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Official Language: Arabic (English & French are widely

Capital: Cairo

Area: 1,001, 450 sq km Water: 6000 sq km

Calling Code: +20 Population: 76.5 million (2006)

Coast line: 2450 km Land Boundaries: 2665 km

Foreign population: 0.36% of the total population Population abroad: 3.9 million

Voltage: the voltage is always 220 in all tourist Population Density: 74 / km2

Public Holidays:
(Please visit www.worldtravelguide.net)

ë Historically, Egypt is universally acknowledged as the world's most ancient state

for its distinct 7,000-year-old record of civilization.

ë It is one of the oldest cultures and civilizations in the world and is the world's 38th
largest country.

ë Having the only direct connection from the Indian Ocean to the Mediterranean
Sea, Egypt is the most geo-strategically positioned country in the Middle East. It
also includes the Sinai Peninsula (a land bridge to Asia).

ë Egypt covers an area of about 1,001,450 square kilometers. Its borders are Libya
to the West, Sudan to the South, Gaza Strip & Israel to the East.

ë The Northern Coast borders the Mediterranean Sea. The Eastern Coast borders
the Red Sea.

ë Egypt's Capital is Cairo, which has been a cross roads of regional commerce and
culture for centuries, and its intellectual and Islamic institutions are the center of
the region's social and cultural development.

ë Cairo is the largest city in Africa and the Middle East.

ë Egypt is divided into 26 governorates, (called Muhafazat in Arabic). These

governorates are further divided into regions.

ë Each governorate has a capital.


Alexandria Alexandria Northem

Aswan Aswan Upper

Asyut Asyut Upper

Beheira Damanhur Lower

Beni Suef Beni Suef Upper

Cairo Cairo Middle

Dakahlia Mansura Lower

Damietta Damietta Lower

Faiyum Faiyum Upper

Gharbia Tanta Lower

Giza Giza Upper

Ismailia Ismailia Canal

Kafr el-Sheikh Kafr el-Sheikh Lower

Matruh Mersa Matruh Westem

Minya Minya Upper

Monufia Shibin el-Kom Lower

New Valley Kharga Westem

North Sinai Arish Sinai

Prot Said Prot Said Canal

Qalyubia Banha Lower

Qena Qena Upper

Red Sea Hurghada Eastem

Sharqia Zagazig Lower

Sohag Sohag Upper

South Sinai el-Tor Sinai

Suez Suez Canal

'   a 
Cairo - Alexandria 218

Cairo - Suez 140

Cairo - Sharm El Sheikh 481

Cairo - Hurghada 510

Cairo Airport - Cairo Center 22

Cairo Center - Giza Pyramids 10

Cairo Center - Sakkara 24

Cairo - Aswan 926

Cairo - Luxor 679

Aswan - Luxor 247

Aswan - Hurghada 528

Luxor - Hurghada 281

Aswan - Abu Simbel 309

Sharm El Sheikh - Dahab 95

Sharm El Sheikh-Ras Mohamed 53

St.Catherine - Taba 173

Taba - Nuweiba 63

Nuweiba - Dahab 50

CAIRO - Bahariya Oasis 365

Bahariya Oasis - Farafra Oasis 180

Bahariya - White Desert 140

Bahariya- Siwa (OFF-ROAD) 420

CAIRO - Siwa Oasis 800


CAIRO - KHARGA Oasis 550

KHARGA Oasis ± LUXOR 300

CAIRO - Wadi Rayan Fayoum


ë Temperature in summer ranges from 27 C to 32 C ad up to 43 C in the Red

Sea Coast. In winter, temperature falls between 13 C and 21 C.

ë The "Khamaseen" wind blows from the South in Egypt in spring, bringing sand
and dust and sometimes raises the temperature in the desert to more than 38

ë Egypt doesn't receive much rainfall except in the winter months. Most of the
rainfall is between October and March.

Cairo Alex. Luxor Aswan Hurghada Sharm

Min/ Min/ Min/ Min/ Air/ Air/
Max Max Max Max Water Average Water Average

Forecast Forecast Forecast Forecast Forecast Forecast

Jan C 8.6/19.1 9.3/18.3 5.4/23 8/23.8 24/18 24/18

F 47/66 49/65 42/74 46/75 75/64 75/64

Feb C 9.3/21 9.7/19.2 6.8/25.4 9.4/26.1 25/18 25/18

F 48/69 49/67 44/78 49/79 77/64 77/64

March C 11.2/23.7 11.3/21 10.7/29 12.6/30.4 26/20 26/20

F 52/75 52/70 51/84 54/86 79/68 79/68

April C 13.9/28.2 14.5/23.6 15.7/35 17.5/36 31/25 31/25

F 56/83 58/75 60/95 63/97 88/77 88/77

May C 17.4/32.4 16.7/26.5 20.7/39.3 21.1/38.5 35/26 35/26

F 63/90 62/80 69/103 71/101 95/79 95/79

June C 19.9/34.5 20.4/28.2 22.6/41 24.2/42.1 37/28 37/28

F 68/95 69/83 72/107 76/108 99/82 99/82

July C 21.5/35.4 22.7/29.6 23.6/40.8 24.5/42 40/28 40/28

F 71/96 73/86 74/106 76/108 107/82 107/82

Aug C 21.6/34.8 22.9/30.4 23.5/41 24.7/41.3 42/29 42/29

F 71/95 73/87 74/107 76/107 108/84 108/84

Sept C 19.9/23.3 21.3/29.4 21.5/38.5 22.2/39.6 38/27 38/27

F 68/89 71/85 71/101 72/103 100/81 100/81

Oct C 17.8/29.8 17.9/27.7 17.8/35.1 19.3/36.6 32/25 32/25

F 64/86 64/82 64/95 66/99 90/77 90/77


Egyptian population is concentrated along the narrow Nile valley and delta. Approximately 99% of the population lives
on 5.5% of the total land area. Moreover, about half of the residents live in urban areas.

4    4    !"!

Cairo is the governorate with the largest reported

population growth percentage (10.7%); followed by
Giza (8.64%) and Sharqiya (7.36%).

Southern Sinai, the New Valley and the Red Sea are
the governorates with the lowest population increase


ë In Egypt, there is a surplus of both skilled and unskilled labor.

ë Egypt's workforce is close to 22 million inexpensive labor. The growth of labor force is 2.5% annually on

ë  a  #$% 

private 66% / public 34%

ë  a  #$%&

Services 58% / Agriculture 30% / Industry 12%

ë 4  '()   $   "ï 


ë Through Egypt runs the River Nile starting from the Great Lakes in the heart of Africa, through northern
Sudan where the Ethiopian tributaries collecting rain water flows into its main course.

ë Apart from the Nile Valley, the majority of Egypt's landscape is sandy deserts.

ë Egypt is divided into 4 broad regions:

- The Western Desert, which occupies almost 2/3 of the total area.
- The Eastern Desert
- The Sinai Peninsula
- Nile Valley & Delta, which is a very populated area.

()* '

Extends from the Nile Valley in the East to the Libyan borders in the west, and from the Mediterranean in the
north to Egypt's Southern borders. It is divided into:

- The Northern section: includes the coastal plane, the northern plateau and the Great Depression, Natroun
Valley and Baharia Oasis.
- The Southern section: includes Farafra, Kharga, Dakhla, and el-Owainat in the extreme south.

()+ ' 

Extends from the Nile Valley in the West to the Red Sea, Suez Gulf, and Suez Canal in the East, and from Lake
Manzala on the Mediterranean in the North to Egypt's southern borders with Sudan in the south. The Eastern
Desert is marked with the Eastern Mountains that extend along the Red Sea with peaks that rise to about 3000
feet above sea level.
ë ()%  4 

Sinai is shaped like a triangle with its base at the Mediterranean in the North and its tip in the South at Ras
Mohammed, the Gulf of Aqaba to the East and the Gulf of Suez and Suez Canal to the west.It is
topographically divided into the folling main sections:

- The Southern Section: is an extremely tough terrain composed of high rise Granite Mountains. Mount
Catherine rises about 2640 meters above sea level, which makes it the highest mountain top in Egypt .

- The Central Section: is bounded by the Mediterranean to the North and the At-Teeh plateau to the south. It
is a plain area with abundant water resources derived from rain water that flows from southern heights to the
central plateau.

(), -$#' 
Extends from north of the valley to the Mediterranean Sea and is divided into Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt:
extending from Wadi Halfa to the south of Cairo and from North Cairo to the Mediterranean Sea.

. +&$ -  & 

Non-Egyptian visitors arriving in Egypt are required to be in possession of a valid passport. Entry visas may be
obtained from Egyptian Diplomatic and Consular Missions Abroad or from the Entry Visa Department at the
Travel Documents, Immigration and Nationality Administration (TDINA). It is, however, possible for most
tourists and visitors to obtain an entry visa at any of the Major Ports of Entry. Please check with the nearest
Egyptian Consulate for specific details and regulations relevant to your nationality.


ë Those in possession of a residence permit in Egypt are not required to obtain an entry visa if they
leave the country and return to it within the validity of their residence permit or within six months,
whichever period is less.

() ) $ +&$  

ë Tourist Visa: is usually valid for a period not exceeding three months and granted on either single or
multiple entry basis.

ë Entry Visa: is required for any foreigner arriving in Egypt for purposes other than tourism, e.g. work,
study, etc. The possession of a valid Entry Visa is needed to complete the residence procedure in
Egypt .

ë Transit Visa.

‰/ 4   + $ +&$ 


ë Cairo International (2 terminals)

ë Alexandria Nozha
ë Luxor , Upper Egypt
ë Aswan , Upper Egypt
ë Hurghaga, Red Sea
ë Sharm El-Sheikh, South Sinai

Marine Harbors:

ë Alexandria , Mediterranean
ë Port Said , Mediterranean
ë Damietta , Mediterranean
ë Suez , Gulf of Suez
ë Nuweiba, Gulf of Aqaba
ë Hurghada, Red Sea
ë Safaga, Red Sea
ë Sharm El-Sheikh, Red Sea

Overland Entry Posts:

ë Salloum, northwestern border (to and from Libya )

ë Rafah, northeastern border (to and from Gaza strip, the Occupied Territories
and Israel )
ë Taba, eastern border (to and from Israel )

- 1
Egyptian visa fees do not apply to the following:

ë Holders of diplomatic passports.

ë Officials of international organizations and specialized agencies and state
delegates to conferences.
ë Arab League officials.
ë Non-national spouses of Egyptian nationals.
ë Non-national members of the clergy, prominent scientists, journalists and
members of official cultural, educational and sports delegations.
ë Non-national students studying in Egyptian institutions.
ë Non-diplomatic personnel of diplomatic and consular missions affected in
Egypt .
ë Parents, siblings and adult children of members of the diplomatic and
consular corps affected in Egypt .
ë Nationals of Cyprus , Denmark , Finland , Germany , Norway , Russia and
the United States are partially exempt from Egyptian visa fees and will,
therefore, pay a reduced fee.

  # +&$  1  &, 

Egypt grants legitimate foreign nationals the right for temporary residence in the
country. There are two main cases of residency permits in Egypt :

ë Special Residence: is usually granted for a period of 10 years, renewable.

Special residence is granted to those born in Egypt prior to 26/5/1952 or those
having resided in the country for the 20 years preceding 26/5/1952 and whose
stay has been uninterrupted; it is also granted to their wives and minor

ë Ordinary Residence: is granted for a period of either 3 or 5 years.

Non-nationals are entitled to obtain temporary 3-year residence (renewable) in Egypt
if they belong to any of the following categories:

ë Non-national husbands of Egyptians.

ë Children:
o - Minor children entitled to special or ordinary residence in like manner to
their deceased father.
o - Adult children whose father is entitled to special, ordinary or 3-year
residence provided a source of income is available to them.
o - Adult Palestinian male children of those employed by the Department for
the Governor General of Gaza , or of those retired there from, who have
completed their studies and are not working in the country.

ë Those employed by the government, public institutions, public sector

companies and public business sector.

ë Palestinians employed by the Department for the Governor General of Gaza

and those retired there from.

ë Palestinians in possession of travel documents issued solely by Egyptian

authorities who have been resident in Egypt for a period of 10 years.

ë Non-nationals who receive a monthly pension from the National Authority for
Insurance and Pensions.

ë Non-national residents of homes for the elderly and disabled.

ë Political refugees.

ë Refugees registered at the UN Higher Commission for Refugees (UNHCR).

ë Spouses of those non-nationals entitled to special or ordinary residence.

ë Egyptian spouses who forfeited their nationality of origin following marriage to

non-nationals and the acquisition of the latter's citizenship.

ë Spouses and children of those non-nationals exempt from residence permits

and restrictions.

ë Non-nationals who, for any reason, waived their entitlement to special or

ordinary residence.

ë Those non-nationals employed by the Swiss Institute for Architectural and

Archeological Research in Egypt .

ë Non-nationals who, according to international treaties, are entitled to obtain 3-

year residence.

ë Those granted approval on 3-year residence from the Ministry of Interior.

ë Spouses and children of those non-nationals entitled to 3-year residence under

any of the previous cases.

Non-nationals are entitled to obtain temporary 5-year residence (renewable) in Egypt
if they belong to any of the following categories:

ë Investors.

ë Egyptians and their minor children who forfeited their nationality of origin due
to their admission to a foreign citizenship.

ë Children:
o - Of Egyptian mother.
o - Whose father was granted Egyptian citizenship.
o - Adult children whose mother is entitled to special, ordinary or 5-year
residence in case of the death of the father.

ë Those of age 60 or more who have been resident in Egypt for 10 years
provided that a source of income is available to them.

ë Non-nationals who, according to international treaties, are entitled to obtain 5-

year residence.

ë Spouses and widows of Egyptians.

ë Spouses of those non-nationals entitled to ordinary residence.

ë Spouses and children of those non-nationals entitled to 5-year residence under

any of the previous cases.

Useful link to Egyptian travel websites: jjj  
[ The Egyptian
Tourist authority]

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