r c r r
r g t h - , o l d e re . n p u -r l o r q . d u n n g t h e . f f , \ . r .
The \.prn,,ed retrigeJi,r lrtht btLe, r- qh -ned
to the motor con'\pressor.It becomesa high-pressure
and high-temperaturevapor (light red). This vapor is
cooled in the condenser becoming a high-pressure
liquid (dark red) to be stored in the receiver until

Note the filter drier on the liquid lnre. li keepsthe

refrigerantcleanand dr!'.
A s8i,fglass (liquid indicaior) is often inctuded in
the liquic:tline. The techniciannlay use it to seeif there
is enough refrigerani in the svstern.Bubblest'!'ill inllj,
catea refrigerantshortage.This svstem,as shorrn, r]ses
Figure3-9. C.,/rpfessionsystemusingcapillarytube a pressuremotorcontrol. The operatingpressurers taken
lionl the low side of the svsiem.
A line from ihe hith pressureside also enicrs ihe
This operationcontinuesuntil the thermal elenent moior control. This operatesa safetydevi.e rvhich stops
has been cooledb a presetlow tenperaiure. When that the motor if the condensingpressure(hjgh side)goestoo
is reached,the themal elementoperatesthe high.
ChapterI Basc ReirigefalionSystems 111

Thermosl.tic Valve

E operates'1t25"F( 4'C)
A operatesatA'F ( 18"C) Evaporatar
Fisure3-10. A muhipleevapot,ttots)'stentEvaporator

3.11 Compound Systems

Refrigerating condenses.The licluid iefrigerant (dark red) floh's into
the liquid receiver ReftigerantvaPor is not condensed
In cornpound refrigeraiing svstems,two ol rnore between compressors.An intercoolerlowers the vaPor
compressorsare connectedin series,Figure 3-11.In this lemperrnr-e. hr- LVpcol.rt 'lla "n u'uall' r, qu're' al'
illustraiion, compressorNo. I clischargesinto the intake oil separaiorfor each compressor'
side of compressorNo. 2. CompressorNo. 2 ihen dis' Froir the liquid receiverthe liquid reftigerant(dark
chargesinio the condenser(light red) Here the vaPor red) flo\,'sup to the thermostaiicexPansionvalve lt then
112 M o d e r nR e f f i g e r o
ant a n dA i r C o n d i t i o n g

Figure3"11. Compoun.J
Chapte,I uis c lt-"irigerilon Systenrs

entersihe evaporator.In the eYaporator(dark blue) the 3.12 Cascade

rcfrigcrant boils and absorbsheat (light bl!e). From rhc
cvapolator,the vaPorizedrefrigerantflo\^,sbackio com In a cascadcrcfrigeratingsvstern,t$,o or more
pressorNo. 1. From here thc cvcleis repeated. refuigcrating
svstemsareconnectedas shownin Figure
A contpoulrd sysrem increases capacity when
3-12. Cascndcsvstemsare often used in industdal
pulling dorvn to exh.cmelvl.r\a.pressurcs(lo$, tempcra-
processes.hereobjcctsmusibe cooledto tenperaturcs
tures).A singtecompressor('ould havc diffic!lty rcach- lrelos, 50'F ( 46"C).
ing thescpressures/temperaturcs.
Both systemsoperateat the sarnetime. SystemA
A sif gle-iempelatulc motor control opcr.res all (on the right) has its eYapofator,A, (heat absorbingpari)
tnoiors.A ihermostaticexpansionvalve controisthe liq-
arr.nged to cool the condenserB for ihe systemB. The
uid reffigerantflo!\. into thc c\ aporaior cYaporabr for systern B slrpplies the coolhg effect
The prcssurcs Llo not balance on thc off cvcle. desired.EachsvsteDrhasa thermostaticexpansio. vah.e
Therefore,motors capablc of starting under load are (IFV) for refrigerantconirol.
The lorv-pressureliquid (dark blue) of s),stcm A
Compound installations uslLallv opcraie under coolsthe hjgh-pressurevapor (light red) of svstemB.
rather heavv service requirements. Conclensersand On€ motorcorltrol is uscd forboih moiors.Itis con-
reliigerant nrust be kept c1ean.Compressorvahcs musi nectedto a tcmperature-scnsjng bulb on e|aporator B.
be kept in good condition.



Figure3-12. ans.ade relr8crnrnrgsy5lenl

114 M o d c r nR e i .s e r a t i o na n dA r C o n d i t i o n i r g

Motors used_onaascadeslrstemsmust be capable maintainedbv the motor conirol.It startsihe moiorcom

oi starting under load. Wiih the use of therlLosraacex_ pressorwhen cooling (heatremoval)is reqr.tired.It shurs
panslon valves/the pressuresdo not balanceon the off rff n, -n,,n r. ihe de.ireJ rFn-peraturp r: iearteo
cvcle. Ho\"!er. iI r]-ehe,ttlo.L1 ) irqhr ,l.t- L.1di, .v*
T \ " c u n o e - - . r F \ a p o r ' t o. - u r u a .f J r t h e . 1 c 1 , tem may be overcapacltyfor fie job. The operafing ex_
and-tubefloodedevaporatori\,pe. penseis.greaterihan if the machinecapacitvlnore easily
-rrr^ it.F-..\-.;r. oo., ie .erv tor.ren-por matchedthe neected1oacl.The sysierntenos !o coor roo
r u r e c . r n Lr e l r d e r r n tI n u n b , \ F "r r\ d n . A . r y r n o i . tr r e tast and tuin on and off too quickly.
., ou d rondr''-e dr tlrFnecdiF-ent of .re_lE\ nno -top
A n ' u d u ' d f i | |\ 8d r \ i n g . n p . i i . - v - e I l h a . b e e n
the refrigerant
_ilo\{rSystemB must haYespecjalre6.ig: d F \ a ^ t e ot o . r i L r h F r r r . h i r; ;dc, , i m o L c r o . q , ) . oc
erant oll ($'ax-free,moisture-free,and the abilitv to flo; neededheat load. This is sometine; done by using two
al extra 10 r temPeratures). or more compressoFconnectedin parallel. Each com_
Oil separators shouid be instaled in the com- pressor1soperaieciby a motor controi.
pressor-ioconclenserlines on both of thesecondensnlt the heatload increasesand the tenperatlue starts
units. This r\,ill help keep the oit h itre corrpressors. .If
io nse/ one compressorwitl still nur. However, if the
temperaiure keeps rising, the seconc{compressorr{jlt
.tnrt Lu
3..13 Modulating
Refrigeration "uer".e. Ad.lr ron .,,mpr,-,or- 1.,) r Jl ... u-_
Cycle hl enoL,ghcapircii) is obrarred.
Figure 3-13illustratesa typicat cyclecl,d8ramror a
Mosl refrigerarioninsralarions have enouth cool modulated installation.Thts inita ation has ihree con,
mg or rehrgerahngcapacityto naintain the desiredrem_ pressors,A pressure control connectedto uLe sucflon
perature un.ler the heaviestload. This temperatureis lines operatesthe motors.The control coniainsa special

c Expansion
va ve


Figure3-13. Madulatingrcfrieeratiancr,clen-ochanism,which usesthreenotar .onpressors.ptessuretnotor contrcl

ts arranqedto aperateone ar tnore compress()rs
as needed_
ChapterI Ba! c ReiriBer:rtion
Synems 115

shitching de\.ice.This rotatesthe serviceof the various flor{s from the bottom of the condenserup through a
conpressors.Each compressorwill be used aboui the filier drier. It entersthe evaporatorthrouth a capillarv
sarnearnolrni of time. The nodulaiing cvcle maintains tube. The evaporabr sunounds the inverted (upside,
unifoin ternperaturesand operateseconomicallv dor,{n)ice cube molds.
Any conventionalreirigerant control can be used, From ihe evaporator,the refrigerant vapor (light
H u w e \ F rt h e . r e m o . t . i i . e \ p n n n . n \ l r p , . r o , L . o n blue) flows into an accumulator. This container has
mon tvpe. a coil from the liquid refrigerant line in ii or around
The same condenserand liquid receiver may be it. Such an a angement serves as a heat exchanger
used by all the compressors,or each mav have its own The refrigerant vapor (light blrie) is drawn trom ihe
condenserand receiver.The same evaporator is corl accumulator back to the compressor.Here it is com-
nectedto all the compressors. pressedup to the high-side pressllle (lighi rcd). It is
A modulating systen may use a nultiple cylinder forced inio ihe condenser-From here the cvcle is
cornpressor. Eachcvlinder is equipped$'ith an unloader
device.Vadablespeednotors are also used to provide The mechanismwhich makes and handles the ice
a modulateclrefrigefationcapacity. is also shown. Cold rvater is sprayed into the in1'erted
ice cube molds. The iemperature of the molcls is very
lor'. Water striking the molds freezesto the nrold sur-
3.14 lceMaker face.lt gaduallv builds up urliil conplete ice cubesare
formed. Next, an electricheatint unit heatsthe ice cube
Ice makers rise various i)rpes of refrigerating s)'s molds until ihe cubesfall out. They slide do\.n a chute
iems. Note in the snnple ice making unit, Figure 3-14, into the ice cube bin. Then the reftiterating cvcle is
the motor compressorand condenserare usually locaied stopped.Mosi sudacesin coniacir,l'ithwater and ice are
in the bottom of the cabinet.Liquid refrigerant(darkred) staiiless steelfor cleanliness.

lnvertedce Cubel,lold


Motor condenser

Figure3-14. ln at1ice maker,watetis sptayedintoice cubemoldsto produceclearice cubes

116 N,1o.lern
and A r Conditioning

3.15 DrinkingWaterCooler From ihe evaporatot the relrigerantl,apor goesinio

an accumulatoi in the suciion line. The accumulator
ivaier cooler is a specialuse of a retuigerating stops anv liquid refrigerant from rlor{nlg into the suc-
mechanism.It is used to cool r,ater ,,ontap,, at ; drink lior line and or into the orotorcon pre.5or
i-t founlair. l l^eJ:Lrrll?pmrcir airtrsl.r;.on-pres-o. From the accumulatot the vapor is dra ,n nto the
relfrge-.rttng:L-lem i. L,eC T\e rpfrigpranr (ontr^l . d motor compressorh'here it is pumped into ihe con,
capillary tub€ A schematicof a drinkiing warer system denser(light red). Here the heat picked up in the evapo
is sho 'n in Figure 3-15. rator is released.Mean!!'hi]e,the refrigerrnt returns to a
Liquid reftigeraniflor\.sfrom the bottom of the con liquicl and collectsnl ihe bottom of ttrl contlenser.From
d€nserlhrough the liquid line. It flor\,srhrorgh a filter here,the cvcle is repeated.
drier (dark red) and inio the capilafy tube. As it flol\,s S - . e r h eo e n e - o . r d r i n ^ l n go u r t d i r i - \ c r i r
mto ihe evaporator,it vaporizesand absorbsheat from regr Jr r. nJ-i hare ,ore "
holo-oie c.pd.ih. )tiu i
the evaporator surface (iight blue). The evaporator is mL-t nol over oo Le \dte.. The n..e...n cao..t$ ,
next to or surrounds the ctrinkint water cot or (.ater provided b)' usint eiiher an insulated srorageran( or
large cooling surfacesin the €\,apomtor


Figure3-15. A drinkinBiauntaincaoleclbv a contpression
C h a p t eI E a s c R € f, g ea t o n S y n e m s 117

To increase ihe mechanism's efficiency, ihe waste of refrigerated or {rozen {oods. Basically, an expendable
(rater flows down a tube alongsideor att;ched to the refiigerant reftigerating system is a heavily insulated
frcsh water inlet. In ihis way, the warmer fr€sh water space. It may be cooled by bein8 sur:rounded by tubes
(water-in) is cooled by the cooler waste water leavint canying evaporatingliquid niaogen.Another meihod of
the fountain. cooling consists of spraying liquid nitrogen directly into
A water pressure regulator adjusts the water flow the space to be cooled. In a\y eyent, an eryeflilable
The condensing unit is aii-cooled. This ensures that the t+igennt svstemis onein which the systemdiscards
fountain can deliver enoughcold water under heavy de- the refrigeiant after it has evaporated.
mand. A condenserfan is used to increasethe condenser Figure 3'15 illustratesthe spmy sysiem.The liquid
capaciiy. The fan is connected into the electdcal circuit. nitrogen (dark rcd), supplied from a cyiinder inside the
It rurc wheae\er the . orden,rnguru. ic runIinS. refrigerated space,is kept under pressure (200psi). Dark
A thermostat with a control bulb is attached to the blue indicates low-pressure liquid refrigerant.
water-dispensing iube. It maintains the desired d rking The pressurized cylinder is insulated. However,
water temperaiurc in the forntain. Water leaving ihe an automatic pressure relief vah'e will open as a
founiain should be at approximately50oF(10t). safety measure,if necessarlrIt would allow the niiro-
gen vapor to escapeshould pressure exceed the re-
lief valve seiiint. Heat sunounding the cylinder may
3.16 Expendable cause the vapor pressure to rise above the automatic
Refrigerant pressure releasesetting. Cold nitrogen vapor is then
5ystem released by the automatic pressue release valve. It
is discharged into the rcfrigerated space or into the
This simple system, sometimes called chemical refrigeratinS tubes, depending on the system being
refriSeratioll or opeft-cy.le refrigeration, is becorri\g n-
creasinglypopular. Ii is used on trucks and other ve- A temperature-sensint element, control box, and
hicles in the transpoiiaiion industry and in the storage liquid control valve, control the flow of liquid nitrogen


Figure3-16. Expendable reftigeration

rcfrigerant system
118 Mod€fn Retrgerationand A r Condirioning

ftom the nozzles.They maintain the desired tempera- A thermostatinsidethe relrigerated

tures inside the refrigeratedspace. the current flow through the transformer-rectifier.The
Liquid dtrogen (dark rcd) vaporizes 6oi1s and iranstormer rectifier supplies a conilolled dc curenr ro
turns rnto a gas) at a temperatureof 320"F( 196.C) the modules.In this mannet the temperatureinside the
at atmospheric pressure (Figure 1-26). This type of reftigeratoris controlled.
sysiem is excelient for shipping lrczen Ioods. Tem_ There are no moving parts in thermoelectric refrig-
peratrres may be kept as low as desired-usually about emiion. Aside ftom the conshrciion of the modules, it
is quife simple. Tlermal elficiencyis low The amount
Simple conshrction such as rhis demandslitrle at- of refrigerating effect obtained for rhe etecrdcat energy
tFntion.O.. j.io rall\. it ma\ be neces<drv to repla(eor spent is less than wiih a conventionalcompressor-t'?e
re.l_argethe nrtrogen-torage()Lnder Ano.he-ddvan- refri8erationsvstem.
tage to ihis system is its ability to operaie without a Reversing the direction of the flow of cunent
powen source. Safety devices in spaces relrigerated by through a thermoelectric device reverses the hot and
liquid nitroger shui off the flow of nitrogen when a pei- cold surfaces.Thus,the samedevicecanbeused for both
:on open- d door !o ihe soace.SeeChapter t8. heating and cooling an insulatedspace.
qro,he/ form of e\pendrblc refriterdnlrefrigera- A thermoelectricdevice has been used in the air
troi 'yc(emi. ndtu-alga. -hrppedir liqurdio m in l.rBe conditioninS and heaiing of iuclear submarines.The
t.rker <hips \r,ural gas.wlJ.h is d tiquid ,"."' pr;,- thermoelectricdevice is also often used to control tem-
sure, will evaporate.Some of the gas is allowed to peraturesin electronicequipmeni (computers,aerospace
evaporate.This evaporative cooling maintains the re-
maining naiumi gas in liquid form. The evaporated Refer to Chapter 18 ior further technicalinforma-
natural gas is then ducted to the tanker enginea.There tion concening thermoeiecilicrefrigerationand air con,
it is bumed to provide power to drive the tanker. ditioning devices.

3.17 Thermoelectric
Refrigeration 3.18 Dry lce Refrigeration
The physicai principle (Peliier effect),upon which Dry ice is solld carbon dioxide. It may be pressed
ihermoelectricrefrigeration is based, has been known into various sizesand shapes,blocks,or slabs.As it ab,
si^ce 7834. Thermoelecbic ftffige/ation transfers heat sorbsheat, it changesdirectly ftom a solid to a vapor. It
energy lrom one place to another usirg electrcns raiher does not go thrcuth ihe liquid state.This changeftom
than refrigerants. solid to vapor is calledsrbllftirfio . At atmosphericpres-
Figur€ 3-17A represents a simple thermoelectric sure..oud Ldrbondio\;de \apori,/e"ir l0o F /-78ocr
couple.The couplemoves heat from the inside of an in- Figure 3-18A illusirates a common method of us-
sulaied spaceio a heat exchanter.The heat exchangeris int dry ice as a Irozen food refritenting device.Dry ice
locaied on the outside. Electrons,rather than refriter- (aqua) is usually packed either besideor on top of the
ants, carry away the heat. food packages.Carbon dioxide, as it changesto a vapor,
Fins on the evaporator(dark blue) increasethe heat keeps ihe food {rozen. The dry vapor tends to replace
flow' Fins on the outsideof the heai exchanger(dark red) the aii in ihe coniaineror cabinet.This helps to preserve
help Bive off the heai to the surroundint air. the food.
Se icotrdllctors arc maierials that conduct electdc- Adevice hasbeendevelopedwhich usesdry ice for
it\t bui not as well as typical metals.They may be made refrigeratin8 matedals car ed on aircraft. See Figure
from elementssuch as silicon, germanium, or a combi 3-188. A closed refrigemting circuit is connectedto an
nation oI elements.Semiconductonmaybe processedso evaporatorin the spaceio be refrigerated.It also con-
t]natN-type senicond ctols conduct eleciricity by ihe nectsto a condenserlocatedin an insulatedbin. The bin
flow of negativelychargedparticles(usually elecirons). holds dry ice pellets.The circuit containsa common re
Others, called P-type senico\ductors, condtct electric- rngeranr.
ity by the flow of positively charged particles (often The condenseropentes at a very low tempemture
called "holes" or electronholes). (-109'F or -78'C). This causesreftigerant 1'aporenter-
Figure 3-17A shows current beint forced to flow int the condenserto condensequickly to a liquid. The
ftoma P-q?e materialinto an N-typematerial.The junc- liquid retuigerant flows by gravity inio the evaporator.
tion where N and P are conneciedabsorbsheai. The op- There.it absorbsheat as it vaporizesand flows upward
posite ends become hot and give off heat. This is the inlo the cordenser. frorr l^erelhe c) ( le ir repciled.
Peltier effect, A single junction produces only a small A thermostaticallyoperaied control valve controls
cooling effect. Therefore,several N-P paired junctions ihe flow of refrigerantinto the evaporator.it is locaiedin
are connectedin sedes io produce significant coolint. ihe liquid line. This deviceis illustmted in Figure 3-188,
SeeFigure 3-178.Groups of modulesmay be connected Dry ice is usually stored in heavily insulated cabi-
together in paralel to increase the capacity sti1l turther. nets. Nev€r handle it with bare hands.lt will caus€in-
(Chapier 5 lor se es-parallelconnections.) stant fr€ez€ burns.Alwayswear heavygloves.
Chapter3 BasicRelriBelation
Systems 119






Figure 3-17. A'_Diagram of simple thermoelectric couple, used for refrigeratin7 an insulated space. Heat absorbed by
thirmoelecttic couple is released to outside by fins attachedto heatradiating suiace (heat sink). B Thermoelectric
noclute cooling device. Three couples ate connected in seriesto increase heat absobing effect. Electrcns flow into
120 Modern ReiriSernt
on and Air Condlton ng

- : : . . . - - - . .
D r yl c eB n

Figure3-18. A Dr), i(e hazen foad containet.B-A dty ice reirigetatatdoesnot requle a canpressor.

3,19 Intermittent System Acondenset ai the top of the svstem,condensesthe
ammonia vapor into a lquid. The lilluid flows by grav-
ll_ei l, fln.tlen.cb-orpliur -\..em u-e- c 8e1e-d ity into ihe liquid receiverand then into the evaPorator.
tor charsed lvith water and ammonia. A heat source, Dudng the tenerating cycle,little or no refri8eratingef-
usually a keroseneflame, heatsihis solution in the gen_ fect is taking place. As the system cools, the Pressure
erator.The anmonia is laporiz€d and is driven off drops, causingthe liquid ammonia ln ihe evaPoratorto
Chapter3 BasicRefrigeration 121

boil and absorb heat. The cvcle is completed when va- When the kercsene has all been bumed (us11-
porized ammonia is reabsorbedin the genemtor ally from 20 to 40 minuies), the generating cycle
Figure 3-19A illusirates the genefating cycle. In op- ends. Th€ rcfrifration cycle now begins. See Figure
eraiior! the kercsene burner tank is filled with just 3-198.
enough kerosene for one cycle. This cycle is usually once Thepressureir the systemdrops as the water cools
a day. The burner is filled and lighted. It heats the wa- and absorbsammonia vapor. Liquid ammonia (dark
ter and ammonia mixture (reddish-brown) in the qen blue) flows into ihe evaporator,beginslo evapomte,arld
erdior lhe dmnonid \apor rlighl reddi'h-brownri. cools it. Evaporatedammonia (light blue) flows back
ddven off through ihe tube, A, up to the condenser, C. throrgh the tube, B. It is againabsorbedby the wat€r in
There ihe ammonia gas is cooled and condensed to liq- the tenerator. Refrigerationcontinues,usually until the
uid ammonia (redt. Ihe liquid flohs inio ihe receiver. next firing of the kerosenebumer


Figure3-,f9A. lntermittentabsorptionsystemduring itsgenentinTcycle. Thesystemis underhiqh, or condensinS,

122 Modenr Refr!8crat
oi .ind Air CondltionnE


Ahhonravapor TubeB


cycle. The systenisundet law, ot rcfrige?tinS,

Figure3-198. lnten ittent absaetion systendurin7 itsrefrie,etating

This type of retrigeratint sysiemis quite simPle.The This heat is funished b)' tas, electdcitv or kerosene.No
piplng is h'eldedsteelbecausethe pressureson the Sener- movnrg parts are emplo)'ed.The operaiion of the retuig-
ating cyclearequite high. TherefriteratinSability is quite erating nechanisrn is based on Dalion's La{,. SeeSec
good.Keioseneflame heaiedabsorptionrefriteratorsare tion 1.34. This reftiterating device is widely used nt
popular in areaslvhereelectricpower js not available. doriestic refrigeratorsand recreationYehicles.It is also
used ir year-aroundair condiiioning ofboth homesand
larger buildings. Modem absorPiions)'stems.re illus-
3.20 Continuous-Cycle traied h Chapt€r 17.
System The unit consistsof four main parts the boiler,
condenser,evaporator,ard absorber.SeeFigure 3-20.
Thecontinuous-cycle absorptioncoolingunit is oP- When the unit operateson keroseneor gas, the
eratedby the applicaiionof a limiied amorintof heat heat is supplied by a burn€r. This element is fitted
C h a p t c Ir B a s i cR e t r i g e roafl S y s l e m s



Figure3-20. A continuaus-cycleabsorptionsystetn.(ElectroluxAB)

underncdth th€ central tube (A). lvhen operating on afe produced.Thei' rise and carry h'ith then quantilies
electri. _v,rhe heit is supplied b]' an element inserted oi r,eak ammonia soluiion throtgh the siphon pump
in the pocket (B). (C).This h'eak in ammorliasolution passesinto tube (D),
The unit chargeconsistsof a .Nantitv ol ammonia, $'hi1ethe ammoniavapor passesinto the vapor pjpe lE)
r!'ater and hl'drogen. Theseare ai a sufficient pressure and on to ihe water separator.Here any \,ater Yaporis
to condelse arnnoria at room temperature.When heat condensedand runs back into the boiler system,leav-
. . u p p. . d t " ' e b . i l F - . \ - F . o t r o b l P, f- ' r r n - o
. 'g'' ing the dl,v anll]roniavapor to pass io ihe condenscr.
on andAir Condrioning

Ak circulating over the fins of the condenserte-

noves heat from the ammonia vapor lt condensesinto
liquid amnonia and then flo$'s il1to the evaporator.
T\eer:p. rarnri: -upplied\Litlrl-\d-oBpr Tl-Fl.)-
drogen passesacrossthe surfaceof ihe ammonia.It low,
ers the anrnonn vapor pressure enough to allo\,!' the
liquid ammonia to evaporate.The evaporation of the
anmonia extractsheatfrcm ihe evaporator.This,in tum,
extractsheai from ihe food storagespace,lolv'eringthe
temperatureinside the refrigerator.
The mixture of ammonia and hydrcgen vapor
passesfuom the evaporatorto ihe absorbel.A continu,
ous trickle of weak ammonia solution entersthe upper
portion of ihe absoiber.It is fed by gravity from the tube
(D).This weak in amn'roniasolution flo\a.sdown through
ihe absorber.Ii comesinto contacth'ith the rnixed am-
onia and hlrdroten tases.This readily absorbsthe am
monia fron the mixture. The h)rdrogenis free to rise
ihrough ihe absorbercoil and to return to ihe evapora
ior. The hydrogen circulatescontimtouslv bet('een the
absorberand the e\.aporator.
The strong ammoria solution produced in ihe ab-
sorber floh.s do .n to the absorbervessel.lt passeson
to the boiler system,thris completingthe fuII cycleoi op-

This c]'c]e operates coniinuouslv as long as the

boiler is heate.l.A thermostatwhich controls the heat
source regr, aies ihe iernperaiure of ihe reftigerated

Since the refrigerant is amnonia, it can produce

qrite lo\.!'temperatures.Most systemsrecluireelectrical
devices,soboth €iasand electricitymust be supltied. Ex-
cept for the thermostaticconirols and (in some cases)
f:n. th'rp )rp n^ m.vino n,rrc
Serviceis usually quite simple.The burner and
stackmustbekeptclean.Therefrigerator shouldbecare-
fulllr le1'eled
beforebeingplaced operahon.

3.2'l SolidAbsorbent SilverChoride
Vadous kinds of solid absorbentrefri€ieratorshave HealOtf
beendeveloped.All have depencledon the odlina1Fa.a-
In 1824,Michael Faraday tried to liquefy ceriain
"fixed" gases.Theserveregaseswhich certain scientists
b€lieved could exist only ln vapor form. Among them
\\,asamn'\onia,then regardedas a "fixed" gas.
Faradavknew.that sih'er chloride,a lvhite po$'det
could absorb large arl1ou]1tsof amnonia vapor. He
e'po.cC .i rer chlord. o Jr' .,nnr 'ri" \ ,por He
allo .ed ihe poNder to absorball of the vapor it \\.oulct
take. Then he seaied the ammonia-silver chloride Figure3-21. Solid absarbentreii\eratat principle in
colllpound in a test tube s.hicir was shaped like an experin)entdone by MichaelFaraday.A-Faraday
heatedthe silver chloride cotipauDd while cooling the
Farada),then heatedthe end of the tube containing opposheenclof the testtube with water.B When the
the powder (dark red). SeeFigure 3-21A. At the same hp,. anl r ' "' va. 'eao\ c4 'h ittLlid-mnani"
time, he cooled ihe opposite end il'ith r{'ater.The heat npidly changeclta a vapar and was reabsorbedby the
release.lamnonia vapor. Drops of a colorless liquid silver chlaride po\'/der.
Chapter3 Basc ReiigerationSystems 125

soon be8anio appearin the cool end of ihe iube. It was From the high-side service valve (HSV), the com-
liquid ammonia. pressed vapor (light red) enters an oil separator The oil
Faradaycontinu€dthe heating prccessurltil he had which the separator has removed from the high-pressure
enough liquid ammonia for his plrpose. Then, he took refrigemnt is retumed to the compressorcrankcase.
away the heai, removed the cooling water, and watched From the oil separatot the high-pressure vapor en-
the newly discovered substance. ters the condenser, The condenset has a head pressure
Moments later, Faraday saw somerhing unusual. control When head pressure gets too high, ii shurs off
The liquid ammonia did not remain quietiy in the sealed tne system,
tesi tube. It beganto bubbleand then boil, Figure 3-218. A sewice valve is placed in the line between the
The liquid was mpidly changingback into a vapor The condenser and the liquid rcceiver. The liquid rcceiver is
vapor was being reabsorbed by the powder. a resewoir for iiquid reftigerani (dark red)
When Faradaytouchedthe end of ihe tube contain- Another service vaive is located at ihe outlet of the
ing the boiling liquid, he found it intensely cold. Am- liquid receiver (LRSV). This makes it possible to remove
monia, in changing from liquid to vapor form, had the receiver from the system or siore the refrigerant in
removedheat. It took this heai ftom the nearestthing at the receiverduring serviceoperations.
hand the test tube itself. At one time, many refrigera- The line leaving the liquid receiver is also fiited
tion cycles used this principle. These are not commonly with a vibration dampener This flexible tube stops
used anlmore. However,coolint mechanismshave been cafiy-over of vibration to other parts of the system.
developed on this principle. They use 'ater as the re- As ihe liquid moves on, it passes through a filter
frigerant and lithium bromide or lithium cllloride as the drier which helps keep the refrigerant clean and dry A
absorbent.SeeChapter 17. moisture and liquid indicator allows visual inspection.
It hdicates wh€ther enough refrigerant is flowing. At the
same time, its color indicatespresenceof any moisturc
in ihe refrigerant.
3.22 Sophisticated
Commercial Sometimes the motor compressor overheats. This
Systems can occur when the suction gas temperature is too high.
The liquid desuperheatervalve permits lighi injeciions
Up to now, the compression-iype reftigerating sys- oI refrigerant to flow into the low side oI the system, so
tems described have been quite simple. Differeni condi- ihai the suciion gas is cooled immediaiely.
tions and refrigeration requirements require accessory A manifold wiih hand valves lets the liquid pass
(add-on) devices.Pressurere8ulators,vibration damp- into one of the two evapolators.The refigerant flows
enerc. crankcase heaters, and such make the refrigemt- through a solenoid valve to the top evaporator. This
ing systems more efficient and safer Figur€ 3-22 makes it possible to automatically control the flow into
illustratesa small commercial-typereftigerating system the evaporator,
using a vadety oI accessories. From here, the liquid relriSerant flows into a ther-
Beginnin8 with the evaporator in ihe iop (wamer) mostdhce\prnsion valve.The lhe'm05lafice\paniron
cabinet, refrigerant evaporates (light blue). It llows valve regulates the rate of flow (dark blue) of low-
back throuth the suction line toward the motor com- pressure liquid. Row depends on the iempeiature
pressor. The suciion line then ente$ an evaporator and pressureoI ihe refrigerant as it leaves the evapo-
prcssurc regllator. Fiom there it leads to ihe suction
line accumulator. Any licluid reftigerant which may The secondevaporatoris fitted wiih an elecidcally
come ftom ihe evaporator will stay here and evaporate. operateddeftost control device.when opened,it allows
This prevents it from slu8ging into or entering the hot compressedvapor to enter the evaporator.The va-
compressor. por l]ows back to the compressor without going through
The vapor ihen goes through a suction line Iilter the expansion valve. This heats the evaporator quickly.
drier. The filter-drier iraps any moisture or solid impu Any frost accumulation on ii wifl be quickly melied.
rities, A compressor pressure regulator protects ihe Ahoi gasbypasssolenoidvalve is used to allow hot
compressorftom excessive1o -side prcssurcs. refriterant vapor to enter the suction line. This occurs if
The suction line vapor then enters a vibration the suction line gets too cold and may allow liquid re
dampener. This is a flexible connection on ihe low side ftigerant to enter the comprcssor.
betweenthe motor compressorand the suction line. The This briel description of some of the accessodesand
sensingelementfor the motor compressorcontrol is also their pllrpose may help in understanding the comn-ler-
attached to the suction line. cial systemsas descdbediater in the text.
A suction servicevaive (SSV)is located at the en-
trance to the low side of the motor compressorAlont
with the service valve on the high side, this valve makes
servicing the motor compressor easy, 3.23 Hot-GasDefrost
A crankcase heater keeps refrigerant from iiquefy-
hg in the moior compressor during the off cyde when In the hot gas defrost system,a iiming mechanism
the unit is operatingin a cold spac€. directs hot high-pressure vapor (light red) through the
126 a n dA r C o . d i to n l n g
t l o d e n r R e J8r € r a t l o n



Figure 3'22. Accessorv palis ot this .omn)ercial s)'sten rlake the unit \\ork bettet lt is ]1t' Pa\Pr to t'tvtce

evaporator lts job is b remove frost and ice. Figure a refrigeratorusinEia ihemostatically controlled expan
3-23A sho\^'shoir it op€ratesdurhg th€ refrigeratng
cycle;Figure 3-238 illustratesdefrost cvcle operation. The liquid refrigerant(dark red) flows from the liq-
Two solenoid valves in the refrigerant circuit con dcl recej!'erup through the liquid lilre.lt tra\'€lsthrough
1 i r , - - \ . l e m l L . r J e t ( - m i r , ' \ h e . h le. - P r o \ il c e - solenoidvah'eNo. 1,through ihethermosiaiicexPanslon
ther the refrigeraiing c,vcleor the defrost c,vcle.During \.alve,and into the evaporator lt evaPoraiesurlder lo '
the refrilieratin8cl'cle,as h Figure 3-23A,solenoidvalve pressureancl absorbsheat. Th€ refrigerantretums as a
No. 1 is open. The relrigeratoris operatingnormally for vapor (light blue) first through the accumulatorand ihen
C h a p t elr


Molor Timer
Coniro / Delrost


FiSure3-23. A hot'ga\defrcstsystendurinB the rcfrigeratingcycle.B The clet'r.rst

cycle af a hot gasclefrostsystem.
Thereb a pres\uredrcp tn the evaporatordue ta ice temperaturc.

thJouth the suctionline. It then arives back at the com- solenoid \.alve No. 1 is closed,no liquid retuigerantis
pressor.From the compressorithe hor"compr€ssedvapor flohin8 firough the ihermostaticexpansionvalvc into
(light red) is fofced into ihe condenserThe !'apor's heai the evaporator Sincesolenoidvah'e No. 2 is open, the
is removed,and it is conldensed back into a liquid. hot compressed refligerant vapor (ye]lo ,) floH's
Durnlg the deftost cvcle, Figute 3-238, solenoid through it directlv into the evaporator.It passesthrough
valve No. 1 is closed.Solenoidvah'e No. 2 is open.Since the evaporator, through the accumulator, and back
124 \1o.leri Pci ,B! rt u. rnd a ...d rion,.s

ihrough the suction line to the suction side of the her-

metic (airtight) compressor'.As it passesthrough the Expansior
evaporatot the hot vapor (vello\v)melts the ice from the
The laporized refrigerant (light blue) picks up
someheat passingthrough ihe suciion line. As it passes
through the compressor,the heat of compressronrarses
the temperatureto such a level that it continuesto heat
the evaporatof and remove the ftost. Little or no con-
densation of vaporized refrigerant takes place during
this cycle.

3.24 ElectricDefrost
I e . r . r . I ' e - , g e r e r e r= L ,d . e d d l o r 8 . d - . , c
evapor'atorsurfacesget wamr. Ther melt the Irost and
ice buil.tup ftom ihe evaporator.A iimer or control
mechanismoperatesthe heaterdurinS th€ time that the
refrigeratingnechanisn is ill the off cvc1e.Figure 3-24A
shorvs the refrigerating c)'cle,Fiture 3-248 sho\,{sthe

In Figure 3-244.,the electricheating mechanismis

in the rcfrigeratinSpart of the c,vcle.Liquid refritelant
is ! apodzed 1n th€ evaporator. It absorbs heat ;rld be-
comesa \.apor.While in the evaporator,it floa s throrigh
an accumulatoranclpasseson io the suctionline back io
ihe compressor.h1 ihe compressol-, it is compr'essed to a
high pressureand high iemperaiure,and then flows iiio
the condenser.Here the heat of raporization is removed
and ihe retuigerant rehlms to a liquid flo\^'ing into the
liquid receiver.The cycleis ihen repeaied.
In Figure 3-248, the same svstemis in the defrost
.ycle. The compressoris stopped and the defrost corl-
trol nechanism lets electric current flow through the
resistanceheaungelements(red) alorrgsidethe eyapora-
tor surface.Heat il.arms the evaporaior surfacesuntil
the frosi ard ice are melted. The moisiure empties
inio a drain pan. The drain tubes go to the buildhg

The operation of the resisianceunits is usua11)'

timed. Thev coniiol both the fiequencyand the duration
of the electdcheatnlg.This timingprovides for adequaie
frost rcmoval.The sysienroPeratesmore efficientlv$'ith
little or no lrost on the e(aporator surfaces.

Ll vapor

Figure3"24A. t, e/e.lric dcro,/ s\srernd||ng the

Chaptef:l Basi. Rerrigeral
on Synems 129

3.25 TestYour Knowledge

Pleasedo not write in this text. Placevour answerson a
separatesheetof paper
1. Which systemdoes'ot get its cooling ellectbv tum-
ing a substanceinto a \.apor?
A. Desertbat.
B. lce box.
C. Snow machine.
D. Dry ic€ cabinet.
2. In the low side floai systen of refrigerant control,
H'hen does ihe needlevah'e open?
A. This srsiem has no needlevalve.
B. Wh€n the liquid level in the evaporatorfalls.
C. When the compressorreducespressurein the
D. When the evapontor pressureis 1ow and ihe
temperatureis above nonnal.
3. In the capillary tube system of reftigerani control,
s.hen does the needlevalve open?
A. This systemhas no needlevalr.e.
B. When the liquid level in the e\.apomtor
C. lvhen the compressorrcducespressurein the
D. When the evaporatorpressureis low and the
temperatureis abovenormal.
4- In ihe AEV systern,('hen does the neeLilevalve
A. This slrstemhas no needlevalve.
B. When the liqriid level in the evaporator
C. When the compressorreducespressurein the
D. When the evaporatorPressrireis ]ow and the
temperaiureis above normal.
5. In the TFV system, .hen does the needle valve
A. This systemhas no needlevalve.
B. When the liquid level in the evaporator
C. When ihe compressorrcducespressurein the
[,lo1or D. When the evaporatorpressureis lo$. and the
Corilpressor temperatureis abovenormal.
6. - are most often used inside an iniermittent
Figure3"248. An electri. defrastsystenduring the
defrastcycle. Note that Ihe refri]eratingunit is nat
A. Ammonia and water
tutntnE t\ptetat- !hpt- ,no cLbataq
B. Hydroten and water
C. Lithiun bromide (LjBr) and water
D -il\er.hlu ide'ABCld r n dd m - o r r "
7. A - systemhas tlvo compressorswith an in-
A. cascaderefrigerating
B. compoundrefrigerating
C. modulatingrefritemting
D. multiple evaporator
130 ModernRefrigefation
andAir Condirioning

A- systemhas t('o completesystemslinked 15. Dry ice is betterthan waterice for food shipment
by a combined evaporator/condenser. in manyways.Whichof these"advantages,, is ,?0,
A. cascaderefrigemting
B. compoundrefrigerahng A. Dry ice canabsorbmoreheatthanwaterice.
C nrodulatingrefrigerating B. Dry ice humidifiesfood.
D. nultiple evapomtor C. D-y icekeep-air ahry fromthef.,od.
9. A - systemwould probablybe used for a su- D. Drv ice producesno melt water,
permarketinsiallationthat needsdifferent tempera- 76. In an icebox,ihe refrigeration
wilt be
A. cascaderefrigerating A. s0"F(10.c)
B. compoundreftigerating B. 32.F(0"C)
C. modulatingrefrigerating c. 20"F( 29.C)
D. multiple evaporator D. -50'F ( 46'C)and belo\.
10. A - system sometimesuses only part of its r7. In a$ater cooler,thetefrigerationiemperature$dil
A. cascaderefrigerating A. 50.F(10.C)
B. compoundrefrigerating B. 32"F(0.C)
C. modulatingreftig€rating c. -20'F ( 29"C)
D. multiple evapomtor D. -50'F ( 46'C)and below
1 l Which of the followint characteristics appliesto the 18. In a .d,..dF 5)sren_.
.herefngera, oi) tempe.afure
low side float-type of reftigerant control? r\,illbe about
A. 5\-tem r-corplicated drd hard ro-e-vice. A. 50'F(10"C)
B. Systemis not very efficient. B. 32"F(0.C)
C. Systemrequiresa larte chargeoI reftigerant. c. 20"F( 29'C)
D. Refrigerantchargemustbe carefullymeasured. D. 50"F( 46"C)and below
Which of the following characteristicsapplies to 19. ln a frozenfoodiruck usingliquid nitrogen,therc,
thprm^ala.tri. raf ridor:ri^n2 friger"tiontemper.tureh ill be -
4. S\(remi. corlp caledand hard to:er\i.e A. 50'F(10"C) "bout
R i< n^r rroiw otcrio-r B. 32.F(0"C)
C. Sv-ten'require)a largechargeoi retnger;nt. c. -20'F ( 29'C)
D. Refrigerantchargemust be caretullymeasured. D. 50"F(-46"C) and below
13. What principle is used in the continuous-t'?e ab- 20. Why do most kitchenreftigeratorshavea defrost
sorption refrigerator? cycle?
A. Dalton's Law A. Frostbldldup corodesthe evaporator tubint.
B. The Peltier effect. B. Frosibuildup cansqueeze the tubingclosed.
C. The Faradayeffect. C. Frostbuiidupon evaporator reduces efficiency.
D. The Faradayice buckei p nciple. D. AII of the above.
1 4 wlrich of thesenarnesdoes?]otapply to a food truck
installationthat usesliquid nitrogen?
A. Chemicalrefrigeration.
B. Expendablerefrigerani system.
C. Open-cyclercftigeration-
n aran rcf,idararin- c.4"-

CompressionSystems .............131 COMPRESSION
Compressors. ...,.,...146 MODULE
KeyWords: 4.1 Lawsof Refrigeration
flashgas Scotchyoke
compfessof AI rcftigerating systems depend on five thermal
swasnp ate compregsor
1. Fluids absorb heat while changing ftom a liquid
recrprocatrng volumetricefficiency
state to a vapor state. Ruids give up heat in chang-
ing ftom a vapor to a liqrdd.
LearningObjectives: 2. The temperature at which a change of state occurs
Afterstudyingthischapter, you will be ableto: is consiant during the chanS€, provided the pres-
a Statethefivetherrnallawsrelatingto refrigeration. sure remains constant.
'a Explainthe compression cyclefor a domesticrefrig- 3. Heat t'lows only ftom a body which is at a higher
eTator. temperature to a body which is at a lower tempera-
a Listthe components of a refrigerationcompression iure (hot to cold).
system. 4. Metallic parts of the evaporating and condensing
a Explainthe operationof eachcomponent of a com units use metals that have a high heat conduciivity
pressionsystem. (copper,brass,aluminum).
.() Tracethe flow oi refrigerant
througha completere- 5. H€at energy and other forms of enerSy are inter-
system. changeable. For example, electricity may be con-
a Namethe two typesof motorcontrolsand discuss verted to heat; heat to elecirical energyi and heat to
theiroperationandpurpose. mechanical energy,
a Describethe five principaltypesof refrigerant con-
a Namefour differenttypesof compressors,
a Explainhow compfessors operate. 4,2 Compression
a ldentifythe internalpartsof a compressor
a Follow approvedsafetyprocedures. The compressor changes the rcfrigerant vapor
from low pressure to high pressure during the com-
pression cycle. This pumping transfers heat from the
inside of the cabinet to the outside. The compressor
transfers heai from one place to another, similar to th€

A refrigerating system consists of a hith-prcssure

side and a low-pressure side, FiSure 4-1. A reiriSera-
tion cycie lollows thes€ st€ps: From the iiquid rcceiver,
liquid reftigerant (at high pressure) fiows through the
relriterant control. The rcftigerant contol is a pres-
sure reducer The refriSerant moves into the evaPo-
rator. The evaporator is under a low pressure. Here
the liquid reftigerant vaporizes (boils) and absorbs

1J2 N l o d e r nR c l E ea t i o na n dA i r C o n d i t . J n i n 8

Figwe 4-2. Heatof the vapor contpressed inta a small
spa.e raises\taportentpetaturegreatly.A Volume
\^ \ a l r . n F o t , . L o , . t l - - n 4 a t t h - i t r ) \ o - t t , , L --
8ir t1t,,.t T t-tr:,-. t,ut. ot\-pat.r-nrlol

E inLlke strake = 5A'F (lA'C). B ValLt|',e V2 = the

volun)eaf the vaparat the end oi can)pressionstrcke=
T 1/2 ini (8.2 cr'i). T, = the tenperatureof the vaporat

n the enclof the comptessiansttoke= 25A'F (121'C).

T 4.2.1 Operationof Compression

Figure4-1. Conrpferlloncycle sha\ritig thc twa Figure 4-3 illustratesa tvpical compressioncycleas
side extendstrom r 'eJ in.r dome-lr._efr'grrt -. Tl ,rp.e'-.rry
reiillerant conbol. thtouBhevapatatot,to the paris $'li.h rvi11be explained.
.:om|ressotintal€ valve. HiBh pressLiesi(le be1insin In an)' compressionreftigeration system,there are
.h., \1^d-t bo\F thppt rcn at. l.F o.tptp\\on two different pressureconditions.One is called the loz,
strcke.lt extendsian exhaustvalve,through side and ihe other side is calledthe rigt side.The evapo-
candenset,liquid receiver,and Iiquid line, ta reiri9erant raior is ii the low side.Heat is absorbedin the lorv side.
The accumulator,suction line, and entranceto the com-
prcssorsuction valve are also on the lor\, side.
The condenseris in the hith side.This is where the
heat is releasedfrom the reftig€rant.TI1€compressor€x'
The vapor ihe]l flows into the compressorihrough
haust vaive and liquid rcceilef (if used) are or1the high
ihe intake vah.e an.:tback into the compressorcvlinder.
side. The liquid line filter-drier,liquid 1ine,and ihe re-
On the compressionstroke,ihe piston squeezesthe \.a frigerart corltrol (not shown) are also on the high side.
por into a small space.This increasesihe vapor tempera'
A thermostatmainiains correctoperating tempera-
ture. figure 4-2 illusiraies this principle.
ture by controllinSihe motor elechicalcircr.dt.
The compressedhigh-iemperaturevapor is pushed
through the exhaustvah'e and into ihe condenser.(See 4.2.2 TemperatureandPressure
Figure 4-1.) ln the condenser,heat ftom the refriterant
is passedontothe surroundingair.Ingivingup ihis heat, Cycle
in the Compression
ii reir.trnsio a li.luid. This liquid is storedin the recel\'er. Upon startint the compressof,it moves refrigerant
From here ihe cycleis repeated. m o l p . us - , , n r h i l o ' r - p r F - , . r r-er d e l , re l,rg'-
In operation, the svsten transfers heat from one pressureside. This is done without much difficriltv. The
pLaceto anotherplace.It takesheat from the inside of a molecules are not moving aboui nuch faster. See
refrigeratorto ihe outside air. A water cooler takesheat Figure 4-4A. These moleculesof refuigerantenter the
from the inside waier cooler to the outside air. This is condenserfron the compressorthrough the opening at
similar io ushg a sponge.Water is picked up in one 1. The temperaturesare the same(70'F l21"Cl)nlside and
place and ieleasedin another place bl' squeezingthe out. In ihis case,th€ frcssrr,?is ihe sum of the bonbard-
sponte. ing molecules.The i.rrlrrldhlr"eis the speedof molecular
To have a transferof heat,theremust be a tempeia- motion (how fast the moleculesmove to and from).
ture diffefenc€.To tet the temperatrre difference,there It is necessarythereforeto speedup the molecules.
nust be a low-pressureside (reaf dbsolrcl) and a hith Their temperaturemust be incrcasedio a Point u/here
p e-.J-e .'JF thent di,ipotort. Vari., - .^n'p -:-ior the). give up heat to srirrourld g coohlg surfaces(air
.'" ,ll,,.f',r",1 ,- a|intD' 1
"' "1".
Chapter4 Compression
Systemsand Compressors 133

Figure 4-3. Compressioncycle showing the flow of

refrigennt. Note that the capillaty tube extends from A
to B. (Hatpoint Div., Ceneral Electric Co.)

The longer the compressor runs, the more vapor

molecules it squeezes into the condenser With each
shoke, the pressuie and temperature increas€. This is
due to mor€ molecules hitting the sid€s oI the container. Figurc 4-4. Refrigerantcondition as it changes fnm
The compressor piston, pushing the vapor molecules vapot to liquid in condenser.At A, condensing unit is
against the higher pressur€, hits them harder. This just startinE.At B, the unit hasbeen opetatin7 lon7
speeds up the molecules and increases iheir tempera- enough to condense some refrigerant vapot. At C, unit is
in state of equilibrium (balance)-heat is being removecl
During compression, the pressur€ increases (due io and \apotired tehigetanLis be;ns condcn.Fd tame
Boyle's Law). At the same time, the temperature in- nte it is being pumped into condenser.A, & C L
creases (Charles' Law). This continues rntil the vapor Vapor enters under pressure. B-2. Heat maving from
temperature is higher than the temperature of the con- condenset(smallamount).B-3. Vaporlosing heatand
denser cooling medium. Boyle's Law and Charles' Law condensing to liquid (snall anount). B 4. Condensed
are discussedin Chapter 31. rcfrigetant enters liquid receivet (small amount). C 2.
The higher temperature Gigure 4-48) causesa flow Heatmoving from condenser(laryeamount).C-3.
of heat to the surormding m€tal and air Heat now Condensedrcftigerant droplets (larye amount). C-4.
moves from th€ vaporized rcfrigeranL 2, to the cooling Condensedreftigerant llowing into Iiquid rcceiver (laryer
medium. This cooling continues until enough heat loss anount). Refrigerantliquid line to refrigerantcontrcl is
makes some vapor molecules become liquid molecuies shown at 5.
134 Modern Refrigeration
and Air Cond tioning

(seeB3). As these collect,they llow into the liquid re-

ceiver (seeB4).
The temperature and pressure will continue to rise
until a balanceis reached.Just as many vapor molecules
condense inio a liquid as the compressor pumps into the
condenser(seeFiSure 4-4C).
If anyihtug chantes this balance,the condensing
pressure ar'rd temperature will adjusi accordingly. For
example/ i{ th€ room gets warmer, the piessure anct tem-
perature will rise agair This continues uniil just as
many vapor moiecules are condensing as are being
pumped into the condenser.
After condensint (Iiquefying), the refriSerant is
stored in the liquid receiver until n€eded. When Figute 4-5, Shell-type evaporator used with capillary
needed,it passesthrough the high-pressureiiquid line, tube ar high-side float-type refrigerant control.
5, to the refriSerantcont(o1.Here iefrigerant pressureis
reduced to allow evaporaiion of the liquid at a low

The evaporatinS liquid absorbs much heai, thereby

4.4 Accumulator
supplying refrigeration. The increasein vorume, as rr
T}].eaccumulator is a safety device. It prevents liq-
evaporates,pushes ihe vapodzed refrigerant through
uid refrigerani ftom flowing inio the suction line and
the "suction" line. Finall, the rcftigerant goes io the
into the compressor. Liquid refri8erant, flowing into the
compiessorintake,wherc pressureis greatly redu.ed. Ii
compressor,may causeconsiderableknockint and dam-
then passesthrough the intake valve oI the compressor.
age to the comFessor.
It lravels into the cylinder where a ne ' cyclebegins.
A iypical accumulatot Figutes 4-5 and 4-6, has the
outlet at the top. Any liquid refrigerant that flows into
the accumulator will be evaporated.Then vapor only
4.3 Evaporator will flow into the suction line. Since the accumulator is
located inside the cabinet, it also prcvides some rcftit-
Liquid refrigerant entering the evaporator ftom the
refrigerant flow control is suddenly under Iow pressure. Not all refrigerating sysiems have accumulators.
This makes it vaporize (boil) and absorb heat. The va- Commercial system accumulators are explained in
pors move on inio the suciion line. The accumulator Chapter l3.
holds any reftiterani which has not vapodzed. This pre-
venis liquid refrigerant from flowing into the suction
4.5 SuctionLine
There are two main tlTes of evaporators-a dry
system and the flooded syster|r..Dry system eaapofltots The sz.fror line caries the relrigerant vapor from
are fed refrigennt as quickly as is needed to maintain ihe evaporator to the compressor.The line must be large
ihe desiied tempemture. In the llooded slstefit the enouSh io carry the vaporized refrig€rant wiih minimal
evaporaior is always fiiled with liquid refrigerant. The flow resistance.It should slope from ih€ evaporaior or
type of refrigerant control used determines the type oI accumulator down to the compressor.If it does not
evaporatorto be used, slope,pocketsof oil co11eci.
Evapomtors arc made in four different siyles: The liquid line may be in contactwith all or part of
. the suction line lengih. This cools the liquid refrigerant.
Shell-type,Figure 4-s. helping to reduce flash 8as in the evaporator. (Flash gas
. Shelf-type,Figur€ 4-6,
. is the instantaneous evaporahon of some of the liquid
Wall-type, used in chest-type freezer, Figure 4-7. refrigerant in evaporator, which cools the remaining
. Ftu tube-type with forced circulation. This q?e of liquid reftigerant to ihe desiied evaporation tempera-
evaporator is mosi used wiih ftost-free construc- ture.) It also adds some superheatio ihe refrigemnt va-
iion. (SeeFigure 4'8A and B.) por enterinS the cornpressor.See Section 5.1.2 {or an
Frost-free refrigerators usually need a fan or fans. explanationof superheai.
They circulateihe aii over the evaporatorand distrib-
ute cold air throughout ihe cabinet. 4.5.1 Low-SideFilter-Drier
There are many types of commercial system e\'apo- Some systems include a low-side filter-drier at the
rators. Air cooling and liquid cooling are iwo basic de con1pressor end oI the suctionline. Thesemay be a part of
signs.They aie constructedof plain or finned tubing or the original system.They may also be placedin the sys-
have a flat plaie design. Details oI commercialsystem tem for a short time to clean it. FiSure 4-9 shows a typical
evaporatomare explainedin Chapter 13. suchon line filter-drier The filier-d er used in the suction
Chiptcr 4 Compression
Systems.rnd Conrpreso6 135

": I

-r- !
\-t ,/
4"6. Ihis illustntion shawsa shclttype evapontor as it forns the sheltin uprighttteezel An accnntulatotis
locatedat aLnletof evaporataLThi. is a snall reservoirto c.1tchrcfriget.lntnot neededin evapantot.

line should offer little resistanceto vaporized refrigerant from the evaporator is attached at the loh'side inlet.
flo$,.The pressurediflerencebeilveenthe evaporatorand 5e.,lirqc.o, p ulL.l lhe .i-r'girq .,nd t.ru8- openrnS
fhp I erlo lhF.orpre-..r.\o|l J b .nall |^rl dnd v" \p -."-n *l-Fr lhe \ dl!p . ror ir r -H.
Mor€ recent domestic models do not havc service
4.5.2 Compressor
or Suction valves. The servicetechnicianmust use a saddle vah,e
Valve (coveredin Chapter 12).
Many systemshave ser?icea.r/res ihat allora'the
iechniciankr connectgaugesb ihe system.Thesevalves
will also a1lo{, checking pressures,and adding or re- 4.6 Compressor
movhg refti$rant or oil.
A typical compressorsucUonservjcc valve is pic The refrigerafioncoml/essor is a motor-ddYende-
tured in Figure 4'10.This vah'e is connectedto the com vice, which renoves the heat-ladenvapor refrigerant
pressorat the compressorhlet union. The suction line from the evaporabr. The compressor compresses
r36 M o d e r nR e r r i g e r a t iaon d A i r C o n dl i o n i n !

4.6.1 Compressor
The conprcssor high-sirle set-pice mlae prcyldes a
slrutoff beiween the conpressor and the condenser.It
also provides an opening for a high-pressuregaugeor a
gauge manifold.
Wiih the valve closed,the compressormay be dis-
connectedfuom ihe condenserI'ithout refrigerantleak-
- 8 e W l ' - r . \ e \ . r l \ e- . e r i : d l l t h eh a ) o u ' .l h r o p r n n g
lor the ga tseis closed.
Figure 4-11illusiratesa crosssectionof ihe selvice
\.alve.It is not used on all refrigeratint syste s.

Figure4-7. Wall-typeevaporataLNote that evaporator

tLtbinBis atta.hedb lining of ieezinB cabinet.This 4,7 Oil Separator
aftan|anent fovi.les smoathinsidesuiace wftn
unifam .aolinB thrcuEhoLtcablDet. Reftigerationcompressorsget their lubricationftom
a small amouni of special lubricating oi1. This oil is
placedinside ihe compressorcrankcaseor housing.ii is
(squeezes)the vapor inio a small volume ai a high iem circulated to various conpressor parts. ln a hermetic
perature. The various types of punping mechanisms lairtight) st/siem,this oil also lubricatesthe motor bear-
(compresson)use.t are explainedlater in this chapter ings.

q . o " .? . "
t{ "rr""FT,6,
il |Yl;na
l{ $tv

\ \
J- U
t t, Ir

[,liredAir E
wamet N A B
Figur€4-8. Forced.orvection evaparatot.A A farcedciculatian evaporatoris usedin this upriBhtfreezetcabinet-
Daot s\\titchstopsian when cabinetclooris opened.B finlype evaparator.Nate the traughto collect and carry away
the (letost naistute whlch drainsirom the evaporatatdurins the defrcstpart of the cycle. (FtigidaireCampany)
Chapter4 Compressio.Sysremsand Compr€ssors 137

tigure 4-9. Suct,or line fiher-(hier The directionof

rchi+erantrapor ilow is indicatec!.Noteuse af low side
gaugeserviceconnectiou.lviEinia KMP Cotp.l



Figure4-11. A conpressorhigh side servicevalve.
A lf valve is turnedall the way in, it shutsoh
I ll cannectionbet|\leencampressot, 3, and canclenser,
t 9 B li valve is tuned all the wa'/ ouL it closesoff
connectionta Baute paft, 1. C At nid pasitian, all
passaqesare open.

seriesof bafflesor screeus 'hich collectthe oi]. The oil,

separatedfrom the hoi, compressedvapors,drops to the
bottom of the separator
A float arrangementcontrols a needle valve. This
opens an oil return line to the compressorcrankcase.
Figure4-10. Compressorlow sideor suctionservice When the oil le\,el is high enough, the float rises and
yalve.lf valve ster, is tumed all the way in, it clasesoff opensthe needleva1ve.The pressurein the separabr is
the cannectianiL)n the conprcssatta the suctionline, considerab\' higller than the pressurein the compres-
Itt tliis pasitian,if valve is removedtrom comprcssor, sor crankcase.Thls causesthe oil to retum quicklv to the
suctioDliDe renainssealed.lf valve sten is turnedout as compressorcranKcase.
far as possible,I clasesaff the openingcalled the Oil separatorsare quite efficient. Verv little oil
"chargiry and gaugepon." This nakes it possibleto passeson into the svstem. They are mosi commonly
installa comp()undgaugeor chaginB line. rised h large commercialinstallations.

lvhen the compressoroperates,srnallamountsofoil

are pumped out s.iih the hot, compressedvapor A small
4.8 Condenser
amount ot oil througtroutthe svsten doesno harm- Too
much oil entedng the condenser,rerrigerani controls, The rordensclin the refrigerationcycleremo\.esthe
evaporabrand filtersinterferes$.ith their operation. condensationheat from the refrigerantvapor This heai
It is possibleto separatethe oil from the hoi, com- is picked up in the evaporator.Domestic rcftigeraiors
pressedvapor This involves placing an oil separatorbe- commonlv use the followint types of condensers,as
trveen the co pressor exhaustand the condenser,The shown in Figur€ 4-13:
Iocaiiotl and operation of such a separatoris shown in . Finned-static(natural convection).
Figure 4-12,The separatoris enlaryedin the illustration . Finned forced convection.
to help show details.
The oil separatoris a tank or cyhlder It containsa
138 Itlodern RefrSerationand A r Condiilonlng

compressor condenser
Figure,l-12, An ail sepantor locateclin the discharle line. Note flow ai reiigerant and oil. (AC&RCampanents,lnc.)

YEtffitfEt6) @

c (Natural
Finned-Sta1 Convectior)
Conve.l on

,jo wne

= r

- -_dE
P ate_s1a1c

Figure4-13. Comnondamesticcondensers.
Chdole'4 ( onpre*iol SvsleTd
: n d{ o n p e , $ r J 139

Figue 4-13A is a common finned type static con- Occasionallt a liquid receiver is built into the bot-
denser Sfatic means thai ail circuiation through ihe con- tom ofthecondens€r Most rcceivershave servicevalves,
densertubing and fins is by natural convection.This is See Figue 4-15. A fine copper mesh in the outlet pre-
becausewarm air tends lo rise.As the air in contactwith venis dirt from entering the reftigerant control valves.
ihe fins and hrbes becomesheated,it rises. Cooler air Liquid receiveis arc often found on systems which
iakes its place. The tubes and fins are usualty made ol use the low-side float or the expansion valve-t},?e refrig-
coPPer or steet erant conhol. Capillary tube systems do not use liquid
_ Figure 4-138 is a forced convection finned-type con- receivers. (All liquid reftigerant is stored in the evapo-
denser Whenever the compressor js operating, the mtor during the Off part of their rycle.) There has bien
motor-driven fan forces air tfuough the condensei a greater use of hemetic systems and capillary tube rc-
Figur€ 4-13C shows a wire-typ€ condenser, which ftigerani controls. This has rcduced the need for liquid
uses small metal wires brazed or spotweld€d to the con- receivers in dom€stic systems and many smal1comrner-
denser tubing. It is usually a static condenser
The plate-type condenser is shown in Figure 4-13D. On larger ,ommercial sy-rernj. the receiver pro-
In this i),?e oI condenser. the tubes arc soldercd or vides reseffe liquid refrigemnt. This ensures that the lit
brazed to a flat metal surface. This is a very common uid line refrigerant is subcooled and free of flash gas.
tlpe of condenser construction. It is used on many ches! The receiver must prcvide enough room for refrigerant
type freezels. The condenser tubes are attached to the during automatic pumpdowns (for defrost puryoses and
inside (insulation side) of ihe frceze/s ourer shell. This when some of the evapoEtors are not in use).
type of condenseris very easy to keep clean.It is only Some systems, which have an outdoor air cooled
necessaryto wipe off the su ace of the cabinet shell. For condenser,need room in the receiver for extra refrigerant.
proper removal of heat lrom the refrigerant vapor. al- Without exha room, Iiquid paftly fills the condenser
lvays keep the condenser area clean, when the head pressurejs too low The liquid will not
Commercialsystemsuse ihree types of condensers: move through the condenser
. Finned-static,air cooled.
. Finned-forced convection, air-cooled.
. Water-cooled,fube-ir-d-lube,and ,hell
4.10 Liquidtine
Finied-static and finned forced convection con-
dense$ are built much the same as the domestic con- Copper tubing is commonly used to carry tlle liq-
densers. Howevet fimed staiic and finned forced uid refrigerant from the condenser to the evaporator.
convection condenseF are larger Finned-forced convec- Howevet domesticunits often use st€el,Theselines afe
tion condensersare used on many commercial refrigera- mounted in back of the refrigerator cabinet. They may
tion installations. Some applications of these arc shown also be hidden behind the breakerstrip at the refrigera-
in Chapter 13. tor door jamb (frame).
Water-cooled condensers usually consist of two The lines are soldered or bmzed to fittings. It is im-
tubes, one wiftin ihe other. Watff circulates through th€ potani to avoid pinching or buckling theselines. Sup-
inside tube. Hot, compressedvapor circulatesthrough port them to prcvent wear or breakage due to vibration.
the space between the tubes. These condensersare Refrigerani lines in commercial units may be connected
usually called tabe-urithh-a'tube .oftdeflsers,They are by soldering, brazing, or by flared fittings.
very efficient. Often, the liquid line runs parallel io and in contact
Conmercial refrigeration and atu conditioning with the suciion line. The rcason for this is explained in
have developed rapidly. Many communities now have Section4.5.
difficulty in supplying enough water for water-cooled
condensers, Forced convection air-cooled condense$
and "cooling towers" are inoeasingly being used in con- 4.10,1 tiquid LineFilter-Drier
nection with water-cooled condensers. It is common pmctice to install a filter-dder in the
SeeChapter 13 for illustrations of cooling tower ap- liquid line. This tank-like accessorykeeps moisturc, dirt,
piications and water-cooled condensers. Figure 4-14 metal, and chips from entering the reftigerant flow con-
shows a large, six-fan, roof-mounted, condensing unit. trol. The dryint element in the filter iemoves moisture.
Diaglam of a water-cooled condenser is shown in the This moisture might otherwise freeze in the refrigerant
bottom view flow control. Moisture is also harmful when mixed r^rith
oil in a system since it fonns sludges and acids. Mois-
iure is especially harmful to hermetic units. A liqldd line
4.9 LiquidReceiver filter-drier is shown in Figure 4-16.
Some filter-drierc are equipped with a sight
The liqtid ftceiaer ls a storage tank for iiquid retoig- glass which will indicate refrigerant level. Many sight
erant. Refrigerantis pumped out of vadous parts and glassesalso have a chemical which will change color.
stored in the liquid receivef during servicing. Its use The color change indicates that the system has mois-
makes the quantity of refrigerant in a system less c tical. ture in it.
140 Modern Relrgeratior and Air Condiron ng

Fi8ure4-'f4. Typicalcomtnercialreirigerationoutdaorcandensetunit. Top-LaEe condensingunit with six
notordtiven tAnsto increaseaiflaw over candensersutiaces.(HeatcraftReirigerationPraducts)Boftom Watercooled
condenserflaw diagam. Refri€:erantflows throu1hcandenserin appositedirectionof water.

' Automatic ExpansionValve (AEV)-(dry system).

4.11 Typesof Refrigerant
FlowControl . ThermostaticExpansionValve(TEV) (drysystem).
. Low Side noat (LsF)-(flooded system).
The refrigennt flow corflol has two jobs. lt allol\'s . High Side Float (HsF)-(flooded sysiem).
liquid refrigerant to enter the evaporator.At ihe same
lime. il mi r,".r. lhF requred e!apordlmt pre,sLrre:r
the evaporator 4.11.1 Capillary(CAP.)
Severali),?es of refriterant flow cortrols are used
Domesticreftigerators,freezers,room air condition-
in modern refrigeratingmechanisms.Thesecontrolsand
ers, and small commercial installations commonly use a
their characteristicsare explainedin Chapter 5.
capillary tube. A typical installation is diagrammed in
There are five principal types of refrigerant floiv
Figure 4'17. The capillary iube is a long length of snall
diameter tubing. It reduces pressure by reducing the
. Capillarv Tube (CAP) (dry system). flow of reftigerant through its lengih.
Chapter.l Compr€ssion
systemsa.d Compressors 141



Figure4-15. Twa common rypesai liquid rccet\ters

Nate the liquid line servicevalveat O. lt allo\\,seaty
chargingof rcrigerant. FiSure4-16. A liquid line filterdriet with sightglassancl
maisturcindicatoLThisfilterdrieris can'patiblewith all
CfC, HCFC,and HFC rcfri]ennts. lVhginia Ki\4PCotp.)


Figure4-17. Refrigerating systemusingcapillarytubercftigetantcantral.Filterdrieris lacatedin liquidIne aheadof

cannection to suctionline,whichpravidesheatexchange.
ta capillatytube.Mastaf thecapillarytubeis faslened
A-Enlaryeduosssectianoi suctionline,1,and capillarytube,2, showinghow theyaresoldered ot bazed to4ether
142 Modern Refriseration
and Air Conditionins

Figure 4-18 shows another t'?e oI capillary tube re-

frigerant conhol. The tube's inside diameter may vary
The diameter dependsupon the refrigennt, the capac-
itv of the unit, and the leneth of the line.


Figure 4-19. Cross section of an automatic expansion

valve shows flow of refrigerant through valve. This valve
is designedto control the flow af liquid inta the
evaporataLlt alsa maintainsconstantlow pressurein the
LLquoLrne evaporatorwhile campressoris running,
Figure4-18. Capillatytube refriBerantcontrol.A
straineris lacatedin liquid line at entranceto capillary side, ihe expansion valve opens and ]iquid refrigerant
tube. Note the accumulatoawhich setvesas receiverfor flows into the €vapomtor. It abso$s heat then while
any liquid refrigetant overflaw evaporating under Iow pr€ssure. The valve maintains
constant pressure in the evaporator when the system is
running. This system operates independently of the
Liquid is vaporized in the evaporatoras the com- amouni of refrigerant in the system.
pressoroperates-Thecapillarytubeis placedbetweenthe The AEV is a division point between the high-
liquid line and the evaporatorlust enoughliquid passes pressure and low-pressure sides of the system. See
through to make up for the amount that was vaporized. Chapier5 for a deiailedexplanationof expansionvalves.
The capilary tube reduces the liquid refrigerant The automatic expansion valve, Figure 4-20, may be
from iis high pressure to its evaporatint prcssure. The adjusted to the correct evaporaior pressure. Tumint the
pressure of the liquid drops slightly in ihe first two- adjustment clockwise increases the rate of flow, thereby
thirds of the length of the capillary tube. increasing the low-side pressure.
Then some of the liquid starts to changeto vapor. The rate of refrigerant flow through the AEV is con-
When the refrigerant reachesthe end of the tube, 10% trolled by the evaporatox Refrigerant will not flow
to 20% of it has vapodzed. There is an inceased vol- through ihe valve unlessthe compressoris running. The
ume of the vapor. This causesmost of the pressure drop evapontor must also be under a low pressurc for the
to occur at ihe end oI ihe tube nearest ihe liquid line. refriSerdnt io floB. Remembe'. loweringrhe preisurein
A recent development in capillary tube design uses the evaporator lowers the temperature at which the re-
a laryer and longer tube (20' to 30'). Being larger in di- frigeBnt evaporates.
ameter,it is less likeiy to becomeplutged.
The capiliary tube refrigerantcontrol does not use 4.11.3 Thermostatic Valve(TEV)
a check valve or a direciion control valve. The high and Many units, espe.ially commercial ones, aie
1ow pressuresequalizeduring the Off pari of ihe cycle. equipped wilh a temperdture-!ontrolled e.pdnsron
This allows for easier starting. The compressor starts vaive. This is ca.lleda thenftostatic exp,tisioft z)aloe
wiih equal pressures on the high and low side. The sys- (TEIa. FiA|Ie 4'21 shows a crosssection of a thermo-
tem must not have an overcharge of refrigerant. Extra static expansionvalve.
refrigerant wonld tend to fi]l the evaporator too fu[. Se- This valve has a temperatur€-sensinSbulb mounied
vere frostinS of the suction ]ine when siarting the motor on the outlet of the evaporator. The bulb temperature
i n,-l,.r re. rn n!.r.fi,rde
controls the opening of the thermostat valve needle.
Addition of this themal element to the valve lets
4.11.2 AutomaticExpansion the evapomtor fill more quickly and pemrits morc effi-
One of the dry systemsusesan automaticexpan- cient cooling. The thermostatic expansion valve keeps
sionvaive(AEV)asreftigerantflow control,Figure4-19. the evapomtor tu]] oI liquid refriSerant when the sys-
This valve may be used only with the temperature- tem is runnins. SeeChapter5 for a moie detailedexPla-
opeEtedmotor control.As pressuredropson the low nation of its operaiion.
C\"p pr 4 (orp'es,,on \y..ens d d r ompre$o < 143



Figure4-20. A refrigeratingsystemusingan automaticexpansionvalverefrigerantcontrol.A filter drier is loca?d in

the liquid line aheadof the automaticexDansionvalve.

As the evapolator becomes colder, the TEV re-

duces the late of flow of reftigerant into ihe evapora-
tor. lhere i. no flol\ dt dl unle5s lhe compressoris
Eiglule 4-22 demonstrates how a ihermostatic ex-
pansion valve is connecied into a rcftigerating system.
Th€ valve may be used with either a pressure- or
temperature-operat€d motor control. A thermostatic ex
pansion valve can also be used in a multiple evaporator
A thermoelectric element may replace the iem-
perature-sensing element in the themostatic expansion
valve. More details regarding this valve are loulld in

4.11.4 Low-SideFloat(LSF)
A loT,-side float is ]usedon flooded systems where
the evapomtor is flooded wiih rcftigerant and the refrit-
erant level is controlled by a float valv€. A float is used
Figure4-21. DiaphraBm-type themostaticexpans@n for control. As the refrigerant evaporates, the liquid level
valve. Sensingbulb pressure aperates on upper suiace falls. This lowers a float and. in tum. opens the needl€
ol diaph,agn. 4, the >en>in7bdlb tcmperdturcift rcase'. valve connected to it. More liquid ente$ from the high-
pressure on top of the diaphngm increasesand tends to pressure liquid line, taking the place of the evaporaied
open valve, allowing liquid reftigeftnt to enter evaporator. liquid.
Note screen at liquid line connection ancl direction of Figure 4-23 suggests ihe exte or and the interior
refrigerant flow through valve. (Sporlan Valve Co.) construction of a flooded evaporator using a low-side
144 4 o d e r nR e f r i g c r o
ani a n dA i f C o n d l to n n g

D scharge

I HighPress!re
Liquid f---_--- vapor

I Lquid
Low'Pressurc f Low-PressurcVapor

Figure4-22. Typicalthermostaticexpansionvalve system Note the two cylinder hermetic canpressar.

Chapter4 Compression
Systemsand CompressoE


Figure4-23. Law side ilaat rciiEerant cantrol. Nate the suctionline and the liquid line conrectiors. Floatanclneedle
mechanismmaintainconstantlevel of liquid reirigerantin evaporator.

float. Either a iemperaiure-or pressrue-opemtedmotor Liquid flolvs into the low pressureside or evaporator
control may be used. The float controls the level of ljquid rcfdgerani on the
A lor{' side float systen usually has a large li.luid hidr-pressuresic1e.
receiver.The receivermust be large enough to store all The amouni of refrigerantin a systemmust be care-
ihe refriterart in the system. fully measured.Th€ evaporatorrnust receivethe correct
Oil picked up bi' the vapor is normally retumed anount for the systemto operaieco ectly.Extra rcftig-
throuSh a sma11opening at a predetermined level in the erant will overcharte the evapomtorand causefrostint
suction return tubing. Sincethe diarneier of the hole is of the suciion Line.
smal1,iI ihe unit is not level, the oil will not return to ReIerto Figure 4-24for an illustration of a high-side
the compressorand "oil binding" may result.When this llo.r n-F.hani-rnA n-orede.ailedde-cripL.un i, gi!e1
occurs,the oil forms a layer on the surfaceof the liquid in Chapter 5. This rcftigerant flow control can be used
reftigerant. 1t prevents the refriSerant from evaporating with either a piessure-or temPeraiure-oPerared rnotor
at a rapict rate or at the temPeratureconesPondingto

The low-side floai refrigerant control can be used

in multiple evaporatorsystems.
4.12 Motor Control
4.11.5 High-SideFloat(HSF) Most electic refriSeratorsare desiSnedl\'ith more
To make a high side float svstemoperate,a floai is cooling capacityihan needed.Therefore,under normal
locatedin the liquid receivertank or in a chamberin the use, they do noi run all of the time. To get correct re-
high-pressureside. Liquefied reftigerant collectsln the friseration temperaiure,the motor must be turned off
float chamber. When enorigh refriSerant has collected, up"on reachlng ihe desired lolv temPerature li is turned
ihe float wi]l dse enough to open the needle valve. on again when the evaporatorhas wamed to l] certain
146 Modern Refrseraiionand Air ConditionnB

is coinected by a capillary tube to a diaphragm or be1-

lows. This elementis chargedwith a volatile fluid. The
fluid expands to increasethe pressureas the bulb be-
comes wanner. It will contract again to decreasethe
Pressureas ihe bldb cools.
As brilb pressureincreases,the diaphragm moves.
Sm.e il i5 co;necLedto.r roggleor :nap d.tion sllr.ch,
il will rurr on thi- )wirch ,, lo)e lhe r i-cuiu.A.5rhe bulb
cools,the diaphragm or bellows moves rhe other way.
The toggle swiich will move (to open ttre circuir).
Thesecontrolshave adjustmentsthat permit differ-
ences in operating temperatures. Many controls have a
manual switch. This switch pennits shutting off or turn
ing on of the systemas desired.They also may include
an ove oad protector.It will open the switch iJ the unit
draws too much current.
Thermostatsmay also be electricallyconnectedto
timers for automatic defrostingof the evapontor
Many commercial units use a pressure-operated
motor contrcl. It opens ihe circuit when the pressure
drops enough. lt closes the circuit when ihe pressure has
risen enough,A pressure-operated motor contrcI may be
FiglJre4-24. A hiqh-sidefloat allows liquictrcfriEerant used wiih the TEV It may also be used with lligh- or
to flaw to the evaparatoronly \/hen enoughrefrigerant low side refrigerani contrcl systems.
collectsto raisethe float and open the neeorcvatve. The pressureof ihe vapor in the low-pressureside
vades with the temperature. Therefore, the pressure may
tempenture. Two principal types of motor controls are inclicatetemperature.This permiis the use oI pressures
used to turn the motors on and off: to control the stopping and starting of the motor There-
fore, pressure controls the tempemture of the cabinet.
. motor control (thermostatic).
Temperature-operated The detailsconcerningthe operationof thesecontroisare
. Pressure-operatedmotor control (low side pres explainedtully in Chapter 8.

Thermostaticcontrol is the most populat especialy

on small installations. The thermostatic temperature COMPRESSORS
control,Figure 4-2t hasa sensingbulb.The sensint bulb

4.13 External-Drive
The puryose of a compressoris descibed ill Sec-
Bub tion 4.6. An extemal-drive (open) compressoris bolted
together Its crankshaftextendsthrough the crankcase.
The crankshaliis ddven by a flywheel (pulley) and beli.
Tubing It may alsobe driven diiectly by an electdcmotor or gas
driven entine. A crankshaft seal is fequired where the
crankshaftcomesthrough the cranlcase.Extemal-ddve
compressorshave been largely replacedby newer,more
efficieni designs.
Figure 4-26 illusirates a cross seciion ihrough an
open compressor. This is a four cylinder V-t}?e com-
pressorwiih an eccentriccrankshaft.(An eccentricjs a
shaJtseciion which is larger and has a differcnt center
than the shaft.)The pistons arc fitied with rings.
Amaster connectingrod is mounted on eacheccen-
tiic. Ii is connectedto a pision in one bank of the "V"
The connectingrod attachedto the pision in the other
bank is connectedwiih a pin. This pin is connected
through a flange on the masier connectingrod. These
Figure4-25. A temperatureopented motor control. connectingrods are somewhat shorter than the master
Note the temperaturc adjustment. (lnvensysAppliance connecting iod. The shoiter rcds arc called srfi&Iateil
Controls) co necting rods.
r c $ o f S v s l e m sa n d C o 147

F;gure4-26. /\ fDur.ylindet, externaldrire, V type,.1itcaoleclcanprcssot.(fti.k Co.)

4.14 HermeticCompressors
The motor in a hermcticconpressoris sealedinside
a clome or housing \,vith the comprcssor Ii is directly
connecteclto the compressor.A clankshafi seal rs not

A motor rotor is usually prcss fii orlto ihe compres

soLcrankshaft.Sone noior comprcssorsare made with
ihe notor at ihe top. Others ha\.e the motor lri the boi-
tom and the rompressorat the top.
A hcnnctic rnljt is usually sp nt-mounteci inslde
the hermetic dome. This preventsmost of the compr€s
sor vibration from being felt outsicteof the dome.
The exhaust(discharge)andsuciionlines insidc the
.lom€ are macteflexible A connectionthrough the dcnnc
allows fasteningthe compr€ssoriines to the rcmajnlng
svstcm. Thc electrical connectionsb the motor pass
through ihc done bv ncans of an hsl ated lcakproof

The refriterant |apor ent€rs the dome through a Figurc4-27. Canpressat\lith vr/vc dciis, ihr|outes
suctjon connector,cooling the motor and picknlg up r.iig-.rant vapar ta incteaseel;t7clen.fard to ioler.?te
someoi1(less than191,)beforc it is p lledinto thesuction liquid slugging.I Bri stol Canpressars
chamberfor compression.The oil ihai is carriedby the
refrigcrant helps to lubricate and seal the |alves and Somemotor c.rmpressorsare tr!o-speed.Theseare
otller elemenisin thc !'apor path. This oil ciiculaiiorris popular in large systemsand nr air condiiioning $/herc
possiblcdue to foaming/misting ofthe oil as it is atitat heat loads change.
p . l . \ l e n , i r d ^ . r , r , r r r . - o i l. r n . p Figure 4-28 illustates a hermeiically sealed com-
A heimeticallv sealed compressor is sho$,n in pressor.It has an nltemal and externalsteelshell and is
Figure 4-27. The compressorshown is a conventional combincdinto a singlehousing.The suction vaPor goes
hvjn-piston conprcssor with a desitn that routes the throuth ihe motor arca,cooling the motor The r.rnlthas
refrigerani yapor through a suction mar'ifolcl muffler an internal accumulator.This prevents liquid from re
directl) io ihe Valv€,io incr€asccfficiencv and tolerate iurning to the cllinder area.The discl'nrgeline is coiled
liquid slugging. to ih€'ruit. It keeps the oil warm enough to claporate
148 Modern Refri8eratlon afd Air Conditionlng

be provided.Thecostof a high-capacitycentrifugalcom-
pressormay be a si$ddcant part of the total building

Dischaee 4.15.1 ReciprocatingCompressors

[4ufller The majority oI domestic, conmercial, and indus-
trial HVAC/R systems use rcciprocating compressors.
These are classified in a number of ways:
. By cylinder arrangement
{tt ,l[ . By number of cylinde$

J. .
By i}?e of cmnkshaJt
By conshuction (open/external drive, accessible
hermetic,or hermetic)
The original energy source for reciprocating com
presson is usually an electric motor. Its rotary motion
Dischaee must be changed to /eciprocafirg Gack-and-foth action
in a shaight line) motion. This change is usually made
Sprng by a crank and a rod. The rod connects the crank io ihe
piston. The complete mechanism is housed in a leak-
Figure4-28. Steel-shellhermeticcompressorwith a proof container called a c/arkcdse. It is very efficient. Iis
winding that is sealedand runninggear enclosed, construction resembles that of the automobile engine.
allowing the compressotto takecontinuousliquid Basically, a reciprocating comprcssor is a cylinder
slugging. (Maneurop lnc.) and a piston. Figure 4-29shows the pdnciple o{ opem-
iion oI a reciprocatint comprcssor. in Figure 4-29& the
any liquid refrigeiant thai may have returned. The pis- piston has moved downward in the cylinder, A. It has
ton head is sculptured and has a circular valve plate de- moved refrigeiant vapor from the suction line through
sign. This provides a balancedinlet and outlet flow of the intake valve. Frcm there the refrigerant vapor has
the 1'apor The unit has rotolock connections which al- moved into the cylinder space. ln Figure 4-298, the pis-
low for servicing. This unit contains an intemal dis- ton has moved upward. Ii has compressedthe vapor-
chargemuffler which preventsexcessivevapor pulsation ized refrigerant into a much smaller space (clearance
and vibration. SeeSection4.15.7Ior additional informa- space).The compressedvapor hasbeen pushed throuth
iion. The system also has an intemal overload ihai the exhaust valve into the condenser
sensestemPentlue and amperage. Piston Cylinder Crank Arrangements
Compressors may have more than one cylinder
(multirylinder). In ihese compresson, the crankshaft and
4,15 Typesof Compressors cylinde$ are a anged io make the compressor as com-
pact as possible.Figure 4-30 illustrates some common
There are five basic types of compressorsin use in .l tirder and crantrrhaftarrangemenrs. More pumping
the refrigerationand air conditioning industry: capaciiy should be prcvided for each revoluiion of the
. crankshafi.Most two-cylinder compressonuse a side-
. by-side arantement of the cylinders and a 180' crank-
. shaft. While one pGton is at the iop of the stroke, the
. other piston is at the bottom. Other t\'vo-cylinder com
. pressors have two cylinde$ at a 90" V See Figure 4-26.
With this cylinder anangement, a single-ihrow cmnk is
The type of compiessor used for a given applica-
tion depends upon the size of ihe unit, amount of cool- A dual-capaciiy compressor called the TS TechnoL-
ing required, cosl seNiceability, and noise requirements. o3y co p/esso/has been developedby Bristol Compres-
The size of tlle residential unit must be small enough to sors. This compressoruses a specialcrankshaftdesign,
fit under a reftigeraior. It must be quiet and noi require Figure 4-31. lt has a rotatable lobe ihat automatically
servicing for many years. To meet ihese r€quirements, positions iiself to allow operation of two pistons in the
small fractional horsepower hemetic reciprocatingor forward direction or rotation, Figure 4-31A. When the
scroll compressorsarc used, compressoris reve$ed, the lobe repositionsitself at the
Large building air conditioning has very different center axis of the shaft, and one oI the pistons sits idle,
rcquirements for a compressor.Larte chillers often have Figure 4-318. The compressor cycles less frequently and
a designated mechanicalroom. Compressorslze is a runs for longer pe ods on its low capacity. Longer cycle
tunction oI ihe amount of cooling required. Serviceabil- times decreasesiart/stop cyclesup io 75%,resulting in
ity is a pdmary concem,so easyaccessto the urlit must less voltage sa8 and reduction of wear on the compres-
Chapter.l Compre$ oi Systemsand CompresoE 149



A nlakeSrroke B-ExlraustSiroke
Figure 4-29. Basic constru.tion af recipracatinFicomptessal A /nta/re stro(e. 8-Ertausr stfoke.

r--r /\
1-*1F 7/\t

,N \Rt C,[ -^

P '-6l,
Figure4-30. Piston,cylinder,and crankshaftarran#nents for t\ro , fout , and eight'cylindetconprcssots.

sor.This rnaintainshigh efdciencyand aliorrsthe sys Small compressorshave fins casi wiih the cvlinders
tem to extractmoisture,resultingin lowerhumidiiy and to provide beiter a cooling. Larger conpressorsmay
ircreasedcornfort. have waier jacketssurrounding the cylinders for cool-
int. Somecompressorsare built h'ith cyhlder lineis or
Cylinders sleeves,r{hich may be replacedwhen worn.
ComFressor cylindersfor external-drivecompres- Usually, the crar*case is pa of ihe same casting
sorsare usuallvmadeof castiron. The castiron must as the ci']irlder.This practicecuts doh'n the number of
bedenseenoughto preventseepage. Somenickelis usu joints that might leak. It also pennits closealignment be-
all)' addedto give the castingthe desireddensiiv. iween crankshaftmain bearingsand cyhrder. The main
150 Modern Reirjgeration
and A r Conditioning




D led Crankshaft

Figure4-32. Cutawayview af small,extenal drive,

t/vo-cylinder reciprocating compressot. The body is a
liBhtweightalloy casting.Cast-ironcylinder linersare
permanently cast inta ctankcase body. (Crasso,lnc.)

Figure4-31. Dual-capacitycompressorcrankshaft.
A TS Technology design allaws both pistons ta operate
when the compressor runs forwad. B When the TS
compressor motar is in reverse, only one piston operates
as the crankshaftlobe repasitionsitselfon the center axis
af the shaft. (Bristol Campressors)

bearingsare ball-type.Constructionis shown in Figure

4-32. The side-by-side cylinder arrangement is com-
rlonlv r:ed on operrcon'p-es>or5. lhi. (ompre-"ori.
designed for use on vehicle air conditioning. However,
the same design may be used in other air conditioning
Hermetic compressors usually have cast-iron cylin-
d€rs. Some may be made of alurninuln or other materi- Figure4"33. A seNiceablefaur-cylindercompressor
als.A typical hermeticcompressorcylinder is shown in usedfot air conditioningand refrigeratian.(Carlyle
Figure4-27.Anolherrypeof hFrmeric corpr+'or r' pjr- Compressot Companv Division ot' Carrier Corporation)
iurcd in Figure 4-33.This is a bolted hermetic,which can
be dismantledeasily for servicing. as Little as .0002"(.0051mrn) clearancefor each inch
Pistonsand Piston Rings diameter.
Pistonsused in ext€rnal-drivecompressoFare usu The smaller pistons have oil grooves .ut in them.
ally made of cast ircn. In small, high-speed hermeiic Figure 4-34illustraiesa commercial-t)?episton and con-
compressorsthey are of die-cast aluminum. Smaller necting rod assembly.This one is 6tted with piston rin8s.
sizesdo not have piston dngs. lhere are hdo bpe- of pistorr rints. The upper ring
The temperature of pistons seldom goes higher or dngs are known as comprcssionrings. The lower is
than 250"F(121"C).Thus, ihere is not much expansion designedto control the oil "flow" past the piston. It is
of either piston or cylinder. Pistons may be fitted with an oil ing.
Chapter4 CompressionSystemsand Compressors 151



Note:Pislon,rod andpina€ a maicheds€i

tigure 4-34. Compressotpistonand connectingrcd assembly.Notehow the cannectingrod's lower (left)end is split
ancl then bolted together to provide bearing lor the crankshaftjournal-

Piston dngs are usually made of cast iron. Some

bronze dngs have been used,however.Rings should be
fitted to the groove as closelyas possibleand still allow
movemeni. A rin8 is a complete cicle with a gap in it.
A 45' tapered or angled ring gap permits the ing to push
out against the cylinder wall. The gap should be about
.001"(.0254mm) Ior eachinch of piston diametei.
Pistonpins are made of case-hardened, high carbon
steel accuratelyground to size. They are hollow to rc-
duce weight.
Pistonpins are usually of the tu1lfloatingiype. This
meansthe pin is free to tum in both the conneciingrod
bushing and pision bushings.
The pistonis desigred to comeascloseaspossibleto
the .yhnder hedd \^rrhoutiou.hjn8 rt Thi- pressesas
much of the vapor into the high-pressureside aspossible.
When the piston is at top dead cenier (TDC) of its
stroke,there is a very small clearance.The clearancebe-
tween the piston and cylinder head is approximately
.010"to.020" (.254mln to.508 mm). The volume ofspace
createdis caled clealar& space.(Refff back to Figure
There is a valve plate under the cylinder head. It
has both the intake and exhaust valve located in it,
Figure 4-3s.
In hermeticsystems,the pistons and dnts, if used,
are constructedmuch the sameas thoseused in external-
ddve compressors.However, th€ hermetic compressom
usually run at a higher speedthan external-drivecom-
pressors. Therefore, the pistons are smaller in diameter Figure4-35. A crosssectionthrouEha compressor
and are made as light as possible.
Figure 4-36 illustrates a hermeiic compressor. It
uses a Scotch yoke piston arrangemeni. Fitur€ 4-37 Connectingrods for extemal-d ve comprcsso$are
shows a hermetic moior compressoi with four opposing usually made of drop forged steel.Cmnkshaftswith a
pistons on a flat Plane. thrcw use a connecting rod having a split lower end.
Connecting Rods This end clamps around the cmnkshaft journal. The rod
The connecting rcd attachesthe piston to the crank- bea ng must be {itted to a clearanceof about .001"
shaft.A conventionalconnectingrod is sho*.n in Fiture (.0254mrn). It is importani, therefore,that the bolts be
4-34. carefully tightened (torqued).
152 Modern Refriseraiionand Air Conditionng

Radus lo Outside
ol Journal
sp ng Figure4-38. Four cannectinqrods mauntedan ane
crankshaftjournal. ThisafianEementcaulclbe useclon
radial -type campressor.

Figure4-36. SinBle-cylinder hernetic campressarwith cnnkshaft is assembledto the eccentric.The consiruc-

Scotchyoke pistan cnnkcase mechanism.lAmericold iion is shown in Figure 4-39.
Conpressor Division of White Consolidatedlndustries,Inc.) A small piston and connectingrod assemblyused
in a hermetic unit is shown dismantled in Figure 4-40.
The connectint rcd is attached rigidly to a large piston
pin. It is attached by means of a locking pin and

Figure4-37. Fourapposingpistans-"Quadro-Flex."
The four opposing pistons on a flat plane recluce the
vibfttion ol the unit and, thereforc, it can be used lor
roaftop heat pump' (TecumsehProducts Company)

Figure4-39. EcceDtriccrankshaliassenbly.Note the

Figure 4-38 shows four connectint rods mounted clampin! cap scrcwsanclbalanceweights.
on one crankshaft journal. This arrangement could be
used in a Iadial or a V-tWe comPressor.
The eccentric-type conneciinS rod usually has a CylinderHead
cast iron bearing surface.The crankthrow end is a solid Cylinder headsfor both externaldrive and her-
Iing. It must be mounted on the eccentric before the meticcompresso$arc usuallymadeof castiron. The
C h a p t e r . l C o n r p e s s i oSnv n e m sa n d C o m p r e s o n

head servesas a pressureplate. It supports and holds

the vah'es and valve plate in posirion.lt abo provides
the vapor passagesinto and out of the compiessor.The
pressuresol compressionmay amount to as much as 300
psi (2170kPa). Thesepressuresdepend upon the kind
o{ reftigerani used.The \.ah,eplate musi, therefore,have
good suppori. There must be no teakageai the gaskets
on either side of the valve.
Tn some hermetic systems,the eniire compressor
housing is inside a dome. The enrire spacera,ithinthe
.lome is open to the suction 1ire. Consequentlt ihe
whole dome is under lon-side pressure.hr sucirsvstems,
r^ int.rlen-.iif^ld i. r.qurred.Or,1
"r ope rng intu thF
Intike \ alve r)r \.rhes is requircd.
The cvlinder head is usually attachedto the cvlin
$wa der with cap screr.s.Figure 4-41is a cutaway vie . of a
commercial multicylinder reciprocaiing hermetic com-

The suctionline connectsto the shutoff \'ah,eon the

right end. The exhaust,which connectsto ihe condenset
connectsto the discharSeshutoff valve (left end).
Note the location of the crankcasehearer (seeSec
tion'1.27).Also, note the dischargeheadersaleiv spring.
This relievesthe pressurein the cylinder if it exceedsa
safervorking limit. (This excessivepressuremav be due
to slugging of liquid refrigerantor refrigerantoil.)

Valvesand Valve Plates

Vah'eassembliesusually consistof a vah/eplaie, an
Fitur€ 4-40. A piston aftl cannectin! rod assenbly intake valr/e,an exharistvalve, and vah.e retainers.Re-
.//snrari/ed.Note tbe 5mallpln which locksthe ler to Figure 4-42.
cannectingrod lo a larEepitton pin. AIsanote lhe two Vah'eplatesare sometimesmade of castiron- Hard-
crp scrcfls used to aitdch thc cap to the ctankshaften.l ened stcel is also usect,as plates can be thinner s.ith
ot the canncctitlgr()d. longer wearing vah'e seats.

(Hshto Low) l!.T

OlPump ScavengerOll

Figure,1"41. A comntercial,hermeticreciprocatingcom\essot. lt hasfour banksaf twa cJtlindeseach (four

cannectiDgroclson each crankthrow)and is balterl lor easein servicing.
r54 Modern Refrlgeration
and Air Conditloning

Figure4-43, Somehpial,omprei,or rairp de.r8n..
A-Reed valve, spring-closed. B Poppet valve,
spting closecl. lt is used on some large compressots.
C-Reed valve. Ihe pressure difference ke,apsthe valve

The exhausi valve musi be fitted with special carc.

Figure4-42. Typicalcamprcssotvalveplate. Heavy It operatesat high temperaturesand must be leakproof
springson the exhaustvalvecagepemit a greatervalve against a relatively high pressure difference. Due to the
Iift to protect the compressor in case of severc liquid high vapor pressures and the high temperatures, there
rcfrigerant or oil punping. is a tendency for the hea\'l ends (h€avy molecules of hy
drocarbonoils) to collect on the valve and valve seatas
Compressor valves are usually made of high carbon
alloysteel.They are heattreatedio give drem the proper- The valvesopen about.010"(.254mm). ff the move-
iies of spling steel and ground to a pefectly flat surface. ment is more, a valve noise develops.I{ the movement
The intake valve is usually kept in place by small is too little, not enough vapor can move past the valve.
pins. It may also be kept in place by the clamping ac- In small high-speedhermetic compressors,the in-
tion between the compressorhead and valve p1ate.Ex- take valves are made very light. They are also made
haust valves may be clamped the same way. as large as possible. The cytinder intake valve is only
Somedifferent valve designs are dispiayed in Figure open a fraction of a second. The valve desiSn alows a
4-43. Figure 4-44 shows a typical valve plate assembly. greater amount of refritemnt vapor to enter during that
The valve disks or reeds must be perfectly flat. A
defectof only .0001"(.00254mm) will causeihe valve to CrankshaftSeal
leak. Some refriterating systemsuse an exiernal motor
Of the two valves-the intake and the exhaust-the (open-type) to drive the compressor.These systems need
intake valve pr€sents fewer problems. This is becauseit a leakproof joint where the cranlshaft comes out of the
is constantlylubdcated by oil cncuiating with the cool compressorcrankcase.This is absolutely necessaryas
reftigerant vapois. Also, it opemtes at a relaiively cool the pressuresvary greatly in the crankcase.Figure 4-45
illustratessome popular crankshaftseals.

L ili
r[ ]{
, /

Figute 4-44. Reciprocating compressor valve plate assenbly. (Carrier Corp., subsicliary of United TechnolagiesCorp.)
Chapter4 Compression
Systemsand Compressou

B ind Plug

O -BingShafl
'O -Bing
Shail Sea
O-Rig Gaskel

Shaft Shield

Lockng Ball
Bea ng SealKil



Fiture 4-45, Crankshaftseal constructionfor external-drivecompressors.
A-Seal usedin commercialcompressors.
(Mycon Corp.) B Seal useclwith an autamobile ait conditioning compressor (Ford Motors) C Replacemenl seal.
(ChicaBoValvePlate& SealCo.)D Bellaws-typeseal.

The seal is the place where the shali rotates part of an O-ring oI synthetic mate al. The other surface is sta-
the time and rests part oI the time. Therefore, ihe seal tionary and mounted on the housing with leakprcof gas-
must be carefully designedand installed. kefs. The su ace mate als are accurate to.000001t'
All seals use two rubbing surfaces. One surface (.0000254mm) and are optically flat. They are made of
turns with th€ cGnkhaft. It is sealed to the shaft with either hardened steel and brcnze, or ceraLmicsand
Modem RefriSeraiion
and Alr Conditioning

carbon. The two rubbing surfaces must be lubricated or oiher Most V-belt pulleys are made of cast iron. Some
they will wear and start to leak. are built up from stamped steel parts.
Teflon"' is often used as a gasket material on auto- crankshaft
mobile ai conditioning compressors.The ctankshalt seal Reciprocating compressors must change the rotaty
must operate at a high temperature. It is usually made motion of the motor inio reciprocating motion in the
of ceramicsand carbon. compressor.The crankthiow-connectingrod-pistoncom-
CompressorDrive (External-Drive) bination is most frequendy used. The crankshaft in these
External-drive compressors are usually d ven by a designs is usually made of Iorted or cast steel. ReIer to
V-beli. The V-belt provides a quiet, efficient ddve. Most Figure 4"47.
V-belts are ddven at less than the motor speed. This Some compresso$ use an eccentdc fastened to a
means that the motor belt pulley wil be smaller ihan siraight shaft. This is used in place of the conventional
the compressor pulley. The diameter of the motor ddve eccentric crankshaft. This constrdction is used to rcduce
puley and the compressor fl}'.wheel tovems the com- vibration. It also removes the need for conneciing rod
pressorspeect. caps and bolts. SeeFigurcs 4-48 and 4-39.
In large capacityinstallations,morc than one belt The crankshaft main bearints support the cmnk
may be used. This is necessaryin ord€r to transmit the They also musi carry any end load. Cnnkhaft and con-
required holsepower. Figure &46 lllustrates a two-belt, necting rod bearings are fitted with great accuracy.
extenal-ddve system. Clearancefor lubncation is usualy .001"(.0254mm). In
Pulleys must be in perfect alignment and proper external-ddvecompressors, vadous methodsare used to
tension must be provided on ihe beli. Pulley shafts attach ihe drive pulley to the crankhaft. These include
(motor and compressor) must be exacdy paralel to each a standad taper, a key, and a nuFlock washer combina-
Many hermetic systems use the cnnktlrow/crank-
shaft connectint rod/piston arrangement. See Figure

Eigwe4-47. Cankthrow-type crankshafl.

As the
Figure4-46, External-drive
compressor with tuva'belt crankshaftrevolves,a pi'ton reciprocates(movesup ancl
dive- Theservicetechnicianis turningover the belt to down). Thepistanpin ascillates(swingsback and fotth)
checkior cracksand excessivewear. as it reciprocateswith the piston. Thelower end of the
(TheOatesRubberCo.) connectingrod rotateswith the crankshaft.
Chapler4 CoilFe$lon Systennand CompresoE



Figure,t-48. Eccenttictype cli]nkshaftmechanisn.

Note lhni the ec.eriric /5 att,tchedto the cftinkshaftwith tigure 4-50. Hermeti. compressarusingScotchyc)ke
kcys ard a setscre\.r

Scotch Yoke a floaiing bearing. The Scotchyoke is popular in snall

Thc Scotchyoke mechanismis shown nl Figures high-speedcompressols.
4'49 and 4'50. There is no connectingrod. The cylinder
and piston are both quite long. Even at the lower end of SwashPlate
the stroke,ihe pision is guded by the cvlinder wall. The The reciprocatingcompressorused on many auto
crankshaitpin, also called the c/a,rktho?r/ connectsto mobile air condiiioning sysiems is known as a szodslr
the loser end of the piston. It is conneciedbv meansof pldte colnptessof,Ii is also knorvn as the zoobbleplate

F oatinqBearing

Figure4-49. Scolch),okemecharts/r Ltsedto connectpiston to crankshaft.No connectingrad is used.The pistotj

extendsta the yoke ne.hanisn and the campessarcylinderservesas a guide.A Showspiston at botton ai stroke
(endof intakestrckd. B-Shows plstan at top of strakelend af exhauststrcke).
Modenr Rciri8eat or iid Air Conditon nS

colnprcssor.No connectingrod is used in this tyPe of CompressorHousing-Crankcase

compressor.The cylindcr and pistonsare rnounted as in In both the external-driveand hermeticcornpressor,
Figure 4-51. the compressorhousing giv€s suppo . li supports ihe
As the shaft revoh'es,thc swash plate causesthc cylinders,crankshaft,\.alves,oil pump, lubricationlines,
pistlrns to reciprocate in the cylinders. Usually the and refriterant i et and exhaustopenings.
swash plate compressorhns three or more cvhlders. In henneticsysiens, the housin8 also supporis and
These c]'linders are arranged in a circle around the aligrs ihe ddving motor. Typical compressorhousing
drive shaft. designsare sho$,nin Figures 4-33and 4-50.
TlF,on-pre-.ori-doublF r n" - l h d r\ . . r t r . * Sone hermeticdesignsare boltecttogeiher and are
sion takes Placeai each end of ihe stroke.Therefore,a provided with service valvcs. Thcsc arc callcd se/"i.e-
three-cylindercornpressorgives a pumpilg action like dble helflletics,Figure 4-33. Man], hermetic housings,
d six-cylinderconventionalcompressorof the samecyl- particularly in the smallersizcs,arc .|\cldedtolicther.R€-
inder and siroke dimensions.This is an externaldrive fcr to Figures 4-27and 4-36.
cornpressoi.lt requires a seal r.hcre the drive shaft
passesthrough the .ompressorhousing. lntake and ExhauslPorts
Con\.entional cxternaldrive compressorspro\-ide
inlet and exhaust ports as part of the cl'linder hea.].
Thcsc pofis are usualltr fiticd with service valves. See
Figure 4-26.
\omr 'e rc . u r . ] l - r P * o r '. r l - r l r . t L . n i c e
valves.hr small hemetic compressors,the motor com
pressormechanismis enclosedin a rvelded dorne. fhe
inlct and exhausilines go directly ftorn the compressor
inlei and cxhrust port th.ough the compressordome.
Thev are not generallvsupplied rvith servicevalves.See
the line connectionsir Figure 4-50.

4.15.2 RotaryCompressors
RotnnJ colnprcssorsare commonly used to power
small refrigeratedappliancessuch as wnldot' air concli
iioners, packat€d terminal air condiiioners, anLl heat
pumps up to fivc tons. There ar€ tt'o basict,vpesof ro
tarv compressors:stationary blade and rotating blade.
The blades (\.anes)on a rotating blade rotarv cornprcs-
Plale Bearng sor roiatc h'ith the shafi.Tha stationarvbladehasa blade
i h J r r . n . - . - l r t r o r , l l r a n d . p d r l o i l h Fl - u u - .d , r - . c n ^ -
Figure4-51. CrasssectionthrcuBha s$,ashplate blv. In both types, the blade provides a continuousseal
reciprccalinBcampre\tar-As .hive shaliand swashplate for thc refrigeranivapor FiSure 4-52shows a q'pical ro-
rcvalve,dauble end piston is lnaved backand fotth in tating iwo-blade compressor The lorv'pressurevapor
from the suciion lin€ is drawn inio the oP€nht. The va-

. l

E e v.por
Low-P,essu I vapo'
u sn-e,""",re

Figure4-52. A rot,ltl blade compressot.Blackarr.)\rsindicatedirectianai rcution oi totar' Redanaws inclicate

reiigetant vapar llo\r.
Chapter4 Compression
andCompressors 159

por fills the spacebehind the blade as it revolves.As the

bladesrevolve, tmpped vapor in ihe spaceaheadof the
blade is compresseduntil it can be pushed lnto the ex-
haust line to the condenser
A commercialrotary blade compressotusing eight
blades,is pictured in Figure 4'53.The basicoperationo{
the eitht blade compressoris ihe sameas the two-blade.
Figure 4-54 ilhstrates a section through an eighi-
blade rota{r compressor.This is an external-drivecom-
pressor.The shaft seal is shown at the righi end.
Figure 4-55A shows the cylinder rvith the intake
and exhaustports. The relativepositionsofthe rotor and
cvlinder are sho\ .n in FiSure 4'558.


NolerSea at bolromof
I ro" e'"""r,"vupo'
E Hqn.p,essu,e

Figure4-.53. Eight-bladerataryconpressor.Blackarrow
indicatesdiection of rctation. Redarrowsshowdircction
afvapor flow lnlelpatt is much larqerthanexhaustport.
Largeinletpott is neeclecl
ta collectenouBhrcfrigerant
vaparfrcm thespatselow-pressure side(lightotue).
Figure4-55. Detail of cylindet and rotor shown jn
Figure4-54. A The insideof the c)'lindershowingpatt
openings.Note that the intakeports ate langet than the
exhaustports. B-Relative position of rotar and blades

Rotatin8 vane compressolsarc frequenily used as

ihe "booster" compressorin cascadesystems.This is the
ndmecomrlorly Br\Fn ro the fir-r.ompre-.or In d,d-

Thesecompressorshave three advantages:

. They provide a large size opening into the suction
. Tl-F) provideIdrge'iel porl openrng..
. They have a very small clearancevolume.
The low-side pressuremay be quite low The low-
side vapor will be dmwn inio the compressorunder a
very small pressurc difference. These comprcssors
Figure4-54, Sectionthrau,h ratatingvane campressor. provide a large opening into the compressortrom the
This is an externaldrive campressor.Note the shaft seal lo ' side. Thus, morc vapor will be drawn in on the
intake strcke. The cleamnce space prcvided in these
160 Modern Refrseratiof and Air Conditioning

comPresso$is small. Th€refore,aII the vapor dmwn in As the impeller (or rcller) rcvo]ves,the blade traps
on the intake stroke is pushed out on the exhaust quantities of vapor The vapor is comprcssedinto a
stroke. This increasesthe compressorefficiency. The smaller and smaller space.The pressuieand tempera-
cascadesystemis explainedin Chapter18. ture build up. Finally the vapor is forced ihrough the
Figuie 4-56 representsa stationary blade (often exhaustport. It ente$ the high-pressureside of the sys-
caled a divider block) rota:rycompressor.An eccentdc
shaftrotatesan impeller in a cylinder.This impeller con- The comprcssionaction on one quantity of vapor
stantly rubs againstth€ outer v/aII of the cylindex takesplace at the sametime anodler quantity of vapor


ldentificationof Parts

of lntake
Qompleiion CompessionSircke
1 Stoke,Beginningol 2 Conunued,

e) 9,r
,E gl

Conlinued, Compr€ssed ged
4 lo ihe Condenser,
Continued StrokeConiinued
Fiture 4-56. RotarycompressotStationaryblade or divider block is in contactwith an impeller.
r rdpl6 4 r o n o . p . . r o n5 \ . F n \ a - o ' o n - p r p . . o . .

is filling the cylinder on the intake stroke. A1l of rhe paris Rotor-Compressor
must be fiited to extremely close tolerances al1d clear Tntheroldfmgblddeconprelor, Inerotori>a fi\ed
ances.The dimensions are very accurateano me sur_ onrt oI lhe \l-df . Tl'e roro. rengrhmJ,t be a.( irJrp ,u
taces quite smooih. Thercfore, no gaskets are needed in .0005"(.0127mm). Usually the slois for the bladesare on
the compressor assembiy.
a mdius to the center of the shaft. To lower the starting
Figure 4-57 shows a hermetic rotary compressor
load..one desigrpuh .he\rot. rt dn anglF.Thi. pre\ent:
using a stationaryblade (dividing biock). In rotary com_
lhebl.de, from rou.hint LhFL) tinder;Hr ihFLomprey
pre5sorr,.he.l rahe. are usualll u-ed in Ine.ucrion
sor nearsits operaiingspeed.
lirF. The) pre\en, lhe high-pressure r.por .rnd cor_ In the stationary blade compressor,the rotor (some
D e-.or oit ro-r tlos ing b"cl ilto I re e\ npordtor
ti-ne, cnllFdthe inpellert nccurdtel\f,ls lhe pc(eItric.
RotaryCylinderConstruction The eccentrrcrs a Iired part ot rhe shaft.
Rotaiy cylindersare usuattymade ofcasriron. Each Figure 4-54illustratesa popular iype of rotor con_
i. d.cr -dtel)T.chrned.nored,.jnd dDped,frni,heJ/on struction used on €xtemal-drive commerciatcompres_
the mner surtaceand on the ends. sors. Figure_4s8 ilustrates a srationary-bladerorary
All cylinders have intake and exhaustporrs. rome con pre\sor.Ihr. i. a hermefic.ompres.oru.po bot\ in
models hale oii passagesfor lubrication.Citinders are retri8erafionand air condirjonmgurts
usually moulted on an end plate, which is part of the Blade(Vane)Construction
mam compressor crankcase. Refriterant passages con_ Rordrng b .nore
tinue into the end piate "de compre-.or- uce r!\o or
blrde,. Figure4-5s.l.r. B. :how. a rotor w LhF gt-l L,f
The exhaustvalve reed is mounted on the exhaust them. Thesebladesmay be made of cast iror! steel atu,
polt outlet of the compressor.It is mounted as closeto minum, or carbon.
the compressionchamberaspossible.Four or morebolts T].c compre.-o ettic:encydeDend-g'e,ity on ihe
hold the cylinder to ihe main palt of ihe compressor. , ondihor of the blndeedgetr hereir rLb5on ,he c\ liI
One or more steel dowel pills help align the cylin- der. The blade must be very accriratetyground. It must
der on the back plaie. Anotheiaccurately fiLished ptate be ground to fit the slots, the €nds of the cylinder, and
sealsthe other end of the cvtinder other contact surfaces wiih the cylinder

4.15.3 ScrollCompressors
Tne scloll colnpressol is commonly used in rcsiden-
ria air,ondilion ng and hea.punp rdtion. Ben-
efitc of rhF scroll :n,ludp feuer morirg pan>. tes-
intemal frictlo0 smooth comptession cycle with low
torqre, low noise levels, and low \,ibration levels.
A scroll compressor generates a sedes of crescent-
shap€d gas pockets between tvlo scrolls,Figur€ +S9.
One scro11-the fixed scroll-remains srahonary The

Sige Blad€

Anachng Cap Soew -_

-1/,, Q

si .g
tigure4-57. Hermetic,
rotary Figure4-58. A hermeticstationaty-blade
Products Company)
162 Modern Refrigeration
and Air Condiioning

ffinton eresswevaoor
Figure4-59. Compressianin the scrcll is causetlby the
interactionof an otbiting scroll mated within a statianary
scroll. l-Cas is drawn into an outer openingas one ot
the scrcllsorbits.2 As the orbiting mc)tioncontinues,
Figure4-61, scrollcompressor
usedin light
, onmFrcial tn.tdlldtioa".Notp thc I omprc.-ion drca
the apen passaBeis sealecloff and the Eas is forced to (CopeIand Corporation)
the centerof the scroll.3 Thepocket becames
proetessivelysmallin valume. This createsincreasingly
higher Baspressures.4-Discharge pressure is reached pressure-It is dischargedout of the centerPoft. During
at the centet of the pocket. Cas is releasedfron the port this compression process, several pockets are being
af the stationaryscroll member.5 In actualaperation, formed at the same time. The suction process from the
sixBaspassaEes are in variousstagesof comprcssionat outer portion of the scroll and the discha€e Ircm the
all times.Thiscteatesnea y continuoussuctionand inner ponion are continuous. This continuous Process
discharge.(LennoxIndustries,1nc.) gives the compressor very smooth action,
Scrotl compr€ssor design is shown in Figur€ 4-60.
A scrcIl compressor used on domestic room afu condi-
other scroll-the orbiting scroll rotates through the use tione$ is shown in FiSur€ 4-61. A scloll compressor
of the swing link. As ihe motion occurs,the pocketsbe- designed for commercial installahons is shown in
tween the two foms are slowly pushed to the center of Figure 4-62. It has a low sound level. Note the compres-
ihe two scrolls.This reducesthe gas volume. When ihe sor comes equipped with service valves on ihe inlet and
pocket reachesthe center of the scrcll, the gas is at a high outlet sides.

Sl.tonary A Sfio!l

Fieure4-60. Scroll compressor design.A Two scrallsare usedta praduceavapor compression.The uppet scroll is-
s;tianaN and the lowet scroll dtiren. Note intakeand discharSeports. B Note how the rctation of the motar shaft
causesthe obiting scroll to otbit-not rctate abaut the shaft center lThe TraneCo )
Chapter4 Compre* on SysteN and Conrpre$o6 163

Figure 4-63illustratesa crosssectionoIa screwcornpres

sor.The two roton are not the sameshape.One is male,
ihe other female.TIe male rotor A, is driven bv ttre mo-
t u - . . 1h ; - f o r - r ' , , b e .l.l . e f p n . i e r o . o r B , n e . l e . u i t h
and is driven by the male rotox lt has six nrtertobe
spaces-The cylinder,C, enclosesboth toto$.
In Jpe.dlion.lhF -e - Bef. r. \dp^r i- or.,\ r rn \
.',\r n in Figure4-64.Tl^, int )Le '1,,h'p.e*u-p v-p.r,
enters ai one end of the compressorand is discharged
(compressedvapor) at the oppositeend.
The male rotor revolves more raDidlv than the
female rotox (There are four lobes onihe mate roror
and six on the fenale rotor.) The roiors are helixes.
They provide a continrous punping action rather than
pulsatjng as with a reciprocaiinilcompressor.With this

Figure4-62. Hentetically sealedscr.)llcompressor.

Nole ihe /ocaiin oi the setvi(e valvesfot easeof

The scroll compressorhas fewer mo\.ing parts and

less torclue variation ihan reciprocating compressors.
This resulis in very smooth and quiet operation.

4.15.4 ScrewCompressors
Scre$'compressorsare often used in large capacitlr
systemsranging from 20 to 300 tons. Thev are oflered
as open, e\ternallv driven cornpressors,or hermetic,
iernally-ddven compressors.Open screh'conpressors
afe most often used 'ith ammonia svstems.Herrneiic
scre$, compressorsare us€d with halocarbonrefriger-
Figur€4-63. Crcsssectionaf screv/compressar.
The screw compressoruses a pair of special hel- A Male rctot. B-Fenale rctor.C CylindeL Vaparized
ical rotors. These trap and cornpress ak as they reiigerant entersat ane end and exhaustsat ather end.
revolve in ar1accuraielyrnachinedcomprcssorcylinder (ABB StalRetriEeratian Caryoratian)


Figure4-6,1. Basicoperationof screw conprcssor.Revolvingrator conrpresses yapor A Canprcssotinterlabe

spacesbeing iilled. B Beginninqof canptessior. C-Ful/ coDrpression oi tapped vapaLD Beginningaf discllarge
oi.anprcssed vapaLE Conpressedvapor fully clischareed frcn interlabespaces.(Dunhan-Bush,lnc.)
164 Modern Refrigeration
and Air Conditjoning


Capaciy Motor,Driven
Conirc [4ateFoior

whichuaesa matchedsetof helicalrotors.(Dunham-Bush,

Figure4-65, Sctewcomptessor lnc )

pumping action, there is very litile vibration during

Figure 4-65 illushates a cutaway view of an
extemal-drive sclew compressor. It is Powercd by an
extemal-electdc motor, which drives the drive shaft.
As prcviously mentioned, the motor ddves the maie
rotor. Two matched helical roto$ Inale and female-
turn together This action traps and compresses the
reftiseiant. Th€ male rotor in the illushaiion is an
exieision of the drive shafi. The other rotor is made io
tum bv the action of the male rotor. A conhol device
mouni;d outside the housing regulat€s the capacity oI
the unit.
A hermetic screw compressor is shown in Figure
4-66. lts inlet pot is located at right an81esto the rotors.
Tle outlei port is throuSh the motor housing. Its capac-
ity control d€vice is mounted inside the housing. This
Lapacitycontrol slide in lhe housing wall is used to vary
the capa.ity of the screw compre$or. thi! provides a
unique reatureof t}\e screw.its abiliLy to control capac-
ii) ihrough inlinitel) variable unloadinS.Such d design
allows for smooth, accurate conirol of temperatrre in the
conditioned space.The pumping aciion ol the comPres-
Figure4-66. HermeticscrewcompressotNotevapor
9or is continuous, creating very little vibmtion durinS
injection usedto incrcasecapacitywithout comparable
Figue 4-67 illustates a 3600-rym, single screw
incteasein power. (HartfotdCompressors Inc )
compressor. It utiljzes one main rotor that meshes with
two diametrically opposed star-shaped Sate rotols.
The main rctor contains six gtooves. It has sEaight
roller bearings at the shaft ends. Two capacity control Many scrcwcompresso$operatewith oil injechon
slide valves, one on each side, helP io determine the This sealsthe clearancebetweenthe rotors and between
capacity control. FiSure 4-68 is a comPlete single the rotors and the cylinder It also h+s cool the com-
screw compiessor unit using a micrcprocessol control prcssor.The efficiency of these comprcssoisis quite
Chapter,l Compression
Systemsand CompressoE

FiSlre 4'67- sinElescrew camptessor.Note the locationof the nain rotor in retationto the two gate rotors.(viltel
ManutactuI ing Corporati on)

as it is moved npidly in a circular path. This action is

called centrifugal lorce. (However, the corect term is
The vapor is fed into a housing near the center of
the compressor A disk rfith mdial blades (impellers)
spins iapidly in this housing.This forcesvapor against
the outer diameter,
The pressure gained is small, so several of these
compressor wl€els or impellerc are put in se es. This
creates greater pressurc difference and pumps a suffi-
cient volum€ of vapor. A centrifugal comprcssor looks
like a steam turbine or axial flow air compressorfor a
gas iuibine engine.
The cenirifugal compressorhas the advantage of
simplicity. There are no valves or pistons and cylinders.
Figure:l-68. A commercialsinglescrew comptessol The only wearint pa s are the main bearints. Pumping
system. (Vilter Manufacturinq Corporation) efficiency increases r .ith speed, so ihe compressors are
designedto operateat high speeds.
Figure 4-70 is a cross sectionthrough a iwo-stage
Figure 4'59 illustlatesa pair of screwlype rotors in cenhifugal compressor.The driving motor is mounted
operatint position. Sincescrew compressorsoperateat betweenstages.The inlet is at the left on the illustration.
Iairly high speed,adequatebearingsare neededfor good The dischargeis in ihe back ai the right end of the ilus'
rotor bearing life. tration and is not shown.
Figure 4-71 pictures a centritugal compressor
4.15.5 CentrifugalCompressors mounted in a rcfriterating system. A cutaway view
for usewith showing the refrigeEnt as it passes through the system
large-capacitysystemsranging in size ftom 50 to 5,000 is illustrated in Figure 4-718. The compressorcontinu-
tons. In this type of compressor.vapor moves outward ously dmws rcftigerant vapor ftom the cooler As the
166 Modern Relrigerailonrnd Air Conditionng

Figure4-69. Sctewcampressotwith natchecl setof helicalrotors.Designedto operatewith anmonia, R-l34a,

someother typesof rcfriqetants.(ABB Stal Refrigeration Carporation)

Figure4-70. Iwo-stagecenttiiu]al camprcssot.1 Second-stage vatiableinlet guide vane 2 Fist-sk]e impeller'

3 Secon(l+taqe impeller.!-Watercoaled motaL 5 Base,ail tank,and lubricatingoil punp assenbly 6-Fiststage
guide vanesand capacityconttol. 7 Labyrinthseal.I Crassover cannectian 9 Cuide vaneactuatar'10 Volute
casing.11-PressurelubricatedsleevebeatinS.Note that dischargeopening is not shown.
[/]icoF o.essor Conlro

)5"F CEndenser


,rar5 System
-J7 r chiiled

Figure4-71. H(\netic cen ifLtg.lli.tLtidrhiller. singlert;Be .on)!r.iidr l/r.Jtr,scs R I J',1, A Note rhe rse oi .r
,t)ti.tr.\L\sat rontrol.ts Rettiqe"'l]t
llow tlia,r';]n)
rharing syslc/,) opc,"lior. lcarri.-r Coeontiotl. Subtidt,jt \, ol
I Ic.htloloEi(s Caryat.ltnn)

.Lrmpressofsu.tion ..dures the pressllreln ih. coder, compressorinto th€ condens€r. Cooledwatcr fl(njng
th€ remainnrgreirigcr,nntboils ofi. Energ\'requircd fof i.io the co.densef tuLr€irem.r|es heat tiorr thc rcfrig-
bojling is obtrincll fflnn the 1\.rterflol\'nrg throu:lh the eLailt.ll1e vapor corlctenses to a liquid. Thf liquxt re
cool€r lub€s. \\Jiih the heat enefg\' rcmor cd, ihe rv.tel irigernnt passes through the oriflccs inkr the flash
b..Lrrnescolclenorgh for rtsein an air ronditioning cir- sr.lllc.rolcrchanbcr. Piirt of th. li.luid flashesto r apoa
.'rit. Aft€r rerlto\.inghe.1tfrorn thc r{ iicrt the rcirieefant . o o l r f. l - n r '. ,r l-.l.-. .',. ' l
rapor is tlrlnplcsscd. ii is th€n dischargeclironr the densed or1 thc iubc\, rlhi.h nrc .dned b\. entefxrg
r6B M o d e r nR e f r i S