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3.

Dimensi Manusia
• Important Concepts
• • Social-ecological systems
• • Social-ecological resilience
• • Adaptive capacity
• • Human well-being
• • Adaptive governance
• • International environmental
governance
• • Effective public participation

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Pengurusan alam sekitar sebenarnya lebih tertumpu kepada
pengurusan manusia.

melibatkan…..jenis Sistem Adaptif Kompleks (CAS) lain iaitu


Sistem Sosial-Ekologi (SES)

Kenapa..?
Ekologi

“…. Because people highly depend on ecosystem


functions and services for their well-being, decisions
about ecosystem management need to address moral or
ethical questions. ”

Sosial

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Kenapa pendekatan Sosial-Ekologi Sistem ?

“….Humans are unique mammals (due to human


cognition) and we interact with ecological systems in a
unique way (Westley et al., 2002). Since different groups
of people will value different aspects of their environment,
which in turn will influence their culture and way of life, the
ecosystem approach needs to be sensitive to both the
ecological and social contexts.”

SES  hubungan dua hala

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Sistem Sosial-Ekologi (SES)

Fokus:
 elemen perubahan
 kesejahteraan manusia
 perkhidmatan ekosistem

Tidak menentu dan kompleks  maklumbalas tidak boleh


diramal.

Ketidaktentuan, kompleksiti dan ketidakramalan  faktor


major dalam pengurusan dan governans (tadbir urus) SES

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Kebingkasan Sosial-Ekologi
(Social-Ecological Resilience, SER)

Social resilience has been defined as “the ability of communities to


withstand external shocks to their social infrastructure”, such as
environmental variability, or social, economic and political upheaval
(Adger, 2000, p. 361).

As Berkes and Folke (1998, p. 354) highlighted: “Systems may be


ecologically resilient but socially undesirable, or they may be socially
resilient but degrade their environment”.

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Pemikiran Kebingkasan (Resilience Thinking)
(Sebelum ini……kebingkasan ekologi)

A resilience thinking approach investigates how interacting systems of


people and nature can best be managed in the face of disturbances,
surprises and uncertainty. Resilience is defined as the capacity of a
system, be it an individual, a forest, a city or an economy, to deal with
change and continue to develop. The concept of resilience has received
enormous attention but confusion still exists about how it should be
applied. The 7 principles:
Kelewahan; baziran ulangan
1. Maintain diversity and redundancy
2. Manage connectivity
3. Manage slow variables and feedbacks
menggalakkan 7 prinsip pembangunan
4. Foster complex adaptive systems thinking kebingkasan dalam
5. Encourage learning Sistem Sosial-Ekologi
6. Broaden participation
7. Promote polycentric governance

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All the principles presented require a nuanced understanding of
how, where and when to apply them, and how the different
principles interact and depend on one another.

It is therefore essential to consider a complex understanding of


what you want to build resilience of, and to what types of
disturbances (e.g. fires, floods, urbanization).

Simply enhancing the resilience of the existing ecosystem


services can entrench (mengukuhkan) and exacerbate
(memburukkan lagi) inequalities.

Important trade-offs exist between different ecosystem services


(e.g. crop production and biodiversity), and it is not possible to
enhance the resilience of all ecosystem services simultaneously.

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Kesejahteraan Manusia
Umum:
Berfokus kepada hasil yang diingini dalam hidupan
UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issue telah sertakan 12 tema teras:

1. Security of rights to territories, lands and natural resources


2. Integrity of indigenous cultural heritage
3. Respect for identity and non-discrimination
4. Culturally-appropriate education
5. Fate control/self-determination (free will)
6. Full, informed and effective participation
7. Health
8. Access to infrastructure and basic services
9. Extent of external threats
10. Material well-being
11. Gender
12. Demographic patterns of indigenous peoples

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Kerangka Kesejahteraan Sosial
(Sosial Well-being Framework)

Konsep kesejahteraan sosial mengikhtiraf kesejahteraan


manusia sebagai suatu hasil dan juga proses.

Mengambilkira 3 dimensi:

(1)material
(2)hubungan
(3)subjektif

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The material dimension encompasses practical welfare and physical requirements
of life, such as income, assets, basic needs such as food and shelter, physical health,
and the ecosystem services provided by the physical environment such as clean
water and air.

The relational dimension emphasizes social interactions, networks of support and


obligation, collective actions, and the relationships involved in peoples’ social,
political, and cultural identities. For example, this includes friendships, family
relations and living in a community that is not overridden by conflict. In some
cultures it may also include relations to non-human beings. It also includes how
much influence individuals or groups can have on decisions that affect their lives.

The subjective dimension incorporates more intangible aspects such as cultural


values, norms, trust, confidence and belief systems. It also considers individual and
shared hopes, fears, and aspirations. The subjective dimension of well-being allows
us to incorporate how people evaluate their own situation and their capacity. A
monk fasting and a person suffering from hunger due to a lack of resources might
experience the same degree of hunger, but they will probably not experience the
same degree of well-being. (Berpuasa vs. kelaparan)

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Ringkasan:
“Well-being is a state of being with others and the natural environment that arises
when human needs are met, where individuals and groups can act meaningfully to
pursue their goals, and where they are satisfied with their way of life” (Armitage et
al., 2012, p. 3).

The social well-being framework is a useful complement to the ecosystem services


and social-ecological resilience frameworks because it highlights issues of power
and agency in people’s well-being and how this feeds back into the resilience of the
social-ecological system (Armitage et al., 2012; Coulthard, 2012). Combining the
social well-being, and the social-ecological resilience frameworks can assist in
making both social and ecological trade-offs more transparent (Armitage et al.,
2012; Coulthard, 2012). In other words, they can together be used to assess and
compare trade-offs that include:
“(1) those that involve critical ecosystem services and their feedbacks across scales,
and
(2) those that involve the material, relational, and subjective dimensions of the
social world linked with an ecological context” (Armitage et al., 2012, p. 6).

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Tadbir Urus Alam Sekitar (Environmental Governance)
Natural systems and social systems are complex systems in
themselves, but social-ecological systems (SESs) involve the additional
complexity of interactions between natural and social systems (Berkes
& Folke, 1998).
Addressing only the social dimension of resource management
without an understanding of resource and ecosystem dynamics is not
sufficient to ensure sustainability.
Similarly, focusing only on the ecological side as a basis for decision-
making may lead to too narrow conclusions (Folke et al., 2005; Stepp
et al., 2003).
Thus, interdisciplinary integration is necessary in order to govern SESs
(Stepp et al., 2003).

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Tadbir urus vs. Pengurusan
“Management is about action, governance about politics.
Management is about the implementation – in a technocratic
sense – of decisions and actions in accordance with rules
(these decisions and actions do not have to be restricted to
the implementation of management tools per se, they can
also relate to planning and assessment). Governance is about
sharing responsibility and power; it is about setting the policy
agenda and objectives and about the processes of
implementing management actions” (Béné & Neiland, 2006,
pp. 10–11).

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The UN Development Programme (UNDP)
(2007) defines governance as…..

“the system of values, policies and institutions


by which a society manages its economic,
political and social affairs through interactions
within and among the state, civil society and
private sector.”

Governance is much broader than government. It includes


the structures and processes by which people in societies
make decisions and share power, and it emerges from
many actors (Folke et al., 2005).

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Perhatikan anak panak
sektor tadbir urus ini
adalah dua hala

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