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PAST

 EXAMINATION  QUESTONS  
 
1.   An  ideal  gas  expands  in  an  adiabatic  turbine  from  1200  K,  600  kPa  to  700  K.  Determine  
the   turbine   inlet   volume   flow   rate   of   the   gas,   in   m3/s,   required   to   produce   turbine   work  
output  at  the  rate  of  200  kW.  The  heat  capacity  of  the  ideal  is  3.5R  and  the  molecular  
weight  is  60.    
 
2.   Two  kilograms  per  minute  of  fuel  composed  of  sixty  percent  by  mole  of  butane  and  40%  
by  mole  pentane  is  fed  to  the  reactor  at  25oC  and  1  bar.  One  hundred  percent  excess  air  
is  used  to  burn  the  fuel.  The  air  also  enters  the  reactor  at  25oC  and  1  bar.  What  is  the  heat  
effect   (heat   added   or   removed)   to   the   reactor   per   minute   if   the   combustion   products  
leave  at  100oC  and  1  bar?      
 
3.   Air  enters  a  pipe  at  50°C  and  200  kPa  and  leaves  at\  40°C  and  150  kPa.  It  is  estimated  that  
heat  is  lost  from  the  pipe  in  the  amount  of  3.3  kJ  per  kg  of  air  flowing  in  the  pipe.  The  
diameter  ratio  for  the  pipe  is  D1(inlet)/D2(outlet)=  1.8.  Using  constant  specific  heats  for  
air  of  Cp=3.5R,  determine  the  inlet  and  exit  velocities  of  the  air.    
 
4.   Helium   gas   is   compressed   from   90   kPa   and   30°C   to   50   kPa   in   a   reversible,   adiabatic  
process.  Determine  the  final  temperature,  the  work  done  and  the  entropy  generation,  
assuming  the  process  takes  place  (a)  in  a  piston–cylinder  device  and  (b)  in  a  steady-­‐flow  
compressor.    
 
5.   Steam   enters   an   adiabatic   turbine   at   7   MPa,   600°C,   and   80   m/s   and   leaves   at   50   kPa,  
150°C,  and  140  m/s.  If  the  power  output  of  the  turbine  is  5  MW,  determine  (a)  the  mass  
flow  rate  of  the  steam  flowing  through  the  turbine  and  (b)  the  isentropic  efficiency  of  the  
turbine.    
 
6.   Consider  two  Carnot  heat  engines  operating  in  series.  The  first  engine  receives  heat  from  
the  reservoir  at  1800  K  and  rejects  the  waste  heat  to  another  reservoir  at  temperature  T.  
The  second  engine  receives  this  energy  rejected  by  the  first  one,  converts  some  of  it  to  
work,   and   rejects   the   rest   to   a   reservoir   at   300   K.   If   the   thermal   efficiencies   of   both  
engines  are  the  same,  determine  the  temperature  T.    
 
7.   A  homeowner  is  trying  to  decide  between  a  high  efficiency  natural  gas  furnace  with  an  
efficiency  of  97  percent  and  a  ground-­‐source  heat  pump  with  a  COP  of  3.5.  The  unit  costs  
of  electricity  and  natural  gas  are  PhP  4.05/kWh  and  PhP  62.48/therm  (1  therm=  105,500  
kJ).  Determine  which  system  will  have  a  lower  energy  cost.    
 
8.   An   irreversible   heat   engine   takes   heat   from   a   constant-­‐temperature   (1800   K)   source,  
rejects   some   energy   as   waste   heat   to   a   constant-­‐temperature   (900K)   reservoir,   and  
delivers  the  balance  as  work  into  a  transmission.  The    energy  out  of  the  transmission  is  
used   to   drive   an   irreversible   refrigerator,   which   pumps   590   kJ/cycle   of   heat   from   a  
constant-­‐temperature   (200   K)   source   into   the   reservoir   at   900   K.   If   the   engine   has   an  
efficiency   of   90%   of   that   of   a   reversible   engine   operating   between   the   same  
temperatures,   the   COP   of   the   refrigerator   is   1.65,   and   the   total   heat   input   into   the  
common  reservoir  is  1500  kJ/cycle,  determine  (a)  the  work  output  (kJ/kg)  of  the  engine  
into  the  transmission,  (b)  the  heat  (kJ/cycle)  into  the  engine,  and  (c)  the  percentage  of  
work  input  to  the  transmission  that  is  lost.      
 
9.   Water  contained  in  a  piston–cylinder  assembly  undergoes  two  processes  in  series  from  
an  initial  state  where  the  pressure  is  10  bar  and  the  temperature  is  400oC.  
Process  1–2:  The  water  is  cooled  as  it  is  compressed  at  a  constant  pressure  of  10  bar  to  
the  saturated  vapor  state.  
Process  2–3:  The  water  is  cooled  at  constant  volume  to  150oC.  
 
(a)  Sketch  both  processes  on  T–V  and  P–V  diagrams.  
(b)  For  the  overall  process  determine  the  work,  in  kJ/kg.  
(c)  For  the  overall  process  determine  the  heat  transfer,  in  kJ/kg.    
 
10.  Ten   kg   of   ethane   per   minute   is   burned   in   an   adiabatic   reactor.   Seventy-­‐five   %   excess   air  
is  supplied.  If  the  fuel  and  the  air  are  supplied  both  at  125oC  and  1  bar,  determine  the  
exit  temperature  of  combustion  product.  Assume  the  following:    the  reactor  is  maintained  
at  1  bar;  the  combustion  is  complete;  water  exited  the  reactor  as  water  vapor.      
 
11.  Steam  enters  a  turbine  operating  at  steady  state  with  a  mass  flow  rate  of  4600  kg/h.  The  
turbine   develops   a   power   output   of   1000   kW.   At   the   inlet,   the   pressure   is   60   bar,   the  
temperature  is  400oC,  and  the  velocity  is  10  m/s.  At  the  exit,  the  pressure  is  0.1  bar,  the  
quality  is  0.90,  and  the  velocity  is  50  m/s.  Calculate  the  rate  of  heat  transfer  between  the  
turbine  and  surroundings,  in  kW.  Determine  the  entropy  generation  if  the  temperature  
of  the  surroundings  is  30oC.  What  is  the  isentropic  efficiency  of  the  turbine?      
 
12.  Propane  vapor  enters  a  valve  at  1.6  MPa,  70oC,  and  leaves  at  0.5  MPa.  If  the  propane  
undergoes  a  throttling  process,  what  is  the  temperature  of  the  propane  leaving  the  valve,  
in   oC?   .     What   is   the   entropy   generation   if   the   temperature   of   the   surroundings   is   30oC?  
Assume  propane  behaves  like  an  ideal  gas  with  Cp=3.5R.    
 
13.  An   irreversible   heat   engine   takes   heat   from   a   constant-­‐temperature   (1800   K)   source,  
rejects   some   energy   as   waste   heat   to   a   constant-­‐temperature   (900K)   reservoir,   and  
delivers  the  balance  as  work  into  a  transmission.  The    energy  out  of  the  transmission  is  
used   to   drive   an   irreversible   refrigerator,   which   pumps   590   kJ/cycle   of   heat   from   a  
constant-­‐temperature   (200   K)   source   into   the   reservoir   at   900   K.   If   the   engine   has   an  
efficiency   of   90%   of   that   of   a   reversible   engine   operating   between   the   same  
temperatures,   the   COP   of   the   refrigerator   is   1.65,   and   the   total   heat   input   into   the  
common  reservoir  is  1500  kJ/cycle,  determine  (a)  the  work  output  (kJ/kg)  of  the  engine  
into  the  transmission,  (b)  the  heat  (kJ/cycle)  into  the  engine,  and  (c)  the  percentage  of  
work  input  to  the  transmission  that  is  lost.      
 
14.  Steam  enters  a  turbine  operating  at  steady  state  with  a  mass  flow  rate  of  4600  kg/h.  The  
turbine   develops   a   power   output   of   1000   kW.   At   the   inlet,   the   pressure   is   60   bar,   the  
temperature  is  400oC,  and  the  velocity  is  10  m/s.  At  the  exit,  the  pressure  is  0.1  bar,  the  
quality  is  0.90,  and  the  velocity  is  50  m/s.  Calculate  the  rate  of  heat  transfer  between  the  
turbine  and  surroundings,in  kW.  Determine  the  entropy  generation  if  the  temperature  of  
the  surroundings  is  30oC.  What  is  the  isentropic  efficiency  of  the  turbine?      
 
15.  Propane  vapor  enters  a  valve  at  1.6  MPa,  70oC,  and  leaves  at  0.5  MPa.  If  the  propane  
undergoes  a  throttling  process,  what  is  the  temperature  of  the  propane  leaving  the  valve,  
in   oC?   Assume   propane   behaves   like   an   ideal   gas   with   Cp=3.5R.     What   is   the   entropy  
generation  if  the  temperature  of  the  surroundings  is  30oC?    
 
16.  Three  real  heat  engines  are  connected  in  series,  the  first  engine  taking  in  5000  kJ  of  heat  
from  a  source  at  1500K  and  the  third  engine  rejecting  its  waste  heat  of  400  kJ  to  a  sink  at  
300K.  Find  the  work  outputs  if  all  the  three  engines  have  the  same  efficiency.      
 
17.  Air  flows  through  a  well-­‐insulated,  horizontal  pipe  of  15  mm  internal  diameter.  The  air  
pressure  and  temperature  at  inlet  are  5  bar  and  50oC,  and  at  exit  1  bar  and  20oC.  Calculate  
the  velocity,  mass  flow  rate,  and  volumetric  flow  rate  at  the  exit.  Assume  air  to  behave  
like  an  ideal  gas  with  Cp=1.005  kJ/kg-­‐K.    
 
18.  Steam  at  200  bar,  650K  is  expanded  through  an  insulated  throttle  to  0.25  bar.  Determine  
the  final  temperature  (K)  and  the  state  of  steam  after  expansion.  Based  on  this  result,  
what  is  the  value  of  Joule-­‐Thomson  coefficient:  positive  value,  zero,  or  negative  value?    
 
19.  A  steam  turbine  operates  with  an  inlet  condition  of  15  bar  and  600K.  The  entrance  velocity  
of  the  steam  is  200  m/s.  At  the  exit,  the  state  of  the  steam  was  found  to  be  dry  saturated;  
the   temperature   is   300K,   and   the   velocity   is   50   m/s.   If   the   mass   flow   of   2000   kg/min  
produces  a  power  output  of  10  MW,  find  the  magnitude  and  direction  of  any  heat  transfer  
in  MW.      
 
20.  Using   Peng-­‐Robinson   equation   of   state,   determine   the   compressibility   factor   of  
superheated  steam  at  8200  kPa  and  specific  volume  of  45.6  cm3/g.      
 
21.  In  a  piston-­‐cylinder  set-­‐up,  steam  is  compressed  from  a  saturated  vapor  at  2  bar  to  a  final  
pressure  of  20  bar  and  400oC.  If  the  ambient  temperature  is  30oC,  what  is  the  entropy  
generation   in   kJ/kg-­‐K?   Is   the   process   in   accordance   with   the   second   law   of  
thermodynamics?    

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