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# DESIGN

OF

MACHIN
E

ELEMENTS

Introduction
by
Dr. Syed
Ismail
Introductio
n
The term ‘shaft’ usually refers to a component of circular cross-section that rotates
and transmits power from a driving device
Typical shaft
arrangements
Shaft design
considerations
 Size and spacing of components (as on a general assembly drawing),
tolerances
 Material selection, material treatments
Deﬂection and rigidity
– bending deﬂection
– torsional deﬂection
– slope at bearings
– shear deﬂection
 Stress and strength
– static strength
– fatigue
– reliability

 Frequency response

 Manufacturing constraints
Typical shaft arrangement incorporating constant diameter sections
and shoulders for locating added components
SHAFT DESIGN ON STRENGTH
BASIS
Transmission shafts are subjected to axial tensile force, bending moment or
torsional moment or their combinations.
SHAFT DESIGN ON STRENGTH
BASIS
SHAFT DESIGN ON STRENGTH
BASIS
The shaft can be designed on the basis of maximum principal stress theory or
maximum shear stress theory. We will apply these theories to transmission shaft
subjected to combined bending and torsional moments.
Maximum Principal Stress Theory

## Equivalent Torsional Moment

SHAFT DESIGN ON TORSIONAL RIGIDITY
BASIS
In some applications, the shafts are designed on the basis of either torsional rigidity
or lateral rigidity.

T/J = Gθr/l

## ASME CODE FOR SHAFT

DESIGN
One important approach of designing a transmission shaft is to use the ASME code

Shaft without keyways: τmax. = 0.30 Syt or, τmax. = 0.18 Sut (whichever is
minimum)
If keyways are present, the above values are to be reduced by 25
percent.
ASME CODE FOR SHAFT
DESIGN
According to the ASME code, the bending and torsional moments are to be
multiplied by factors kb and kt respectively, to account for shock and fatigue in
operating condition.
The ASME code is based on maximum shear stress theory of
failure
HOLLOW SHAFT DESIGN ON STRENGTH
BASIS

## HOLLOW SHAFT DESIGN ON TORSIONAL RIGIDITY

BASIS
The layout of a transmission shaft carrying two pulleys B and C and supported on
bearings A and D is shown in Figure. Power is supplied to the shaft by means of a
vertical belt on the pulley B, which is then transmitted to the pulley C carrying a
horizontal belt. The maximum tension in the belt on the pulley B is 2.5 kN. The
angle of wrap for both the pulleys is 180° and the coefﬁ cient of friction is 0.24. The
shaft is made of plain carbon steel 30C8 (Syt = 400 N/mm2) and the factor of safety
is 3. Determine the shaft diameter on strength basis.
KEYS
A key can be deﬁned as a machine element which is used to connect the
transmission shaft to rotating machine elements like pulleys, gears, sprockets or
ﬂywheels.
There are two basic functions of the key.
 The primary function of the key is to transmit the torque from the shaft to the
hub of the mating element and vice versa.

The second function of the key is to prevent relative rotational motion between
the shaft and the joined machine element like gear or pulley.

Keys are made of plain carbon steels like 45C8 or 50C8 in order to withstand shear
and compressive stresses resulting from transmission of torque.

SADDLE KEYS A saddle key is a key which ﬁts in the keyway of the hub only
SUNK KEYS

A sunk key is a key in which half the thickness of the key ﬁts into the keyway on
the shaft and the remaining half in the keyway on the hub
FEATHER KEY
A feather key is a parallel key which is ﬁxed either to the shaft or to the hub and
which permits relative axial movement between them.

WOODRUFF KEY
A Woodruff key is a sunk key in the form of
an
almost semicircular disk of uniform
thickness as shown in Figure.
KENNEDY KEY
The Kennedy key consists of two square keys as shown in Figure.

sqrt(2))l.
SPLINES

## The permissible pressure on the splines is

limited to 6.5 N/mm2.
The standard cross-section for a ﬂat key, which is ﬁtted on a 50 mm diameter shaft,
is 16 x 10 mm. The key is transmitting 475 N-m torque from the shaft to the hub.
The key is made of commercial steel (Syt = Syc = 230 N/mm2). Determine the length
of the key, if the factor of safety is 3.

## A shaft, 40 mm in diameter, is transmitting 35 kW power at 300 rpm by means of

Kennedy keys of 10 x 10 mm cross-section. The keys are made of steel 45C8 (Syt =
Syc = 380 N/mm2) and the factor of safety is 3. Determine the required length of
the keys. splined connection 8 x 52 x 60 mm is used for the gear and the shaft
A standard
assembly of a gearbox. The splines transmit 20 kW power at 300 rpm. The
dimensions of the splines are as follows:
Major diameter = 60 mm
Minor diameter = 52 mm
Number of splines = 8
Permissible normal pressure on splines is 6.5 N/mm2. The coefﬁcient of friction is
0.06. Calculate:
(i) The length of hub of the gear
(ii) The force required for shifting the gear
Couplings
A coupling can be deﬁned as a mechanical device that permanently joins two
rotating shafts to each other.

## Types of Shafts Couplings

Sleeve or Muff-coupling
Clamp or Compression
Coupling

## RIGID FLANGE COUPLINGS

Design a muff coupling to connect two steel shafts transmitting 25 kW power at 360
rpm. The shafts and key are made of plain carbon steel 30C8 (Syt = Syc = 400 N/mm2).
The sleeve is made of grey cast iron FG 200 (Sut = 200 N/mm2). The factor of safety
for the shafts and key is 4. For the sleeve, the factor of safety is 6 based on ultimate
strength.
It is required to design a rigid type of ﬂange coupling to connect two shafts. The
input shaft transmits 37.5 kW power at 180 rpm to the output shaft through the
coupling. The service factor for the application is 1.5, i.e., the design torque is 1.5
times of the rated torque. Select suitable materials for various parts of the coupling,
design the coupling and specify the dimensions of its components.
On the basis of strength, plain carbon steel of grade 40C8 (Syt = 380 N/mm2) is
used for the shaft. The factor of safety for the shafts is assumed to be 2.5.
The keys and bolts are subjected to shear and compressive stresses. On the
basis of strength criterion, plain carbon steel of grade 30C8 (Syt = 400 N/mm2) is
selected for the keys and the bolts. It is assumed that the compressive yield
strength is 150% of the
tensile yield strength. The factor of safety for the keys and the bolts is taken as
Grey cast iron FG 200 (Sut = 200 N/mm2) is selected as the material for the
2.5.
ﬂanges from manufacturing considerations. It is assumed that ultimate shear
strength is one half of the ultimate tensile strength. The factor of safety for the ﬂ
anges is assumed as 6, since the permissible stress is based on the ultimate
strength and not on the yield strength.